SIA RU007148, Graham, David Crockett, David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

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Summary

Creator:
Graham, David Crockett
Title:
David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936
Dates:
1923, 1923-1936
Notes:
David Crockett Graham (1884-1961) was born in Green Forest, Arkansas. He received a B.A. degree from Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington, in 1908. Graham attended Rochester (New York) Theological Seminary (now Colgate Rochester Divinity School), from which he received his B.D. in 1916. In the fall of 1918, Graham attended the Divinity School at the University of Chicago for a year of postgraduate study, and, in 1926, for a year of doctoral study. Graham's Ph.D. dissertation, Religion in Szechwan Province, China, was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1928. During 1931 and 1932 Graham studied archeology, ethnology, and anthropology at the University of Chicago and Harvard University
Graham was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1911. Shortly afterward, Graham entered the service of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. Graham departed for China in the fall of 1911, and stayed briefly in Shanghai before traveling to the city of Suifu (now Yibin) in Szechwan Province, his post for twenty years. At Suifu, Graham was a missionary and studied the Chinese language and culture
Beginning in 1919, Graham collected natural history specimens from Szechwan Province for the United States National Museum (USNM) during his summer vacations and spare time from missionary work. During the period from 1919 to 1939, Graham made fourteen summer expeditions in Szechwan Province, the Szechwan-Tibet region, and the Szechwan-Yunnan region, and several short trips in the vicinity of Suifu. The specimens he sent to the USNM were mostly mammals, birds, insects, snakes, and anthropological relics. In addition, he sent anthropological measurements of Chinese and Chinese aborigines common in Szechwan Province such as the Ch'uan Miao, Ch'iang, Lolo, and the Bolstoi people as well as their costumes and handicrafts
In recognition of Graham's work, the USNM appointed Graham a Collaborator in Biology, an honorary title, in 1931. In 1932, Graham was transferred to Chengtu, the capital of Szechwan Province, where he was stationed until his retirement in 1948. He was made a curator of the West China Union University Museum of Archeology, Art, and Ethnology. During his retirement years, Graham prepared his books on the songs, stories, and folk religions of the Ch'uan Miao, and the Ch'iangs. These books were published by the Smithsonian
Summary:
This collection consists, for the most part, of diaries and photographs which document Graham's travels in Szechwan Province, China. The diaries contain information on Graham's day-to-day activities pertaining to the collection of specimens for the USNM. Typewritten copies of the diaries are also included. The photographs consist of prints, most with annotations by Graham; lantern slides; and 609 negatives and their annotated wrapping papers. A microfilm copy of the 609 negatives has also been made. Also included in the collection are maps, hand-drawn by Graham, of several of Graham's summer expeditions; and correspondence with Alexander Wetmore, Director, USNM, and with William deC. Ravenel, Administrative Assistant, USNM, concerning shipment of specimens, diaries, and photographs
Topics:
Anthropology, Natural history
Subjects:
Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978, Ravenel, William de Chastignier, West China Union University Museum of Archeology, Art, and Ethnology, United States National Museum, Whitman College, Rochester Theological Seminary, University of Chicago, Harvard University, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society
Form/Genre:
Maps, Collection descriptions, Photographs
Local Number:
SIA RU007148
Physical Description:
0.6 linear meter

Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Record Unit 7148

Graham, David Crockett

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at osiaref@si.edu.
Creator: Graham, David Crockett
Title: David Crockett Graham Papers
Dates: 1923-1936
Quantity: 0.6 linear meter.
Collection: Record Unit 7148
Language of Materials: English

Historical Note

David Crockett Graham (1884-1961), missionary, educator, curator, author, and field collector, was born at Green Forest, Arkansas. He received a B. A. from Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington, in 1908. Graham then attended Rochester (New York) Theological Seminary (now Colgate Rochester Divinity School), where he completed his studies in 1911, and from which he received his Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1916. Graham was ordained to the Baptist ministry in the First Baptist Church at Freeport, New York, on April 8, 1911. Shortly afterward, Graham entered the service of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society.

Graham and his wife, Alicia May Morey Graham, departed for China from San Francisco in the fall of 1911. They first stopped briefly in Shanghai in order to acquaint themselves with the Chinese language and culture. They were further delayed there by the outbreak of the 1911 revolution which toppled the Manchu dynasty. Finally, the Grahams made their way to the city of Suifu (now Yibin) in the province of Szechuan (Sichuan), where they were stationed for the next twenty years. At Suifu, Graham gradually assumed responsibility for missionary work and continued his study of the Chinese language, completing a five-year course then given to missionaries. Included in this course were the Three-Word Classic, the four books of Confucius and Mencius, the Sacred Edict, the Fortunate Union, and the Five Classics of Confucius.

In the fall of 1918, Graham attended the Divinity School at the University of Chicago for a year of postgraduate study. His studies included, in addition to religious education, the world's great religions, the history of religion, and the psychology of religion. Further courses taken at Chicago in the fall of 1926 during a year of doctoral study covered anthropology, ethnology, and psychology of primitive peoples and religions. Graham's dissertation, "Religions in Szechuan Province, China," was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1928. In the spring of 1931 Graham took anthropology courses under Fay-Cooper Cole of the University of Chicago. From 1931 to 1932, Graham took courses in archeology, ethnology, physical and cultural anthropology, and the methods of research at Harvard University. In 1929, Graham was made Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society of London.

In 1919 shortly before his return to China after a year of postgraduate study, Graham visited the Smithsonian Institution (S.I.) to offer to collect for the United States National Museum (USNM) natural history specimens from Szechuan during his summer vacations and spare time from missionary work. The USNM agreed to provide supplies and some financial support to pay for expenses. During the period from 1919 to 1939, Graham made fourteen summer expeditions in Szechuan, the Szechuan-Tibetan region, and the Szechuan-Yunnan region, and several short field collecting trips in the vicinities of Suifu, and Chengtu. The specimens he sent to the USNM were mostly mammals, birds, insects, snakes, and anthropological relics. In addition, he sent anthropological measurements of Chinese people, and Chinese aborigines common in Szechuan such as the Ch'uan Miao, Ch'iang, Lolo, and the Bolstoi people, as well as their costumes and handicrafts.

Graham kept diaries detailing his activities, mostly during the 1924 to 1935 period. The areas Graham traveled included Tatsienlu (Kangding), Mount Omei (Emei Shan), the Washan, Moupin, Ningyuenfu, Yachow (Ya'an), Kiating (Jiajiang), Mowchow, Chuan Gio Chi, Chungking (Chongqing), Fu Lin, Kongshien, Li Chuang, Wen Chuan Hsien, Songpan, and Tibet. Graham employed and trained Chinese and Chinese aborigines to collect specimens for him. In recognition of Graham's work, the USNM appointed Graham a collaborator in biology, an honorary title, on October 31, 1931.

In 1932, Graham was transferred to Chengtu (now Chengdu), the capital of Szechuan, where he was stationed until the spring of 1948. There, he taught archaeology and anthropology at the West China Union University and was also Curator of the West China Union University Museum of Archaeology, Art, and Ethnology.

Graham was interested in the culture of the Chinese aborigines in Szechuan, mostly the Ch'uan Miao, and the Ch'iangs. Since becoming acquainted with the Ch'uan Miao in 1921, Graham was a principal figure in encouraging the Chinese government to establish schools in their homelands. One of Graham's Ch'uan Miao students at the missionary school in Suifu became a trapper and collector for the SI Graham participated in the studies of the Ch'iangs under the directions of the National Ministry of Education of China, and the Border Service Bureau of the Church of Christ, during 1941 and 1942.

After returning to the United States in 1948, Graham traveled for a year lecturing on his experiences. He retired to Englewood, Colorado, where he prepared his books on the songs, folklore, and folk religions of the Ch'uan Miao and the Ch'iangs. These books were published by the Smithsonian Institution. Graham died in Denver on September 15, 1961.

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Chronology

  • 1884, March 21
  • Born, Green Forest, Arkansas
  • 1908
  • Bachelor of Arts, Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington
  • 1911
  • Completed studies, Rochester (New York) Theological Seminary
  • 1911
  • Ordained as Baptist minister, First Baptist Church, Fairport, New York (April 8)
  • 1911
  • Joined American Baptist Foreign Mission Society
  • 1911
  • Sailed to China from San Francisco (September)
  • 1911
  • Manchu dynasty overthrown. China becomes a republic (October 10)
  • 1911
  • Began missionary work at Suifu, Szechuan, China (November)
  • 1911-1918
  • Suifu
  • 1916
  • Bachelor of Divinity, Rochester Theological Seminary
  • 1918
  • Returned to the United States (Summer)
  • 1918
  • Began correspondence with the United States National Museum regarding collecting natural history specimens from Szechuan for the Museum
  • 1918
  • Entered the School of Divinity, University of Chicago for postgraduate study (October)
  • 1919
  • Master of Arts, University of Chicago
  • 1919
  • Visited the Smithsonian Institution (August 28)
  • 1919
  • Returned to Suifu (November)
  • 1920-1926
  • Suifu
  • 1921
  • First meeting with the Ch'uan Miao, a Chinese aborigine tribe
  • 1923
  • Expedition to Tatsienlu and Mount Omei
  • 1924
  • Expedition to Songpan and the Yellow Dragon Gorge
  • 1925
  • Expedition to Mount Omei, and the Washan (Tile Mountain)
  • 1926
  • Returned to the United States; entered the University of Chicago for doctoral study
  • 1927
  • Doctor of Philosophy degree, University of Chicago
  • 1927
  • Arrived in Suifu (November 14)
  • 1928-1930
  • Suifu
  • 1928
  • Graham's Ph.D. dissertation, "Religion in Szechuan Province," published by the Smithsonian Institution (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection Volume 80, No.4)
  • 1928
  • Expedition to Ningyuenfu via Yachow
  • 1929
  • Expedition to Moupin; acquired Panda skin for S.I.
  • 1929
  • Made Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society of London
  • 1930
  • Expedition to Tatsienlu and Szechuan-Tibetan border region; collected 62,000 specimens, mostly insects
  • 1930
  • Departed China via Peking (December)
  • 1931
  • Attended the University of Chicago and Harvard University for advanced study in anthropology, archaeology, and ethnology
  • 1931
  • Appointed Collaborator in Biology by the United States National Museum (October 31)
  • 1932
  • Harvard University
  • 1932
  • Reassigned to Chengtu, capital of Szechuan, arrived September 30
  • 1932-1948
  • Taught anthropology and archaeology at the West China Union University, and served as curator of the West China Union University Museum of Archaeology, Art, and Ethnology in Chengtu
  • 1933
  • Expedition to Wen Chuan Hsien and Mowchow; visited the Ch'iang, a Chinese aborigine tribe
  • 1934
  • Expedition to Szechuan-Yunnan border region and Mount Omei; visited the Ch'uan Miao
  • 1935
  • Expedition to Szechuan-Yunnan border region and Mount Omei (via different route from 1934 trip); visited the Ch'uan Miao
  • 1939
  • United States on furlough (April-November)
  • 1941
  • Traveled to the Min River Valley under the direction of the National Ministry of Education of China and the Border Service Bureau of the Church of Christ; visited the Ch'iang
  • 1942
  • Ch'iang study continued under the direction of the Border Service Bureau of the Church of Christ
  • 1945
  • David Crockett Graham Library of Science established by the West China Union University
  • 1948
  • Retired from missionary work; departed from China (June)
  • 1949-1961
  • Resided in Englewood, Colorado
  • 1954
  • "Songs and Stories of the Ch'uan Miao," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 123
  • 1958
  • "The Customs and Religion of the Ch'iang," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 135
  • 1961, September 15
  • Died in Denver, Colorado, age 77
  • 1961
  • "Folk Religion in Southwest China," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 142

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Introduction

This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.

The materials in the David Crockett Graham Papers (Record Unit 7148) were sent to Alexander Wetmore, Director of the United States National Museum (USNM), between 1925 and 1935 by Graham. Wetmore deposited them in the Division of Ethnology, USNM. During 1948 and 1949, the diaries were sent to Graham, at his request, to copy and then returned to the division. In addition, the division made prints from the negatives and sent the prints and negatives to Graham for verification. The negatives and some of the prints were returned. The materials in this record unit were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution Archives from the National Museum of Natural History in 1973.

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Descriptive Entry

These papers of David Crockett Graham document Graham's field collecting trips and summer expeditions within Szechuan mostly in the vicinity of Suifu, the Min River Valley, Mount Omei, the Szechuan-Yunnan border, and the Szechuan-Tibetan border regions. The collection consists chiefly of diaries and photographs covering the period between 1923 and 1935. The diaries document, for the most part, day to day activities pertaining to the collection of specimens for the United States National Museum (USNM), including acquisition of specimens, shipping box numbers, comments on personnel involved with the collections, localities visited, and distances traveled. In addition, there are comments on the social and political environment.

The photographs consist of a small number of black and white prints, most with annotation by Graham, and 609 black and white negatives. The negatives are copies made on direct-duplicating film from the original nitrate negatives. In addition, the negatives were copied on 35mm microfilm, and a positive microfilm copy of the images is available for viewing. There are also some lantern slides, which are duplicates from the negatives in the collection.

Included also are maps, hand-drawn by Graham of some of his expedition routes; and correspondence to Alexander Wetmore, director of the USNM, and to William deC. Ravenel, administrative assistant, USNM, concerning shipments of specimens, diaries, and photographs.

Additional correspondence between David Crockett Graham and the USNM staff can be found in the following collections in the Archives: Division of Birds records (Record Unit 105), Departments of Biology and Zoology records (Record Unit 143), Permanent Files of the USNM (Record Unit 192), Division of Mammals records (Record Unit 208), Division of Fishes records (Record Unit 213), Accession Records of the USNM (Record Unit 305), and records of the Baird Ornithological Club (Record Unit 7100). Field notebooks kept by Graham can be found in Collected Notes, Lists, Drawings, and Catalogs on Mammals (Record Unit 7217); and Joseph V. Riley's unpublished manuscripts on birds collected by Graham can be found in the Riley Papers (Record Unit 7118).

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This collection is indexed under the following access terms. These are links to collections with related topics, persons or places.

Name

Subject

Physical Characteristics of Materials in the Collection

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Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7148, Graham, David Crockett, David Crockett Graham Papers

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Container List

Series 1

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1925-1949.

This series consists of correspondence to William deC. Ravenel and Alexander Wetmore concerning shipment of specimens, diaries, and photographs.

Box 1

Folder 1 Correspondence, 1925-1949

Box 1 of 10

Series 2

DIARIES, 1924; 1927-1930; 1932-1935.

This series consists of diaries and typewritten transcripts. These diaries document Graham's field collecting trips, summer expeditions, day-to-day activities, and specimens collected. Included are names of localities visited; specimen descriptions; shipments; and comments on native collectors, carriers, armed escorts, armed group of robbers, physical appearance of natives, climate, terrain, and political situations.

Box 1

Folder 2 Diary, January 27, 1924 to September 21, 1924. Field collecting trips in the vicinity of Suifu; summer expedition to Songpan and the Yellow Dragon Gorge

Box 1 of 10

Folder 3 Diary No. I, November 14, 1927 to January 29, 1928. Field collecting trips in the Suifu vicinity; trip to Kiating

Box 1 of 10

Folder 4 Diary No. II, January 29, 1928-May 27, 1928. Field collecting trips in the Suifu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 5 Diary No. III, May 27, 1928-October 12, 1928. Field collecting trips in the Suifu vicinity (the summer collecting trip is not included; see next folder).

Box 1 of 10

Folder 6 Diary No. IV, July, 1928-August, 1928. Summer expedition to Ningyuenfu via Yachow

Box 1 of 10

Folder 7 Diary No. IV (5), October 13, 1928-February 14, 1929. Field collecting trips to Li Chuang, Yachow, Min River Valley north of Suifu, and the Suifu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 8 Diary No. 6, February 15, 1929-June 13, 1929. Field collecting trip to Kiating, Pin Shan, and the Suifu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 9 Diary No. 7, June 14, 1929-August 14, 1929. Expedition to Moupin and field collecting trips in the Suifu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 10 Diary No. 8, August 16, 1929-March 24, 1930. Field collecting trip to Kongshien, Tseo Jia Geo, Li Chuang, Chuan Gioh Chi, and the Chengtu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 11 Diary No. 9, March 25, 1930-June 24, 1930. Field collecting trips to Li Chuang, Chuan Gioh Chi, Chungking, and the Suifu vicinity

Box 1 of 10

Folder 12 Diary No. 10, July 1, 1930-December 23, 1930. Expedition to Tatsienlu and Szechuan-Tibet border region

Box 1 of 10

Box 2

Folder 1 Diary A, September 30, 1932-July 15, 1933. Field collecting trip to Fu Jia Ba

Box 2 of 10

Folder 2 Diary B, July 16, 1933-December 3, 1933. Field collecting trip to Wen Chuan Hsien

Box 2 of 10

Folder 3 Diary C, December 5, 1933-July 6, 1934. Specimens for USNM and problems with shipments; death of one of Graham's aborigine collectors and activities of Graham's other aborigine collectors; and a brief trip to Kiating and Mount Omei

Box 2 of 10

Folder 4 Diary D, July 3, 1934-October 31, 1934. Visited Szechuan-Yunnan border region

Box 2 of 10

Folder 5 Diary E, November 1, 1934-October 25, 1935. Visited Mt. Omei vicinity and the Szechuan-Yunnan border region

Box 2 of 10

Series 3

MAPS, 1925, 1928, 1930, and 1933.

This series consists of hand-drawn maps by David C. Graham (the exception being a photograph of hand-drawn map by J. Huston Edgar, 1930. Edgar was a fellow missionary who accompanied Graham to Tibet). These maps document routes and places visited during the summer expeditions.

Box 2

Folder 6 Maps: Mount Omei and the Washan, 1925; Kiating/Yachow/Ningyuenfu, 1928; Yachow/Tatsienlu/Szechuan-Tibetan border, 1930; Wen Chuan/Tsagulow/Mowchow, 1933

Box 2 of 10

Series 4

PHOTOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES, 1923-1929.

This series consists of ten black and white prints with annotations by Graham on the reverse side and ten lantern slides. The scenes on the prints and lantern slides are not identical. The annotated numbers refer to the negative numbers (see Series 6). The National Anthropological Archives of the Smithsonian Institution also has additional original prints and a 16mm motion picture on the Ch'uan Miao, taken by Graham in 1936.

Box 2

Folder 7 Prints and Lantern Slides

Box 2 of 10

Series 5

ACCOUNT BOOK, 1928-1935.

Box 2

Folder 8 Account Book, 1928-1935: D. C. Graham, H. G. Deignan, J. F. Rock

Box 2 of 10

Series 6

NEGATIVES, 1923-1930.

This series consists of black and white negatives, numbered 1-600, and A1 to A9. These photographs were taken by David Crockett Graham during his travels in Szechuan and in the vicinity of the city of Suifu, where he resided. Included are views of Chinese and Chinese aborigines, religious statues, ancient ruins, unusual geographic features, scenic views, and street scenes. Due to the nitrate content of the original negatives, duplicate negatives were made. The negatives in this series are direct duplicate copies from the originals. Also included in this series are the original papers the negatives were wrapped in, with numbers and descriptive information pertaining to the negatives. A description of each negative follows in Series 8.

Box 3

Wrapping papers with numbers and descriptions, #1-600, and #A1 to A9

Box 3 of 10

Boxes 4-5

Negatives, #1-600, and #A1 to A9. Preceding each description is the negative number/microfilm frame number. In a few cases, parenthetical notes indicate different negative and microfilm frame numbers.

1923

1 A "Living Buddha," and two lamas (See #598)

Boxes 4-5 of 10

1924

2 Ch'uan Miao aborigines

Boxes 4-5 of 10

[3] 4 (microfilm frame) Ch'uan Miao aborigines, women and children, side view. (This negative has no number)

Boxes 4-5 of 10

4 (negative) 3 (microfilm frame) Ch'uan Miao aborigines, women and children, front view

Boxes 4-5 of 10

5 Ch'uan Miao aborigines

Boxes 4-5 of 10

6 Wasi aborigine hunters

Boxes 4-5 of 10

7 Yellow Dragon Gorge

Boxes 4-5 of 10

8 Cow or buffalo god

Boxes 4-5 of 10

9 Crowd watching a theatrical performance

Boxes 4-5 of 10

10 Dragon boat

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11 Dragon boat

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12 Three gods (one is a clothes teacher). (See #55)

Boxes 4-5 of 10

13 Idol, half male and half female. (This negative is not in this collection. Its whereabouts is unknown)

Boxes 4-5 of 10

14 (negative) 13 (microfilm frame) Crowd watching a theatrical performance

Boxes 4-5 of 10

15 (negative) 14 (microfilm frame) Idol or god being carried in sedan chair in festival

Boxes 4-5 of 10

16 View of Suifu, white pagoda in the distance

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17 (negative) 15 (microfilm frame) Spectators watching dragon-boat festival. (This negative is numbered 16; there is no number 17)

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18 (negative) 17 (microfilm frame) Fortified lamasery

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19 (negative) 18 (microfilm frame) Fortified lamasery

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20 (negative) 19 (microfilm frame) Natural terraces, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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21 (negative) 20 (microfilm frame) Bolotsi women pilgrims

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22 (negative) 21 (microfilm frame) Bolotsi women pilgrims

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23 (negative) 22 (microfilm frame) Scenic view - natural terraces, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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24 (negative) 23 (microfilm frame) Ch'uan Miao aborigines, front view

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25 (negative) 24 (microfilm frame) Ch'uan Miao aborigines, women and children, side view

Boxes 4-5 of 10

26 (negative) 25 (microfilm frame) Bridge made of bamboo cables at Kuanshien. (See #58)

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27 (negative) 26 (microfilm frame) Bridge made of bamboo cables at Kuanshien. (See #58)

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28 (negative) 27 (microfilm frame) Ch'iang aborigine women, side view

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29 (negative) 28 (microfilm frame) Ch'iang aborigine women, front view

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30 (negative) 29 (microfilm frame) View of the natural terraces, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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31 (negative) 30 (microfilm frame) View of the natural terraces, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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32A (negative) 31 (microfilm frame) "Chicken-footed" god, who leads the soul to Hades

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32B (negative) 32 (microfilm frame) "Chicken-footed" god, who leads the soul to Hades

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33 Ch'uan Miao schoolboy, front view. (Yang Fong Tsang, who later became collector for SI)

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34 Ch'uan Miao schoolboy, side view. (Yang Fong Tsang, who later became collector for SI)

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35 Wasi aborigine Christian. Original nitrate deterioration on upper part

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36 Dragon god made out of tree stump, and a Mohammedan soldier

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37 Ch'uan Miao aborigine children

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38 Stone altar used by aborigines

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39 Bolotsi aborigine, front view. (See #48)

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40 Bolotsi aborigine woman, front view

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41 Bolotsi aborigine woman, side view

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42 View of copulating gods

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43 View of copulating gods

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44 Yellow Dragon god, at Yellow Dragon Gorge

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45 Yellow Dragon god, at Yellow Dragon Gorge

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46 Bolotsi aborigines

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47 Shipan aborigines

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48 Bolotsi aborigine, side view. (See #39)

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49 Bolotsi aborigines

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50 Pusah, a god, and his two wives, opium users

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51 Pusah, a god, and his two wives, opium users

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52 Scenic view, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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53 Yellow Dragon Gorge

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54 Statues of Buddha, of white marble

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55 Three gods (one is a clothes teacher). (See #12)

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56 View of aborigine stone dwelling

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57 Great cave through a natural bridge

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58 Bridge made of bamboo cables at Kuanshien. (See #25 and #26)

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59 View of Songpan, Szechuan

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60 View of Songpan

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61 View of Songpan

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62 Escort, pack animals, collectors, for SI

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63 Fortified Yamen lamasery, and gorge

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64 Fortified Yamen lamasery, and gorge

Boxes 4-5 of 10

65 Fortified Yamen lamasery, and gorge

Boxes 4-5 of 10

66 Shipan aborigine pilgrims

Boxes 4-5 of 10

67 Shipan aborigine pilgrims and falls, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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68 Snow Mountain at head of Yellow Dragon Gorge

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69 D. C. Graham and a soldier by the natural terraces, Yellow Dragon Gorge

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70 Folded strata of rock, Yangtse River, near Suifu

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71 Folded strata of rock, Yangtse River, near Suifu

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1925

72 Ladder for ascending perpendicular rocks

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73 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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74 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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75 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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76 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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77 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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78 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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79 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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80 View of Washan (Tile Mountain)

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81 Great Thousand-armed Goddess of Mercy, side view. (See #112 and #113)

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82 Great Thousand-armed Goddess of Mercy, front view. (See #112 and #113)

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83 Great Thousand-armed Goddess of Mercy. (See #112 and #113)

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84 Bronze pagoda, Mt. Omei

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85 West gate, Kiating, Szechuan

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86 The god Pushien riding on bronze elephant

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87 A god with tusks

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88 A god in temple, Mt. Omei

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89 Margaret Graham (daughter of D. C. Graham) standing by tiger image

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90 Margaret Graham (daughter of D. C. Graham) at edge of pool

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91 Brass pagoda at monastery near Mt. Omei

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92 A great Buddha in meditation

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93 Sacred bronze tablet on Mt. Omei

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94 Sacred bronze tablet on Mt. Omei

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95 An idol near summit of Mt. Omei. (See #99)

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96 Distant view of Mt. Omei

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97 David C. Graham on platform on Mt. Omei

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98 View across platform, rear of Golden Summit Temple

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99 An idol on Mt. Omei. (See #95)

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100 Chinese Buddhist priest worshipping on Mt. Omei

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101 One of tiger gods in shrine on road, Mt. Omei

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102 The Thousand Buddhas Temple, Mt. Omei

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103 Temple near summit of Mt. Omei

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104 Buddhist priest with Buddha's tooth, Mt. Omei. (fossil mammoth ?)

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105 Buddhist priest with Buddha's tooth, Mt. Omei. (fossil mammoth ?)

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106 View of Mt. Omei

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107 Mellins food advertisement from India, framed and worshipped as a god because it has an image of Buddha, Mt. Omei

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108 Mellins food advertisement from India, framed and worshipped as a god because it has an image of Buddha, Mt. Omei

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109 Mellins food advertisement from India, framed and worshipped as a god because it has an image of Buddha, Mt. Omei

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110 Mellins food advertisement from India, framed and worshipped as a god because it has an image of Buddha, Mt. Omei

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111 View of Mt. Omei

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112 Great Thousand-armed Goddess of Mercy. (See #81, #82, and #83)

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113 Great Thousand-armed Goddess of Mercy. (See #81, #82, and #83)

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114 Memorial arch in memory of a loyal widow, and showing an escort of soldiers transporting opium to Suifu

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115 Memorial arch in memory of a loyal widow, and showing an escort of soldiers transporting opium to Suifu

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116 Waterwheel made of bamboo, near Suifu

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117 Waterwheel made of bamboo, near Suifu

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118 Ch'uan Miao aborigine woman, front view

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119 Ch'uan Miao aborigine, side view

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120 Chinese beggar boy sleeping on street curb

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121 Chinese beggar boy sleeping on street curb

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122 Ch'uan Miao aborigines, Yang Fong Tsang (trapper and collector for SI), and wife. (See #152)

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123 Ch'uan Miao aborigines, Yang Fong Tsang (trapper and collector for SI), and wife. (See #152)

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124 Ch'uan Miao aborigines, Yang Fong Tsang (trapper and collector for SI), and wife. (See #152)

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125 A Hua or Flower Miao aborigine. Front view. (See #155)

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126 A Hua or Flower Miao aborigine. Side view. (See #155)

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127 Gold Sands Cave Temple

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128 Gold Sands Cave Temple monastery

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129 Gold Sands Cave Temple

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130 View of boats, creek, and rapids at San Kuang

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131 Widow and her son carrying coal

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132 Widow and her son carrying coal

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133 A Ch'uan Miao aborigine farmer. (See #154)

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134 A Ch'uan Miao aborigine boy. (See #151)

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135 Head priest at Lotus Flower Monastery, Mt. Omei. (Buddhist)

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136 One of the precipitous sides of the Washan (Tile Mountain)

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137 Perpendicular cliff on Min River

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138 Most sacred shrine on Mt. Omei

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139 Actors dressed as idols being carried in idol procession

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140 Idols and banners in an idol procession

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141 Idol in sedan chair in idol procession

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142 Steamboat at Chien Way

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143 Part of retreating army at Chien Way

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144 Retreating soldiers wading into water

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145 Steamboat crowded with retreating soldiers

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146 Deposed military governor watching retreating troops

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147 Retreating soldiers waiting for steamboat

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148 Waterfalls south of Suifu

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149 An aborigine and a four-headed wayside idol (An Amitaba Buddha)

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1926

150 Things to be burned for departed soul.

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151 A Ch'uan Miao boy. (See #134)

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152 Yang Fong Tsang (trapper and collector for SI), Ch'uan Miao aborigine. (See #122-124)

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153 Taoist priest in ceremonial dress.

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154 A Ch'uan Miao from near Suifu. (See #133)

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155 A Hua Miao or Flower Miao aborigine in Chinese dress. (See #125)

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156 Cypress tree deities.

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157 Two tree-gods.

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158 The old Suifu pagoda, probably over 1,000 years old.

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159 Grave erected by a grandson to his grandmother.

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160 A light colored or white stone rock that has been deified. (See #163)

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161 A Shipan lama priest.

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162 A Shipan lama priest.

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163 The white stone at Suifu that is a god. (See #160)

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164 A Suifu male and female Taoist in ceremonial clothing.

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1928

165 View on Min River from Kiating.

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166 Chen Gih Uen (netter, trapper, and collector for SI).

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167 View on Min River between Kiating and Suifu.

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168 View of cliff and temple of the boatmen's god.

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169 Basket of coal descending on a large bamboo cable. (See #298 and #299)

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170 Basket of coal descending on a large bamboo cable. (See #298 and #299)

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171 Ho Son Chuen (skinner and taxidermist for SI).

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172 Giant fern-tree.

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173 Waterfalls about 50 miles southeast of Suifu.

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174 Waterfalls about 50 miles southeast of Suifu.

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175 Waterfalls about 50 miles southeast of Suifu.

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176 Waterfalls about 50 miles southeast of Suifu.

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177 Wayside Buddha southeast of Suifu.

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178 Clay images of water buffalo with drivers. (See #300)

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179 Christian memorial services, Suifu. (See #297)

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180 The front of a great idol procession, Suifu.

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181 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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182 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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183 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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184 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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185 Chinese female, front view.

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186 Chinese female, side view.

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187 Chinese female, front view.

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188 Chinese female, side view.

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189 Chinese female, front view.

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190 Chinese female, side view.

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191 Chinese female, front view.

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192 Chinese female, side view.

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193 Chinese female, front view.

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194 Chinese female, side view.

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195 Chinese female, front view.

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196 Chinese female, side view.

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197 Heavy stone roller drawn by a water buffalo to grind pig feed.

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198 Junction of Huen Giang and Yangtse Rivers.

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199 Idols, and actors dressed as idols, in parade, Suifu.

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200 Idols, and actors dressed as idols, in parade, Suifu.

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201 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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202 Great idol procession, Suifu.

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203 Creek near Konshien, south of Suifu.

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204 Creek near Konshien, south of Suifu.

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205 Watch tower in a cornfield.

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206 Chinese coolie carrying tea. About 300 lbs.

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207 Robber's head in a basket on pole near his victim's grave.

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208 A main road in Lolo territory. (See #581)

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209 Smithsonian collecting expedition.

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210 Smithsonian collecting expedition.

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211 A full-blood and two half-breed Lolo soldiers.

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212 Chinese coolies carrying tea.

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213 Boat on the lake near Ningyuenfu.

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214 View of the lake near Ningyuenfu.

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215 View of the lake near Ningyuenfu.

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216 View of the lake near Ningyuenfu.

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217 Mr. Li, a full-blooded Lolo Christian.

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218 A leading Chinese official, General Yang with a child and a dog, at Fu Lin

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219 Farm house with towers for defense against Lolos. (See #275)

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220 Farm house with towers for defense against Lolos. (See #275)

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221 Farm house with towers for defense against Lolos. (See #275)

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222 Town of Den Shiang Uin

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223 Five Lolos at Den Shiang Uin.

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224 Town of Den Shiang Uin.

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225 Street scene showing Chinese and a Lolo.

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226 Lolo men and women harvesting buckwheat.

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227 Village of Yuch Shi.

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228 Naked children on a village street.

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229 Naked children on a village street.

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230 Caravan of pack animals.

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231 View of Fu Lin, showing rice fields.

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232 Typical gorge or canyon showing the road and large temple.

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233 Smithsonian expedition crossing river at Fu Lin in Chinese boats.

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234 Part of Smithsonian expedition crossing bridge near Fu Lin.

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235 One of Smithsonian coolies crossing patch of sliding gravel.

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236 Two Lolo women.

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237 View of Tong River near Fu Lin.

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238 Coolies carrying Smithsonian baggage on road at "Wicked Cliff."

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239 Rice fields and river at Fu Lin.

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240 Chinese gentleman and a dog at Fu Lin. (See #270)

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241 Chinese inn by the roadside, shakes held by stones.

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242 Memorial arch to loyal widow.

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243 Large, heavy board (coffin lid), made from long-buried trees.

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244 Chinese coolie carrying load of tea. (Total weight about 404 lbs.)

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245 Chinese coolie carrying load of tea. (Total weight 308 lbs.)

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246 Coolies who carried Smithsonian baggage. All opium smokers but one.

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247 Two coolies who carried Smithsonian baggage. Both opium smokers.

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248 Smithsonian expedition nearing Yachow.

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249 Taoist priest begging along roadside near Yachow.

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250 Smithsonian expedition nearing Yachow.

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251 Raft carrying Smithsonian expedition leaving Yachow.

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252 Scene on the Ya River.

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253 View of the front part of the raft carryng the Smithsonian expedition.

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254 Raft carrying expedition leaving Yachow.

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255 Temple on the shore of Ya River.

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256 Chinese caves carved in solid rock, formerly used as burial tombs.

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257 Ancient Chinese burial tombs. (In solid rock).

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258 Ancient Chinese burial tombs. (In solid rock).

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259 Ancient Chinese burial tombs. (In solid rock).

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260 Ancient Chinese burial tombs. (In solid rock). (See #404-406)

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261 Farmer plowing with typical plow and water buffalo.

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262 Ancient Chinese tombs or burial caves.

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263 View of the pagoda and hills across Min River from Kiating.

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264 Head of the Great Buddha, carved out of solid rock on cliff. (See #278)

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265 Head of the Great Buddha, carved out of solid rock on cliff. (See #278)

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266 Full-blooded Christian Lolo (said to be), side view.

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267 Christian Lolo, front view.

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268 Lolo man, wife, and younger brother. (See #393)

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269 Lolo men, part Chinese, of Fu Lin.

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270 Chinese gentleman of Fu Lin. (See #240)

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271 Christian Lolo, full-blood, in ancestral armor. (See #394)

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272 Christian Lolo, full-blood, in ancestral armor. (See #394)

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273 Lolo temple on a hill in a sacred grove.

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274 Lolo temple on a hill in a sacred grove.

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275 Farm house with watchtower for defense against Lolos. (See #219-221)

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276 Chinese graves, ancestors of Mr. Li, a Christian

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277 Sacred grove, burying ground of Li clan after cremation.

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278 Head of the Great Buddha at Kiating, solid rock. (See #265)

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279 Three Chinese actors impersonating beautiful women.

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280 Chinese stage and actors.

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281 Friends on shore setting off firecrackers to welcome D. C. Graham.

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282 Friends on shore setting off firecrackers to welcome D. C. Graham.

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283 Wife of the god who takes newly dead souls to Hades for judgment.

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284 Wife of the god who takes newly dead souls to Hades for judgment.

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285 Funeral of mother of Suifu's most influential citizen.

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286 Suifu's most powerful citizen, Mr. Lui.

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287 Group of mourners at grave of Mr. Lui's mother.

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288 Memorial archway to faithful widow.

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289 Memorial archway to faithful widow. (Opposite side)

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290 View of Suifu, looking east.

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291 View of Suifu, looking east.

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292 View of Yangtse River above (west of) Suifu.

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293 Group of highest officials of Suifu and D. C. Graham.

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294 Folded strata of rock on Yangtse River, west of Suifu.

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295 Folded strata of rock on Yangtse River, west of Suifu.

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296 Chinese boat on Yangtse River, below Hankow.

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297 Christian memorial services, Suifu. (See #179)

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298 Side of steep mountain, basket of coal descending cable. (See #169 and #170)

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299 Side of steep mountain, basket of coal descending cable. (See #169 and #170)

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300 Two mud images of water buffalo and drivers, used in "Spring" festival. (See #178)

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1929

301 Unglazed image of bird from ancient cave tomb. (See #316)

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302 Memorial arch on mountain on mountain top near Yachow. (See #311)

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303 "Strike Son Hole" between Suifu and Kiating.

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304 Unglazed earthenware images from ancient cave-tombs. (See #317)

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305 Unglazed clay image from ancient cave-tomb. (See #314)

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306 Han Dynasty memorial arch.

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307 Unglazed image from ancient cave-tomb. (See #315)

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308 Han Dynasty memorial arch.

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309 Small memorial arch near Yachow.

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310 D. C. Graham standing by a Han Dynasty memorial arch.

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311 Memorial arch on mountain top near Yachow. (See #302)

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312 Typical cave-tombs of the Han Dynasty.

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313 D. C. Graham standing at mouth of ancient cave-tomb.

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314 Image from an ancient cave-tomb. (See #305)

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315 Image from an ancient cave-tomb. (See #307)

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316 Clay image of bird from ancient cave-tombs. (See #301)

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317 Clay images from ancient cave-tombs. (See #304)

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318 Religious festival for the birth of sons. (See #565 and #566)

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319 Lin Kuan, a fierce and powerful god who drives away demons.

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320 Wall of the old city of Suifu, about 2,000 years old.

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321 Chinese beggar with blue eyes, flaxen hair and white skin.

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322 Chinese young woman, a teacher.

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323 Chinese young woman, a teacher.

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324 Chinese memorial arch built across a road.

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325 U Tsang, a chief god of the Witch Society.

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326 View of Suifu, showing the white pagoda in the distance.

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327 View of Suifu, showing the white pagoda in the distance.

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328 Poppy fields in bloom, Yunnan Province.

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329 Opium poppy fields in bloom, western Szechuan.

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330 Chinese family.

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331 View of ruins of the great lamasery at Yao Chi.

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332 View of the river near Moupin.

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333 A strange bridge near Moupin.

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334 View of canyon just beyond Moupin.

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335 An aborigine woman at Yao Chi, beyond Moupin, on Tibetan border. (See #342)

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336 View of the river near Moupin.

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337 Stream on road between Yachow and Moupin.

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338 View of Moupin, looking eastward.

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339 View of Moupin, looking eastward.

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340 D. C. Graham standing on one of the strange bridges near Moupin.

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341 Canyon between Yachow and Moupin.

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342 Aborigine woman living west of Moupin.

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343 Mr. Ma, a Jia Rong aborigine, west of Moupin.

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344 Ch'uan Miao aborigine women and child, south of Suifu. (See #354)

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345 Narrow gorge through which road passes, Yachow to Moupin.

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346 The god Bodhidharma, or Damo, Buddhist monastery, Mt. Omei.

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347 The god Bodhidharma, or Damo, Buddhist monastery, Mt. Omei.

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348 Idol in Buddhist temple at Shin Kai Si, Mt. Omei.

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349 Small building that protects a Han Dynasty pillar.

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350 High mountains on the Szechuan-Yunnan border.

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351 Trees and mountains south of Suifu. (See #373)

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352 Ch'uan Miao aborigine family, south of Suifu.

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353 Ch'uan Miao aborigine family, south of Suifu.

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354 Ch'uan Miao aborigine women and child. (See #344)

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355 Ch'uan Miao aborigine woman in elaborate dress, front view. (See #533)

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356 Ch'uan Miao aborigine woman in elaborate dress.

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357 Ch'uan Miao man and child, side view. (See #366)

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358 Ch'uan Miao man and child.

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359 Ch'uan Miao woman in native dress.

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360 Ch'uan Miao family (of Smithsonian collector). (See #367)

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361 Ch'uan Miao family (wife and children) of Smithsonian collector.

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362 Ch'uan Miao woman, front view. (See #534)

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363 Ch'uan Miao mother and child.

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364 Bird's-eye view of Suifu.

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365 Two Chinese carriers in Smithsonian expedition crossing perilous bridge.

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366 Ch'uan Miao man and child, front view. (See #357)

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367 Ch'uan Miao family (of Smithsonian collector). (See #360)

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368 Ch'uan Miao women.

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369 Ch'uan Miao women.

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370 Great East Street, main street of Suifu, during modernization.

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371 Great North Street, Suifu, first stages of modernizing.

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372 Great North Street, Suifu, first stages of modernizing.

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373 Trees and mountains south of Suifu. (See #351)

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374 View south of Suifu.

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375 View of high mountains, south of Suifu.

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376 Limestone cliffs south of Suifu.

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377 Limestone cliffs south of Suifu.

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378 Large front gate of a temple near Suifu.

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379 Large front gate of a temple near Suifu.

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380 Memorial arch between Suifu and Kiating to a loyal widow.

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381 Wayside "word treasury," a shrine where paper on which characters are written is burned.

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382 Wayside "word treasury," a shrine where paper money is burned.

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383 Stone grinders run by water power, for grinding incense material.

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384 Temple at Yoh Bo, on Min River, northwest of Suifu.

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385 Dr. Tsuang, Chinese Christian doctor at the Suifu Baptist Hospital. (See #395).

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386 A patient in the Suifu Baptist Hospital.

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387 A patient in the Suifu Baptist Hospital.

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388 A patient in the Suifu Baptist Hospital.

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389 Mrs. Yen, Christian-educated wife of Dr. Yen and two children.

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390 Chinese god in a shrine.

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391 A Lolo sacred grove near Fu Lin.

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392 A Lolo sacred grove near Fu Lin.

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393 Lolo man, wife, and younger brother. (See #268)

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394 Christian Lolo in ancestral armor. (See #271)

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1930

395 Dr. Tsuang, Chinese doctor at the Suifu Baptist Hosptal. (See #385)

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396 Part of the Grahams' house at Suifu. (First deep snow in nearly 30 years).

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397 West China Union University (one of the buildings), Chengtu.

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398 Artificial mound near Chengtu, said to be grave of aborigine king and queen. About 700 A. D.

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399 Artificial mound near Chengtu, said to be grave of aborigine king and queen. About 700 A. D.

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400 Artificial mound near Chengtu, said to be grave of aborigine king and queen. About 700 A. D.

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401 Artificial mound near Chengtu, said to be grave of aborigine king and queen. About 700 A. D.

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402 Artificial mound near Chengtu, said to be grave of aborigine king and queen. About 700 A. D.

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403 D. C. Graham's house at Suifu, taken just after a snowfall.

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404 Famous Han Dynasty cave on Min River. (See #260)

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405 Famous Han Dynasty cave on Min River. (See #260)

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406 Famous Han Dynasty cave on Min River. (See #260)

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407 Bronze statue of Sun Yat Sen in Chengtu.

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408 Chinese boats on Min River, using water power to turn grinders.

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409 Chinese boat on Min River, using water power to turn grinders.

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410 Rev. Thomas Torrance, F. R. G. S., holding a Han Dynasty brick.

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411 Rev. Thomas Torrance, F. R. G. S., holding a Han Dynasty brick.

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412 Rev. Thomas Torrance, F. R. G. S., holding a specimen of Han Dynasty pottery.

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413 D. C. Graham holding a Han Dynasty brick.

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414 D. C. Graham holding a specimen of Han Dynasty pottery.

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415 Side of a perpendicular cliff on Min River.

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416 Chinese beggar dying in the middle of the street.

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417 Part of a great funeral procession.

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418 Part of a great funeral procession.

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419 Modernized street in Suifu.

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420 Modernized street in Suifu.

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421 Modernized street in Suifu.

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422 Chinese family. Husbands of the two women are dead.

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423 Famous cliff called "the ribbon counter." Min River.

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424 Famous cliff called "the ribbon counter." Min River.

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425 Famous cliff called "the ribbon counter." Min River.

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426 Two Chinese girls with their hair made up in old style.

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427 A Szechuan Chinese and his daughter, front view.

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428 A Szechuan Chinese and his daughter, side view.

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429 Side view of a typical Chinese.

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430 Paper boat and gongs used in a religious procession.

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431 Paper boat and gongs used in a religious procession.

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432 Min River, about 10 miles above Suifu.

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433 Min River, about 20 miles above Suifu.

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434 Village beside a river, and boats.

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435 Two executed Chinese soldiers, and "spirit money" being burned.

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436 Two executed Chinese soldiers, and "spirit money" being burned.

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437 437 Two executed Chinese soldiers, and "spirit money" being burned.

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438 Sick Chinese man lying down on street curb to die.

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439 Chinese market day, buying and selling opium.

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440 Chinese selling opium.

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441 Chinese woman selling opium.

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442 Chinese market day, crowd buying and selling opium.

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443 Memorial archway, later torn down for modernizing street, Suifu.

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444 Memorial archway, later torn down for modernizing street, Suifu.

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445 Buddhist abbot in ceremonial gown.

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446 Buddhist abbot in ceremonial gown.

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447 Budhhist abbot in ordinary gown, holding rosary.

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448 Buddhist abbot in ordinary gown, holding rosary.

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449 Buddhist abbot in ordinary gown.

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450 Smithsonian collecting outfit stopping for noon-day meal.

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451 Smithsonian collecting outfit during noon meal.

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452 Smithsonian collecting outfit (Tibetans eating their noon meal).

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453 Smithsonian collecting outfit. (Tibetan children watching pack animals).

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454 Two members of the party standing by a shrine.

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455 The Smithsonian party in Yu Long Li Gorge, Tibet.

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456 Part of the pack animals of the Smithsonian party.

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457 U-shaped valley in Tibet, west of Yachow.

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458 U-shaped valley in Tibet, west of Yachow.

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459 Smithsonian party stopping for dinner.

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460 Smithsonian party at dinner.

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461 D. C. Graham being carried by two coolies.

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462 Jedo Pass.

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463 Fei Yuen Pin Pass, west of Yachow.

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464 "Prayer Stones." (a long, wide pile).

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465 Tent of a Tibetan nomad, elevation 14,500 feet.

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466 Tent of Tibetan nomad, elevation about 15,000 feet.

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467 Tent of a Tibetan nomad with dog tied outside.

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468 Great Tibetan dog at a lamasery.

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469 Great Tibetan dog at a lamasery.

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470 Abbot at monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai. He is a "Living Buddha."

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471 Abbot at monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai. He is a "Living Buddha."

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472 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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473 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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474 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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475 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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476 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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477 Monastery near Yin Kuan Tsai, Tibet, where the religious festival, "Devil Dance," was witnessed.

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478 Main temple and courtyard of the above monastery.

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479 Lamas dancing the "Devil Dance."

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480 Lamas dancing the "Devil Dance."

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481 Lamas dancing the "Devil Dance."

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482 Some musicians and part of audience at the "Devil Dance."

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483 Tibetan musicians at the festival. Large trumpets are about 15 feet long.

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484 The religious festival, "Devil Dance."

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485 The religious festival, "Devil Dance." (Lamas dancing skeleton dance.)

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486 The religious festival, "Devil Dance." (Tibetans worshipping.)

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487 The religious festival, "Devil Dance." (Tibetans worshipping.)

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488 The religious festival, "Devil Dance." (Lamas at the dance.)

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489 The religious festival, "Devil Dance."

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490 The religious festival, "Devil Dance." (Lamas as Hindu Buddhist priests.)

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491 The religious festival, "Devil Dance."

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492 Audience at the religious festival, "Devil Dance."

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493 Group of women spectators at the religious festival, "Devil Dance."

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494 Backs of Tibetan women, showing immense silver head ornaments.

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495 Backs of Tibetan women, showing immense silver head ornaments.

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496 Tibetan women at the "Devil Dance."

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497 A Tibetan woman at the "Devil Dance."

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498 Tibetan young women at the "Devil Dance."

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499 Tibetans at the Devil Dance.

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500 Tibetan bull yak.

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501 Tibetan bull yak.

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502 Tibetan bull yak.

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503 Tibetan yak, with a big bull in the center.

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504 Road and stream on China-Tibetan border.

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505 Stream on China-Tibetan border.

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506 Large Tibetan home built of stone.

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507 Mountain stream and falls on Tibetan border.

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508 Looking south through a pass.

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509 View of China-Tibetan border.

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510 View east of Yachow.

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511 The wide, flat valley near Yin Kuan Tsai.

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512 A valley near Yin Kuan Tsai.

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513 The road west of Yachow.

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514 View on the China-Tibetan border.

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515 View of the Tong River.

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516 Tibetan worshipper using hand-turned "prayer-wheel."

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517 Chinese coolie carrying load of tea from Yachow.

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518 Stream and cornfield west of Kiating.

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519 U-shaped valley, and an old glacier bed, near Tatsienlu.

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520 View west of Yachow.

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521 View of mountains in Tibet.

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522 Valley in Tibet.

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523 View near Wa Hu Pass, Tibet.

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524 View of valley on Tibetan border.

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525 View south of Tatsienlu, showing snow.

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526 View on Chinese-Tibetan border.

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527 Smithsonian expedition ready for a day's trip.

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528 Part of Smithsonian expedition crossing a chain bridge.

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529 Losong, a Tibetan lama, and a Tibetan interpreter of the Smithsonian expedition.

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530 Losong, a Tibetan lama, who had charge of the pack animals, Smithsonian expedition.

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531 Tibetan woman, carrying water.

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532 Tibetan woman, carrying water.

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533 Ch'uan Miao woman in elaborate dress, side view. (See #355).

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534 Typical Ch'uan Miao woman, side view. (See #362)

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535 White pagoda, across Min River from Suifu.

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536 White pagoda, across Min river from Suifu.

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537 White pagoda, across Min River from Suifu.

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538 White pagoda, across Min River from Suifu.

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539 Chinese girl, age 11 years, Suifu.

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540 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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541 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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542 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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543 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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544 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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545 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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546 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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547 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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548 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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549 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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550 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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551 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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552 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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553 Yangtse River gorges, above Ichang.

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554 An island in the Yangtse River between Hankow and Shanghai, called "Little Orphan."

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555 An island in the Yangtse River between Hankow and Shanghai, called "Little Orphan."

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556 An island in the Yangtse River between Hankow and Shanghai, called "Little Orphan."

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557 A steamer in the Yangtse gorges.

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558 View in the Yangtse gorges above Ichang.

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559 Shin Taon Rapids, Yangtse River.

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560 Chinese cargo boats in the Yangtse River near Hankow.

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561 Houses built on poles like stilts, Chungking, for keeping houses above high water.

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562 Chinese woman, Miss Tang, age about 35 years, Suifu. Front view.

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563 Chinese woman, Miss Tang, age about 35 years, Suifu, front view.

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564 Chinese woman, Miss Tang, age about 35 years, Suifu, front view.

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565 Hundreds of Chinese worshippers near Suifu on way to festival for birth of sons. (See #318)

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566 Hundreds of Chinese worshippers near Suifu on way to festival for birth of sons. (See #318)

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567 View of Suifu from across Min River.

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568 Chinese children of Christian families, Suifu.

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569 Chinese boat on the Yangtse River.

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570 Mr. Kiang, Chinese, the collector who worked at Chungking, front view.

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571 Mr. Kiang, Chinese, the collector who worked at Chungking, side view.

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572 Tent of a Tibetan nomad, showing dog and woman.

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573 Scene on Min River, about 20 miles from Suifu. (See #433)

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574 Scene on Tibetan borderlands south of Tatsienlu.

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575 Scene near Luchow.

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576 View between Lu Ding Chiao and Wa Si Koo, Szechuan.

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577 View looking south near the top of the Fei Yuen Din.

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578 Chinese "Playing Lion," Kiating.

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579 Memorial tablet ("Good man brings good luck.")

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580 The Tong River west of Fu Lin.

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581 A main road in Lolo territory. (See #208)

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582 Creek with waterfall, near Konshien, south of Suifu. (See #204)

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583 Bridge near Yin Kuan Tsai.

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584 The altar of Heaven, Peking, where the Emperor worshipped.

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585 The altar of Heaven, Peking, where the Emperor worshipped.

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586 Center of the altar of Heaven, the spot where the Emperor worshipped, Peking.

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587 The Chi Nien Dien near the altar of Heaven, Peking.

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588 The Chi Nien Dien near the altar of Heaven, Peking.

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589 One of the main gates of Peking.

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590 "Chicken-footed" god, who leads the soul to Hades, 1924. (See #32 A and B)

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591 Chinese with a broom and dust-basket of the ancient type.

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592 Fish called Elephant's Nose fish. (For SI)

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593 Smithsonian skinner, Ho Son Chien, sitting beside wayside idol, undated.

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594 Pavilion on north bank of Min River across from Suifu, undated.

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595 Famous rock and temple near Wu Tsang gorge, Yangtse River, undated.

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596 Refuge houses on the side of a steep cliff on Yangtse River, undated.

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597 Cactus tree at Shii Kiang, Yunnan Province, west of Suifu, undated.

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598 A "Living Buddha," 1923. (See #1)

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599 View of the river between Wa Shi Keo and Lu Ting Ch'iao, undated.

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600 A boat with a number of people aboard, undated. (Mrs. Graham and her children standing, center)

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A1 (negative) 601 (microfilm number) Tibetans eating their noon-day meal, west of Tatsienlu, 1925.

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A2 (negative) 602 (microfilm number) Snow on mountain near Tatsienlu showing fog and a glacier, 1925.

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A3 (negative) 603 (microfilm number) Gateway of a city on the Yangtse River above Chungking, closed because the Jengshui (aborigines ?) are supposed to be unlucky, undated.

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A4 (negative) 604 (microfilm number) Dancing lama in lamasery at Tatsienlu preparing for the "Devil Dance," 1930.

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A5 (negative) 605 (microfilm number) English-speaking Tibetan, Mr. Sherap, author of a book on Tibet, taken at Tatsienlu, 1925.

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A6 (negative) 606 (microfilm number) Salt wells at Kweifu on the Yangtse River near Chungking, undated.

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A7 (negative) 607 (microfilm number) View of the Yangtse Gorges, 1930.

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A8 (negative) 608 (microfilm number) City of Tatsienlu, 1925.

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A9 (negative) 609 (microfilm number) View of the Yangtse Gorges.

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Copy Negatives, #1-600, and #A1 to A9

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Boxes 8-10

Duplicate Copy Negatives, #1-600, and #A1 to A9

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There are of two rolls of 35mm microfilm, containing copies of the 609 images in Series 6. One roll contains direct copies of the negative images; the second is a microfilm positive made from the first.

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