Diary no. IV [5], October 13, 1928-February 14, 1929

ID: SIA RU007148

Creator: Graham, David Crockett

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1928-1929

Citation: David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

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Creator

Graham, David Crockett

Abstract

This field book is a diary from 13 October 1928 to 14 February 1929 documenting Graham's field collecting trips to Li Chuang (currently Lizhuang), Yachow (currently Ya'an), Min River Valley north of Suifu (currently Yibin), and the Suifu vicinity. Graham provides a narrative description of daily activities including amounts and types of specimen he and associates collected or purchased. Graham collected mammals, birds, insects, snakes, fish, "water snails", fossils, and possibly other specimen. Mammal numbers range from 122-187; mammal skin numbers range from 127-130. Locations in which Graham collected include various localities near and including modern day Lizhuang, modern day Ya'an, Min River (a tributary of the upper Yangtze River), Chang Lin (Changling), and modern day Yibin. Graham often includes altitudes of localities where specimen were found. Descriptions of some specimen are occasionally provided. Graham also collects artifacts and conducts ethnological and anthropological research during this trip. No scientific names are provided.

Date Range

1928-1929

Start Date

Oct 13, 1928

End Date

Feb 14, 1929

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.

Topic

  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Herpetology
  • Birds
  • Ichthyology
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology

Place

  • Yibin
  • Sichuan
  • China
  • Lizhuang
  • Changling
  • Yaan

Form/Genre

  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Sublocation

1 Box Folder 7

DIARY NO IV (5) Suifu, Szechuan, China, October 13-1928 to February 14, 1929 Mammal No. 122 ) Mentioned in Box 179, specimens) Diary No. III Oct. 15. My trip to the district south of Suifu is delayed because of the coming of friends whom I must help get boats for a trip up the Yangtse to Kiating and Chengtu. Today I saw a we[[overwritten]] i [[/overwritten]]^[[a]]sel in our yard, so I am setting many traps in the hope that I will be able to catch him. Purchased two mammals, Nos. 123-124. Oct. 16. Filled box 180, bird bones and artifacts. Secured two birds. Took two anthropometrical measurements yesterday and one today. Oct. 17. Last night a weasel was caught in a steel trap, and he escaped with steel trap and all. The trap was not fastened securely enough. Oct. 18. Filled boxes 181, 1/2 of dog from Chinese Han Dynasty tombs. 182, the other half of the dog, a large cake of incense. Mailed all the boxes yet packed. Took three anthropometrical measurements, nurses in the women's hospital. Spent some time packing or the trip. Oct. 19. Two boxes of specimens arrived from Yachow, and a letter from Chen Gih Uen saying that he is fully recovered in health, and is going toward Moupin. Mammals No. 125, 126. 127, 128. A translation of a Buddhist book, A Simple Talk About Repeating the Name of Buddha, that I made last spring has been printed in the August and September numbers of the Chinese Recorder. I have recently sent to the Chinese Recorder a longer translation of a Taoist Sacred Book which is even more interesting. Oct. 21. Dr. Morse, who visited the Smithsonian Institution a couple years ago, is in Suifu. He is interested primarily in anthropological measurements. Packed box 183, frogs from Yachow, 184, insects from Yachow, Box 185, Insects from Yachow. Oct. 23. Dr. Morse started for Chengtu, and I left for Li Chuang by boat. I also travelled overland to Gi [[underlined]] Fien [[/underlined]] ^[[Tien]] Ba. Secured one bird. Oct. 24. Secured three moles and one mouse. Went to Li Duan Tsang. Oct. 25. Secured one mole and a snake. Went to Ngan Sin Chiao. Good weather. Numbered mammal skins 127-128-129-130. Took two anthropometrical measurements of Chinese. Oct. 26. Went 80 li to Chang Lin or Tsang Lin. Secured some insects and four birds. Passed a spot where a Chinese official was robbed yesterday. I planned to go
- 2- to the home of my aborigine collector, but there is a large robber band on the road, and the magistrate of this district requests me not to go. I am sending messengers to Mr. Yang to bring his specimens and meet me at Kongshien. I was given a feast by friends. Oct. 27. It rained all day. Oct. 28. Went to Kongshien. It was very muddy under foot. We had to cross small streams nearly thirty times. Oct. 29. Yang the collector did not arrive. Secured a rich catch of flies and some fine fossils. Sent another messenger to Yang to bring his specimens to Suifu. ^[[I was given a feast by friends.]] Oct. 30. Went to Shuin Gien Si. Secured more fossils and flies. Oct. 31. Secured nine birds. Stayed at Shuin Gien Si. A Chinese hunter was recently killed by a leopard in sight of the town. Was given a feast. Nov. 1. Went to Sa Ho E. I was given a feast by Chinese at Hua Tan Chiao. The head militia officers of Hua Tan Chiao and Sa Ho E called on me. Secured three birds and insects. Nov. 2. In the morning a killed a queer duck and two white cranes, small ones. The white cranes are very common. Going past Da^[[3]]Er^[[2]]O^[[1]], which is famous for robbers, we ran into a band of robbers. I had secured an escort of six soldiers and the robbers fled. Reached Suifu about dark. Nov. 4. Secured an odd fish. Filled box No. 186, fossils. Nov. 5 I have received word that the American Express Company at Shanghai has received the 62 boxes of specimens I sent in September by parcel post, and has already forwarded them by an American steamer to the U.S.A. Filled boxes 187, turtles; 188, insects; 189, pinned insects; 190, fossils; 191, insects in bottles. I have just received word that a translation of mine "The Sacred Book of the Original Vows of the Kitchen God" is to be published in three issues of the Chinese Recorder. Filled box 192, Bird & Mammal bones. Nov. 9. Today I secured three artifacts from Chinese tombs, between 100 and 400 years old, excavated about 20 miles west of Suifu. There were two vases, one large and one small, and a small dish or saucer, all are of a brown color. The large vase has a bright glaze and the other two artifacts have a dull glaze. I am securing about fifteen silver ornaments. They are samples of women's headdress, now rapidly disappearing. The bright, blue feathers of the small kingfisher are used to decorate the earrings, hair pins, and other ornaments. The price is very cheap, and there may be no opportunities to secure these in the future--at least after a few years. Filled box 193, snake; Box 194, Lolo quiver and arrows. 195 birdskins.
--3-- Nov. 10. Today I purchased for the Smithsonian Institution fifteen artifacts representing past customs and art in China. They are silver body ornaments. ^[[M]] [[underlined]] [[overwritten]] m [[/overwritten]][[/underlined]] ^[[M]]ost of them have on the silver a coating consisting of the bright blue feathers of the small kingfishers found in this country. The styles are rapidly changing. New-styled ornaments are displacing these. In a few years there may be few if any available. Ordinarily one of these would cost two or three dollars each because of the fine workmanship, if not more, but these cost $5.20 Mexican, or $2.60 gold. One ornament alone is more than this in U.S.A. I consider this a real find. My year of work ends (my year of collecting at Suifu) on November 14th. I have already filled two hundred boxes of specimens and artifacts, and have materials on hand to fill at least six more. Besides, the results of more than one month of collecting by Chen Gih Uin and still longer by the aborigine Yang Fong Tsang are not in. They should have at least ten more boxes. Box No. 196, contains a Lolo wooden bowl in which food is placed, and two Lolo wooden spoons, decorated. 197, birdskins; 198, vase from a Chinese grave; 199, a larger vase from a Chinese grave. 200, bird and mammal bones. Nov. 12. Filled box 201, leather garment (Lolo armor, to protect chest and shoulders). 202, Lolo helmet, also leather throat protector and a wrist protector. 203, Lolo helmet and a wrist protector. 204, a lolo armor, chest and abdomen protector, and a dish. The dish is from a Chinese grave, and is about 100 to 300 years old. Box 205, silver ornaments. Box 206, silver ornaments, Chinese and Lolo earrings etc., Box 207, crab, insects. Nov. 13. Filled box No. 208, two mammals, one birdskin; box 209, one fish; 210, one fossil. Mailed all the specimens on hand, all artifacts, making a total to date of two hundred and ten boxes. Some of these are large and heavy, others small. Dr. Tompkins arrived at Suifu Sunday, November eleventh. I have now completed one year of collecting in Suifu. Since I arrived Nov. 14, 1928, and began collecting immediately on arrival. Besides these 210 boxes or cases of specimens, there are some specimens in the hands of Yang Fong Tsang the aborigine collector. He has been collecting all of September and October, and should have some good specimens. Chen Gih Uen is collecting at Yachow, and his collecting is so poor that I may request him to find another job at the end of the month--unless I find that he has gotten better results than I think he has. Conditions in this part of Szechuan are better than they were during the first six months of my stay at Suifu. The securing of mammals has been probably my most difficult work--hardest to secure satisfactory results. I have made arrangements with a Chinese friend to try to secure all kinds of Mammals in a district near Kongshien, south of Suifu, and I hope for better results. He is to try to use the regular hunters who make a business of such things.
- 4 - Nov. 15. Secured a strange owl. Nov. 17. I mailed today an article "Mysterious Potency in the Chinese Religion" for publication in the Chinese Recorder. I am getting ready for a trip of five days in which I should be able to do some collecting. Nov. 26. The collecting trip Nov. 20-22 was not very fruitful and not very expensive. I went west of Suifu to Ngan Bien and Shin Tsang. I am now unusually busy in Suifu, but in a few days expect to have more time to collect. Yang Fong Tsang should be in soon. Dec. 3. Labelled mammal skin 131 and a number of birdskins. I telegraphed to the netter Chen Gin Uen at Yachow to collect until conference when we can decide matters for the future. He has very desirable capabilities as a collector. He wants more wages, and possibly ought to have it. It is a difficult problem in which it is easy to make a mistake. He can help distinguish and collect different varieties of fish, knows the Kiating Han Dynasty caves as none else does, nets, traps, etc. He gets valuable specimens, but it often seems to me he ought to get more of them. I have been tied down with a very heavy program during the past two weeks. From now on I hope to collect more. I am to go to Yachow in January. I may be able to go on to Moupin, then hunt or shoot down the Ya River, which is famous as a duck-hunting district. Dec. 4. Mammal No. 132, a mole. Dec. 5. This afternoon I took a hunting trip up the Min River. I secured five birds. I could have secured more, but I have a sufficient number of some kinds of birds. I saw some birds that are rare, but I did not get close enough to them to shoot them. I hope to go out for a whole day of hunting day after tomorrow. Dec. 7. I went back today to hunt at the same place as on Dec. 5. Secured four birds. The stupidity of the coolie probably prevented me from securing a wild goose or a very large gray duck. Today a crazy man went into the yard of Dr. Tompkins and raised a lot of excitement. He was soon overpowered. Dec. 9. Tomorrow I leave on a six-day trip along the Min River, coming back by boat. I hope to get a few birds. Dec. 8-16. I have taken a trip up the Min River, a seven-day trip, securing sixteen birds, two mammal skins, and some insects. We had several days of rainy weather. At [[underlined]] Gip [[/underlined]] ^[[Gioh]] Chi a wolf had been killed two days before, but very poorly skinned. I did not succeed in purchasing the skin. The owner asked from me six times what others bought such a kind for. I think I have located a fine district in which to hunt mammals later.
-5- Dec. 19. I have been on a two days trip to Li Chuang, east of Suifu, but got only two small birds, and have charged nothing to the Smithsonian for the expenses of the trip. War clouds are again hovering over Szechuan. We hope they will blow over. Today I filled box No. 211, frogs and fish from Yachow, Szechuan, China. I sent a messenger after Yang Fong Tsang, the aborigine collector. It is time he came in with his specimens. Dec. 20. Bought a duck that is rather uncommon. In the past I have secured only one like it. Filled Box 212, fish from Yachow and 213, also fish from Yachow. Worked over and repacked a number of the Yachow specimens. Mammal No. 133, Box 214, birds from Yachow, secured by the netter Chen. Dec. 21. Filled boxes 215 mammal and bird bones; 216, insects; 217, mammal skins; 218, insects. War has actually begun now in the Province and will quite certainly extend so as to involve most of the Province. This will make collecting more difficult for the present, but we will continue to do what we can. Robbers have appeared on the Min River where I travelled in perfect safety a few days ago. Dec. 23. Today I succeeded, after days of bargaining in securing for the Smithsonian Instittuion an ivory instrument called a Tsao^[[2]] Pien^[[3]] such as was formerly held in the hands of high civil officials when actually performing official duty. I ate dinner at the invitation of the head civil magistrate of this section, and sat beside him in conversation for over an hour. A friend who has been in the district where Yang Fong Tsang is collecting says Yang Fong Tsang has a good catch of specimens. Last night I ate supper with the leading military officer of this [[underlined]] per [[/underlined]] ^[[pre]]fecture. Dec. 25. Today Yang Fong Tsang, aborigine collector, arrived. He had many fine mountain rats, but only two birds. He said he couldn't get any good powder. He brought in snakes, frogs, insects, etc. I labelled all the mammals, from 134 to 164. I packed most of them into boxes. Yang brought a [[underlined]] m [[/underlined]] ^[[M]]iao aborigine friend, whom I will measure. [[2 columns listing boxes and contents]] [[column 1]] Box 219, Ratskins and bones. Box 220, " " " [[Dittos for: Ratskins and bones.]] Box 221, " " " [[Dittos for: Ratskins and bones.]] Box 222, Bones (monkey) Box 223, Insects Box 224, Snakes & Insects [[/column 1]] [[column 2]] Box 225, Insects $1.00 Box 226, snakes Box 227 Museum specimens Box 228 Mammal skins. Box 229 Birdskins, etc. [[/column 2]] Dec. 26 I have packed and labelled 19 boxes of specimens as described above. I have also reckoned with Yang Fong Tsang, the aborigine collector. The labelling of the specimens, packing etc., has been a big job. Practically all my time
- 6 - yesterday afternoon, last night, all day today, and tonight up to eleven o'clock, has been used in this work. Now I have the nineteen boxes ready to mail. All of them are zoological or biological specimens. The postmaster says that parcel post packages are getting through to Shanghai. My idea is to get these through before it becomes impossible to do so. The civil war has actually begun, and it seems to be the universal opinion that things must become worse before they can become better. I think that some of Yang Fong Tsang's specimens will proved to be of interest. Dec. 27. Today I mailed nineteen boxes of natural history specimens to the American Express Company at Shanghai. The aborigine collector returns tomorrow for more collecting. I reckoned accounts and planned with him. Word has come that Chen Gih Uen at Yachow has been unfaithful, and has finally quit. I'll try to find and train another more faithful collector. Dec. 28. Today I purchased a vase probably hundreds of years old, of a type no longer used. I secured it very cheaply, about 25 cents gold. Dec. 30. The collector Yang Fong Tsang has returned to him home with a large trap with which to attempt to trap leopards, which are eating people around his home. I have paid Dr. Tompkins for all the materials I have bought from his hospital during the past year. He has written to our treasurer to take that fifty dollars gold off his personal account and put in on the Smithsonian account. This finally straightens out matters with Dr. Tompkins. Dec. 31. Mammal No. 165. Today purchased some fish, two specimens, and a fox. The [[underlined]] box [[/underlined]] ^[[fox]] is better than most of such specimens secured from hunters. He was killed a short distance from Suifu. I have reshaped the skin some. The hunter is to bring the bones tomorrow. He promises to bring specimens unskinned hereafter, and I can measure them and skin them myself. After tomorrow I expect to find more time for collecting, and will try to increase the number of specimens for a couple of months. I can do so if civil war does not reach our part of Suifu. Just now it is raging about [[underlined]] Ching [[/underlined]] ^[[Chung]]king. Jan. 1. I spent most of today on a report letter to Dr. Wetmore and on bringing the accounts up-to-date. The account was number ten. I am securing large fish. They are rather expensive. This is a good time of the year to pickle them in formalin. Jan. 2. Secured a fine specimen of hare or rabbit. Mammal 166. Jan. 3. The netter Chen Gih Uen writes that he has written to the Smithsonian Institution and to the American Government stating that he has been treated unjustly by me. He has either been very lazy, or has been doing something else besides collecting. Jan. 4. I took a hunting trip today, securing six birds. Secured some fish.
- 7 - During the past few days I have had the carpenter making more boxes for specimens. Jan. 8. During the past few days I have secured a number of good specimens of fish, large ones, which I am pickeling in formalin. After returning from Yachow I expect to resume this work, and during the next few months send a larger number of fish specimens than last year. There is a temporary lull in the war near [[underlined]] Chinking [[/underlined]] ^[[chungking]]. This side has won a victory. Filled [[underlined]] the [[/underlined]] ^[[one]] box. It contains a fox skeleton. Box 230, an old Chinese vessel from the tombs, formerly containing the ashes of burnt paper money. Box 231, fox skeleton. I am beginning to pack for the Yachow trip, and hope to bring back a lot of fine specimens. Possibly I will visit Mt. Omei. Jan. 11. Yesterday I mailed boxes 230 and 231. Today I packed box No. 232, a rabbit skin. Jan. 12. Mailed box No. 232 . Purchased a wildcat, Mammal No. 167. Jan. 15. My time is occupied with getting ready for the trip to Yachow. Today I packed box No. 233, containing a fox and a wildcat skin. Packed box 234, bones, etc. I have secured a fairly good sample of a Chinese bow and arrows. After my return from Yachow I hope to forward this and the Lolo bow by parcel post. Jan. 16. Mailed boxes 233 and 234. Visited the Suifu magistrate to secure an escort up the river. Spent most of the day packing for the trip. I expect to spend practically all my time going and returning in collecting specimens, and may find time for a side-trip to [[underlined]] Mr. [[/underlined]] ^[[MT.]] Omei or elsewhere. It would probably be less expensive and about as fruitful to take the trip to Moupin entirely in the summer. It is three days' trip from Yachow to Moupin, and it would probably be a better economy of the time and money available to take more time and do the work more thoroughly in the summer than to do so now. I may, however, take a short trip to Mt. Omei. Jan. 17. This morning it took a lot of trouble to get the escort on the boats. On this trip it was my task to see that we had a sufficient escort to guarantee safety. We have ten soldiers with guns. In our party are three single ladies and Dr. Tompkins, and about ten Chinese. There are four boats. There are occasional robberies on the river. Today I killed four birds. We travelled forty li to [[underlined]] Lin [[/underlined]] ^[[Liu2]] Shih^[[5]] Pien.^[[1*]] The head militia officer in this district is a friend on mine, Mr. Li^[[3]] Kueh^[[5]] Chin.^[[1]] I called on him, but he thought it unnecessary to add soldiers to our escort. I did not bring my skinner on this trip. I will take care of all the specimens ^[[*Insert: I went overland so as to look for birds, and got on the boat near Liu2 Shih5 Pieᶜn1.]]
- 8 - myself until we reach Yachow. Tomorrow I will visit an interesting Han Dynasty burial cave described by Faber in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, about 1881, at Huang ^[[2]] Sa ^[[1]] Chi. ^[[1]] I expect to take pictures and make diagrams. I may take other pictures tomorrow. We pass tomorrow the worst part of the robber district, I think. We pass tomorrow through a very picturesque part of the trip. A perpendicular cliff a few hundred feet high, actually overhanging in some places, a queer feng-shui stone, and some ancient Chinese burial tombs (caves) are to be seen. Jan. 18. We passed the most picturesque part of our journey quite early. It was not light enough so that I could take a picture of the feng-shui rock, but I took some pictures of a most interesting tomb, one described by Faber as a mantsi cave. I also made some diagrams. I think Faber's diagram overlooks the fact that the central cave is much shorter than the other two caves, thus: [[image - stylised pen map of a cave system in the shape of an E]] I secured two varieties of river snails, and five birds, besides some few insects. I walked almost all day, a lot of work with only moderate results in specimens. We passed one of what is considered the most dangerous stages on our journey. Jan. 19. Secured seven birds. Travelled to Ma Lin Tsang, arriving early. We are probably out of the dangerous [[underlined]] territoy [[/underlined]] ^[[territory]] until we reach Kiating. The river below us ins not as dangerous as it was last summer. Jan. 20. Secured some insects and frogs. Reached Chien [[overwritten]] w [[/overwritten]] ^[[W]]ay. Visited the magistrate who advised that an escort is unnecessary between Chien [[overwritten]] w [[/overwritten]] ^[[W]]ay and Kiating. Jan. 21. This has been a cold rainy day. This morning I put on my raincoat and knee-top rubber boots and went on shore, securing four birds. This afternoon I skinned them. This evening I visited a Duan 'Gong', a priest of the little understood heretical u'giao' or witch or sorcerer society. I learned considerable about this strange sect. We are at Tsu'gen'Tan'. I secured a strange idol and some other strange charms and artifacts used. Jan. 22. Reached Kiating. Secured one bird, arranged for the escort to Kia [[underlined]] Hiang. [[/underlined]] ^[[Kiang]] Had a fine visit with the local magistrate, and supper at the home of Mr. Lovegren. Jan. 23. We got a very late start, with many delays, mostly due to the coolies. Probably left Kiating about 10:30. Reached Kia Kiang,seventy li, after dark. It rained practically all day^[[.]] [[overwritten]] a [[/overwritten]] ^[[A]]t first it was a drizzling rain driven by the wind so that one's clothes [[strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] ^[[were]] soaked. Later there was a heavy rain. The roads were terrible, Arranged for the escort to Hong Ya. Killed four birds. Two seem to be to be kinds that I never secured before. One had a little topknot of feathers on top of its head. I'll have to preserve these carefully
- 9 - and skin them later, for after drying out my clothing and bedding I find myself almost too sleepy to keep awake. We were up at daylight this morning. I am walking all the way as usual. Jan. 24. We travelled 70 li to Hong Ya. Killed eight birds at nine shots. Cleaned the skeletons of seven but left the eighth to be skinned later. Met the official to secure an escort. He later called on us at the chaple. We did not have breakfast until eleven o'clock. There was snow on the mountains just a few hundred feet above us, and snow fell at Hong Ya today. Secured two frogs and some insects under rocks, also a dark fish like a bass. Jan. 25. Travelled fifty li from Hong Ya to Lo ^[[2]] Ba ^[[4]]. Crossed the river twice. Killed a large white crane. The local officials and headmen called. We will have twenty soldiers with rifles all the way to Yachow. I expected this white crane to be a female, but it seemed very plainly to be a male, although I could find only two feathers that were highly decorated. There may have been more, but I did not find them. Jan. 26. Reached Yachow about dark. Killed four birds, one a large female white crane, and one a large gray crane. I have secured 49 birds between Suifu and Yachow. Two are probably and one certainly a new species as far as my collecting is concerned. The netter Chen has evidently not been doing very good work, but I have not seen him yet. Jan. 27. Skinned three birds, secured on Jan. 23rd. I am learning much about the territory about Moupin from Dr. Crook and others who have been there. Chen Gih Uin, the collector, came today. He is to bring in his catch tomorrow and talk over accounts. Jan. 28. Today I reckoned accounts with the collector Chen Gih Uen who has some small mammals and insects, then in the afternoon went out 15 li on the road to Chengtu to see a memorial arch erected in the Han Dynasty, about two thousand years ago. The inscription definitely fixes it in the Han Dynasty. There are several chariots carved on it, and the designs go far to help prove that the cave-tombs of Szechuan are Chinese burial tombs of about the Han Dynasty period. The netter Chen has to take a four-day leave, and I am tied down for a few days in the Chinese and foreign conferences that are being held, but after the conferences are over I expect to collect for awhile in this vicinity. Jan. 29. The radical or communistic students are putting up nasty anti-Christian placards in Yachow, calling Chinese Christians foreign slaves, the walking dogs of foreign devils, etc. (or the pet dogs of foreign devils). Feb. 3. I have been very busy with conference duties, but have secured a few fish and have visited some Han Dynasty caves. People who have lived in Yachow
-10- several years did not know about the existence of those caves. It snowed last night. I saw some fine birds today, and expect to get in some good collecting before going down the river. Feb. 5. Today I got away from conferences and conventions and went for a two-hour bird-hunt. I got four birds. I expect to do more hereafter. I saw one strange bird I did not get a shot at. Purchased a large fish. Feb. 7. I have been very busy with conference and committee meetings, giving two addresses today, one in English and one in Chinese, besides attending conference and committee meetings. I make my last address tomorrow morning, after which I expect to get busy and secure all the specimens I can. The sun shone today and the snow is melting away. Feb. 8. This afternoon I went out and secured twelve birds. One variety including a male and two females (probably) I do not think I ever secured before. Another variety, three specimens, I feel less sure about. I may have secured it at Suifu during a spring migration. A third variety is a very tiny brown bird. Feb. 9. Today I took a longer trip, and climbed a mountain covered with wood. Most strangely there seemed to be no birds there at all. On the lower level I got four birds at three shots, a black and a parson crow, and two others, all very common. Feb. 10. Today I was busy with conference meetings. I secured the traps, etc., in the hands of the netter Chen, reckoned accounts with him and took care of some of the bird specimens that have been accumulating. Feb. 11. Today I skinned and prepared the skeletons of all the birds I secured during the past week. I had to save the skeletons instead of the skins of two birds because the skin on the stomachs of those two birds had rotted away. Feb. 11. Spent some time labelling the specimens that have been secured by the collector Chen. The conference closed today. Feb. 12. Took a hunting trip on the river. Secured four birds, three having long, curved red bills, and a circle of red around the pupil of the eye. I got a duck with a yellow, golden circle around the pupil of the eye, color of feathers mostly black and white. [[Image - 3 concentric circles with centre circle darkened]] [[label of centre circle]] Red Circle [[/label]] [[Image - 3 concentric circles with centre circle darkened]] [[label of centre circle]]] Circle of Yellow [[/label]] I saw a large eagle such as I killed near Yachow a few years ago. Feb. 13. I climbed a sacred mountain called Tseo Gong San, which is covered with snow. To my surprise all the birds and large mammals have gone down to lower levels where feeding is better. I have set some traps. The snow is slowly melting, but it is cold. I killed three birds, two very common ones, and a very gray sparrow hawk. Tomorrow I'll hunt on a lower level a few hours, then go into the city. Feb 14. Came to the city in a heavy rain. Secured only two common birds, but saw
- 11 - another gray hawk like the one I killed yesterday. Labelled mammals to and including 185. Caught a wild rat at 5000 ft. Mammal No. 186.