Diary b, July 16, 1933-December 3, 1933

ID: SIA RU007148

Creator: Graham, David Crockett

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1933

Citation: David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

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Graham, David Crockett


This field book is a diary from 16 July to 3 December 1933 documenting Graham's field expedition to Wen Chuan Hsien (currently Miansi?). Graham provides a narrative description of daily activities including amounts and types of specimens he and associates collected or purchased. Graham's descriptions in this journal are more detailed for mammal specimens collected, often providing the common name, elevation, date, and location where the specimen was collected. Some similar information is recorded for insects. Mammal numbers range from 1171-1262. Graham also collects birds, reptiles, and possibly other types of specimens. Locations beside Wen Chuan Hsien include Dong Men Wai, Sa Ping Kuang, and other locations.

Date Range


Start Date

Jul 16, 1933

End Date

Dec 03, 1933

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Herpetology
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • Sichuan
  • Miansi
  • China


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 2 Folder 2

^[[Wen Chwan Hsien on Min River, 65 miles NW of Chengtu, Szechwan]] Rev. D. C. Graham's Diary ^[[Diary No B]] Last mammal No. 1171 Last box filled No. 60 July 16, 1933. Last night I stayed up very late to finish preparations for the trip. This morning I was up at daybreak, and we made a good journey, 65-70 li to Shi Pu. The chapel had been occupied by troops and was in an awful mess, but we cleaned it up and were quite comfortable. It was a terribly hot day. I had to visit the officials in two places to get an escort, which was one man without arms. ^[[? Kuanshien]] July 17. Reached [[underlined]]K[[strikethrough]]i[[/strikethrough]]^[[u]]anshien[[/underlined]]. Passed one place where enemy troops were a quarter of a mile away. I got passports ready. The bridge d[[strikethrough]]e[[/strikethrough]]^[[i]]viding Kuanshien City had been destroyed, and very recently rebuilt. There had been heavy fighting about the city for nearly two months. There had been considerable caaonading and rifle firing. The officials were very kind, and gave us passports and nearly all of them are useful. July 18. We travelled 60 li to the tip of the Yang Lei Sin Pass, and are in the temple at the top of the pass for the night. The collectors caught a fair catch but some of the butterflies were ruined. This morning we got up early, and went to the west gate of the city, where we travelled along the main road. The Min River is very near this road -- or rather the road is on the north bank of the river. The 24th army occupies the south bank. They fired three times at us near the city, and twice about five miles above the city. I
-2- left west gate and ran the gauntlet first (walking) and got clear past before the firing began. None of us were injured. In my party is Rev. Thomas Torrance, O.R.G.S. acting as guide, for he is very gamiliar [[familiar]] with this region, Dr. W. R. Morse, anthropologist, and Dr. Agnew, famous for his discovering of the cause of dental cavities. The altitude here on the pass is 5300 feet. I did no shooting today because there is war not far away, and shooting might stir up the Chinese and cause trouble. Yang Fong Tsang and Ho Son Chuen are supposed to be working just on the other side of this pass, and I am hoping that we can connect up with them tomorrow and they can join the party. July 19. We reached a place about 3 miles down the river from Tao Knan ^[[Kuan]]. The name is Yin Shin [[strikethrough]]Rian[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Kuan]] and the altitude 3900 feet. This morning my messengers got into touch with Ho Son Chuen and Yang Fong Tsang. They met me 15 li down from the summit, on the road. They are to work the same spot as before instead of coming along with me. They have a number of large mammals. We got a good catch of night moths last night at Yang Tsi Lin Pass, the altitude of which is 5200 feet. July 20. We travelled to a small village just 10 li down the river from ^[[T]]Rao Kuan. Ho Son Chuen is coming along to help train my two students so they can do better skinning. We get a fair catch of insects. Last night very few insects were caught by means of the lanterns.
-3- July 21. We travelled to Wen Chuan Shien, arriving early. The catch of insects was small but a few of the insects are rare. We got so many lizards that we cannot keep them all. I got two snakes, one so large that I had to cut it in two in order to get it into the bottles, and the other very small. The coolies are very tired. July 22. In the morning Ho Son Chuen skinned several birds with the students Pen and San to give them practice skinning birds. All day Yao natted insects. [[in left margin]]Filled Box 61 Insects[[/in left margin]] In the afternoon Pen and San went out collecting. I spent much time working over the collections, seeing that everything was well preserved. A Wa Si aborigine friend brought me three large animals called ^[[=Pandois]][[underline]]Pan Yang[[/underline]], a fine male wild boar, and an animal like the lynx. The skin and bones of the latter are in bad shape. Insects have injured all the skins. We are staying in the local chapel or church, and will leave the large specimens here until we return. In the future I may refuse to take any but perfect specimens. I am taking these specimens hoping they are useful, and in order to encourage the collectors to continue. Box 62. Insects (moths, etc.) near Wen Chuan. Box 63. Insects in bottles between Kuanshien and Wen Chuan. Also 64. Insects in bottles. July 23. Today we labelled specimens and numbered them, preparing to go farther up the valley. The carpenter has made some boxes to contain the specimens.
-4- Mammal No. 1172 is a lynx killed about April 1 - 30 in the mountains near Wen Chuan, Szechuan, China, altitude probably above 5000 feet. July 24. We travelled to Wei Chow and on to a village called Ka Gu. The altitude of this village is 5200 feet, and of Wei Chow about 5000 feet. The country was semi-arid and it was windy, so we caught very little. The last time I came into this region there were simply swarms of flies, but now there are very few. We tried night moth catching tonight, but almost no moths came to the lamps. We secured some lizards.-- July 25. We travelled Mu Sang Tsai, catching many good insects. The altitude here is 8000 feet. It is a Chiang aborigine town. We have had very poor luck catching night moths last night and tonight. The moths did not come at all. 26. We left some of the loads at Mu Sang Tsai and the collectors and I went up to a temple in the edge of a grove on a nearby mountain. During the day I hunted and netted, and Pen, San, and Yao netted. This is a rich place, and we got a good catch during the day. I climbed up a valley and over a pass 10650 feet high. It was very hard climbing and worse because many of the bushes had thorns on them and the road or path was very rough. We came back through a valley. I shot a mountain ^[[#1177 Naemorhaedus]] goat at about 300 yards. He fell down the cliff at the first shot, unable to run. We have the lanterns out tonight and the moths have been coming so fast that two people could not catch them part of the time. We set a few traps for small mammals. The altitude at this temple is 8900 feet.
-5- Mammals ^[[258661-Pseudois]] 1173-1176 ^[[Pseudois(258662)]] are mountain sheep skins and [[circled]]a wild boar[[/circled]] skin killed last spring near Wen Chuan Shien. Mammal 1177 ^[[#258673-Naemorhaedus]] is a cliff goat killed by D.C. Graham near Mu San Tsai, which is on the mountain above Dong Men Wei. The altitude where it was killed is about 9000 feet. July 27. Last night we had a wonderful catch of night moths. Filled Box 65. Caught near Mu Sang Tsai, alt. 8900 to 9000 feet. Filled Box 66. Insects from Mu Sang Tsai, alt. 8900 - 10000 feet. Today it took the netters until nearly noon to wrap up the moths we caught last night. This afternoon we all collected in the mountain in back of the temple. I hunted for big game, but saw none. July 28. Filled Boxx 67. Insects, alt. 8900 to 10000 feet. Filled box 68. Insects caught last night at Mu Sang Tsai last night, alt. 8900 feet. We went down the mountain over a very difficult and somewhat dangerous path to Dong Men Wai. The wind blew so hard that we caught almost nothing. We spent considerable time wrapping the insects caught last night. Altitude at Dong Men Wei 5600 feet. There are yellow monkeys and wild boar around here, but they are hardly worth shooting. Last night secured ^[[Rattus No. 258521-258522]] mammals No. 1178-1179. July 29. We had the collector Yao dry the skull of the mountain ^[[#258673]] goat I recently killed. The rascal carelessly burnt it until it is quite ruined. Some teeth are broken off, the horns are burnt, and a hole burnt in the skull. I gave him a big scolding. Later in the day he brought in a bag snake. It was very poor weather for collecting today, with a high wind
-6- etc. We are preparing for a trip to higher altitudes. The coolies struck for more money this morning. Today we dried and boxed the insects, cleaned and oiled the guns, etc. I sent a messenger to Wei Chow for provisions. The car-penter made some boxes for specimens. July 30. Last night we collected night moths until 2.00 a.m. They were few in number, but looked quite interesting. The moon is coming out a little more every night and that will greatly injure our night moth catching. Yesterday we got a snake. Filled Box No. 69. Insects in bottles. July 31. With the three collectors, Pen, San, and Yao, I went up the mountain to a Chiang aborigine village called Bu San Tsen. The altitude in the temple where we are staying is 8000 feet. The village, which consists of houses made of stone, is just below us. This afternoon we went out collecting along the hillside. Near us is a large forest. We got a fair catch of insects. Tonight we set a lot of traps for wild mice, but we had only hard biscuits for bait. A band of monkeys was seen a few miles from here, but they are the common little yellow monkeys of very little value. We got a few salamanders in a mountain creek at about 8500 feet altitude. There is a very tiny gnat or fly around here that you can hardly see, but which bites as hard as a mosquito. Aug. 1. Last night I got the netters at work about two o'clock a.m. The moon went down about that time. It is useless to try to catch night moths when the moon is shining, even behind clouds. We got several hundred moths before daylight. We filled Box 70. Night
-7- moths, etc. Alt. mostly about 8500 feet. It rained today so we caught no day insects. I went out this morning and got my clothing soaked. This afternoon I went out again and got caught in another rain and got soaked again, so tonight I had to take aspirin and go to bed. I had very bad luck shooting. I shot at a mountain goat at about 800 yards. I probably touched him but did not kill him. I hit four birds, but lost them all in the thick underbrush. We trapped two mountain rats, mammals No. 1180-1181. ^[[Apodemus (258546) & Rattus (258523)]] Alt. 8500 feet. We are in a temple just above the Chiang aborigine village, Bu San Tsen, alt. 8500 feet. August 2. I shot two birds at 9000 feet. We got a small catch of night moths last night because of the moon. Caught mammal 1182. We went after large mammals, but did not even see any. We got a good catch of day insects, mostly bees. I got a bad chill yesterday and had to take aspirin and quinnine. Filled Box 71 with night moths, bees, etc. Aug. 3. This morning we came down the mountain to Dong Men Wai, going over some terrible roads. Much of the land was semi-arid and the catch was not large. Last night I got the netters out with the gasoline lanterns after the moon had set, or about 4 o'clock, and they got a good number of moths. Aug. 4. We have been netting up and down the valley near Dong Men Wai. I packed up for the trip up a nearby valley to Oh Er. Filled Box 72 with insects (dry) and Box 73 with insects in small bottles.
-8- Aug. 5. We travelled up the creek, called Dong Men Yeo to the village called Oh Er. This is an aborigine village, one of the last up this creek. We caught some very good insects today. This looks like a place well worth working. We got some rare butterflies today. This is a Chiang aborigine town. The village head is very friendly, and will do everything to help. The three netters will net and trap. I will hunt birds and large mammals. We will have to bring practically all our provisions up from Wei Chow, for there is little here. Aug. 6. Today the three collectors netted insects, with fair results. I spent the day hunting with two hunters and a guide. I killed one strange-looking bird, and three mountain goats. Filled Box 74. Dried insects. Killed one snake. The mountain goats were on an almost perpendicular cliff. The hunters did marvellous work getting along that cliff after the game. [[handwritten bracket indicating following three lines]] Mammal 1183 - female wild goat ^[[- 258674]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1184 - male " " [[dittos for: wild goat]] ^[[258675]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1185 - female " " [[dittos for: wild goat]] ^[[258676]] [[handwritten bracket indicating previous three lines]] ^[[Naemorhaedus]] Aug. 7. Trapped two mammals, ^[[Apodemus (258547)]] no. 1186, a mouse, 900^[[0]] feet, No. 1187, ^[[ [[Dremauy?]] (258505)]] a squirrel, 900^[[0]] feet. We spent the whole day working hard to take care of the specimens killed yesterday. Only Yao was able to net insects. We are setting traps every night. Aug. 8. I left the three netters at O' Er and went to Dong Men Wai, where I sent up the gasolene lanterns, food, gasolene, kerosene, etc. to O' Er. Then I went on to Tao, ^[[T]][[strikethrough]]L[[/strikethrough]]ei Pin or Preach Flut, a Chiang Aborigine village. I will soon return to O Er, for wild game
-9- hunting. The altitude of Tao Lei Pin is just 6000 feet (the aneroid says 6050) Aug. 9. I am now in the home of the Chiang Chief of this region, in a Chiang village called Yien Tsi Ten, altitude 8000 feet. I will remain here tomorrow, and return to O' Er hoping to kill some big game. Aug. 10. It rained hard all day, keeping us indoors. At night the men and women of the neighborhood, Chiang aborigines, gathered and gave a folk-dance for the benefit of Mr. Torrance and me. Near the close they sang as they danced in good idiomatic Chinese , "Mr. Graham has faced many hardships in climbing these mountains, may he come wealthy when he goes back home." Aug. 11. I left Yien Tsi Ten early in the morning and by hard travel reached O Er by dark, 80 li of mountainous country. The men I left behind at O Er did pretty good work in getting insects. I visited the local official or chief and arranged to leave on a hunting trip tomorrow. Aug. 12. Today we travelled up a big valley far beyond any human habitation, and tonight are living in tents. I shot one squirrel, Mammal No. 1188 ^[[ [[Tameoxis?]] (258542)]], resembling a large chipmunk. We got some good insects. There was no road, but just a path through the dense brush and deep grass. The coolies had an exceedingly hard time, and we had to wait for them a great deal. Sometimes the underbrush was so thick overhead that the coolies could hardly get through with their loads. There were some stiff climbs. We have two guides, who assure
-10- us that there is lots of big game, but we will have to travel most of tomorrow to get to the camping place. Aug. 13. We started early and the coolies travelled better than yesterday. The underbrush was thicker, and we got into the region of rhododendrons. By hard travel we reached the camping place at one o'clock, after crossing fallen tree trunks, small streams, hills, etc. We saw tracks of the black bear, I killed a grouse or pheasant. I think it is new to my collecting. The poor coolies did not bring any bedding and keep warm around a fire all night, at least [[space left here for later text insertion?]] are sick. We are living in a tent, but the guides and two coolies are in a nearby cave. I expect tomorrow to climb up a high mountain to shoot the big horned mountain goat called Pan Yang. We did not know how far this is, and thought it could be reached in one day. We expect provisions to come tomorrow, and our food is very low. Today we ate the pheasant meat and used two kinds of wild grass for vegetables, one a wild onion and the other a wild celery. This is a rich spot to collect in. One should spend a month here. We are far beyond human habitation surrounded by mountains and forests. Mr. Pen is with me, collecting and the other collectors are at O' Er. The altitude where we have pitched our tent is [[strikethrough]]1200[[/strikethrough]] ^[[12500]] feet. Aug. 14. With the two native guides I climbed up the steep mountain side past a large snow-bank to a cave or rock shelter at
-11- 14100 feet altitude. I sent back for my bedding so as to stay here all night, hoping to get big game. The guides brought no bedding, but expect to keep a big fire going all night to keep them warm. Late in the afternoon a heavy rain came up, making it impossible for us to hunt. We sent a messenger after provisions this morning, for our supply is getting very low. Aug. 15. Killed mammal 1189 also two small birds. This morning we were up at daylight, and I climbed the mountain to the height of 15300 feet, at 15,200 feet I collected insects, securing three large flies that looked exactly like bumblebees. They are wrapped with the bees and butterflies. I secured^[[|]]about 15 of the transparent butterflies that are found only on the mountains about 140000 to 16000 feet high in West China, and a few bumblebees and long-legged granddaddies. We found lots of tracks of the large, big-horned mountain goat called Pan Yang, but not a single goat. The tracks were a few days old. I concluded that luck was against us this time, and tomorrow we we are going back towards O Er where we hope for better luck. More food supplies reached us today, we have been eating wild mountain herbs for part of our vegetables but some of them are quite edible. Our head coolie is sick, and I'll have to make a special trip to O Er to look after him. We have secured some very interesting insects, but not a large quantity.
-12- There is near here a small glacier (a tiny one) consisting of a pile of snow that never completely melts away, at the lowest altitude I have seen or heart about in Szechuan. The altitude is 13500 feet. The heaps of snow on the mountain above are about 15600 feet. This "glacier" is caused by the drifting of large quantities of snow during the winter. A small stream runs through under it, making a sort of a cave. Aug. 16. There was a very heavy frost last night, and it was so cold that I could not sleep for about three hours. This morning our tents were covered with frost. I started ahead with the guides and my guns, hoping to meet some big game, but saw nothing but tracks of bears, etc. We moved camp to a spot near O Er, camping there for the night. In the afternoon the guides and I climbed a nearby mountain but saw no game. We have worked exceedingly hard, with very bad luck. We have not seen a single large mammal during the last five days. The guides feel very badly about it. Tonight we are at the altitude of 10800 feet. Today I bought a pheasant new to my collecting that is said to thrive near the snow line. It had been cut open down the belly and dried out flat, but Mr. Pen did a fine job of skinning and restoring it. We are returning to O Er tomorrow. I killed five small birds today. There is no moon now until about 3.00 a.m., and tonight there are clouds, so insects are coming to the lantern pretty well. Mr. Pen worked until two o'clock last night skinning birds. He is still slow, but improving much in the quality of his work.
-13- We are above any human habitation and there are woods all around us. Tonight the moths are coming to the lantern so fast that two men cannot catch them as fast as they come. Filled Box No. 75. Insects caught between the altitudes 9000 to 15200 feet. (Dry insects.) August 17. Filled boxes 76-86. Insects secured near Wei Chow. Last night we had the largest catch of night moths that we have secured this summer. For awhile two men could not catch all the moths that came. This morning we came back to O Er, arriving at noon. This after-noon I went hunting and killed a big black bear. We have it partly skinned. The bear appeared yesterday and ate a lot of the farmers' corn. This afternoon ten natives, several with guns, posted themselves around the forest on the side hill where it was known that the bear was hiding. Three or four of them went through the forest and chased the bear out in the direction where I was waiting with the Newton high-power rifle. After a while he appeared, about 300 yards away, on the side of the mountain. The first shot missed but the second killed him dead. He was running when I fired. He rolled to the bottom of the hill and lay in some brush. I went up to him cautiously but he was stone dead. He was a male weighing about 300 lbs. It took from four to six men to carry it up the mountain to O' Er. The measurements are, 1, 1540 m.m. 2, 100 " 3, 243 " Dr. Miller's Scale.
-14- The natives think I am some hunter, although I am only an average shot. The rifle is some gun. Mammal No. 1190 ^[[Apodemus (258548)]] is a mouse caught Aug. 13, at O Er. 9000 feet. Mammal No. 1191 ^[[Selenarctos (258646)]] is the big male bear I killed yesterday. Mammal No. 1192 ^[[ [[Scuropterus?]] (258520)]] is a flying squirrel, O Er Aug. 17, 33. August 18. It took two of the collectors with considerable help all morning and part of the afternoon to finish the bear skin. In the afternoon I went hunting wild boars. They come out daily, but today they were not to be seen for most of the time. Three appeared in an oat-field. Just before I was going to shoot a young woman came out and drove them away. This was tough luck. She did not know we were going to shoot the wild boar. Aug. 19. We travelled back to Dong Wen Wai where the insects were dried in the stove by Mr. San. I dried the tents and the bear skin. I repacked for the trip to Tsa Gu Loa. We will travel as lightly as possible. I want to see the country for possible future collecting. We got a small catch of night moths last night. Mr. Pen is helping arrange for tomorrow's trip. Filled Box 87. Insects from O Er Aug. 17-18, 8000-9000 feet. Box No. 88. Insects from O Er Aug. 17-18, 33. Alt. 8000 to 9000 feet. Secured a half-grown mouse, Mammal No. 1193. ^[[#258544]] It was partly spoiled so it could not be properly skinned. During the first part of the night the moths came to the light well, but at about 11.30 a strong wind arose and they ceased coming.
-15- I have walked at the edge of so many precipices this trip that I am getting used to it, and it gives me no thrill. They have varied in height from 30 to 200 feet. Aug. 20. With the three netters I travelled from Dong Men Wai to Li Fan. We crossed the river on a rope bridge. There is a draught which has dried up almost everything, with the result that today we got almost no specimens. This is a semi-arid district near the river level anyway, but this year it is just a little worse than usual. Here at Li Fan I met the Brown family and Mrs. and Miss Hibbard from Chengtu. Aug. 21. We travelled to Tsagulon, and found insects as rare as hen's teeth, and no uncommon birds or mammals. The altitude at Li Fan is 6200, and here it is 7200. We tried the night lantern and got few moths. This evening I witnessed a native folk-dance much like the Virginia Reel. The altitude at Tsagulon is 7200 feet. Aug. 22. We reached Li Fan early, and wrapped up all the insects, filling Box No. 89. Insects secured between Dong Men Wai and Tsagulon, altitude 5600 to 7200 feet. Today we got few specimens because of the very strong wind and the extreme dryness of the weather. Aug. 23. We travelled from Li Fan to Dong Men Wai and there packed up for the trip to Wen Chuan Shien. We expect to arrive there tomorrow. I reckoned accounts with the landlord and others. Much of the time today there were few or no insects and no birds,
-16- snakes or mammals worth using. We caught a good many grasshoppers. Last night and this morning we met many Chinese soldiers going to the interior to fight another Chinese army. Aug. 24. We got all packed last night. This morning we got an early start and travelled to Wen Chuan, where we will remain until Monday, the twenty-eighth, when we will start for Chengtu. It was exceedingly hot and dry today and there was a stong wind, so there were very few insects. We got some snails and lizards. The soldiers at Wei Chow were very friendly and made no trouble. Aug. 25. This morning I sent the student collecters San and Pen and the netter Yao to a place high up on the mountain side near the timber line. They will collect there two nights and come back Sunday morning. I am packing and arranging for the final trip to Chengtu. I have a Wa Si aborigine collector working in the mountains near here. [[insertion]] ^[[(Wen Chuan)]] [[/insertion]] He sent me word that he had seven large mammals. I sent a messenger this morning and he should show up tomorrow night. I also sent a messenger to Yang Fong Tsang and Ho Son Chuen, who are collecting between here and Chengtu, two days from here, requesting them to have their collection ready so that we can go on promptly without delay and to have men called to carry the loads. This afternoon we had a severe earthquake lasting about four minutes, and we had a tiny after-shock about three hours later. Many large boulders rolled down the mountains and great clouds of dust were seen in all directions, across the river from here a man was killed. Some foreigners who passed through early this afternoon were caught in one of the worst places and had some narrow
-17- escapes. We were in no danger. Some rock walls and fences were shaken down. This must have extended a long distance and have done lots of harm. The mammal skins I am getting will mean that I have the largest caravan I have ever had on the way home. I secured a poisonous snake. The netters forgot to take the white sheet for netting. I therefore sent a messenger, one of our coolies, to take it to them. He went a little way and came back. Evidently he did not really try to get there. I therefore called a messenger on the street, gave him a lantern, and sent him with the sheet. It is a fine night for netting with plenty of clouds. Last night the stars were out, but we got some moths in spite of that. I have received word from Beh Luh Din that the netter there is getting a very large catch of moths, butterflies, etc. Filled Box 90. Insects (dry) secured at Dong Men Wai, near Wei Chow. August 26. Today my ^[[Li Song Ting]] Wa^[[|S]][[overwritten]]s[[/overwritten]]i collector brought in four rare animal skins in good condition, one a white panda. ^[[258644 (Ailuropus) org No 1195]] No worms have eaten any of these hides. One is an immense mammal ^[[Budoreas (1194) - 25865)]] called the wild ox by the natives. The horns are somewhat thus ^[[Capricornus (1196)]] Another is called a cliff ass, ^[[#258671]] but probably isn't an ass. Yesterday one Chinese was killed by the landslide just across the river-- his head was smashed by a big rock. He was buried today. We hear of whole mountain sides crashing down. A Christian Wa^[[|S]][[overwritten]]s[[/overwritten]]i aborigine was brought to Mr. Torrance, who is with me, to be healed.
-18- He was one of six who were killed or wounded. He has a big wide gash on his forehead at least two inches long and clear to the bone, and another bad gash on the hip. Mr. Torrance and I are going to each pay half his expenses and take him to Chengtu to be treated. If he is left here he will be poorly cared for and infection will probably cause his death. This earthquake must have done a great deal of damage in Eastern Libet. It completely destroyed a town hear Longpan. Yesterday the collectors all went to a Wa^[[|S]][[overwritten]]s[[/overwritten]]i village on the mountain 7600 feet altitude thinking they would have good success with the night lantern. The place is quite exposed, a projecting mountain, so there was such a strong wind that no insects came. Today of insects they got only bees. I therefore had them come to the city of Wen Chuan, and tonight the night moths are coming fine. On the mountain at the elevation of 7600 they captured a big red snake of a species I never saw before. I think it will interest Dr. Stejneger (?) Mammal No. 1194, biggest male. ^[[- 258651 - Budoreas]] Mam. No. 1195, white panda, male ^[[- 258644 - Ailuropus]] Mammal No. 1196, [[strikethrough]] tarkin [[strikethrough]] (?) male ^[[- 258671 - Capricornus]] Mammal No. 1197, Big Mountain [[strikethrough]] Goat /[[strikethrough]] ^[[Sheep]], female ^[[- #258663 - Pseudois]] These were all secured at very high altitudes. Tonight the collectors are having good luck with the night lantern securing moths. Aug. 27. Filled Box No. 91. Insects secured Aug. 26 '33 at Wen Chuan Shien, Szechuan, China. Alt. 5000 feet. Also Box 92. Insects, alt. 7700 feet, near Wen Chuan Shien.
-19- Last night the moths came well to the night lantern and the three netters took turns, working until about daylight. This morning it took a long time to wrap these and put them into the box. This afternoon we packed up for the trip to Chengtu. We will have 24 loads. Aug. 28. We got an early start, and were making good progress in the afternoon when it began to rain, and gradually to pour. We stopped a couple of hours earlier than we expected to, staying for the night at Sa Ping Kuang. Altitude [[blank space]] feet. I saw some fine wild animal skins that had been ruined by the local people. About 5.30 is ceased raining. This morning I got a strange, small black frog. I have offered to pay for more, and we have searched for them for days, but they seem to be few and hard to find. I have a very uncomfortable cold deep down in my throat. It makes it hard to swallow. Today we saw many large stones that had rolled down the mountain as a result of the earthquake. If I could stay in this section for some time and just hunt large animals, I could get a good many of them. My main task now is to get this collection and that part of it Yang Fong Tsang and Ho Son Chuen have down to Chengtu. We have probably at least 20000 insects here. My netter [[blank space]] has at least 10000 at Beh Luh Din, an important summer resort, and we have some at Chungking. If we can keep the collectors (four or five) all working for the rest of the year we will have a very large collection of mammals and insects.
-20- I am to reach Yin Shin Wan, where Yang and Ho are, earlier tomorrow afternoon. I have sent messengers to them to be ready to travel when we arrive, and will send a messenger ahead tomorrow morning. Aug. 29. We reached Yin Shin Wan by noon. I have Yang Fong Tsang all of my ammunition excepting the high power rifle ammunition, nearly all my cotton, some wire for mammals, some labels, some kerosene, arsenic, etc. and brought with me all the animals and birds they have caught. We reached our destination, the Yang Tsi Lin Pass, by four o'clock. Tomorrow I reach Kuanshien and Sept. 1 should reach Chengtu. I always carry a very light load of things most necessary in collecting. I hire a carrier with specific directions that the load must always be within easy reach. The man the head coolie hired to carry is a weak opium smoker and he has been continually dropping behind. I have constantly urged and coaxed and even scolded and threatened. This morning four cliff pigeons dropped on the road ahead of me. I could have killed them at one shot. I turned and reached for the gun, to find the coolie a quarter mile away in the rear. I have him a couple of cracks with a bamboo stick. He grabbed a carpenter's saw and whacked at me probably a dozen times. I managed to ward off all the blows without even being touched, and he broke the handle of his saw. I fired him at once and now have an excellent carrier.
-21- Aug. 30. We got a fine early start, and went 20 li before breakfast. About nine o'clock a heavy rain came up delaying us at least an hour. At Kuanshien I had to get the loads through several customs offices. Then I climbed the hill to the nearby summer resort, and visited foreign friends there. I went to the Post Office and got money for the rest of the trip, then went to the magistrate's office and the military headquarters and secured passports to make possible the trip to Chengtu. I have 27 man-loads of specimens and equipment, most of them for the Smithsonian Institution but some for the ethnological museum of the West China Union University. Late this afternoon another rain came up. We wrapped the insects gathered last night this evening. The three netters got up at one o'clock and worked until daylight. On account of the stars few came to the lanterns, so they went out with lanterns and nets in their hands and netted night moths as they flew out of the grass. Tonight they were pretty nearly fagged out, but they got a good catch. They have put much heart into this summer's expedition. A number of the coolies added in the interior are returning from here. So there has been some rearranging and repacking to do for the final stretch of two days to Chengtu. Aug. 31. Travelled to Pih Shien, 70 li. We followed the motor road instead of going into the town, and it saved a little distance in travel. The day was sunny, and fairly cool after yesterday's rain.
-22- Mr. Torrance took the auto bus into Chengtu, and I came along with the loads. I was to ride a 20-o[[strikethrough]]d[[/strikethrough]]^[[l]]d year old mule of Mr. Torrance's. After I had ridden a short distance I got off and invited the collector Mr. Pen to ride awhile. He got on. Now, that old mule has always been led by a coolie when it was ridden. But Mr. Pen naturally decided that a coolie to lead was unnecessary, and dismissed temporarily the coolie. Very soon the mule started off on a gallop for Kuanshien and Mr. Pen couldn't control him. He ran a long way before he was stopped. Then Mr. Pen refused to ride any more, and the mule refused to be led by the coolie. Meanwhile I had gone on quite a distance. Mr. Pen decided that the mule hadn't eaten enough grass that morning, and told the coolie to let the mule eat grass awhile, and that after he had eaten plenty he would no doubt be more easily led. Then he went on and left the coolie alone with the mule. The coolie did not catch up with the mule until dinner time. I hurried on to Pih Shien. On the auto road there were few inns, and when I arrived I had a hard time securing one and holding it. I engaged the inn, but before the loads arrived several ricksha coolies tried to occupy part of the available space. The inn is not at all a clean and comfortable one. Sept. 1. We pushed along rapidly to Chengtu, making good time, and arriving at the university at about 1.30 p.m. I had to make explanations and show them passports at two likin offices, but they
-23- were entirely courteous, and I got through without being delayed or paying any taxes. I now have the entire collection at my home. Tomorrow we will all keep busy redrying the collection in the oven, and rebinding or rewrapping specimens. I think that we have this summer secured about 30000 insects, some snakes, more large mammals than ever before, and fewer birds than usual. I will get the small boxes mailed as soon as possible. About seventy of the best scientists of China came to Chengtu in August and visited my local museum. They were very enthusiastic. The entire summer's collection will be forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution as soon as possible. Sept. 2. Filled Box No. 93 - Flies, Box No. 94 - Insects, Box No. 94 - alt 5200 feet, from Yang Tsi Lin Pass Box 96 - Insects in bottles 97 - " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 98 " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 99 " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 100 " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 101 " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 102 " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 103 Salamanders We spent the morning redrying the specimens (insects) in my oven, labelling the boxes, and wrapping them for shipment. Several of us worked most of the day and Ho and I continued until eleven p.m. Sept. 3. Filled Boxes 104-108, snakes salamanders, frogs, and lizards; 109 - Insects in bottles; 110, snails. [[underlined]]Mammals 1198-1228[[/underlined]] were small mammals secured by Yang ^[[Fong Tsang]] and Ho ^[[Son Chuen]]
1229 1230 - ♀ Arctonyx 1231 - ♀ Poguma larvata 1232 1233 ♂ macaca tibetana 1234 - ♀ macacatibetana 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 - ♀ Ursus #258645 1240 1241 - ♀ Budoreas - Wen Chuan 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 ♂ - macaca tibetana
-24- ^[[at]] [[strikethrough]]Z[[/strikethrough]]^[[Y]]in Shien wan near Wen Chuan^[[,]] Szechuan, China. Box No. 111, twenty-seven small mammal skeletons; Box No. 112, twenty rat skins; Box No. 113, 29 bird skins. [[underlined]]Mammals No. 1229-1247 are [[/underlined]] larger mammals secured by Yang Fong Tsang and Ho Son Chuen near Wen Chuan Shien at the place called Yin Shin Wan, a small village. Filled Box No. 114, mammal skeletons and skulls. Box No. 115, snakes, insects bones, and an unborn wild boar. With the collectors Pen, San, Ho Son Chuen, and Yao I have worked almost all day up to late tonight taking care of specimens, labelling them and packing them. These Chinese collectors have shown a fine spirit. Today is Sunday but none of us has taken a vacation. Four or fi[[strikethrough]]b[[/strikethrough]]^[[v]]e of the mammal skulls disappeared between Wen Chuan and Chengtu. Probably they were either stolen or thrown away to make a lighter load by some coolie or coolies. Sept. [[blank space]] The mammal skulls have been found. Today we mailed fifty-six boxes of specimens, insects, snakes, frogs, skeletons, and birds. The collector, San lost $20 of mine while supervising the stamping of the boxes at the post-office. I let him bear half the loss as a lesson. Somebody stole it from him. I have spent almost the entire day on the Smithsonian collection, putting arsenic on the mammal skins, etc. I also reckoned accounts with all the collectors that are here. Sept. 13. I have taken a short trip to Beh Lub Din, near Pen
-25- Shien, where I found the elevation to be 6000 feet, and the mountain or summer resort to be the most ideal place for collecting moths that I have seen. The collector Zen had 70 boxes of specimens. Allowing 200 insects a box, there would be 14000. We are safe in saying that there are at least 10000 for the summer's catch by one collector on Beh Luh Din alone. I am repacking them to save space, and will mail them as soon as I can. They are Boxes 116 to 118, filled today. Sept. 14. Today I finished redrying the seventy boxes of insects caught at the summer resort Beh Luh Din. I am adding naphthaline and mailing and packing the specimens gradually. I think I am more nearly swamped with specimens than every before. Packed boxes 119-121, Beh Luh Din insects. Sept. [[blank space]] 122-130, Insects collected last summer on Beh Luh Din, near Penshien, China. Today I sent the netter, Yao to Kuanshien to collect at the altitude of about 4000 feet. I want him to work there a couple of months. The weather has been too clear for night moth catching but it is clouding up, and there is no moon, so we should get night insects. Sept. 15. Today I mailed 13 packages of insects. Wrapped Boxes 131 to 140, insects collected last summer at Beh Luh Din. We are collecting night moths every night here in Chengtu, but are having only fair luck.
-26- Sept. 18. Wrapped boxes 141-150, insects caught July and August at Beh Luh Din. I also spent the entire evening until eleven o'clock with Prof. Ho of the biology department of the University going over the summer collection from Chungking. Prof. Ho collected under adverse conditions in the Chungking district, having his actual expenses paid, but receiving no salary, and has turned his entire collection over to me for the Smithsonian Institution. Luck and conditions were against him, but he got 3 or 4 thousand specimens, which will be duly forwarded to the U.S. National Museum. I mailed 10 boxes of specimens today. Sept. 19. Today I mailed 10 boxes of insects and also hired a carpenter to make boxes to hold the large mammal skins. The insects are from Beh Luh Din. Sept. 20, 1933. Numbered Boxes 151-162 Insects from Beh Luh Din, secured last summer. We got a good collection of night moths last night. Sept. 21, '33. We got a good collection of night moths last night. Labelled Boxes 161-162 so that they are ready to mail. Sept. 22. Labelled and wrapped boxes 163-172, insects from Beh Luh Din. Sept. 23. Mailed boxes 163-172 Mailed up and labeled 173-183, all Beh Luh Din insects secured last summer.
-27- Sept. 24. Today the collector Wan^[[g]] from the Mupin District arrived. he has been hampered by Civil War and brigands, and brought only 18 snakes and some frogs after five month's work. The robbers took from him a big black bear skin. He took two black mountain goat skins in June to Dr. Crook in Yachow. During the summer insects destroyed the hides. I told him we couldn't afford to pay wages and get nearly nothing. I advised him to work at his carpenter trade and if he brought anything in I'd pay him for that and wages while travelling to and from Chengtu. I am now not guaranteeing him a salary. Sept. 25. Today I mailed 14 boxes of insects from Beh Luh Din. Sept. 27. Filled boxes 184 - insects got 70 miles north of Chungking. 185 - Insects from Chengtu 186 - Insects from Chengtu 187 - Insects from Rashien, on the Yangtse River east of Chungking. 188 - Insects from near Chungking alt. 2500 feet. 189 - Insects from Chungking 190 - Insects from Rashien 191 - " " " [[dittos for: Insects from Rashien]] 192 - " " [[dittos for: Insects from]] Chungking 193 - " [[ditto for: Insects]] in bottles Yang Fong Tsang arrived today. He wanted to send some of his wages home, and get some clothes made.
-28- Sept. 28, '33. Mailed 10 boxes of specimens. Insects mostly from Beh Luh Din. Wrapped No. 194 - Insects from Chungking. 195 - Insects in bottles 196 - " " " [[dittos for: Insects in bottles]] 197 - Bones, skeleton 200 - Insects in bottles 201 - Snakes 202 - Insects in a bottle 203 - Frogs 204 - Snakes 205 - Snakes 206 - Two pheasants, two squirrels, five small birds. 207 - 5 pheasants, 10 small birds 208 - 4 pheasants, 9 small mammals 209 - Fourteen birds Labelled these for shipment Sept. 29. Filled Box 210, Insects from Chengtu. Box 211 - Snakes Box 212 - Snakes Box 213 - Snakes Box 214 - Snakes Box 215 - Snakes Box 216 - Snakes Box 217 - Snakes
-29- Box 218 - Insects Box 219 - Lizards and Insects These were wrapped for shipment and labelled. Today I mailed 14 boxes of specimens also filled Box 220, Insects and snakes. Sept. 30. Today I mailed all these boxes wrapped yesterday. I have still all the mammal skins and skeletons to pack and ship to the Smithsonian Institution. There are more of them than I ever had before at one time. Oct. 2. Yesterday the netter Yao came in with a bad case of influenza. I sent him to the hospital. He had written to me from Kuanshien saying that he was very ill, and I had sent a sedan chair after him. He will doubtless recover. Yesterday and today I packed all the mammal skins and mammal skeletons. This is the biggest lot of this kind that I have ever had at one time. I am wondering how in the world I can get them to Shanghai. If a foreign friend were going down it would be easy, but I do not know of anyone who is going down. I have not labelled the boxes yet. Oct. 3. Filled box 221 - insects, night-moths, from Chengtu, alt. 1700 feet. Secured Oct 1-3, 1933. The full moon is out all night now, so night moth-catching is useless. Oct. 8. Today I reckoned up the account for the past three months. It took all day and until nearly midnight. Low exchange and a tremendous collection is using up our balance rapidly.
-30- Oct. 9. The weather has turned quite cold so that we have had little success in catching night moths. Yao is still in the hospital with influenza, but should be out soon. Oct. 10. Labelled and wrapped boxes 222-225 - Insects secured at Lin NGai Si, a summer resort at Kuanshien, Sept. 20-30, 1933, alt. about 3500 feet. Box 226 - Insects in bottles from Kuanshien and Chengtu. Oct. 10. I am taking Zen off salary. Yao is now back out of the hospital, well. He begins night moth catching tonight. Today I mailed six packages of insects, 221-226. The moon is waning, but the weather is colder. Started labelling the boxes filled with animal skins and bones, 227 to 239 are filled with animal skins, 240-242 are filled with skeletons and skulls and bones of animals. No. 227, value 15.00 228 " [[ditto for: value]] 20.00 229 " [[ditto for: value]] 30.00 230 " [[ditto for: value]] 25.00 231 " [[ditto for: value]] 12.00 Animal skins 232 " [[ditto for: value]] 10.00 233 " [[ditto for: value]] 15.00 234 " [[ditto for: value]] 40.00 235 " [[ditto for: value]] 10.00 236 " [[ditto for: value]] 25.00 237 " [[ditto for: value]] 18.00
-31- 238, value $15.00 239 " [[ditto for: value]] 20.00 240 " [[ditto for: value]] 8.00 Bones 241 " [[ditto for: value]] 12.00 " [[ditto for: Bones]] 242 " [[ditto for: value]] 10.00 " [[ditto for: Bones]] Today Presiden^[[t]] Tsang of the West China Union University went with me to the head military office of the city to help secure a passport that will enable me to ship free of duty the fifteen boxes of mammal skins and bones that I have ready to ship to the Smithsonian Institution. The University is in this way greatly aiding us in our work, and saving us both money and trouble. It has been so cold that there have been few night moths. Oct. 28, 1933. The netter, Yao has had to go home for a few days to straighten otu [[edit mark for: out]] some financial affairs. Recent word tells of serious calamities in the region where we collected last summer. Near the end of August an earthquake did a great deal of damage. Among other things it shook down the cliff on which the town of Dieh Shi^[[|]]or Tieh Shi, northwest of Mowchow, was built, shaken down into the river. With the cliff went the town and its people. The town was destroyed and the rocks damed up the Min River so that it formed a sort of a lake in the Min River Valley above. About two weeks ago the dam broke lose, and the water came rushing down, inundating both banks, washing away houses, drowning hundreds if not thousands, and nearly destroying places like Wei Chow. The
-32- The bridges were also washed away, so people cannot come to Chengtu, and there is great suffering among the people. Oct. 31. The biggest lot of large mammal skins, large and rare, yet secured has just come in. it includes the ta[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]kin, the black bear, and others. These include: 4 ta[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]kin, 1 cliff ass, 2 musk deer, males, 2 black bears, 1 wolf, 1 squirrel, 7 Pan ^[[Pseudois]] Yang, females. The male ta[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]kins or wild oxen as the Chinese call them wounded two hunters, shattering the arm-bone of one. Mammal 1[[strikethrough]]3[[/strikethrough]]^[[2]]48 is called by Chinese wild ox or cow. ^[[-258654 - Budoreas]] Mammal 1249 is a female of the same species. ^[[258655 - Budoreas]] Mammal 1250, another female of the same species. ^[[-258656 - Budoreas]] Mammal 1251, reddish wolf, male. ^[[-258648 - Cuon]] Mammal 1252, "Cliff ass" ^[[- Capricornis #258672]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1253, female black bear. ^[[-258647 - Selenarctos]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1254, male musk deer. ^[[-258658 - Moschus]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1255, male musk deer. ^[[258659 - Moschus]] ^[[Pseudois]] " [[ditto for: Mammal] 1256-1261, six female Pan Yang skins. ^[[#258664-258669]] " [[ditto for: Mammal]] 1262, squirrel from near Wen Chuan Shien. Nov. 5, '33. I have spent much of the day working over the mammal skins. Those [[underlined]]detestable[[/underlined]] beetles are endangering the lot. If I could send the skins off quickly, that would be fine, but that cannot be done. I now must quickly box up the new skins and send them off as soon as possible. With the unavoidable delay in forwarding the skins it is very hard to avoid losing some of the skins because of vermin or insects.
-33- The nasty, damp climate that we often have in Szechuan several months at a time often causes the skins to draw dampness, mold, and semi-rot so that they are ideal places for vermin to breed. Box 243 is insects caught in Chengtu Oct. 10-20. Alt. 1700 feet. My netter Yao has gone home on vacation, and he is prolonging the vacation indefinitely. Boxes 244-5 contain frogs from Kuanshien. Alt. 2400 to 3500 Box 246 - Skulls, 1200 Box 247 - Three animal skins 20.00 Box 248 - Four animal skins 20.00 Box 249 - Four animal skins 15.00 Box 250 - Bear skin 20.00 Box 251 - Wild ox, male 30.00 Box 252 - Female wild ox 25.00 Box 253 - female wild ox 25.00 Box 254 - Two animal skulls, value 8.00 One skin, that of a lynx, was so chewed up by the vermin that I had to burn it up. Its number was 1172. Nov. 7. Filled boxes 255-256, frogs from Kuanshien, altitude 2300 to 3500 feet. Today I started a new netter working. He is mighty green at present. Nov. 8. The new netter brought in a lot of grasshoppers, but put them in with the butterflies so that the latter were spoilt. The netter Zao returned today, looking very well and ready for work.
-34- Nov. 10. The two netters are working together. One, the new one, is learning from the other. The Wa[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]]^[[S]]i aborigine collector Li who has been bringing in so many skins has been very sick, unable to urinate or have bowel movements. I have sent him to the Canadian hospital. Nov. 11. I have been trying night moth catching with no success at all. Will have to quit it soon unless there are some night moths. I got word today of the shipment of specimens by the American Express Company from Shanghai. I am sending Yao to Kuanshien to net day-insects and keeping the new man, Dai, here where I can supervise him. Nov. 14. Last night the collector collected night moths most of the night. For this time of year, he got a good catch. I expect to forward a large shipment of hides soon. Nov. 17. The netter had poor success with night moths last night, and got only a few common butterflies today. I spent a couple of hours preparing all the mammal skins for shipment. The Government customs official is coming tomorrow to inspect them, the skins, then decide whether or not they can go to Shanghai duty free. This is by far the biggest and best shipment of its kind that I have sent. Mammal No. 1263 is a mole. Nov. 21. Box No. 257 is insects caught at Chengtu Nov. 8-16, 1933.
-35- Nov. 24. The netter, Yao has returned from Kuanshien with two boxes of insects. Insects are scarce now, but a few are worth having. Filled boxes No. 258-9. Kuanshien insects secured No. 10-21, alt. 2000 feet. Nov. 25. I am sending the collector, Yao back to Kuanshien to work a couple of weeks. He starts tomorrow. Mailed today four boxes of specimens, two of frogs and two of insects. I caught a rare moth today, large in size. I am putting him in a small tin box inside the wooden box. Insects are scarcer now, but some are odd. Nov. 29. Dr. Lindsay, dentist, gave me a rare leaf-moth I am forwarding. [[underlined]]Li Song Tin,[[/underlined]] the aborigine collector who is sending so many good skins for me, was seriously ill, and would have died if I had not sent him to the hospital for an operation. He is now well and already has started back to collect. I expect to start the 24 big boxes of animal skins and bones to Shanghai soon. Dec. 3. Friday the big shipment started down the river in the care of Rev. A. P. Quentin. Filled Box. No. 260 - water insects. I am mailing this diary to the Smithsonian Institution, and will start [[underlined]]another[[/underlined]], Diary C. Please give me the scientific names with the numbers of mammals 1248 [[underlined]]to 1262.[[/underlined]] David C. Graham