Diary, January 27, 1924 to September 21, 1924

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This field book is a diary from 27 January to 21 September 1924 documenting Graham's field collecting trips in the vicinity of Suifu (currently Yibin); summer expedition to Songpan and the Yellow Dragon Gorge. Graham collects birds, insects, mammals, and reptiles. Bird numbers range from 1 to 543; mammal numbers range from 1 to 24. Locations in which Graham collected include but are not limited to Kiating (currently Leshan), Chengtu (currently Chengdu), and Ningyuanfu (currently Xichang). Also included are detailed lists of expenses, and additional notes on specimen collecting not necessarily chronologically organized. Graham also makes ethnological observations during this trip. No scientific names are provided.

Date Range


Start Date

Jan 27, 1924

End Date

Sep 21, 1924

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Herpetology
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • Yibin
  • Sichuan
  • Xichang
  • Songpan
  • China
  • Chengdu
  • Leshan


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


1 Box Folder 2

DIARY Beginning January 27, 1924, and ending September 21, 1924. Relating to the collecting of natural history specimens for the Smithsonian Institution by -- David C. Graham January 27, 1924. About this time I was on my way to Yachow. Secured the white stork. It was in a flock of smaller white storks, so that the Chinese called it the king of the small storks. February 4, 1924. About this time I came down the Ya River to Kiating. This river is famous for its fine duck hunting. It is the best river for duck hunting in Szechuan. February 25, 1924. About this time I was at Chengtu, and came down the Min River to Kiating, securing some interesting specimens. March 6, 1924. Came down the Min River from Kiating to Suifu. April 14, 1924. Went on a two-hours hunting trip. Killed ten birds. Two were new to my collecting. The best skinner was busy and could not help. The other skinner did poor work, and argued that better work could not be done. I'll try giving all the work to the better skinner for awhile and see if the other skinner will wake up and do better. First steamer departed. Larger ones should come soon. April 15, 1924. As soon as the larger steamers arrive it will be safe to forward the shipment of 710 birdskins. April 16, 1924. So cold and rainy that the netter could not go out to work. April 17, 1924. Storm continued, but cleared up a little in the afternoon. Mailed two boxes of insects. Receipts are numbered 13 and 14. One box is No. 159, 1924. Rat got in and destroyed a small-sized grebe. Have three other specimens. Hope he enjoyed the arsenic. April 18, 1924. Very hot. April 19, 1924. Hot weather.
-2- April 20, 1924. Two steamers arrived from Chungking, showing that after months traffic between Chungking and Suifu has opened up. I intend to send off all the specimens that can be sent by parcel post as early as possible, lest civil war breaks out or brigands again begin operations on the river, thus making it impossible to send the specimens. April 21, 1924. Mailed 13 boxes, 12 of birdskins and one of small mammal skins. Went hunting in the afternoon, securing nine small birds in bamboo groves just outside the city west of Suifu. April 22, 1924. Mailed two more boxes of birdskins. Wrote consul. Wrote Customs officials. Wrote Postmaster, Chungking concerning the shipment of birdskins. April 23, 1924. Wrote Consul Ogden about the road to Songpan^[[?]], whether infested with brigands or not. Went to the post office to see about the specimens mailed. They will be sealed and forwarded today. May they travel safely and fast!! Two big moths hatched out of cocoons. April 24, 1924. Secured and skinned a common house mouse (secured yesterday, skinned today). April 25, 1924. Wrote to collector Ho at Chengtu. Wrote to a friend at Tsaw' Ting'^[[?]] Yunnan to secure a native collector of insects. Also wrote to a friend at Ningyuanfu, Szechuen. Two big moths hatched out. April 26, 1924. Another big moth hatched out. Collector Chen brought several lepidoptera. Packed the twenty-second box of birdskins, marked "Birdbox No. 17,80 Birdskins." April 27, 1924. Another moth hatched out. April 28, 1924. Several moths hatched out. Wrote Mr. [[underlined]] Jorcgren [[/underlined]] ^[[?]] ^[[Lovegren]] at Kiating about taking specimens to Shanghai. April 29, 1924. Tied ropes around the bird boxes. Packed insect box No. 161. Preparation for trip south of Suifu. Cabbage butterflies hatched out. I had fed the worms only a few days ago. They were in the cocoon stage only a few days.
-3- April 30, 1924. Mailed box No. 161 - insects. Went to Li Chuang by boat. Saw some strange ducks, but did not get a shot at them. Practically all ducks have migrated northward. There was a big idol procession at ^[[L]]i Chuang that drew thousands of spectators. May 1, 1924. Travelled about 18 miles to Gi4 Tien' Ba4. ^[[?]] Got two small birds and a few small insects. Shot at a yellow-necked small white heron, a long-distance fly shot, but did not get the bird. May 2, 1924. Travelled about 12 miles to Muh Jiu Piu. ^[[JIN PIN]] Killed a desirable bird, or rather wounded it. It dropped over a cliff. A farmer appeared and tried to catch it. I told him not to take it by the tail, but he did, and all the tail feathers came out. I turned the bird loose. Another bird was shot to pieces and so was useless, but a third was secured in fine condition- a yellow one with black feathers. May 3, 1924. At this time I found that the coolie at home had left out all my ammunition I had told him to put in, so had to hire a messenger and send him to Suifu after it. Reached Muh Jiu Piu. Killed a pretty yellow bird with black.. Killed another bird. A Chinese caught it by the tail and pulled all the feathers out, spoiling it. May 4, 1924. Reached Li Tuan Tsa^[[c]]ng. ^[[?]] Shot one bird yesterday with the shotgun and blew it to pieces, so that it was useless. Another was wounded, but a Chinese caught it by the tail, and all the tail feathers came out. I turned the bird loose in the woods. At Li Tuan Tsang ^[[?]] killed a bird with bright blue bill, bright blue eyelids, and a brown tail with two long feathers and short ones. Body slightly bigger than a sparrow. Wing brownish red, head [[underlined]] shining [[/underlined]] ^[[SHINY]] black - probably a flycatcher. Went on six miles to Nyan Lin Chiao. ^[[?]] May 5, 1924. Went to Tong Fo ^[[LO]] Gin ^[[?]], about twelve miles south of [[underlined]] Nyan [[/underlined]] ^[[NGAN]] Lin Chiao. Killed three heron, white, with yellow on necks and backs. One heron white on breast, dark blue on back, etc. Total of six birds. Found coolie did not put in any arsenic!! One brown bird, probably a flycatcher, secured an uncommon butterfly generally found on oak leaves.
-4- May 6, 1924. Went to Tsang2 Lin Shien. ^[[?]] Very hot. Killed four birds, only two useful. Was invited to hunt leopards, and assured that they could be found. As I had only the shotgun and the game-getter, which is single fire, it did not seem to me wise to tackle leopards. May 7, 1924. I expected to go further south to the high hills where the aborigines live, and where there should be excellent specimens, but the official reported that a strong band of robbers was operating in that section, and advised me not to go. Killed two birds. Light rain. May 8, 1924. Killed six birds. Caught a large turtle and some insects. The turtle was in a temple pool. The official confirmed the report that it was unsafe to go into the country of the aborigines. May 9, 1924. Went to Kong Shien. Killed seven birds on the way. Got an uncommon butterfly. A cloudy day, threatening rain. May 10, 1924. Got four birds, one rare, two uncommon. All good. Went to Shüin Gien Fü ^[[?]] ^[[Sü]], 40 li or about 13 miles. May 11, 1924. Went to Hua Tan Chiao. Secured a number of good insects, two birds, one a kingfisher. Found a place in a grove where I saw and caught a number of rare insects. Saw one butterfly I never saw before, but he escaped. Caught a reddish frog that the Chinese say lives on the hills and mountains. Killed five new birds. A warm day. The Chinese everywhere have home-made shotguns and are killing many birds. May 12, 1924. Travelled about 17 miles to Nyan ^[[NGAN]] Lin Chiao. Got several interesting insects, one new beetle, one new ant, one new butterfly, one new bird (new to my collecting). In all killed six birds. Very hot. The skinner is cross because he has to stay up late at night so often to get done. May 13, 1924. Travelled across the country to Muh^[[4]] Jia' Piü.2. ^[[PIN]]
-5- May 14, 1924. Travelled to Li Chuang. Got a sparrow hawk, colored a little like a plymouth rock chicken. Caught several interesting insects. A very hot, dry day. Travelled about 20 miles. Hawk had red eyes- or pink. May 15, 1924. Arrived at Suifu. Took care of specimens- dried insects, etc. May 16, 1924. Sent a netter for a month's intensive work south of Suifu. Some odd moths hatched out of cocoons. May 17, 1924. Mailed box No. 162, insects. A hot day. Caught a few insects. May 18, 1924. A dry, hot day. Several moths hatched out. May 19, 1924. Busy at home. Secured some curious bees. Mailed box No. 163. May 20, 1924. Busy at home. Mailed box No. 164. May 21, 1924. Several moths hatched from cocoons. Looked over birds killed on the last trip. Some were in good condition. Others were wrapped with the heads next to the bodies, so that the feathers did not dry smoothly. The rough travel south to Suifu affected some of these. May 23, 1924. Mailed box 165. Collecting outfit previously used by Mr. Hoy arrived at 6:30. Brought them up to the house. Was busy until ten o'clock. Had to coax the coolies a great deal to get them to carry the loads. Was vaccinated for typhoid. May 24, 1924. Unloaded the boxes containing the collecting materials. Nearly everything in good condition. It is a fine collecting outfit, but a few things are the worse for wear. Guns in good condition. Reported that a leopard was killed just outside of town after he killed one man and wounded two others. May 25, 1924. Feeling "rummy" from typhoid vaccination. May 26, 1924. Copied a list of collecting outfits ^[[OUTFIT]] in the Smithsonian account book. Wrote consul. Wrote Mr. Jones, thanking him for forwarding the collecting outfit.
-6- May 28, 1924. Carpenters busy making insect boxes and birdskin boxes. May 29, 1924. Busy at odd moments every day, getting acquainted with the collecting outfit. May 30, 1924. Tried out the twenty-two rifle. May 31, 1924. Received a lot of insects from my collector Ho at Chengtu. June 4, 1924. Collector Chen returned from a 20-day trip to the district south of Suifu. June 5, 1924. Collector Chen departed on another trip west of Suifu, searching for a swallow-tailed day moth or butterfly I saw west of Suifu near Shih Chi [[circled]] ^[[Shih Chi]] [[/circled]] on the Yangtse River, about 80 miles west of Suifu, a very small town. Tried out the big high-power rifle. June 6, 1924. There's no excuse for my not getting some big game with this fine high-power rifle, - just what I've wanted all the time to make some of these leopards, etc. hunt their holes. Prepared two insect boxes for shipping. June 7, 1924. Cleaned all the guns, and oiled them. Had a boy fish all day, but he caught nothing. June 8, 1924. Vaccinated the third time for typhoid. June 9, 1924. Looked over medical kit - added the few medicines still lacking. Began to pack for the mountains. Carpenters have been busy about two weeks making boxes in which to ship insects and other specimens. June 10, 1924. Received telegram, "Washington, D.C. Re. David C. Graham, Suifu, Szechuen. Songpan trip outlined your letter March eight approved letter follows. Ravenel." Today my coolies have been busy reoiling the oil sheets for summer use on the collecting trip. June 11, 1924. Packed boxes 170 and 171 for mailing. Coolies oiled the oilcloths for the summer trip. June 17, 1924. Mailed boxes 172, 173, containing 52 birdskins.
June 21, 1924. Mailed box 174, insects. Busy packing for the trip to Songpan. June 22, 1924. Got on the boats. Ready to start for Kiating. June 23, 1924. Started at daylight. Travelled 24 miles. Killed several birds, none new. Secured a few interesting insects. Tried out one of the new shotguns. It will take practice before I can use it as well as my old Winchester repeater. June 24, 1924. An early start- boats turned tail on a rapid and went back about one-half mile. Reached Kan Beh Sou. Wounded but did not get a bird that I had not secured before. It was in a damp place where snipe might be expected but was not a snipe. June 25, 1924. Heavy rain during the night. Boats started late. Reached Ma Lin Tsang. Several birds. (author's note: Ma Lin) June 26, 1924. Reached Chien way. The boat had a hard pull over the rapid. Light rains all morning. June 27, 1924. Reached Tsu' Ken' Tan' (author's note: ?) A very hot day. Killed a yellow necked crane that was standing on the back of a water buffalo. June 28, 1924. A very hot day. Killed bird No. 1 and No. 2 on the fly. Both act like swallows, and both are not very common. No. 1 stays near the water. No. 2 flies high. I saw about a dozen in all of No. 2 flying high in the air. These were near the river. June 29, 1924. Started my wife and four children to our bungalow on Mt. Omei (author's note: Omei) then returned to Kiating, and started for Songpan. Spent the night in a dingy room where the only light came from dirty glass tiles overhead and where the only air squeezed through cracks, the best room I could find. Sent two necessary telegrams to Chengtu re the Songpan trip. June 30, 1924. Rained most of the day. Travelled about 26 miles to Tsang Jia' Kan3 (author's note: c), a small village, All the crew were very tired, as they are not yet hardened in. Secured six birds. Had an armed escort of four men. Tried shooting the 45 automatic revolver. It shoots fine. Secured some good insects.
-8- July 1, 1924. Last night up late with specimens and cleaning guns. Rained very hard during the night. Roads very bad in the morning, but made at least 35 miles. Afternoon hot. All arrived very tired at Shin' Gin' Shien[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]]. Killed another bird like bird No. 1. Saw a lot of birds like bird No. 2 on an island. Wounded one, but did not get it. Bird No. 30 new to my collecting. Got a good many insects. Passed a robber district. Got birds 30, 31, 32. July 2, 1924. Travelled about 28 miles to Chengtu. Secured two birds that conceal themselves in the rice paddies. Made preparations for the trip on to Songpan. Stayed at Geo. [[underlined]] Travels's. [[/underlined]] ^[[? FRANCK'S]] Got birds 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. Consul Ogden, English, secured escort. Nos. 33, 37, 34 generally seen in rice paddies; 33 and 37 are hard to get. July 3, 1924. British Consul Ogden sent a special paper requiring cooperation of Chinese officials. The escort was [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] slow coming, but when it came, not one of the soldiers had a gun or a sword, and there were eight of them? What use were they? At the city gates we were delayed an hour by the city police. Travelled eight miles. Secured four birds. All our party was still tired because of the rush trip from Kiating to Chengtu. Secured some good insects in the city of Chengtu, 38-41. ^[[GOT 4 BIRDS.]] July 4, 1924. Today was a day to discourage the bravest. Travelled over 28 miles to Kuan Shien, a large city where I knew no one. Escort was sent ahead to get a lodging place. He did not do so, and we found ourselves on the streets helpless. I went to the Magistrate's and found he was from Suifu. He found a lodging for us, and arranged for our journey. Soldiers watching the city gate made trouble when we entered the city. My room was vermin ridden with poor air. One helper nearly raised a riot by unwise words while the loads were on the street and I was seeing the Magistrate. I had to dismiss this helper because he is always making trouble. July 5, 1924. Crossed the Yangtsi P'o or wild goat pass to Yin[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Shin[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Wan, a small village. We had a [[underlined]] hart [[/underlined]] ^[[HARD]] time getting started. The coolies all worshipped the idol Er[[superscript]] 3 [[/superscript]] [[underlined]] Jarg[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] fui [[/underlined]] ^[[LANG JIU]] fah, to insure a safe journey. The pass is about 3000 feet above sea level but very rough. This town is about 3200 in altitude. We killed 11 birds and secured a number of good insects. We saw a caravan of aborigines camping. Killed birds [[underlined]] 40-53 [[/underlined]] ^[[42-53]]. This country is getting more and more like that around Tatsienfu.
-9- July 6, 1924. Travelled about 20 miles. Secured some fine insects. I forgot it was Sunday, or rather thought tomorrow was. Wild boar and a bear were seen across the river, and mountain goats or wild goats. Finally we saw the wild goats across the river. I raised the sights the first time, but overshot. Then I lowered the sights and still overshot. The third time Mr. goat came rolling down the steep cliff. I had to hire two men to cross the river on a rope bridge, there being a single bamboo cable, cross a very wild and rough stretch of country to the goat and bring the goat to me. This delayed us so that we reached the tavern after dark. The goat is gray and weighed 48 pounds. Killed birds 54-60. July 7, 1924. A hard day's trip. The road was rough. The country had a semi-arid appearance with few birds and insects. All were quite tired when we reached the inn. Birds 61-63, No. 61 was a cuckoo that I did not number, though[[underlined]][[strikethrough]] t [[/strikethrough]][[/underlined]] otherwise labelled[[underlined]]![[/underlined]][[upper portion of exclamation point crossed out, leaving only a period]] ^[[No "t", no exclamation.]] Got lots of interesting snails. July 8, 1924. Travelled nearly 30 miles - a rather rough road, semi-arid country. Killed nine birds but the tired skinners could not skin them all. Plenty of wasps and bees. Secured a small butterfly I'd never seen before. Killed three large swift swallows on the wing. Birdskins 64-68. July 9, 1924. Passed through Mowchow. Coolies were determined to stay overnight at Mowchow, but I succeeded in getting them to go on. Nearly every carrier smokes opium. My feet are quite sore. Plenty of wild animals are on the high mountains, but along the river where the road runs it is semi-arid with very few birds and insects and no mammals. Birds No. 69-74. July 10, 1924. Reached Shih Ta Kuen, probably 22 miles - with some rough roads. We seem to have finished the semi-arid region. I saw the fist [[underlined]] oguk [[/underlined]] ^[[? yak]] caravans. They belonged to Shi Fan ^[[? OK]] aborigines. Very few birds and insects in the semi-arid region we have been travelling through for several days. Birds 75-80. July 11, 1924. Reached small town Su' Wan 20 li beyond Tieh ^[[c]][[superscript]] 5 [[/superscript]] [[strikethrough]] S [[/strikethrough]] ^[[C]]hi. ^[[?]] Climbed from the semi-arid region to the higher plateau. Vegetation different. Big black ants disappear, big red ones appear. Saw a wild boar. Escort lost my official passport!! Lots of Chinese pheasants and cliff
-10- pigeons. There were two hard hills to climb. Saw a number of insects I never saw before, and secured most of them. Birds 81-82. July 12, 1924. A heavy rain during the night and early morning – a late start. Roads very muddy. Saw many pheasants. Reports are plenty of big game on the high mountains – white bear, musk deer, long-haired monkeys, etc. Saw a number of aborigines called Shi [[underlined]] Jane [[/underlined]]. ^[[? fan]] They look much like the Tibetans. Birds No. 83-86. July 13, 1924. Travelled 90 li, probably 30 miles upstream. A wonderful district for insects, of which we caught many. Several butterflies I had not seen before. Secured a bird I had not secured before. Shot a cliff swallow. Shot a female pheasant on the fly and blew its head off, so it was useless. In these higher, cool altitudes, lots of insects are found under stones where they hide from the cold. This is not the case in the lower altitudes of Szechuen. Saw several aborigines. Secured birds 87-97. July 14, 1924. Arrived at Songpan. City is smaller than Tatsienlu and not a foreigner in it. Must have an escort when leaving the city any distance. Birds 98-104. July 15, 1924. A.M. Killed 32 birds before dinner. Some of them new. P.M. Killed 12 birds, one snake - three birds useless. Met local military official. Took pictures of Bo[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Loh[[superscript]] 5 [[/superscript]] Tsis[[superscript]] 3 [[/superscript]] (Heh [[underlined]] Shien [[/underlined]]) ^[[Shun?]] aborigines. Rain in the afternoon. Waded in the water and caught cold. Birdskins 105-142. July 16, 1924. A. M. Secured 30 birds, also insects. Bought strawberries (wild). P.M. took care of specimens, took pictures of aborigines, etc. [[underlined]] Write [[/underlined]] ^[[Wrote]] necessary letters. Met the Magistrate about hunting trips. Also met Militia officer. Caught cold. Official forbade travelling north or west but permitted it east. Birdskins 143-171. July 17, 1924. Prepared for trip to Whang Long [[underlined]] Li [[/underlined]], ^[[? Si]] Yellow Dragon Temple, a little over 20 miles away eastward. Had dinner in a Chinese home. Took several pictures of aborigines. Went out after supper catching night moths.
-11- July 18, 1924. Crossed "Snow Mountain" pass, probably at least 14,000 feet high. It was very cold. We saw many strange birds. Killed a hawk and other birds. We saw a lot of strange butterflies. Settled down at Huang Long [[underlined]] Si [[/underlined]] ^[[? ([[underlined]] yes [[/underlined]].)]] for two weeks of hunting. Everybody tired. Secured 18 birds. Nos. 171-190. July 19, 1924. Trip to Yellow Dragon Temple.Wonderful sights on the way. Killed 37 birds, three mice, all useful. Spent part of P.M. taking care of specimens. Prepared for a trip up the high mountain after big game. No. 192-226. July 20, 1924. Took a long hard trip to the top of a mountain about 14,000 feet high. Was looking for large mammals, but saw no signs of any. Secured some [[underlined]] June [[/underlined]] ^[[[[underlined]] fine [[/underlined]]]] bees and dipthera. It rained hard last night and sprinkled during the day. Killed 14 birds. Last night’s moth catch was excellent, the best this summer. A cold day with no sunshine. Expect to take a trip towards the snow mountain tomorrow, an all-day trip. Birdskins No. 227-240. July 21, 1924. Fine catch of night moths. A very heavy rain during night and morning, making streams rise. Spent morning caring for specimens. Killed 19 birds, two large hares. Searched in all directions for signs of large mammals, but found none. Birdskins No. 241-259. July 22, 1924. Rained all morning. Tramped to the head of the canyon of the Yellow Dragon Temple. Could find few insects on account of the cold. Secured some good birds. Secured 31 birds and one mammal. Rained very hard in the afternoon. Could cath no day insects. Birdskins 260-290. July 23, 1924. Changeable weather. Sun shone between showers. Killed nine birds, two of which were useless, and a hare. Climbed a high mountain, then went through a thicket through which I had to cut my way. Practically no signs of mammals. This is a poor spot for collecting mammals. Birds No. 291-297. July 24, 1924. A.M. No rain, but a hard, cold wind. We have not had a single day favorable for day insects. In the afternoon there came a sudden unexpected shower that wet everybody and everything. Got three good pheasants, etc., two mammals, small. Birds No. 298-308.
-12- July 25, 1924. Took a number of pictures of Yellow Dragon Gorge, aborigines, etc. Two hard climbs. Secured three more pheasants. Pack animals were expected but did not arrive. Sending a special messenger tomorrow. We have cleaned out most of the birds of this vicinity. Birdskins 309-24. Killed one rabbit. July 26, 1924. Spent much time caring for specimens and preparing to go to Songpan City, thence towards Chengtu. Pack animals arrived early. Secured some good insects. Birdskins No. 325-327. July 27, 1924. Travelled back to Songpan. Crossed two passes. Arrived early but very tired. Met the magistrate, who said that it was unsafe on account of brigands to go north or west. We will therefore go south and seek another good collecting spot. Killed 20 birds. Received the first letters from my wife and children for ten days. Rained on us just after noon. Magistrate refused to be responsible for my safety if I went west or north, where the best hunting grounds are, because of brigands. Birdskins 328-348. July 28, 1924. Made arrangement for carriers southward A.M. 15 birds. P.M. killed a fish duck. Cared for specimens, etc. Secured some insects. Felt under the weather. Birds 349-364. July 29, 1924. Feeling better, but one collector is sick. Purchased large black pheasant. Its tail feathers were partly gone. This pheasant is found north and west of Songpan but comes down to Songpan in the winter. Getting ready for the trip southward. Bird. No. 365. July 30, 1924. Travelled 70 li. Helpers were tired, so went no farther. Secured a snake and some good insects. P. M. climed a high hill after musk deer. Saw their tracks and signs of a bear. Stopped at Shin' Tang[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] Kuan'. A rain storm after dark. Visited Shi [[double underline]] Gan [[/double underline]] ^[[[[double underline]] Fan [[/double underline]]]] home. Birds No. 366 - 373. July 31, 1924. Travelled 80 li. Secured one squirrel and nine birds. A very hard wind in the afternoon made netting insects difficult. Travelled to Tsen[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Pin[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] Tsang[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]], a small village. There are fewer birds here than at [[underlined]] Songhan [[/underlined]] ^[[Songpan]] and Huang Long Sï, or Yellow Dragon Temple. Birds No. 374 - 382.
-13- August 1, 1924. Travelled 70 li, about 20 miles. No birds, one weasel. A fine day for insects. Stayed for the night at Sä' Wan'. Heard that the Bolotsi [[underlined]] aboriginies [[/underlined]] ^[[aborigines]] had attacked Chinese soldiers and defeated them. Guess Songpan official was right in forbidding us to enter their territory. Mammal No. 9. Spent night at Sä Wan'. [[image - hand-drawn Chinese character]] August 2, 1924. Reached Shih[[superscript]] 5 [[/superscript]] Da[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Kuan'. Secured some good insects, nine birds, and one small mammal. Occasional showers, and a rough road. Arrived tired. The fleas were terrible. Two birds were useless. Birdskins 383-389. Mammal No. 10. August 3, 1924. Made a long, hard trip of 90 li. to Mowchow. It must have been thirty miles, but doing so saves one day of travel that we can use in collecting. We will make eight stages in seven days. Two birds that the skinners did not finish last night spoiled on account of the heat. We reached Mowchow at dark to find all the inns full of people. After a long time we found lodging. A very late supper. The country on the lower levels, near the road, is semi-arid land; has few insects excepting wasps and bees and, very few birds. Birdskins No. 390 - 392. [[underlined]] At [[/underlined]] ^[[For]] dinner ate five Chinese biscuits, two eggs, and some salt. August 4, 1924. Travelled sixty li. A dry, arid district, with few insects and birds. A strong wind made it harder to secure insects. The snails below Mowchow are quite interesting. Mowchow is a little over 100 miles from Songpan, 360 li, 400 li from Chengtu or about 130 miles foreign. I have walked every step of the way since leaving Chengtu. Bird No. 393. August 5, 1924. Travelled to Neichow' ^[[Weichow]]. No birds worth killing. Met at [[underlined]] Neichow' [[/underlined]] ^[[Weichow]] Rev. Thomas Torrence, [[underlined]] T.R.G.S [[/underlined]] ^[[FRGS]] In his church is a foreign stove in which I was able to dry all my insects. He and I start tomorrow morning for [[underlined]] Manchuan [[/underlined]]. ^[[Wenchuen]] One helper sick. Took pictures of Chiang aborigines. August 6, 1924. Reached Nen[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] ^[[Wen]] Chuan [[hand written accent symbol written above "a" in Chuan]] Shien. Fired two shots at long range at a mountain goat - did not get him. Repacked for a trip on the high mountains. Aborigine king has made arrangements to help me get the goods. Mr. Torrence, [[underlined]] P.R.G. [[/underlined]] ^[[F.R.G.S.]] introduced me to him. Dismissed unnecessary coolies. Bird No. 394. Left some boxes at Nen Chuan. [[hand written accent symbol written above "a" in Chuan]] August 7, 1924. Sick during the night. In the morning felt very weak and tried to vomit. Mr. Torrence kindly let me ride his horse 20 li. This rested me up. Then walked 40 li up a canyon to an aborigine settlement. On the way one carrier fell off the bridge into the swollen
-14- stream and was drowned. My rifle, the Smithsonian tents and folding chair, and my folding bed were lost. Could find no trace of man or things. Allowed to stay in the magistrate's yamen, which is really a stone fortress. P.M. rained. Birds No. 395-397. August 8, 1924. Secured ten birds. Eleven men searched the river all day and found the tents and the drowned [[underlined]] collie's [[/underlined]] ^[[coolie's]] trousers. Secured a few good insects. No trace of the drowned man or the other things. The lost rifle could better be spared from the collecting outfit than any other one we have. The loss of the Newton high-power rifle or a shotgun would have been serious. I'm still weak but improving. Birds No. 398 - 407. August 9, 1924. The tents have holes in them caused by the rocks in the river. The tent bag is lost. The fleas are bothersome. Haven't had fruit to eat for several days. Climbed a high mountain to survey the country. Saw a black bear a long way off. Now have four hunters to help find mammals. Nine birds. Secured some good insects. Birds No. 408 - 417. August 10, 1924. Aborigine hunters tried hard to get a deer or a mountain goat but failed. We have decided to cut out that expense and secure any mammals we can by our own efforts and without their aid. Secured eight birds. There are many odd birds.here, but they are hard to get because of the dense thickets. I have not been able to secure fruit to eat. Bought some honey that looks like black water but tastes a little sweet. Can buy no milk here. Secured a lot of interesting flies. Not feeling well, but kept at work. Dead man's body found. Birds 418 - 425. August 11, 1924. Went upstream to lamasery. Secured 23 birds, some of them new. Have decided to move near the lamasery and collect a few days. There are more vegetation, birds, and insects there. One tree squirrel [[underlined]] mammal [[/underlined]] ^[[mammals]] No. 11-13. Two animals that eat bamboo roots. Birds No. 426 - 449. August 12, 1924. Moved up the canyon to a more favorable spot for collecting. More woods and shrubbery. Rain in the afternoon. Secured fifteen birds, one new variety, and one squirrel. Natives say that there are few small mammals in this section. Moon out every night, therefore poor success with night moths. Birds No. 450 - 464, Mammal No. 14.
-15- August 13, 1924. Secured 14 birds and three mammals, one a black deer, a tree frog and some insects. Birds here are getting thinned out. No pheasants or grouse. Some signs of wild mice, so have placed out some traps. Ate supper at an aborigine home. Am planning begin moving towards Suifu on the 15th. Birdskins 465 - 478. Mammals No. 15 - 17. August 14, 1924. A. M. Rain prevented operations. Sent head coolie to the city to engage coolies for the trip home. Secured 21 birds, two mammals. Today's collecting was in dense underbrush and sometimes on the side of the mountain. Nearly slid down once. I've probably misnumbered some of the bird specimens. Mammals No. 18 - 19. Birds No. 479 - 503. August 15, 1924. Moved back to Kuan Tsae ^[[Tsai (?)]]. One skinner sick with chronic diarrhea. Secured two strange rats, one young animal, one black deer, nine birds. Worked till late at night caring for specimens. Could easily secure other mammals if I were to remain longer, but already have made arrangements to move. Birdskins 504 - 513. Mammals 20 - 24. August 16, 1924. Moved to small town Tong[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] Kuan' on the main road to Chengtu. Received today the letter of instructions from Mr. Ravenel concerning this trip. If I had waited for that letter I could not have taken this trip this summer. Received a cub bear as a present. He is quite small. August 17, 1924. Rained practically all day, making travel difficult. The road was also rough. Stopped at Yin[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] [[underlined]] Shin[[superscript]] 4 [[/superscript]] Nan' [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] ^[[Wan? Shiu]] [[/underlined]]. The cub bear is very active and [[underlined]] mischevious [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] ^[[mischievious]] [[/underlined]]. He bit my elbow once. Because of the rain we got few insects, but got five birds. The sick birdskinner is improving, but still weak. When I [[underlined]] reached [[/underlined]] ^[[reach]] Chengtu I will have walked all this trip excepting about five miles when I was sick and was given a ride on Mr. Torrence's horse. Five birds, Nos. 514 - 518. August 18, 1924. Travelled to Kuanshien. Took pictures of the rope bridge. Spent the night at the chapel with Mr. Hutchinson. A little tired, but feeling well. Rained in the afternoon. The Davis family and Mrs. Bowles and her children arrived after dark. Mr. Franck arrived before the others. Three birds, 519 - 521.
-16- August 19, 1924. Travelled 85 li to Kao' Tientsi ^[[OK?]]. A very hot day. Lots of mosquitoes. One bird. 522. August 20, 1924. Reached Chengtu before dinner. Saw Dr. Humphreys and visited Brace, F. R. G. S. of the Border Research Society. Stayed at the home of the British Consul Ogden. Engaged boat for down river. Secured escort. Very hot. August 21, 1924. Travelled as far as Pin[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] Shan. Wrote several letters. Slept and rested. Another warm day. The baby bear is getting quite affectionate. Saw many white egrets. August 22, 1924. Reached Kiating and moved things from the boat to the chapel. Saw Dr. Crawford and Mr. Clark. August 23, 1924. Walked 120 li to Shin Kai Si. Much trouble with coolies. A very hot day. Arrived just before dark. This day's walk was ^[[insertion]] ^[[fully]] [[/insertion]] thirty-three miles, with a hard climb at the end. Two birds, 523 - 524. August 24, 1924. Very hot weather. Mr. Clark, who came up from Kiating today, fainted after reaching Shin Kai Si - the heat was too much for him. The helpers rested up from the trip, to work vigorously Monday and Tuesday. Tens of people came over to see the baby bear. Met lots of old friends after the church service. I certainly enjoyed being with my family again. The Mission has asked me to spend six months at [[underlined]] Ningyuanfu [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] ^[[Ningyuenfu]] [[/underlined]], a fine collecting spot. August 25, 1924. Visited friends, attended a community meeting and a committee meeting; family had a picnic supper. Picked over the summer's catch of insects at Shin Kai Si. Sent netter to work on the higher altitudes for about two weeks. Secured nine birds. Very hot. Birdskins No. 525 - 534. August 26, 1924. Another hot day ending in a thunderstorm at night - a fair catch of nightmoths. Secured fifteen birds (later one, 16 in all). The last four birds were skinned Aug. 27, P.M. and were about spoiled by the hot weather. Birds No. [[underlined]] 635 [[/underlined]] ^[[535]] - 550. The skinners could not skin them all in one day and we were travelling all August 27, with no time to skin the birds till night. August 27, 1924. Walked 80 li to Suchi, and took a boat 40 li on to Kiating. Spent the night at the home of Rev. A. P. [[underlined]] Juentin [[/underlined]] ^[[Quentin]], an author, and a member of the West China Border Research Society. Mr. [[underlined]] Juentin [[/underlined]] ^[[Quentin]] helped secure a boat. Heard that the English Consul was robbed above [[underlined]] Zachow [[/underlined]] ^[[Yachow]], a road over which we passed last year.
-17- August 28, 1924. Spent the morning getting the things into the boat. Many small delays. Such delays and bothers are [[underlined]] coming on [[/underlined]] ^[[common]] in China and one of the worst bothers. A thief got into the compound where he probably thought I was, probably trying to steal the Smithsonian guns. I had taken the guns to the house where I slept. August 29, 1924. A very hard rainstorm and driving wind during the night. Reached Suifu about noon. Found many duties awaiting me. Cared for insects between other duties. Killed a large stork but it was poorly skinned. Bird No. 535. August 30, 1924. Conducted one marriage and two funerals and held interviews, and between acts packed 27 boxes of specimens for the Smithsonian Institution. These must still be sewed in sackcloth and labelled. August 31, 1924. Conducted another funeral. Slept most of the afternoon. Read some. This is the laziest day I have spent since leaving Suifu for Songpan. On Sept. 1st I had 47 boxes of specimens filled. There are two collectors at work on Mt. Omei, whose collections are yet to come in. Collector Ho has been working around Chegtu^[[,]] Kuanshien, and Behludin for four months and none of his specimens have yet arrived. The Songpan and the entire summer catch is bigger than last summer's catch. September 1, 1924. Packed all my specimens that are on hand excepting three mammal skins that were not well dried and the stork killed Friday. There are about 570 birds for the Smithsonian Institution. Rats partly spoiled a bird specimen, so I packed the rest in boxes. September 2, 1924. Practically spent all day wrapping the 48 boxes of specimens on hand. Spent the evening going over the Songpan account. Several letters from the U.S.A. and one from the Smithsonian Institution. September 3, 1924. Wrote several letters, looked after painters, labelled specimens of boxes. September 4, 1924. Walked to Shin Tsang to conduct a wedding, 70 li. Killed six common birds. Hunted for rabbits or hares, but found none. Saw Beh Sou Chi where about 100 houses were swept away by the Yangtse in high water.
-18- September 5, 1924. Walked 30 li to An Bien before breakfast. Three hundred houses were inundated at Nyan Bien (An Bien), of which about 170 were swept away. Eight birds, 536 - 543. September 6, 1924. Spent most of the day labelling specimen boxes. Got them practically all labelled. Mr. Franck of the Century Magazine arrived - a traveler and author, who has been through Yunnan and Szechuen. Mailed four boxes of specimens. September 7, 1924. Took a walk over the hills with Mr. Franck. September 8, 1924. Work around home, lots of Mission business. September 9, 1924. Mailed several boxes of specimens by parcel post. September 10, 1924. Mailed four boxes of specimens. September 11, 1924. Filled up two more boxes of specimens secured at Mt. Omei. Mailed four boxes of insects by parcel post. September 12, 1924. Received another letter offering to purchase all kinds of specimens at good prices. Mailed one box of specimens, insects, by parcel post. September 17, 1924. Sent netter Chen with nets and traps to collect and trap for about a month on the Yunnan Border, three days' journey south of Suifu on the high mountains where Chuan [[underlined]] Mian [[/underlined]] ^[[Miao]] aborigines are found. I may keep him working there until it gets too cold. I will go in for a short visit later. September 18, 1924. Mailed the last of the fifty boxes of specimens secured during the summer. All the specimens are now on their way to the National Museum, excepting those caught by the netter Ho - which will reach me later and which he secured near Chengtu and Kuanshien. September 20, 1924. My wife had a nervous breakdown. She will recover slowly.
-19- September 21, 1924. Word has been received that [[underlined]] Kaeichow [[/underlined]] ^[[Kueichow]] troops have come to the Yangtse River at Ho Kiang, between Sucheo and Chungking, west of Chungking, to open hostilities against Szecheun. They fired on two steamers on the way up. During the next few weeks I shall probably continue to congratulate myself that the Songpan catch has all gone down the river and will soon be safely out of China. [[underlined]] EXPENSES [[/underlined]] April 17, two box insects (registered) mailed, 98¢ each ------------------------------ $1.96 April 21, Hunting trip -------------------------- .04 April 22, Three letters ------------------------- .15 April 22, Nine birdskins (skinning)-------------- .60 April 23, Two letters --------------------------- .24 April 23, Skinner for skinning a mouse ----------- .07 April 24, Mailing 15 packages-------------------- 46.16 April 25, Skinner, skinning two mice ------------ .14 Registered letter Mr. Ravenel---------- .20 Unregistered letter Mr. Ravenel ------- .11 April 28, Skinner, one bird --------------------- .07 One letter, [[underlined]] foreign [[/underlined]] ^[[Lovegren]], Kiating ----------------------------- .04 April 29, Ropes for tieing bird boxes ------------- .27 April 30, Mailed box of insects ------------------ 1.22 May 3, Paid Lo on travel ---------------------- .40 May 4, Paid Lo on travel ---------------------- 1.20 Paper and strings----------------------- .02 Boy for climbing tree to get a bird ---- .04 Arsenic and cotton --------------------- 1.50 May 10-16,Netter, [[underlined]] for [[/underlined]] ^[[Ho]] travel and food ------------ 1.80 May 1-16, Netter, [[underlined]] for [[/underlined]] wages ---------------------- 2.24 May 17, Skinner, for skinning 49 birdskins ---- 4.10 One ball twine ------------------------- .25 Two white sheets for night work -------- 2.60 One new net ---------------------------- 1.00 May 17, Two letters Consul, Customs [[underlined]] Office [[/underlined]] ^[[Officer]] ---- .10 May 18, One letter, Mr. Ravenel ---------------- .10 May 18, Short trip, boat [[underlined]] Mong [[/underlined]] ^[[money]]----------- .03 May 18, One-half expense of 16-day trip netting 49 birds ----------------- 15.25 May 18, Skinner, for skinning two birds---------- .14 May 18, Shipping box No. 162--------------------- .98 May 18, One lb. cotton -------------------------- 1.00 May 20, Letter to Chungking about collecting [[underlined]] bills [[/underlined]] ^[[outfit]] .05 May 20, Mailed box No. 163 ---------------------- 1.56 May 20, Purchas of fish ------------------------- .60
^[[6/10 - Box 171 fish, shrimp etc. .98 hook nails for boxes .09]] -20- May 21, Box 164 ----------------- $ 1.32 May 21, Box 165 ----------------- 1.56 May 23, Carriage [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] ^[[of]] collecting outfit to house -- 2.70 May 26, Box 166 ----------------- 3.54 Two letters re collecting outfit ----- .08 May 28, Box 167 ----------------- 1.32 Chan ^[[c]] [[positioned over "e" in Chan]] ^[[chen]] on collecting trip ---------- 4.00 June 1, Letter, Mr. Ravenel ------------ .15 June 1, Wire for netting ------------- .24 Chan ^[[chen]] for collecting trip ---------3.20 June 6, Box 168, insects ------------- .98 June 6, Box 169, insects ------------- .98 June 10, Box 170, turtle -------------- 3.30 June 10, Box 171, fish, shrimp & hook nails for boxes .09 Insect and bird boxes, lumber for new boxes 10.22 Carpenter work, new boxes --------- 4.86 New oil sheets ---------- ---- 8.51 Oil for oil sheets [[underlined]] & catties @ 2.54 [[/underlined]] ^[[? 12 catties @ 25¢]]--- 3.00 Check to Ho, collector, at Chengtu ---- 10.00 June 13, One letter, one postal card -------- .07 Telegram for films ------------ .90 Ten boxes for travel also repair old ones - 9.20 Skinner, one bird ------------- .07 June 14, Pencils and gifts for use on Songpan trip with officials ------------- 1.39 June 14, Soap as presents for officials (whose aid is sought) --------------- 2.37 June 14, Telegram Kiating re Songpan trip ----- .72 Ropes for boxes, etc. ---------- [[underlined]] 1.50 [[/underlined]] ^[[1.80]] June 14, Advance on collector Ho's wages to June 23- 5.00 Total to date --------------- 119.51 [[underlined and centered]] SONGPAN ACCOUNT FROM HERE [[/underlined and centered]] June 17, Box 172 (25) birdskins ---------- ..60 June 17, Box 173 (27) birdskins ---------- .60 June 17, Purchases pheasant skin ---------- .30 Leggings for aborigine hunter ------- .30 Two letters to Chungking re birdskins, etc. .10 Wire for netting ------------- .21 June 21, Box 174, insects ------------- .98 June 23, Carriage of loads onto the boats ----- .41 Netter food 3 days ------------ .42 Food of five helpers to Kiating ------ 4.00 [[underlined]] On [[/underlined]] ^[[One]] fourth of the entire cost of boats to Kiating ----------------- 15.00
-21- June 28, Food of helpers June 28 ---- $ 1.00 June 29, Food of helpers June 29 ---- 1.00 Two telegrams June 29 ------ 1.71 (one dollar & 71 cents) June 30, Food of helpers ------------ 1.00 June 30, Escort --------------------- 2.27 June 30, For wheelbarrows and sedan chairs for the Chinese and me to ride in --- 1.25 June 30, Inn money ------------------- .13 July 1, Wheelbarrow rides ----------- .34 Escorts --------------------- 6.50 Servants' food -------------- 1.00 Two servants' food ---------- 1.07 Chairs, wheelbarrow rides, etc.-- .30 July 3, Box 175, insects ------------ July 3, Baskets --------------------- .38 12 bottles formalin @ 1.50 -- 18.00 Messengers, etc. ------------ 2.00 Carrier Coolies to Chengtu -- 33.65 Kerosene -------------------- 5.30 July 3, Coolie carriers ------------- 24.00 July 3, Wheelbarrow ride for helpers-- 1.00 July 3, Food expense, [[underlined]] wire [[/underlined]] ^[[mine]] from Kiating-- 1.14 Inn money July 2 ------------ .13 Advanced on food [[underlined]] cost [[/underlined]] ^[[acct]] cook -- 1.00 Advanced servants travel ---- .50 Tea money travel collies ---- .10 Advanced cook for rice ------ 10.00 July 4, Inn money July 4 ------------ .20 A ride for a tired helper in the wheelbarrow-- .08 Escort money ---------------- 3.50 July 4, [[underlined]] Collie's [[/underlined]] ^[[Coolie]] wages 6.00--- 6.00 Food of collectors ---------- 1.25 Gave for travel ------------- 2.00 July 5, Inn money ------------------- .45 Travel of [[underlined]] Loo for trip [[/underlined]] ^[[?]] to Suifu ^[[Lao Lo]]-- 2.00 Escort ---------------------- 1.00 Cartridge belt straps ------- .07 Coolies wages --------------- 10.00 July 6, Coolies wages --------------- 7.00 Carriage and securing [[underlined]] with [[/underlined]] goat ^[[?]] ^[[(mountain) mt.]] -- 1.20 Escort ---------------------- .14 Inn money ------------------- .13 July 7, Escort ---------------------- 3.20 Collector's food, July 5, 7 - 2.97 Inn money ------------------- .20 Letter, Mr. Ravenel --------- .10 [[underlined]] Collies [[/underlined]] ^[[coolies]] wages --- 7.00 ------ Total --------- $58.49
-22- July 8, Collector[[strikethrough]] ' [[/strikethrough]]s^[[']] food ------------- $1.21 July 8, Escort ------------------ 1.00 July 8, Carriers' wages ------------- 8.00 July 8, Inn money ---------------- .23 July 9, Food of helpers ------------- 1.27 Escort ------------------ 2.00 Inn money ---------------- .16 Carriers of loads wages ------- 7.00 Ride for two helpers ----------- .47 Kerosene ----------------- .34 July 10, Inn money ---------------- .16 Carriers of loads ------------ 7.00 Food of helpers ------------- 1.27 July 11, Inn money ---------------- .16 Carriers of loads ------------ 7.00 Food of helpers ------------- 1.28 July 12, Inn money ---------------- .16 Carriers of loads ------------ 7.00 Servants ----------------- 1.28 ______ $46.99 [[underline]] NOTES ABOUT SPECIMENS, ETC. [[/underline]] Suifu, April 14, one specimen with yellow above the tail, new to my collecting, also one very small bird that was poorly skinned. The other birds killed were all common. There are several kinds of small birds which I will probably not send specimens of in the future, since the Smithsonian Institution probably [[underline]] has all it wants. [[/underline]] The hawk moth caught about April 12 is not over-common in Szechuen. I have put it in a shoeblacking box, tin, for safety. May 1st, I started on a trip south of Suifu. I gave in charge of my coolie the box containing arsenic with instructions to send it along. He did not do so, and I did not find this out for several days, until the arsenic ran out. I had to purchase Chinese arsenic, which may be of inferior quality, and I fear the skins caught on that trip may reach the Smithsonian Institution in a damaged condition. Suifu, June 2nd, found the nest of an ant that I had been unable to find a nest of before, with eggs, etc. Did not find any winged ants, but found eggs. These ants have a bad sting that one does not care to experience a second time. They are black ants, and the specimens are in a small bottle.
-23- July 1. Saw a lot of birds of the kind numbered bird No. 2 on an island. Wounded one, but it fell on the [[underline]] plane [[/underline]] ^[[island]] and we couldn't get it. July 3. Took my first picture with the Smithsonian kodak. It was of four people, one Chinese and three aborigines, a Rong, a Chiang, and a Chuan Miao. This first picture was a failure. I took no coffee, tea, candy (except some chocolate), cookies, cake, or the like with me, expecting to "live off the land" a good deal. I rode no horse and took no sedan chair, planning to cut expenses by footing it as much as possible. On this trip I had to practically run a dispensary every day to keep the coolies and helpers in condition. July 4th - This was certainly a day ending in a nightmare, and one not familiar with things Chinese would have been up against it. My helper that was constantly making trouble with his tongue almost raised a riot by unwise words, which might have resulted in roughnecks stealing our guns while my men were unprotected on the streets. My visit to the magistrate straightened things out for several days to come. A generous present to this official counted not a little in settling all these difficult matters. Such is life in West China, and such is collecting here, [[underline]] but [[/underline]] I am very glad to do it - in fact, I [[underline]] like to. [[/underline]] I had sent word to the netter, Ho, to meet me at Chengtu but he did not do so, so I will have him net around Kuan Shien and Beh Luh Din where there are many insects I have not yet caught. Firing the coolie who rows so much leaves me short two collectors, but I'll aim to make up for it by using natives in the interior. This morning I broke the best glasses I brought along with me. I left them on the table. Probably a rat knocked them off onto the ground, and I stepped on them when I got up this morning. My feet got sore today, but there are no blisters, so they will be all right tomorrow. I left safely put away at home in Suifu most of the traps, the newest double-barrelled shotgun, fully half the collecting outfit, and most of the ammunition. This was 1, to save expenses on this trip everywhere possible. 2, So that
-24- even if the whole outfit I have with me were lost, I would be able to go right on collecting. I also left the automatic 22 rifle at home, bringing another higher power small rifle of my own instead. [[underline]] Note. [[/underline]] This was later lost. We start every day at daybreak and sometimes are up until eleven o'clock or later at night taking care of specimens. This means that we generally get too little sleep while travelling. July 7. The mountain goat killed yesterday kept us up till very late, so all were very tired today. In addition, we had a long hard journey over rough roads. The country was semi-arid with few specimens. The fine spirit of my Chinese helpers is a great comfort. They work hard, do anything, and do not complain. Two of them are our family table boy and our coolie, the skinner, and the third is the netter Chen[[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]]. Number four is an aborigine, a Chuan Miao, whom I am putting through school. He is a fine hunter and he and I are the hunters. I also have a net [[underline]] alone [[/underline]] ^[[along]] and net insects and catch any reptiles, etc. that I can. This Songpan trip is a hard trip. I may not see a foreigner until I reach [[underline]] Chengtu [[/underline]] again. July 8. Because the cablegram from the Smithsonian Institution reached me so late, the time for this trip is too short and I must make every day count. I have not lost a day of travel, even on Sundays, since I left Suifu. For that reason all of us are tired but do not intend to stop. This territory is so interesting that there should be a much longer time for the trip, but we will do everything we can. I think we will secure specimens not found in other parts of Szechuen. This is probably the lonesomest collecting trip I shall take, for I shall probably not see another foreigner until I reach Chengtu. July 10. Small birds 75 - 78 were noisy but hid in low underbrush. We are just passing out of the semi-arid region with few birds and few insects to the interesting higher region, with birds, insects, and all kinds of game. [[underline]] Lots of fleas. [[/underline]] I walk all the time while collecting. 1. to save expenses. 2. Because I can be on the alert and collect specimens better. 3. It hardens me for the hard climb coming later.
-25- From Chengtu to Songpan is a rich district for collecting. One wishes he had years in which to do it. White bear and all kinds of animals are reported. This road is very safe this year so it is well that this trip was taken. The trip might be impossible next year, and for some time afterwards. However, two foreigners were murdered last year by robbers, and the officials were punished so that the officials were unwilling for a foreigner to go where there is any danger. The Songpan magistrate forbade travelling westward or northward but permitted travelling one day eastward where collecting should be very good. The city of Songpan has very little vegetation excepting wheat fields, so it would not be profitable to stay here long and collect, especially since the officials do not want us to go far away from the city. Next year it might be impossible to come at all. The local official is anxious for me to clear out of this district. If anything happens he will be held responsible. This is bound to shorten my stay at Songpan. Some of the Chinese at Songpan use prayer flags on their houses like the Lamaists of Tibet ^[[and the neighboring aborigines.]] I saw a Chinese baby boy whom the parents wished to protect from evil influences, especially demons that cause disease and death, on whose back the parents had a brass mirror, a brass corn charm, and a small bag in which some parts of the Buddhist classics were placed. July 17. The local magistrate tried to get me to make my stay in this district quite short. It was with some difficulty that I secured a longer time in which to collect ^[[at]] Huang Long Si ^[[?]] - I^[[/]]hope to find ways of delaying long enough to get a reasonable amount of collecting done. The official will not let me leave the main road along the river for the higher elevations where mammals and different kinds of birds may be found. July 18. At Huang Long Si I saw a number of strange birds. There are plenty of trees and there should be plenty of game. The official would not let me come here without an escort of six soldiers. July 18. Bad luck - I received two pounds of gunpowder from the arsenal at Chengtu for this trip, but it is false powder and will not explode. This will leave us short
-26- of ammunition for small birds. July 23. We have searched in every direction and find that this [[insertion]] ^[[is]] [[/insertion]] such a poor place for large birds and for mammals that we are going to spend a couple of days at the city of Songpan, then move towards Chengtu where we believe conditions to be much more favorable for large birds and mammals. We have a good catch of night moths and of small birds. If we could go west or north of Songpan, we would find plenty of large birds and mammals, but the Heh Shui Bolotsis aborigines are such brigands that the officials will not permit us to travel in those directions. We have not only enquired here, but have actually gone in every direction before being convinced that this is a poor place for mammals and large birds. We have found only two kinds of grouse or pheasant here, besides the omnipresent Chinese pheasant. It is black, or at least dark, and lives in the dense woods, and is very wild. We secured one good specimen, and killed a second. The latter fell from the top of a tall fir tree on a steep, muddy incline. It rolled a long way down the mountain, and when we found it, there were not enough feathers left on its body to make it of any use as a specimen. The above notes refer to the district about the Yellow Dragon Temple, about 24 miles northeast of Songpan, with an elevation of about 12,000 feet, probably. The lowest elevation is about 12,000 feet, the highest being on the nearby mountain peaks where there is perpetual snow. July 26. This Yellow Dragon Gorge is wonderful from the points of view of scenic beauty, geology, and the study of ^[[native religions - also]] anthropology. Two tribes of aborigines come here on pilgrimages to worship and I have secured some pictures for Dr. Hrdlicka. The water of the creek comes down from the snow mountain carrying a mineral substance that is being deposited all along the gorge, so that the creek is not carving a deeper route, but actually rapidly building its bed up higher and higher. Leaves, twigs, and logs are being rapidly covered up. The mineral substance when deposited becomes a bright yellow stone, so that the bed of the stream is a bright yellow color. The water flows slowest at the edge of the stream and there deposits its mineral, so that it tends to build banks to the stream. In many places the stream is from five to thirty feet above the surrounding ground or rock, and the lower [[strikethrough]] d [[/strikethrough]]elevations are generally old beds of the stream that have been deserted. Probably, the stream builds itself higher and higher above the neighboring soil or rocks until, in some freshet, it breaks over its banks and seeks the lower level, which is for a time the stream bed, and which is gradually built up by the
-27- mineral deposit until, in turn, it is higher than the last bed that it has left. I am sending samples of the yellow stone, some with leaf or twig imprints. (See pace 265). Total cost of coolies Chengto to Songpan $166.00 wages. [[underlined]] SONGPAN ACCOUNT Continued [[/underlined]] July 13, Carriers----------------- $10.00 July 14, Carriers----------------- 66.00 July 13, Inn money ------ -------- .16 July 13, Helpers--------- -------- 1.30 July 14, Inn Money----------- ---- .14 Helpers------------- ---- 1.44 Telegram----------------- .73 Straw sandals-------- --- .67 Escort------------------- 3.00 July 15, July 16, July 17, Helpers [[underlined]] 4 w [[/underlined]] ^[[4 00]] ^[[3.00]] Tsang [[underlined]] 3. w [[/underlined]] --------------- 3.00 ^[[10.00]] Pack animals [[underlined]] 10. 2 [[/underlined]] ---------- 10.00 Equipment -------------- .97 Honey for night moths ---- ------ .20 ^[[Straw sandals chen]] [[image - arrow indicating insertion of text]] Animal skin ---------- ----- .14 July 18, Pack animals--------------- 11.27. ______ $109.02 ^[[Lao]] [[underlined]] Law [[/underlined]] Tsang advance--------- --- 3.00 ^[[cash Lao]] [[underlined]] Law [[/underlined]] Li 1.00 [[underlined]] cost [[/underlined]] ^[[?]] ---------- 1.00 ^[[Cook Li 1000 cash]] Cook on acct.------------- 4.00 [[line]] [[line]] ^[[.33]] July 18, Gave escort-------------- - 2.00 July 20, Gave escort-------------- - 3.00 July 23, Gave escort-------------- - 3.00 July 23, Tsang-------------------- - .50 July 23, Tsang-- ----------------- - .50 July 26, Escort------------------- - 4.00 July 26, Li------------------------- .50 July 26, Tsang---------- ----------- .50 July 26, Boxes for specimens----- ------ 1.07 July 27, Pack animals--------------- 11.13 Escort--------------------- 13.00 Servants food-------------- 6.00 July 28, Equipment Jang ^[[?]] ------------ .20 Li wages ------------------ 1.47 ^[[business?]] Letters mailed (bsns) ^[[?]] ---------- .18 *Advanced to carriers----------- 22.00 _______ $77.38 July 28, Purchased pheasant ----------- 1.00 Chen for inn money------------ .06 Cook on acct. -- ------------- 1.00
-28- ^[[July 29 Owe Lao Chang 40¢]] July 29, Cook has on hand 7992 cash Advanced [[underlined]] Law [[/underlined]] ^[[? Lao]] Chang ---- $ 2.00 July 30, Cook food for servants ----- 2.00 Gave escort ---------------- 1.00 Cook food ------------------ .27 Snake, guide, etc. --------- .10 July 31, Gave escort ---------------- 2.55 Sandals 250 cash ----------- .80 August 1, Gv. escort ----------------- 1.00 *August 1, Gv. coolies --------------- 2.00 August 1, (July 30, 1.27; July 31, 1.00; Helpers [[underlined]] son [[/underlined]] ^[[food]] - 2.27 Paper, etc. ---------------- .06 Inn money 2 days ----------- .23 Helpers food, 1 day -------- 1.00 August 2,Escort --------------------- 1.00 Inn money ------------------ .14 ------ $18.48 Carried forward August 2, [[underlined]] Law [[/underlined]] ^[[Lao]] Chang ---------------------- 1.40 Eleven carriers ----------- 4.00 Helpers ------------------- 1.00 August 3, Inn money ----------------- .11 Helpers ------------------- 1.00 Eleven carriers ----------- 6.00 Escort 1.00, -------------- 7.31 August 4, Inn money ----------------- .17 Carrier coolies ----------- 4.00 Helpers ------------------- 1.00 [[underlined]] Gav [[/underlined]]. ^[[Lao]] Chang ----- 1.00 August 5, Carrier coolies ----------- 2.00 Inn money ----------------- .14 Helpers ------------------- 1.00 Carrier coolies ----------- 5.00 August 6, Carrier coolies ----------- [[underlined]] 17.40 [[/underlined]] ^[[owe seven dollars]] [[underlined]] Gav [[/underlined]]. ^[[Lao]] Chang ---- 1.00 Servants' food ------------ 1.00 Straw sandals ------------- .34 Bear ---------------------- 1.00 ----- $55.87 August 7, Aborigine messenger ------- 1.00 August 8, Coolies to date ----------- 13.60 Escort to date ------------ 1.27 [[underlined]] Gav [[/underlined]]. ^[[Lao]] Chang (owe him 20¢) --------------------------- 2.00 Recovery of tents (11 men) 2.00 August 9, Six hunters --------------- 3.00 August 10,Food for servants --------- 1.00 Four hunters -------------- 2.07 August 11,One hunter ---------------- 11.32 [[underlined]] Gav [[/underlined]]. ^[[Lao]] Chang 1.00 ----------------- 1.00
-29- August 12, Fuel, water, etc. ------ $ .65 Servants for food ------ 1.17 Moving expenses -------- .66 August 13, Food for servants ------ 4.00 Four hunters ----------- 3.00 August 14, [[underlined]] Gav. [[/underlined]] ^[[Lao]] Chang bag -------------------- 1.00 August 15, Fu'teo [[superscript]] 2 [[/superscript]] ----------------- ----1.00 Coolies [[/underlined]] (8.00) [[/underlined]] ^[[?]] ^[[5.00]] ----------- 6.00 Inn money --------------- .64 Hunters ----------------- 1.50 -------- $ 47.88 August 16, Carriers to Soh Chian --- 4.00 Escort ------------------ .40 Food of helpers --------- 1.00 Tsang No. 2, still owe 8.04 to Soh Chian -- --------- 2.00 August 17, [[underlined]] Gav. [[/underlined]] ^[[Lao]] Bai owe 1.00 to Soh chian --- 1.00 Escort ------------------ 1.03 Coolies ----------------- 4.00 Food of helpers --------- 1.00 Inn money --------------- .13 Credit 10¢ August 18, Coolies ----------------- 5.00 Food for helpers -------- 1.00 Inn money --------------- .14 Straw sandals ----------- .15 Escort ------------------ 4.00 August 19, Escort ------------------ 1.00 Food of helpers --------- 1.00 Inn money --------------- .20 Carriage of bear -------- 1.60 August 20, Paid Fu' teo & coolies 24.70 Paid coolie Tsang ------- 4.00 Paid coolie Bai --------- 4.20 Ride for sick helper ----- 1.00 Advance on boat --------- 5.00 Food of helpers --------- 1.00 Advance on food of helpers -1.00 August 21, Baggage to boat --------- 1.27 Escort on 20th ---------- 1.00 Escort on 21st ---------- 1.40 Breakfast of helpers ------ .43 August 22, Escort ------------------ 2.00 Boat -------------------- 2.60
-30- August 22,Cook food account 10068 cash $ 2.92 Cook borrowed 5.00) Coolie borrowed 2.00) to be repaid Chen 2.00) Jang 2.50) ---------------- $52.52 August 22, Coolie carriers Kiating --- .80 Coolie carriers to Mt. Omei 2.02 Fodd of helpers [[underlined]] 1 on [[/underlined]] ^[[1000]] - - - - - - - .92 [[strikethrough]] - [[/strikethrough]] August 25, Advanced collectors ------ 4.14 August 26, Advanced collectors ------ .06 August 27, Advanced carriers -------- 1.50 Advanced boat ------------ 1.00 August 28, Advanced carriers -------- 1.18 Advanced boat ------------ 5.25 August 28-29, Food of helpers ---------- .40 August 29, Boat --------------------- 8.10 August 29, Carriage to house -------- .80 Box 176, insects Box 177, insects Box 178, insects Box 179, insects Box 180, insects Box 181, insects Box 182, insects Box 183, insects ------ $ 26.18 Box 184 Box 185 Box 186 Box 187 Box 188 Box 189 Box 190 Box 191 Box 192 Box 193 Box 194 Box 195 Box 196 Box 197 Box 198 Box 199 Box 200 Box 201, bones Box 202, Rocks August 31, Box, big, 203 skins
-31- $ Sept. 1, Box 204 fish frogs Box 205 snails Box 206 insects Box 207 fish frogs Box 208 snails, etc. Box 209 frogs, snails, fish Box 210 skins, bones, snake, frogs Sept. 2, Box 211 one bird Birds (No. 1) Box 212 fifty birds, (2) Box 213 (40) birds (3) Box 214 (25) birds (4) Box 215 70 birds (5) Box 216 33 birds (6) Box 217 50 birds (7) Box 218 3 birds (8) Box 219 85 birds (9) Box 220 50 birds (10) Box 221 70 (11) Box 222 12 mammals Box 223 insects Box 224 insects Box 225 3 mammals, worms, etc. Sept.2, Paid skinners for summer work of skinning ------------------------ 67.50 Paid collector [[underlined]] Zang [[/underlined]] ^[[Yang]] for summer's work 16.00 Advanced for netter Ho for work about Chengtu 34.00 Summer wages for netter, Chen - 9.00 --------- $126.50 Inn money Chengtu ------- 1.00 --------- $127.50 Songpan account ends here.
-32- NEW ACCOUNT Sept. 3, Letter, Mr. Ravenel ------- $ .44 Sept. 3, Other letters ------------- .22 Sept. 4, One box specimens --------- .98 Sept. 5, Three boxes of specimens -- 2.94 Sept. 6, Four boxes specimens ------ 3.92 Hunting trip, carrier ----- .04 Loss on Exchange ([[underlined]] out 200.w [[/underlined]] ^[[on $200.00]] gold) 4.07 Sept. 10, Two boxes mailed --------- 1.96 Sept. 11, Four boxes mailed -------- 3.92 Paid skinner moth catcher who worked at Shin Kai Sï summer wages - 2.00 Sept. 12, Mailing two boxes birdskins in June from Chungking, see bill ------ 5.04 Six films for Songpan trip 8.45 Packing materials -------- 1.60 Four packages to U.S.A. -- 3.92 ------- Total ------ 39.50 Netter Chen expenses, food, & 3 days @ Omei Shen ------------------- .30 Netter Chen wages (overlooked) for May 16-July 1, 1924 ---------------- 6.00 Sept. 12, Mailed package ----------- .98 Skinner 8 birds one bat -- .73 [[underlined]] Spotting [[/underlined]] ^[[Escorting]] boxes of baggage containing birdskins Suifu to Shanghai by Lovegren --------------- 16.40 Sept. 15, Four boxes specimens ----- 4.26 11 boxes specimens to Chungking ^[[?]] ___________ 110 lbs. Birds^[[kins Total]] ------ 1.65 Letters re specimens ----- .18 Sept. 16, Four boxes specimens mailed 4.94 Eleven bird boxes to steamer .07 Sept. 18, Ten boxes specimens, U. S. A. 12.36 One box to Yunnan for collecting .40 Advance netter Chen collecting [[underlined]] inf. [[/underlined]] ^[[? trip]] ----------------------------- 6.00 Four boxes mammal skins to Smithsonian Inst. 12.96 --------- Total --------- $ 96.73 Leaves, twigs, and logs are rapidly becoming covered up with the deposit which becomes yellow stone. Because of the abundance of this yellow stone, the natives believe that a yellow dragon god lives in this gorge. Chinese and aborigines unite in worship. There are some very interesting things for one who is interested in the religious side of anthropology.
-33- One reason that the officials of Songpan do not want anyone collecting mammals or insects is that they are devout Buddhists and believe in the transmigration of souls. It is about as bad to them to kill an animal, bird, or insect as it would be to kil a human being. However, it is really dangerous on account of the aborigine brigands to go north or west of Songpan, where, by the way, is the best hunting. [[underlined]] Ants. [[/underlined]] There are two small varieties that I have noticed that go up to about 14,000 feet. There is a large red ant found in Szechuen between the altitudes of 6,000 and 11,000 ft. The most common large black ant of Szechuen (central) is found below the level of 6,000 feet but not above. Question, do these two ants fight each other so that they can not live in the same territory, or do they simply seek different levels? Insects about 7,500 feet often are found under stones but not often in the lower levels in Szechuen. Evidently they find under the stones some protection from the cold. I did not find the wild small reddish turtle dove that I found in Tatsienl[[underlined]] n [[/underlined]]. ^[[u]] The escorts are a great problem.Without them the officials will not be responsible for your safety. If you pay them too little, they'll report to the magistrate. Sometimes they report that you have not paid what you should when you have^[[,]] to get the official to give them more money, but it hurts your reputation. There is more roughing it on this trip for me than on any previous trip. I have walked every step since leaving Chengtu. I probably will not see another foreigner until I return to Chengtu. I have not eaten cake since leaving Chengtu and the only cookies I have had were some _______ ^[[?punk]] Chinese cookies bought on the street. I eat bread only about one meal a day - can't get any here that is less tough than leather (it is unleavened). It takes me till late at night sometimes to take care of the specimens caught during the day. My Chinese helpers have worked mighty hard on this trip. It is hard on the skinners to walk 20 to 30 miles, then spend part of the night skinning birds. The netter often does not get enough sleep because of catching moths. All these helpers walk all the time unless they are sick. The loyalty of these Chinese helpers and the willingness to work hard will mean much in making this trip a success if it proves a success. All these helpers I have trained myself.
-34- I saw at Tieh Chi, altitude about 8,000 feet, the large kingfisher of which I have sent samples from central Szechuen. I did not get a shot at it. In the region of Songpan and Mowchow, and between, all the rock is lava - no limestone or sandstone - excepting the yellow stone deposited by the water in Yellow Dragon Gorge. [[underlined]] Ants. [[/underlined]] - About Mowchow at a level of about 6,000 feet I saw both the large red ant and the large black ant on the same ground. They did not seem to be at war. This makes it seem probable to me that they do not fight, but simply and naturally seek different levels, the large black ant from about 6,000 feet altitude down, and the red ant from about 6,000 feet alt. to about 11,000 feet. --------------------- Aug. 5. It is a piece of good fortune I met Rev. Thomas Torrence, F. R. G. S. He knows this region, and will put me in touch with a king of the aborigines who is a great hunter. I must give this king a present to get his good will. Aug. 7. I was sick this morning and still feel weak. The drowning of the coolie carrier was unavoidable. The stream was swift and swollen. The bridge was three logs tied together with pieces of wire. Probably, these were rotten and gave way when the carrier tried to cross. I heard his cry for help, saw him floating rapidly down the swollen mountain stream. This was just above the village. We ran below the village and tried to head him off, but the only thing we found was a piece of the framework he used for carrying things on his back. This makes a sad ending for the day. No trace has been found of our things. These mountain streams can only be appreciated after one has seen them^[[.]] [[strikethrough]] many. [[/strikethrough]] Many of them are roaring torrents, especially in high water. The coolie had parents, wife, and children. I had healed his feet of bad stone bruises and we liked each other. The Wasï aborigines have been brought to this territory by the Chinese from towards Tibet and placed or sandwiched in the midst of the Chiang aborigines to balance the power of the Chiangs and make them more easily governed. They have absorbed more of the social and religious customs of the Chinese than the Chiang, who have refused to absorb or be absorbed, and resemble the Chinese more closely.
-35- Aug. 8. The accident yesterday was entirely unavoidable on our part. The blame is entirely on the part of those who look after that bridge for not replacing rotten thongs. The piece of skull and the jawbone secured above Nen Chuan are probably of two individuals. Mr. Torrence, F. R. G. S. thinks they are of the Sui Dynasty, at least 1,000 years old. He thinks they were mummified. The skin and flesh did not rot but dried on the bodies. Mr. Torrence sent a specimen of a hand to the British Museum. This is a very dry spot, and either they were mummified or else they dried up instead of rotting. The coffins, well preserved, are of wood. There is no mark or inscription of any kind to indicate the age of the specimens. The bodies were intact when just discovered several years ago, but the natives have broken them to pieces with stones. I would like to know what Dr. Hrdlicka finds about these bones. Are they Mongolian, Aryan, or aboriginal in type? [[underlined]] Mammals. [[/underlined]] I do not consider my summer's catch of mammals an outstanding success. Near Songpan we were not allowed to go where mammals were plentiful. Where we went, a great festival which included hunting, had driven the large mammals away, and nearly cleaned out the pheasants. Near Nen Chuan there are large mammals, including a white and a black bear, and a long-haired monkey or ape, but every native is a hunter and the animals are exceedingly wild. I used to trap when a boy, but there are special things to learn about trapping in West China, and I am beginning to learn some of them. It might pay for me to train a native trapper and hire him throughout the year, taking him with me on these trips, for trapping takes time, and one of my problems is to get as much as possible done in a comparatively short time. If allowed to use money a little liberally I can hire native hunters and considerably increase my catch of large mammals. Aug. 15. I was just getting into the swing of securing mammals when I left for Suifu. A month spent here in winter time ought to give excellent results. Wilson, the great naturalist who spent eleven years in West China, had with him part of the time a naturalist who spent his whole time trapping mammals. People who knew him say that he had a great deal of trouble and lost lots of traps. The Chinese would continually steal his traps. He was constantly provoked by this sort of thing. Some of us who live
-36- in China are sometimes inclined to think that "Honest John Chinaman" is a literary fiction, more legendary than real. Aug. 28. It will be some relief of mind when I get to Suifu with my collecting outfit and specimens. Brigands, petty thieves, mold, rust, breakage by carriers, and wreckage of boats are some of the possible sources of loss. Last night a thief broke into a foreign compound in Kiating, probably hoping that he might secure the Smithsonian guns, which I had taken to the house where I spent the night. After losing my folding cot when the coolie was drowned near Nen Chuan, I spread my blankets on flat boards. It would not do to use Chinese beds, on account of the fleas, bedbugs and lice. [[double line]] It is about as much work caring for for the specimens, labelling them, packing them, etc. as it is to collect the specimens. Under caring for the specimens I would include drying, wrapping, etc. It was a wise thing to take the Songpan trip. It might be several years before that road is again as free from brigands as it is this year, and before the trip is again possible because there is no civil war in Szechuen. Now that the Mission has asked me to go to Ningyuenfu next spring, it is certain that I could not go to Songpan next year, although I could go to Moupin, ^[[?]] ^[[OK]] probably. The Washan trip could be taken practically any year so that it may well be postponed until the other important trips are all taken. Washan is so near Mt. Omei that there is apt to be quite a close resemblance in the species found at Washan and those at Mr. Omei. Places more widely separated are more apt to produce a different variety of specimens. Sept. 18th. Already the warclouds are gathering over China, and there are rumors that the thunders of war will soon be heard in Szechuen. If there had been similar conditions during the summer I could not have gone to Songpan. I have hurried up the packing and shipping of specimens, and today the last box of specimens has gone off by parcel post. Here's hoping that they all get safely out of China before the Yangtse River becomes closed to steamer traffic and that none of the fifty boxes of specimens are lost or injured.
-37- Sept. 21. Kueicheo troops have appeared at Ho Kiang between Suifu and Chungking, and have fired on the steamers. Steamer traffic may close at any time. HO KIANG, between LUCHEO and Chungking. Please offer suggestions as to how to make the diary more useful to the curators. (Signed) D. C. Graham. I shall appreciate information at any time about the specimens that have been sent in, especially any that have proven of special interest. (Signed) David C. Graham.