Diary no. 8, August 16, 1929-March 24, 1930

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This field book is a diary from 16 August 1929 to 24 March 1930 documenting Graham's field collecting trip to Kongshien, Tseo Jia Geo, Li Chuang (currently Lizhuang), Chuan Gioh Chi, and the Chengtu (currently Chengdu) vicinity. Graham provides a narrative description of daily activities including amounts and types of specimen he and associates collected or purchased. Graham collected mammals, birds, insects, snakes, and possibly other specimens. Mammal numbers range from 308-369. Graham also describes packing specimens to be mailed. Descriptions of some specimen are occasionally provided. Graham also collects artifacts and makes ethnological and anthropological observations during this trip. No scientific names are provided.

Date Range


Start Date

Aug 16, 1929

End Date

Mar 24, 1930

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Herpetology
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • Sichuan
  • China
  • Chengdu
  • Lizhuang


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


1 Box Folder 10

Diary number eight, concerning the collecting of natural history specimens for the Smithsonian Institution by David Crockett Graham, beginning August 16, 1929. There have been 404 boxes labelled, containing specimens, and 307 mammal skins to date. - - - - - Aug. 16, 1929. Labelled box 405, frogs, collected at Suifu before the trip to Mupin. Box 406, insects in formalin, collected on the Mupin-Ornei collecting trip. Mailed twelve boxes to the American Express Company by parcel post. Spent most of the day looking after specimens, working over accounts, etc. Tomorrow the carpenter will make some boxes to contain the bear skins, some skeletons, etc. Aug. 17. Packed and labelled boxes 407 frogs, 408 frogs, 409 frogs, 410 animal skins, 411 shrimp, etc. 412 frogs, 413 snakes, 414 frogs. Mailed 14 packages of specimens. This makes a total of eighty-six packages of specimens mailed since starting on the Mupin trip. Labelled box 415, deer skins, 416 skeletons. Aug. 19. Filled and labelled box no.417, white bear skin, also boxes 418-419, also white bear skins. I have sent all the above to the post office to be handled by parcel post.
-2- There is a full moon now, and bright, clear nights, so that we are securing no night moths. Aug. 20. Mailed boxes 417-419, also the diary covering the Mupin expedition. I took a collecting trip to the Suifu hills. I have been watching for a moth resembling the lunar moth but far more rare. Dr. Simpkins (correction in pencil: Tompkins) got one yesterday but will not part with it. Aug. 21. Spent all my spare time working over the Smithsonian accounts. I am moving to another house. I will vacate half this house now, and the rest after my return from my next trip. Aug. 21. The matter (correction in pencil: netter) collected on the Suifu hills. Aug. 22. Labelled and mailed box 420, Insects Yang Fong Isang (correction in pencil: Tsang) was in good health this morning and helped me pack for the trip south of Suifu. After he had eaten his dinner, he became very sick with severe pains in his bowels. I had gone out to mail a box of specimens and to secure an official document that would make possible an escort when it might be needed. When Yang became ill, he came to my house looking for me. Failing to find me, he threw himself down on the floor in the front hall in front of my study door. He and the Chinese thought he was about to die. The fact is that many Chinese die suddently from such diseases. When I came home, I gave him a good dose of epsom salts. He again lay down in the hall in front of my study door. Soon afterwards he began to vomit, and vomited out all the food and medicines in his stomach. Later I gave him three laxative pills and some other medicine. In a little while he said he was feeling a trifle better but was still feeling very badly. I gave him plenty of cool water to drink. He soon went off into a deep sleep. Now he is much better, but we had an anxious hour or two.
-3- We will delay another day so as to give Yang an opportuity to fully recover before starting. I am working over Smithsonian accounts and hope to mail a report of the Mupin trip tomorrow. Aug. 23. It is so hot and dry that the grass and the vegetables are dying. Yang Fong [[strikethrough]]I[[/strikethrough]]^[[T]]sang is very much better, and we expect to leave tomorrow. We are taking only seven loads, and three of the five collectors. Aug. 24. We took a boat from Suifu to [[underline]]San[[/underline]] ^[[Lan]] Kuang, crossed overland at San Kuang, and went sixty li up the [[underline]]San[[/underline]] ^[[Lan]] Kuang river to Yoh^[[5]] Keo^[[3]]. We could have gone farther, but there is a place between Yoh K[[underline]]ev[[/underline]]^[[o]]and Sa Ho E where robbers constantly appear. The escort will come at daylight tomorrow and go with us as far as is necessary. It was a hot day, and we secured only a few insects. The farther we go from Suifu, the better the collecting should be. The weather had been very dry so long that much of the vegetation has died, and the collecting of insects will probably be much less fruitful than it should be, and would be in better weather. Aug. 25. Last night we had scarcely gone to sleep before a man began to shout at the door of the inn. It reminded me of a minstrel in U.S.A. merely shouting rather than singing a song. This man shouted so loudly that there was no sleeping. We persuaded him to stop. He was merely reading a book for the benefit of all. Some praise his reading, saying it sounds good, and he shouted loudly so all could hear it. After he was quieted, coolies were constantly coming into the inn with loads and they talked loudly. This kept up until daylight. There
-4- was very little sleep for anybody. Before daylight our escort came and told us it was daylight and was time to start. By the light of the moon we travelled over a mile before dawn. We got to this place, Hua Tan Chiao, eighty li, early in the afternoon. We are in the midst of draught. For a long time there has been no rain, and everything is drying up. Consequently we secure very few insects. If the weather does not change, we can not expect a rich catch this trip. We are skipping Shuin Zien (correction in pencil: Gien) Si, the next village, because there is much dysentery there. That will cut down our journey by about four days. Aug. 26. We secured definite information that there is a bad pestilence of dysentery at Shuin Zien (correction in pencil: Gien) Si. We therefore went directly to Kongshien, skipping Shuin Zien (correction in pencil: Gien) Si. The head militia officer at Hua Ian (correction in pencil: Tan) Chiao invited me and some friends to a feast this morning, which caused us to get a very late start, but we reached Konshien about 4.00 p.m. Apparently, in Szechuan, success in collecting depends a great deal on weather conditions, especially success in securing insects. We are having luck just the opposite from that which we had on the Mupin trip, due to the fact that this section is enduring a period of draught. Aug. 27. We got a larger number of night moths last night than on the previous night, but still only a fraction of the number I would like to get. Several of the night moths seem to me to be different from any I have previously secured. During the day I had a number of children catching insects in return for picture postal cards. They caught mostly grasshoppers and katydids. The coolies also caught insects. I spoke twice in our chapel, and went to the Yamen to interview the magistrate regarding an escort. We will leave here tomorrow. The magistrate had me return to the Yamen and play the victrola.
-5- The catch of moths tonight was poorer than that of last night. Still it remains hot and dry, with no rain. Several of the moths caught tonight look very interesting but there were very few of them. This district ought to be an excellent place in which to collect, but because of the drought, it is poor at present. Aug. Aug. 28. We are spending the night at Dosig (correction in pencil: Dong) Di Pu, 60 li from Zong (correction in pencil: Gong) Shun (correction in pencil: Shien). It is a small town. Still no rain. We got what seems to be a rare kind of wasp, two specimens. I have today had a taste of the best side of the Chinese. The militia officer who is the head official, was exceedingly polite and accomodating. Aug. 29. Last night's catch of moths was a little larger than on previous days, but still small. We travelled 40 li over steep roads to Tseo Jia Keo, then climbed to the home of Yang Fong Gsang (correction in pencil: Tsang) on the side of the mountain. He lives in a small house having a straw roof. I left the netter Lai in the town of Tseo Jia Keo, alt. about 2,000 feet, and we are using the gasolene lanterns at Yang's home. Aug. 30. We got about one box of insects last night, some of which are very interesting. Lai got a kind of butterfly that I got only once before, and in this section. Today the sky is clouding up a bit. Labelled boxes 421-424, all dried insects. I took a number of anthropometrical measurements, mostly of Chuan Miar (correction in pencil: Miao) aborigines.
-6- Aug. 31. Yesterday we secured three small birds. Today we secured four birds. Last night it rained, and we secured 1 1/2 boxes of insects, nearly all night moths. Tonight we are not catching so many, but some of them seem very interesting. Both Chinese and the Chuan Mia[[underline]]r[[/underline]]^[[o]] are very friendly. Today I took some more anthropometrical measurements. Ho, the skinner, is helping with the insects very nicely, taking the major responsibility for catching and wrapping them. A local official has invited me to spend two nights and a day in his home, which I will do. Then I will begin the return journey to Suifu. This year I will probably stress the collectiong of moths and butterflies to the limit until the season is over, hoping to make this a record year for the collecting of lepidoptera. Filled and labeled box 428, insects. Sept. 1. Last night's insects filled more than one box. Filled and labelled box no. 426, insects. Took several anthropometrical measurements. Sept. 1. Today I took nine anthropometrical measurements, besides securing insects, and two birds. Labelled box 427, insects. The metter Lai secured three of the butterflies that we have been looking for. Tonight the sky is clear, and we are not getting so many insects, but we have secured some that look very good.
-7- Yang Fong Tsang and I went over all his collecting outfit. I added a few rat-traps to replace some that had been lost or broken. He will collect a month, then probably go to Mupin to collect several months. Sept. 2. Labelled box 428, insects. We secured two very small but interesting snakes. They are scarcely a foot long, but may be small varieties. We moved from the home of Yang Font^[[g]] Tsang to a Chinese named Lo. Tonight the sky is clear, and so the catch of insects is small. This is a beautiful district, with high mountains, perpendicular limestone cliffs, forests, cornfields, etc. to interest the lover of beauty. There is plenty of coal, iron, and sulphur, and all are being mined, although by crude methods. Sept. 3. The vicinity of the Lo family is not a very good place to collect, so this afternoon I moved to the village of Tseo-Jai-Geo, where not over 300 or 400 people live. Leopards kill and eat one or two people a month approximately, in this district, if the stories of the inhabitants [[strikethrough]]is[[/strikethrough]] ^[[are]] true. Tonight the sky is cloudy. About dark there was a light rain. The night moths are coming to the lanterns better than usual. Tomorrow we go to Tsang Lin, and gradually on to Suifu. We will collect as we go. Yang Fong Tsang is to collect at home for a month, then go to Mupin. One of the most trying experiences to a foreigner in West China, when travelling, comes from the fact that a foreigner expects and loves privacy when sleeping, studying and working. It is nearly impossible to get privacy
- 8 - in Chinese homes (as a guest) and in Chinese inns. The Chinese have little conception of it. You try to work in a Chinese inn, and the first thing you know the room is packed, and crowds are peeking through the cracks and looking through the windows. We got a mammal today, a squirrel, colored differently from those on Mt. Omei. [[underline]] Mammal no. 308. [[/underline]] We got one snake today, and several birds. I collected some fossils. Sept. 4. We travelled 70 li to Tsanglinshien. The village of [[overwritten]] s [[/overwritten]]Teo[[Tseo]]-Jai-Geo is almost directly south of Tsang^[[‿]]Linshien, which is in a general southern direction from Suifu. We crossed a high pass or mountain, then descended by a steep road to the plain. The general lay of the land between here and the Yunnan Border is approximately this [[image - pencil drawing of elevation rising twice]] ^[[TSANGLINSHIEN 1200 FT ALTITUDE]] ^[[TSEO-JIA-GEO 2300 FT ALTITUDE]] When we were coming down the high mountain towards Tsanglinshien, I noticed that there was no one else on that road, either going or coming. After reaching this city I learned that both leopards and robbers are fierce at the top of the high mountain between here and Tseo-Jia-Geo. Leopards were fiercer and more common over a wide territory than they have been known to be before, and probably hundreds are killed every year in the country south of Suifu, called the Lan Lu[[underline]] t [[/underline]]^[[h]] Shien District, or the "South Six Townships." If I had tried to get in from Tsanglinshien to [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] Tseo-Jai^[[Jia]]-Geo, the official would have forbidden me. It is therefore lucky that I went in from Kongshien. We got a fine catch of night moths last night. We got some good moths tonight. We could have worked longer and secured more night moths tonight but last night we worked until nearly daylight, then travelled all day today, so the netter Lai and I had to catch up sleep tonight.
9 Several times during the past few years I have come to Tsanglinshien or Tsanglin with the intention of going in to Tseo-[[underline]]Jai[[/underline]]^[[Jia]]-Geo, but have been requested by the magistrate not to go. It would have been the same this time if I had tried to go in from Tsanglin instead of Kongshien. The altitude of Tsanglinshien, on the plain, is about 1200 feet. At the village of Tseo-Jia-Geo it is about 2300 feet. There are hills or mountains near Tseo-Jia-Geo that probably reach the altitude of 7000 or 8000 feet. Sept. 5. Labelled and filled box 429, dried insects from Tseo-Jia-Geo; also labelled box 430, dried insects. It rained most of the day, but we gathered a pint of tiny fishes and a few water insects. The collector Lai expects to spend most of the night collecting night insects. Sept. 6. For some strange reason the catch of night moths last night was small. It rained all last night and a couple of hours after daylight this morning. It rained again this afternoon. Very few insects were out. We travelled 80 li to Ngan Lin Chiao^[[2]]. We will go tomorrow to Li Duan Tsang, catching night moths tomorrow night. The country we are in just now is so similar to the vicinity of Suifu in altitude, kind of shrubbery, etc., that I think it best to get to Suifu as quickly as possible, cutting down expenses by dismissing the carrier coolies. We can work near Suifu without using coolies much of the time. At Suifu I can also view the collecting of fish specimens by watching the catches of the Suifu fishermen.
10 Sept. 7. We travelled to Li Duan Tsang, which we reached early. Gathered a lot of small fish in the local streams. We used the gasoline lantern but almost no moths came to the lantern. It has been a cold, dark day, raining most of the time. Tonight it is still raining. We have a 90 li trip to make tomorrow. The road will probably be slippery and wet, so that it will be a hard trip. One of the gasoline lanterns is out of commission, and unless I can repair it at Suifu, it will be necessary to buy another one before next year. I'll be glad to reach Suifu and get some letters from my family. Sept. 8. We travelled 90 li to Li Chuang. In the morning it rained, making the roads bad, both muddy and slippery. In the afternoon it quit raining, and we got a few insects. Killed one bird. Sept. 9. We went overland to Suifu, arriving at 12.30. A good many letters were waiting me at Suifu. It rained part of the time, and the roads were muddy. We passed through a village where I did Red Cross work years ago when at this village. General Feng U. Shiang, "The Christian General," had a hard battle with the Yunnanese. General Feng was then under Yuan Shih Kai who was assuming the powers and position of emperor. Sept. 10. It rained practically all day. We spent all our spare time packing and labelling and drying specimens. I have seven boxes ready to mail tomorrow. Sept. 11. Filled and labelled box no. 431, dried insects. Box 430, I think it was, I emptied into box 431, filling the box emptied with fossils and insects in small bottles.
11 Today I sent by parcel post 25 parcels to the American Express Co. at Shanghai to be forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution. I have several boxes of specimens on hand to be mailed later. Sept. 12. Filled and labelled box 432, insects in bottles. Also filled and labelled box no. 433, bird skeletons. I mailed the above two boxes by parcel post. Sept. 13. Filled and labelled: boxes no. 434, minnows. " " [[dittos for: boxes no.]] 435, insects. " " " [[dittos for: boxes no.]] 436, " [[ditto for: insects.]] " " [[dittos for: boxes no.]] 437, " [[ditto for: insects.]] These boxes have been mailed, making 123 boxes since I started for Mupin. Sept. 14. The netter Lai worked last night with a lantern to secure night moths, but the moon made the sky so bright that he did not secure many. This afternoon we went out netting, with meagre results. It is cloudy, cool, rainy weather. I purchased a live mammal on the street, [[underline]]mammal no. 309.[[/underline]] Sept. 15. There is a full moon, and there is cool weather, with almost constant rain, so the results in insects are meagre. Sept. 16. Received word from the American Express Co. that the forty-five boxes of dried insects mailed from Yacho[[strikethrough]]n[[/strikethrough]]^[[w]] have all been received and forwarded to the United States. This is good news. Today I fixed up a room for taking anthropometrical measurements. I expect to get busy [[strikethrough]]tday[[/strikethrough]] taking measurements soon.
12 Sept. 17. The netter Lai came back with a small catch of insects. He caught cold on his way home. He got wet in a heavy shower. I took an anthropometrical measurement, making 90 Chinese males measured to date. Dr. Andrews, a friend from Tatsienlu, passed through Suifu. I will probably take the Tatsienlu trip next year even if Mr. Edgar does not go with me. Sept. 18-23. We have been busy moving into the new house. All my things have had to be moved. Lai, the netter, has been busy moving the Smithsonian things over. I am not yet settled. Sept. 23. We worked here all day moving to our new house. Lai is out tonight with a lantern after night moths. Sept. 26. Lai has been quite sick but has secured some insects. He is better tonight. I expected to get out to the mountain today for a collecting trip, but on account of the sickness of Lai I have postponed it. Sept. 29. Lai has spent the last two nights with the lantern on the Suifu Hills, and is to continue doing so. Today I purchased two mammals, [[underline]]mammals No. 310, 311.[[/underline]] Oct. 2. The netter Lai has been catching moths every night on the nearby mountains, altitude 2,000 feet. He has had fair success for this time of the year. Filled and labelled box no. 438, insects.
13 Oct. 3. The netter Lai watched the lantern until nearly daylight last night, getting a fair catch. There is no moon now, so that the lanterns are able to bring moths. I bought two fish. They were brought to me [[overwritten]]i[[/overwritten]] with the [[strikethrough]]a[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]]mphatic statement that they are red fish. One weighed about two lbs., and the other about thirty. They are two species. They are useful as specimens, but I am afraid that they were made red by soaking in bloo[[strikethrough]]k[[/strikethrough]]^[[d]]. I'll be more careful in the future. Filled and labelled box no. [[underline]]439, insects.[[/underline]] I took anthropometrical measurements yesterday and today. Oct. 4. Filled and [[underline]]labelled box no. 440,[[/underline]] insects in formalin. Oct. 5. A Major Gordan, a British subject, relative of Chinese Gordon, arrived in Suifu last night and went on this morning to N[[strikethrough]]ue[[/strikethrough]]^[[in]]gyuenfu, thence through Burmah. We have filled another box with night moths. This cold, cloudy weather we are spending all our energies getting night moths. It rains nearly all the time. When the full moon comes again we will not get so many night moths. Labelled box 441, insects. " " [[dittos for: Labelled box]] 442, bird and mammal skins. " " [[dittos for: Labelled box]] 443, skeletons of mammals and birds. Oct. 8. [[underline]]Purchased mammal no. 312.[[/underline]]
14 Oct. 11. The netter has been using the lantern almost every night. We are securing large fish. We saw another large red fish like that secured October 3rd. This fish is shaped like that one, but is even redder. I suspect that they are carps. However, they do not resemble the picture of a carp in Webster's Dictionary. I have been having the carpenter make a great many boxes for future use. Lumber has increased in price about fifty per cent, and carpenters' wages have increased since last spring. Yang Fong Tsang is overdue. I have sent a letter to Kongshien. A messenger will be sent in from Kongshien to hurry him up. We have been securing fish nearly every day. I am watching for the very long-nosed fish. There are salamanders, but I think I have sent in plenty of them. Word from the American Express Co. says that my entire summer's catch, excepting things sent after my trip south of Suifu, has reached Shanghai and has been forwarded by the American Express Co. to New York. I will be very glad to hear about the summer's collection when it reaches the U.S.A. The films I exposed last summer have been returned. Some important pictures have turned out fine. I will forward the films soon. Oct. 12. Yang Fong Tsang has arrived. He has been very sick, and has not a large catch. I am sending him to the hospital for treatment, for he must be well before going on the Mupin trip. He has a few snakes and a few insects.
15 Oct 14. Still securing more fish. Labelled boxes: 444, insects from Suifu. 445, " " [[dittos for: insects from]] Tseo Jia Geo. This afternoon Dr. Stevens, who has been collecting between Burma and Tatsienlu for the Field Museum, arrived. He is to be my guest. We expect to spend several days together. Oct. 15. It rained hard last night. This morning the sun appeared and we went out collecting. I helped Dr. Stevens secure a number of Suifu birds, a large black snake, etc. I secured a small adult snake of a species which neither ^[[he]] nor I have ever seen before. I am sending this, of course, to the Smithsonian Institution. All our community had a Chinese supper together. Oct. 16. Dr. Stevens and I took a hunting trip to the Suifu hills. I let him get all the birds for he has only a short time here, but I secured some good insects. I am learning some things about collecting from him. Filled a bottle with insects in formalin. Oct. 17. Spent the day hunting with Dr. Stevens. I let him have all specimens of species I have procured in the past. I killed a quail. Several years ago I purchased one of these, mounted, and sent it to the Smithsonian Institution. This is the first one I killed. I am sending it to the Smithsonian Institution. Tonight I invited all the foreigners, British and American, who are in town to supper to meet Dr. Stevens. I am getting some good points about collecting from Dr. Stevens.
16 Oct. 18. With Dr. Stevens I hunted all day. Nothing was secured that I had not previously secured, so I allowed Dr. Stevens to take all the specimens. (I had all the British and Americans in Suifu in to supper to meet Dr. Stevens^[[)]]. [[underline]]Purchased mammal no. 313[[/underline]], a young mammal. Oct. 19. We had a terrible time getting Dr. Stevens a boat. I worked practically all day helping Dr. Stevens get off. Purchased a large bird. Oct. 20. I spent considerable time packing and getting ready to send Yang Fong Tsang to Mupin. Filled two boxes with specimens, No. 446, Snakes. " [[ditto for: No.]] 447, Insects and snakes. 21. Spent more time packing for Yang Fong Tsang's trip. Had a long committee meeting. 22. More packing. I have decided to send Yang and [[strikethrough]]N[[/strikethrough]]^[[H]]o first to M[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]^[[t]]. Omei, to do two months of winter collecting there, then to send them early in February to Mupin to collect about three months. Foreigners will be going from here to Yachow early next February and can escort the collectors as far as Yachow. [[underline]]Filled box 448[[/underline]], skins of mammals. Mailed boxes 444-448. A rat ate the head off the quail. I purchased two ducks; one, I think is called a spoon bill. Its bill is larger near the point than at the rear. It is the first duck of this
17 kind I have collected. The head and bill look thus: [[image - pencil drawing of duck neck, head, and bill]] The other may or may not be an ordinary mallard. Dr. Crawford, a Canadian member of the West China Border Research Society, is in Suifu, on his way to Kiating. He is taking my boxes to Kiating. H[[strikethrough]]e[[/strikethrough]]^[[o]] and Yang will go along on shore. This will insure safety to the gun and to the ammunition. Oct. 24. The netter Lai is using the gasol[[strikethrough]]i[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]]ne lantern every night now, for the moon is rising somewhere near midnight. Before the moon rises, the moths come to the lantern. His catch is smaller than in warmer weather but I am continuing with the hope of securing varieties that appear in October or in November. The coming of so many explorers into West China is making it more difficult for me to collect economically. An explorer who passed through not long ago pays his native collectors $45.00 Mexican a month and expenses. I am paying my two best collectors $6.00 Mexican or $3.00 gold and expenses. My collectors do better work I think. One explorer paid $1.00 Mexican for three oranges, while the Chinese get fifty or sixty for one dollar. Dr. Crawford gets away Saturday morning instead of tomorrow, Friday morning. Oct. 25. Purchased some fish. [[underline]]Filled box no. 449, snakes.[[/underline]] Finished packing for the trip of Yang Fong Tsang and Ho to Mt. Omei. Also packed for a ten-day trip of my own up the Min River and back. The netter Lai got a good catch of moths last night. Oct. 26. Last night there was a very heavy rain. Today the small streams were all swollen and the weather was quite cool. There were practically no insects. I got one tiny bird. We had to wade across a swollen
18 stream that was above one's knees. We are spending the night at Gar^[[n 1]] Tsang^[[2]]. I met several Chinese friends when I arrived here. Oct. 27. Lai caught practically no night moths last night. They did not seem to be there to be caught. This morning we had a very bad road. In some places there was deep, sticky mud. It was hard to keep from slipping on the damp stones. Early in the afternoon we reached the Min River. We were twenty li from Gioh Chi, where we were to spend the night. I shot a rare bird, and we stopped to rest. We heard rifle shots not far away. A man in^[[|]]civilian clothes came near us, and stood watching the river. We thought little of it and started on. Soon a boat came down-river. The men on it shouted to us that there were robbers just ahead, and that their boat had been robbed. A ferryboat had just landed near us. We got into it quickly and rowed to the other side of the river. We engaged a small boat to take us to Suifu, and arrived just before dark. On the way I shot at a flock of large cranes and sent one away with a leg hanging down. I'll take the journey to Gi[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]]^[[o]]h Chi later when the river is again free of robbers. Yang and Ho escaped with the collecting outfit because they were on the other side. We escaped by taking the ferry boat. Oct. 28. I killed six birds, one a rare one. Lai secured a small catch of night moths last night 29. Rain all day.
19 30. Lai secured enough moths to fill another box. I spent some time copying anthropometrical measurements. Two Chuan Mia[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]^[[o]] aborigines came in. I took their anthropometrical measurements, making a total to date of 26 men. Oct. 31. I walked to Beh Sou Chi,(40 li.) killing six birds. One is a sparrow with a blue spot on the throat. [[underline]]Filled and labelled box no. 450, dried insects.[[/underline]] Nov. 1. Last night I was up until two o'clock.A.M. packing and skinning the six birds killed yesterday. I was kept busy from 6 to 11 o'clock at a foreign halloween party. This morning I got the baggage off to the boat early. The cook was late in getting breakfast. The boat travelled rapidly. We had to walk 30 li before taking it. I got only one bird today. Lai is out with the lantern tonight after moths. There is no [[strikethrough]]more[[/strikethrough]] ^[[moon]] now, but it is getting cold for moths. We will keep working with the hope that late moths may be different from those that appear earlier. I hope to get all my specimens off by Nov. 14, when my second year of collecting since furlough will be over. I mailed box no. 450 today. I saw two birds with very long, curved bills feeding near the river bank, but did not get a shot at them. They remotely resembled this: [[image - pencil drawing of bird with long curved bill]] (A light brown color, I think.) They are migrating. I think I got one years ago. There are many of the large cranes around. They fly in V's and their cry is not unlike that of a wild goose. The Chinese call them [[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]]^[[n]]gan oh, or wild geese.
20 Nov. 2. I killed ten birds, none of which are rare. The netter Lai is using the night lantern and netting at daytime. The skinner Ho is collecting on Mt. Omei, so I have to do the skinning myself. Nov. 3. Lai got a few more moths than usual last night. We went by boat down the river to Beh Sou Chi. Nov. 4. Lai got a fair catch of moths. I went upstream to Deo^[[4]] Ba^[[4]], or "Bean Flat," a tin[[strikethrough]]e[[/strikethrough]]^[[y]] village. I spent some time looking for a fox. I killed eight birds, one of which is rare, the same kind I killed October 27. I'll try to preserve its skin. I have been very busy visiting church members and their friends. I made two addresses. Nov. 5. I left Lai to collect another day at Beh Sou Chi, and came on down by boat to Suifu. I copied anthropometrical measurements nos. 51-100 of Chinese males to send to Dr. Hrdlicka. Nov. 6. Filled and labelled box no. 451, dried insects 452, bird and mammal bones; 453, birdskins; 454, a very large box of fish. Today I bought several turtles and a large fish. Nov. 7. Purchased a large rabbit killed at Suifu, Mammal no. 314. Filled and labelled box No. 455, bird and mammal skins. Nov. 8. Mailed four boxes of specimens. The box of fish will have to drain a few days before it can be mailed. I purchased six ducks, at least five are of a variety new to my collecting.
21 I had rather poor luck skinning two of the ducks. The head of the male broke off, and the female did not shape up very well. I purchased enough cheap cloth to last for several months, or possibly until I go home on furlough. It is used in wrapping fish. Filled box No. 456, a small box containing the skeleton of mammal No. 314. Nov. 9. Purchased an owl, one less common than the owl that stays here all the year and hoots evenings and mornings. Nov. 10. Purchased some fish. Filled boxes no. 457, insects, bones; 458, fish; and 459, fish. The bird and mammal skins will fill boxes 460, and 461, and insects will fill box no. 462. There are fish and turtles that will not be sufficiently pickled by Nov. 14, the end of the second year that I have been collecting since my last furlough. Nov. 11. Filled box no. 460, birdskins. 461, insects. Sent all the boxes already filled to the postoffice. Went hunting and secured five birds. Nov. 12. Filled box 462, rabbit skin and birdskin, and 463, bird skeleton. The rabbit skin was on a plank, and I put it on the stove to hasten the drying of the rabbit skin. The top of the board was not scorched at all, but the stomach of the rabbit skin is badly scorched. Labelled box 464. This makes a total of exactly 250 boxes of specimens filled and forwarded this year, the record year so far. This box is full of birdskins. I have mailed by parcel post all the boxes mentioned above excepting box No. 450. I purchased several fish. The fishermen were hard up for money, so I purchased one large fish at two-thirds the ordinary price. Fish are probably
22 more expensive here than in America. They cost about 16 cents gold a lb., I think. Nov. 13. Mailed box no. 464, a total of 250 boxes during my second year of collecting, and 214 for the first, since returning to West China from furlough. This last year has been, and may be in the future, my record year in collecting and forwarding specimens. I have now on hand several boxes of fish and turtles that are not pickled enough to be forwarded. Yang and Ho are collecting on Mt. Omei, and no doubt have some specimens. Since September 10 it has been cloudy and rained almost continually, thus handicapping us in the work of collecting. At present many fish are being brought in by the fishermen. There is a kind of eel that the natives call a white eel that is rare and expensive here. I am trying to get a specimen. Nov. 14. Secured two ducks, one a spoonbill, and another owl. Yesterday I purchased a rabbit, Mammal No. 315. It is so shot to pieces that the skin looks badly. The carpenter who went with me to Mupin last year wants to go to Tatsienlu next year. I am beginning to teach him how to skin birds and mammals. Nov. 15. The hunters are bringing in strange birds as rapidly as one could secure them on an expensive hunting trip. The fact ^[[is]] that there are many hunters hunting all the time, and odd birds are brought to me. It is really a cheaper way to get them than to hunt them myself. The hunters are trying to raise the prices, and may discontinue bringing specimens if I do not.
23 I found a tape-worm in the bowels of the golden-headed male duck, and so I am preserving the intestines of the bird, and all the pieces of the tape-worm I could find, to send to the Smithsonian Institution. There are five or six local Chinese fishermen and hunters that are collecting for me as efficiently as though they were hired collectors. It takes all the spare time I have to care for the specimens. Nov. 16. Labelled boxes No. 465 and 466, skeletons of birds and one rabbit. Also 467, skeletons of birds. I have not heard from my family for two months and six days, and am much worried about it. I am sending a telegram to Shanghai to cable to America for information. Nov. 17. Went by boat to Li Chuang. Shot one duck, but it escaped. It was a cold, rainy day. Nov. 18. We went overland to Gi Tien Ba, south of Li Chuang. The path was very slippery and muddy. Got a very few insects. Nov. 19. Travelled from Gi Tien Ba to Li Chuang. Killed 13 birds and caught a few insects. Caught one mammal no. 315, which had its skull ruined in the trap. The road was very muddy, and in places difficult for travel. Nov. 20. Went by boat to Suifu, mailed boxes 465, 466, 467. Nov. 21. A strange duck was brought in to me today. It is much like a meganser, but is about half as large. That is, it is much like Mergamus squamatus and its relatives. The moon rises about midnight now. The netter is using the lantern to secure night moths. I want to catch night moths this year as long as they will come to the lantern in order to see whether or not new varieties appear in the late autumn or in the winter time.
24 I am purchasing another gasol[[strikethrough]]i[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]]ne lantern so as to make sure that I have plenty next year on the trip to Tatsienlu. Nov. 22. Filled boxes 468, 469, bird skeletons. Today I purchased several strange fish, and another owl. The bird is injured some, but I will preserve the skin. There is a baby leopard in town, alive, but I do not think it worth while to purchase it. I am getting quite a few new varieties of birds this fall. Today I took two anthropometrical measurements of Chinese men. Nov. 23. Three strange ducks and some good fish were brought in today. Nov. 24. Today several more birds were brought in. Nov. 25. The netter Lai got some water insects today. I bought four birds, and shot a sparrow. A letter has come from Yang and Ho, who are collecting on Mt. Omei. They have two wild boar, and say hunting is good. They want me to allow them to remain until after Chinese New Year instead of coming down to Suifu. They have forty birds. Nov. 25-26. Secured more birds and fish. I am working on account No. 15. I am now very busy with other duties, so the work is slow. Nov. 27. Purchased four birds. This is one of the busiest times of the year. I took one anthropometrical measurement, and worked some more on accounts. Nov. 28-29. Purchased several birds, Among which are a spoon-bill duck and another large crane. I am purchasing birds, or using three or four Chinese hunters to get birds, for I am very short of large shotgun ammunition, 1350 shells are to arrive here soon, but the largest shot are number sixes. Nov. 30. Today has been a very busy day. I bought one duck. Another was brought to me by a Chinese friend who was so sure I'd want it that he bought it.
25 This afternoon I had a call from two Chinese. They are collectors sent out by the China National Government, which is building up a museum of natural history in Nanking. One is collecting birds, and the other fish and reptiles The collector of birds was glad to purchase the duck which I did not want. They knew about me from the reports of new species I have sent in published by Dr. Stejneger, new species of frogs, lizards, snakes, etc. I received word today from the Royal [[strikethrough]]Asiatic[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Geographical]] Society that I am now a fellow of that society, with the degree F.R.G.S. This seems strange in a way. All my collections have gone to our own National Museum, but this recognition came from British Geographical Society. Dec. 1. Today I secured a gull that is much whiter than those I have sent in before, and also a large sparrow hawk or kite that seems to be different from those previously sent in. My busy season is over tonight, and in a few days I expect to take a trip in which I can do some collecting. I want to send in my financial report soon, and to mail several more boxes of specimens. Dec. 2. Labelled boxes 468, 469, 470, skeletons and 471 fish. Dec. 3-4. Filled box 472, birdskins. Purchased a live hare, and one bird. Mailed boxes 468-471. Mammal no. 317. Worked until midnight fixing the hare. Dec. 5. Filled box no. 473, birds and rabbit, skins. The netter Lai collected water insects. I gave him a lesson about skinning birds. Dec. 6. Today I purchased the skin of a wild dog or wolf that was killed by a Chinese hunter two or three days ago. It is a wild animal but looks as if it might be a half breed--half tame dog and half some wild animal. Mammal no. 318. I have been purchasing birds killed by Chinese hunters. This is really cheaper than shooting them myself, and I have the pick of what a large number of native hunters are getting.
26 One reason I am purchasing birds and mammals is that I am very short of ammunition above (or larger than) number ten. I am sending for another order from Shanghai. Dec. 7. I got up about seven o'clock and finished packing. Travelled about eight li to Huang Sa Chi, where I am spending the night. I took some pictures of some strange water--wheels used in making incense biscuits. Killed three birds. Dec. 8. Again killed three birds, none of which were rare. Two are somewhat like sparrows, with yellow on their wings. I saw several flocks of these. We reached Gioh Chi just before dark. It was a little over five miles down the river from here that I almost stepped into the net of some robbers a few weeks ago. A Chinese friend of mine was kidnapped about a mile from here five days ago. These robbers are well concealed and suddenly appear, armed with revolvers, and do their work. This Chinese friend who was kidnapped is Mr. P'en a church member. He laughed at me at Suifu for turning back quickly when about to walk into a band of about twnety [[twenty]] robbers armed with automatic revolvers. On his return to this village, he was kidnapped before he reached home. Because of the robbers I cannot go to Gien Ban over the inland road where collecting is good, but must travel along the river, where there is little to collect. Dec. 9. It's unsafe because of robbers just out of this town, probably because the militia or their friends are doing the robbing. Purchased a duck and a mammal, Mammal no. 319. This mammal, a female, was exceedingly fat. It was a very hard task to remove the fat from the skin and the netter Lai and I both worked at it a long time. The skeleton is in fine condition. I met a lot of Chinese friends including the head militia officers.
27 Dec. 10. Today and yesterday we passed by and through field after field of growing opium, of which much more is being planted than last year. In 1928 the Nationalist Government decreed that opium should not be planted any more and that opium smoking should be discontinued within a reasonable time. None of these decrees were enforced in Szechuan. On the contrary, the opium tax was collected from farmers whether they planted opium or not. Those who did not plant the opium poppy had to pay a "Lazy Man's tax." This year official placards have been posted saying that the charge would be so much a "hole" and the "lazy man's tax" would be collected from those who did not plant. The result is that this year much more opium is being planted than last year, and probably more than ever before. Many of the Chinese estimate that between 40 and 60 % of the population smoke opium. Today's journey was not extra hard, but I made several side excursions after specimens, and the result is that I am very tired. I got several birds. I shot a large crane and wounded him, but he escaped. I saw one bird as large as the largest cranes. It had a sharp bill, a light breast, and dark wings and back. I shot at it on the fly, but did not get it. I saw several of these near Yachow last winter, but I have not yet succeeded in killing one. Dec. 11. I went out for a short hunt with a Chinese who is noted as a crack shot. He deserves his reputation. If I had two weeks to spare to go hunting with him, it is certain that we could get a good catch of mammals. He has promised to send me some, such as the porcupine, the fox, the wild boar, etc. We killed seven common birds. He used my shotgun twice, and got the birds both times. The Chinese at Gioh Chi and here are very friendly, and I have a number of old friends in both places. We are unable to hire a boat to Suifu at a reasonable price, so we will go overland to the Min River and catch some boat going down the river to Suifu. Dec. 12. There was only one boat to Gin Ban, and the captain asked too
28 big a price to take us to Suifu, so we went overland to Yoh Bo, caught a boat to Li Chia, and then took another boat to Suifu. Killed one duck and four small birds. I could have killed more ducks, but am short of large shot, so fired only once at the ducks. We spend the night at Liu Shih Plen, forty li above Suifu. Dec. 13. We started at daylight and reached Suifu about 8:30 A.M. I found two rabbits and four birds awaiting my arrival. Mammals no. 320, 321. Filled and labelled boxes no. 472, 475. insects. Dec. 14. Filled box no. 474, bird skeletons, mailed boxes 472-473. Dec. 15. Filled 475, birdskins. Purchased Mammal no. 322. Dec. 16. Packed box no. 476, skeletons of birds and mammals. Mailed boxes 474, 475, 476. Dec. 17. Spent some time caring for specimens. A rainy day. Dec. 18. Filled box no. 477, skeletons, mailed this box. Dec. 19. I have engaged a carpenter to make more boxes for specimens. The fish are pickled, and should be forwarded. I have written to Shanghai for more ammunition. Shotgun ammunition is very hard to get. Dec. 20. Filled box 478, bird skeletons. Skinned two birds, saved the skeletons of others. Packed some fish. The day was very cold, and rainy. Took one anthropometrical measurement. Dec. 21. Filled box no. 479, mammal skins. Also filled several big boxes of fish, emptying the fish-pickling cans, but will not label the boxes today. Took 3 anthropometrical measurements. Lai, the netter, is not well. It is a very cold rainy day. Mailed one box of specimens.
29 I am giving the carpenter Wang lessons in how to skin so he can be more useful next summer. Dec. 22. It snowed last night enough to cover the surrounding mountains white, but not the lower grounds. The neighbors sent for some snow and made ice cream. This afternoon all the foreigners in town had an ice cream party. It is unusually cold for this part of the country. Tonight we set a number of rat traps.I want to train Wand and Lai to skin mammals. They will both be necessary in the trip next summer. Dec. 23. We got no rats. Dec. 24. Caught one rat. Lai is watching the river for fish. He skinned this rat all by himself and did remarkably well. It was a common rat, and was merely for practice. We did not put any arsenic on it, and threw it away. Bought one duck. Dec. 25. Lai did another good job skinning a rat. Dec. 26. I went to the Suifu hills hunting. I killed three birds. It is so cold that some birds generally on higher hills are here now. I sent Lai to trap a little. Mammal no. 323. a mouse. Dec. 27. Went to Ngan Bien. Dec. 28. Returned to Suifu. Labelled boxes 480, 481, insects, Box 482, 483, fish. Dec. 29. A very cold, rainy day. Packed box 484, rabbit skins. Boxes 485-486, fish. Wrapped several boxes for shipping. Took eight anthropometrical measurements. Dec. 30-31. Lai has learned to skin rats quite well. I sent him to the hills to begin to trap mammals. Spent much time moving. A letter from the trappers on Mt. Omei says that deep snow has interfered some with [[strikethrough]]this[[/strikethrough]] ^[[their]] collecting.
30 Jan. 1, 1930. Last night we were out at a party all night. Lai brought in one rat, mammal no. 324. Jan. 2. Two mountain mice caught by Lai today. Mammals no. 325-326. Jan. 3. Lai caught two rats, and I bought a mammal skin, mammals no. 327-329. The skin purchased was killed in the northern part of Yunnan Province. I got it at a very low price or would not have bought it. Jan. 4. Purchased a large fish. Jan. 5. Purchased a rabbit. Lai got two mammals. Mammal 329 was thrown away. Todays are numbered 329-331. Jan. 6-8. Very cold weather with more snow. Purchased five more birds. One bird is a large crane. Mammal no. 332. Jan. 9. Labelled boxes 487, skeletons, 488 birdskins, and 489, skeletons. Purchased some fish and birds. Lai skinned a bird but made a poor job of it. Jan. 10. Went to Shin Tsang, 70 li. Killed a strange hawk, and two strange small birds, besides others. Jan. 11. Returned to Suifu. Killed several birds, most of them common. Last night there was a very heavy frost, and ice froze on the rice fields, something very uncommon. Jan. 12. Lai caught one mountain rat. Mammal no. 333. Bought a young wildcat, mammal no. 334. Jan. 13. Lai caught nothing. Jan. 14. Mailed three packages of specimens. Lai caught a rat, mammal no. 335. Hereafter I will have more difficulty in getting heavy boxes to Shanghai, as the postoffice can not receive anything over 10 kilometers. I shall have to
31 send these heavy packages down in the care of foreign friends who are going to Shanghai. Jan. 15. Secured mammal no. 336, a mole. Jan 16. Filled box no. 490, skeletons, and mailed it. Lai gathered some water insects. It is so cold that he cannot keep this work up very long. Laid is to go home for a short vacation, but while gone he will trap small mammals. It has turned cold again. Jan. 17. Bought lumber to make boxes, and called a carpenter. Bought some Palmolive soap for presents on the next summer trip. I called a carpenter to make boxes for specimens. Jan. 18. Bought twelve small birds that a farmer had killed. I thought they would be of some use. I persuaded that farmer to release the thirteenth bird, which was alive and uninjured, for we had plenty of that species. Yang and Ho arrived today with three wild boar and some other specimens. It was so cold that they were unable to do a great deal during the last few weeks. I want to send them to Mupin so as to get specimens of the white panda[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]] before summer. My Lolo friend, Mr. Li, is now in Suifu. I had a good visit with him tonight. Yand Fong Tsang has bad eyes, which will have to be cured. Jan. 19. Reckoned with Ho and Yang. They got nine big birds, 101 small bird skins, 54 bird skeletons, 27 small mammals, and three wild boar. They would have done better had it not been for the severe cold. They also secured a tiny snake which they say came out in winter time at high altitude, and a strange [[strikethrough]]c[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]]ell. Jan. 22. Purchased three birds, one a small owl. I am very busy with Conference. The specimens are all in a safe place, but I do not have time to finish them up^[[|]]and ship them off.
32 Jan. 23. I managed to find time to label and rewrap all the birds and some of the mammals secured.on Mt. Omei. Spent some time getting rid of the maggots on the wild boar skeletons. Mammals nos. 337 to 368 are all from Mt. Omei and Kiating. There are some very nice-looking birds, but the mammals, outside the wold boars, are rather commonplace. Jan. 24. Very busy with conferences, but managed to find time to go over the rest of the specimens with Yang and Ho. On the 26th of November they collected a tiny snake. They say it was snowing on the day when they caught this snake and that the altitude is probably 5000 feet or over. This story seems almost too strange to be true, but they declare it is true. I reckoned accounts with Yang Fong Tsang so that he could go home and collect there during the next month. Jan. 28. Purchased a large mammal, mammal no. 369. Jan. 30. We are in the midst of foreign conference. During the past two weeks I have been very busy, since I have had to attend conferences and entertain guests, without my good wife to take the entertainment off my hands. The specimens taken on the recent collecting trip to M[[strikethrough]]r[[/strikethrough]]^[[t]]. Omei by Ho and Yang must be left here until my return from Chengtu. I must go to Chengtu to have dental work done. We leave Saturday and it will hustle me to get ready. Jan. 31. Conference closed today. Sessions took up to ten o'clock. I worked until 3. A. M. getting ready for the Chengtu trip before getting to bed. Feb. 1. We travelled to Lin^[[u]] Shih Pien. I hunted on shore, but got nothing. I shot at a flock of large gray cranes, but they were too far away and the ammunition was damp. Feb. 2. We travelled as far as Gioh^[[5]] Chi^[[1]]. Feb. 3. We reached Yoh Bo. We are making rather slow progress.
33 Feb. 4. We reached Chien Way. I secured two birds and shot at a rabbit, but it was too far away. Feb. 5. In the morning there was a very heavy fog so we could not travel. We finally got to Mo^[[4]] Tsi^[[3]] Tsang. Killed three birds. Feb. 7. Reached Kiating. Visited some Han Dynasty caves, and packed three loads for Yachow. The collectors will go into Mupin. I am taking another collector to work near Chengtu. Feb. 8. Went by auto to Chengtu, arriving 5 P. M. Caught a strange owl, but it escaped. Feb. 9. Spoke in our Cheng^[[t]]u church. Visited several Chengtu friends. Feb. 10. Visited the city museum, and purchased some artifacts. Had dental work done. Feb. 11. Secured some important artifacts, probably Tang or Ming Dynasty. Feb. 12. Had dinner with Dan Dye, curator of the University Museum. Looked over artifacts of Han Dynasty caves in the University Museum. Lai collected water insects. Met two Chuan Miao friends who had come to Chengtu from beyond Suifu. Feb. 13. This morning I visited the tomb of a king and queen who reigned about 700 B. C., before the Chinese had entered Szechuan. I got two small artifacts, one probably part of an earthenware drain, and the other a piece of earthenware vessel. Then, with Rev. Thomas Torrance, F.R.G.S., I visited the curio street, and bought a large vase, probably 2 or 300 years old, and several snuff bottles. There are so many snuff bottles being made now just to sell, that one
34 has to be very careful to get the genuine old ones. Lai collected water insects. Feb. 14. I lectured before the West China Border Research Society. Lai collected water insects. Feb. 15. I spent the day collecting artifacts, etc. Bought several good snuff bottles for the Smithsonian Institution. Feb. 16. Lectured on the aborigines of West China. I heard that Mr. Edgar of Tatsienlu is at Kiating and will soon leave for Chengtu. I telegraphed him to await me at Kiating. I did this in order that we could arrange for the summer collecting to Tibet. Feb. 17. Saturday I arranged with Mr. Franck, lepidopterist, to overlook my netter Lai, who will collect near Kuanshien this spring. Feb. 17. I have been buying artifacts for the Smithsonian Institution. I have secured a number of good ones, but none are very expensive. Some are snuff bottles. The imitations are terrible, and one needs to be constantly on the lookout. Feb. 18. I finished making arrangements for the work of the netter Lai, and preparing for my return to Suifu. I am going overland by motorbus, but the things, artifacts, I have been collecting are to be brought down by a friend early in March to Suifu. Tonight the wild geese flew over, migrating northward. Feb. 19. I got up very early, and went by ricksha to the bus station. Thence I travelled by auto bus to Kiating, arriving at 2 P.M. At Kiating I met my old friend Edgar, F.R.G.S., who is to go with me on the Tibetan trip next summer. We had supper together at Lovegrens. Feb. 20. On a small boat I started for Suifu, arriving at Ma Lin Tsang, where we stopped for the night. I killed two of the great cranes, and
35 five ducks, besides a grebe. I saw several flocks of these large cranes. I also saw a large eagle of the same kind I killed near Yachow last year. 21. Reached Suifu early in the afternoon. At Kiating I purchased a strange, large mole that was caught on Mt. Omei at the altitude of about 5000 feet. Feb. 22. The skinner Ho has been busy skinning the large cranes. Their skins were oily, and it was a hard job. I packed and labelled box 491, mammal skins; 492-493 bird skeletons; Boxes 494-500, birdskins; Box 501, mammal skins. Feb. 23. Labelled the Mt. Omei mammals, also mammal no. 370. Labelled boxes no. 502-504, snuff bottles; boxes 505-506, mammal skins. 507 skeletons; 508 birdskins. 509, eel; 510 shrimp; 511 fish; 512, fish; 513 stuffed bird. Feb. 24. Filled box 514, skeletons. Wrapped and mailed ten boxes of specimens. Purchased a large fish. Feb. 25. Mailed six boxes, and wrapped and labelled seven others. Bought a large fish. Feb. 26. I will quit buying large fish unless they are very special. They are quite likely to spoil in the hot weather which is coming on. The postoffice is unwilling to accept packages over twenty lbs. in weight. I am therefore trying the experiment of cutting the largest fish into two pieces, and sending them in two separate boxes. Filled box 515, skull of a wild boar. Boxes 516-518 , skins of wild boars. Feb. 27. Filled boxes 519, 520, bones of wild boar. The carpenters are making boxes to put specimens in. Bought one fish.
36 Feb. 28. Filled box 521, crane skeleton, mailed several boxes. Filled boxes 522-523, wild boar skeletons. Boxes 524-5, fish. Mar. 1. Filled box 526, fish. 527-528, also fish. Mailed several boxes of specimens. The messenger sent after Yang Fong Tsang has returned. There is a strong band of brigands near Yang's home. Yang has not dared to leave, lest there be a raid by brigands. However, he says that he will come soon, and leave on the Mupin trip. Mar. 3. Filled boxes 529-530, skins of large cranes. The man who was magistrate of Mupin last summer was a Suifu man. He has now returned and has called on me. He gave me the following facts. The head-hunter (not a hunter of heads, but the chief hunter) whom I had last summer was carefully instructed by me how to skin a white bear. He said he would get me one this winter. He expected my men to go in December or January. When they did not go in, he sent the skin and bones of a well-preserved white panda out to Yachow and sold it to Dr. Crook, who will send it to the Roosevelt Brothers for the Field Museum. This was one big piece of bad luck. Large bands of robbers are now threatening Yang Fong Tsang's home, so he has delayed longer than I expected his coming to Suifu in order to start on the Mupin trip. March 4. Dried out some fish specimens, so that they could be mailed. Wrapped two boxes and labelled them. Bought a queer eel with a white stomach which is rare. It is called a white eel. March 5. Mailed six boxes of specimens, making a total to date of 529. One has been packed but not mailed, a grand total of 530. We are having cold, rainy days. March 6. More bad luck. There is another war in the Mupin district
37 between the Chinese and the aborigines, and troops are being sent out from Chengtu. That means that our men cannot go into Mupin at this time. Never mind, we'll get good white panda skins sometime, somewhere, somewhen, and somehow. There is quite a boxer uprising on the Yunnan border, and troops have been sent out. This might delay Yang Fong Tsang. Mar. 7. Killed two birds. Mar. 8. Purchased small fish. Mar. 9. Hard rain nearly all day. Took an anthropometrical measurement. Received mantles and anthropometrical blanks from the Smithsonian. March 10. Filled box 531, shrimp; 532, shrimp; 533 vase; 534, clay images; 535 animal skin and clay images; 536 eel. I received a letter from Mr. Franck about Lai, the collector, who is working at Chengtu. Yang Fong Tsang is overdue. Today I entertained the man who was magistrate at Mupin last year. He said Dr. Crook offered seventy dollars for a white panda skin, and that when the aborigine hunter heard about it, he took the panda skin out and sold it to Dr. Crook for the Roosevelts and the Field Museum. I would have gotten the skin for twenty dollars. This means that I must pay a much larger price for a skin, if I am to get one at all. Mar. 11. Filled box 537, old Chinese vase. Mailed all the boxes already filled. Purchased a small rabbit, mammal no. 371. Worked over accounts, 12-13. I got some beetles out of a very hard-wooded pumalo tree. Pack for the trip to Ngan Bien. Mar. 14. Travelled to Ngan Bien, arriving 5 P.M. Got six birds and some insects. The small, orange-tipped, white butterflies were out. There was a large, rare, yellow one out, but we did not catch it.
38 Mar. 16. We filled a small bottle with insects, and secured a few winged insects. There are about 1000 boxers south of Ngan Bien. There has been a battle between them and the regular soldiers. There are now quite a few brigands about. Mar. 17. Went to Beh So[[strikethrough]]n[[/strikethrough]]^[[u]] Chi. Secured a few winged insects. Mar. 18. Went to Suifu. During the past few days I have been trying out a new netter, Mo Lin^[[u]]. I have decided that he is too dull, and that I had better not try to teach him, but find better material. The carpenter who went with us last summer may not be available next summer. I'll have to pay higher wages in order to hold my best men and to get other good men. Chen Gih Yuen has written offering to help collect, but because of his temper I am afraid to use him. He has other faults. Mar. 20. Have taken four anthropometrical measurements of women. Purchased two fish. Mar. 22. Yesterday and today I have been spending much time on accounts. I want to reckon accounts to date and report before going to the country for a three-week trip. Mar. 23. Received a shipment of specimens from Lai, who has been working near Kuanshien. Box no. 538, winged insects; Boxes no. 549-545, water insects secured near Kuanshien, Szechuan, China. I spent much of the day with Rev. Thomas Torrance, F.R.G.S. I packed the specimens mentioned above. I want to finish working over Smithsonian accounts tomorrow. March 24, 1930. Today I finished and sent off account no. 16, and packed box 546. Then I mailed all the boxes that have been packed to date, including box 546.
39 The secretary of the Foreign Mission Board is coming to visit west China. I have been appointed to meet him at Chungking or at [[strikethrough]]J[[/strikethrough]]^[[I]]chang. This will to some extent interfere with the collecting during the next two months. I will have my men working, and do all I can. I expect to mail this diary tomorrow morning, just before beginning an outstation trip of about two weeks. During that time I will be training collectors I expect to use next summer.