Diary no. 6, February 15, 1929-June 13, 1929

ID: SIA RU007148

Creator: Graham, David Crockett

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1929

Citation: David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

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This field book is a diary from 15 February to 13 June 1929 documenting Graham's field collecting trips to Kiating (currently Leshan), Pin Shan, and the Suifu (currently Yibin) vicinity. Graham provides a narrative description of daily activities including amounts and types of specimen he and associates collected or purchased. Graham collected mammals, birds, insects, salamanders, frogs, shrimp, fossils, and possibly other specimen. Mammal numbers range from 122-187. Locations in which Graham collected include various localities near and including modern day Leshan, Yibin, and Hongya. Descriptions of some specimens are occasionally provided. Graham also collects artifacts and conducts ethnological and anthropological research during this trip. No scientific names are provided.

Date Range


Start Date

Feb 15, 1929

End Date

Jun 13, 1929

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Herpetology
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • Yibin
  • Sichuan
  • Hongya
  • China
  • Leshan


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


1 Box Folder 8

- DIARY NO. 6 D.C. Graham From February 15, [[red underlined]] 1929 [[/red underlined]] to June 13,1929 Mammals up to date include Mammal No. 186. Boxes include box No. 234. Feb. 15. Last night I took care of bird specimens. Today I went on a long hunt up a canyon northwest of here and secured 23 birds. The village of Tai Ping ^[[2]] Tsang ^[[2]] is in the canyon where we collected. There was most beautiful scenery, high mountains in front, and on both sides, rapids, forests, green hillsides, etc. Feb. 16. In the morning I went for a three-hour hunt, securing seven birds. I saw a large eagle, but did not get a shot at him. I also saw a flock of bamboo partridges. I expect to leave Tuesday a.m. and shoot as I go down the river to Kiating. This evening I prepared the skeletons of 26 birds. Feb. 17. I skinned four birds and cleaned two bird skeletons. We are drying bird skeletons in the oven so the meat on them will not decay and stink. My regular bird skinner is not along with me. Since leaving Suifu I have taken care of nearly a hundred birds. I have saved nearly twenty dollars Mexican because the skinner was not along and I have done the work myself, but it slightly limits the amount of specimens that I can collect and take care of. Feb. 18. Today I made 12 anthropometrical measurements. Then I went hunting and secured ten birds, some of which seem rare and interesting. One red bird looks like some that I secured near Tatsienlu. Feb. 19. Today I cared for five bird specimens, and took anthropometrical measurements of one Chinese. I also visited two Chinese temples, noting the gods, etc. I spe[[underlined]] nd [[/underlined]] ^[[spent]] some time packing for the trip down the river to Kiating. I expect to leave on a raft tomorrow morning. Feb. 20. Went by raft to Lo ^[[2]] Ba ^[[4]]. Shot a number of ducks and a kingfisher. One male fishduck seems to be important as a specimen. I am sure that I secured a specimen a few years ago, preserving the skin, so I am preserving the skeleton of this one. I have killed a number of fishducks hoping to get the rarer kind, [[underline]] mergamus squatamus [[/underline]]. Feb. 21. Today I killed one of the eagles. I killed it just above Hong Ya. Since I previously sent in two skins, I am sending in the skeleton of this bird. Otherwise today's catch has been disappointing. It was a bright, sunshiny day, and that may be a reason why good specimens could not easily be secured. I saw a second eagle of the same kind below Hong Ya, but I could not get near it. It was on an island where the raft could not get near it. There are many fierce-looking stones and wild rapids in this river between Yachow and Kiating. Ordinary boats could not navigate this stream in some cases, but the rafts made of large bamboos do it quite successfully. Feb. 22. This morning there was a full moon and a clear sky after midnight, so the boatman started travelling down the river about two-thirty a.m. It became
- 2 - foggy about daylight, but the raft did not stop. We arrived at Kiating about 10:30 A.M. I expect to spend tomorrow in the Han Dynasty tombs and Sunday visit temples. I will also hunt birds. This afternoon I hunted gulls, which are often seen flying above the Min and the Ya Rivers. It was a hot, sunshiny afternoon, and there was not a gull in sight. They apparently fly around earlier and probably later in the day. This afternoon I called on the city postmaster. He showed me three images of men and one of a fowl from the Han Dynasty tombs. They were of unglazed earthware. Most Chinese believe these Han Dynasty tombs to be Mantsi caves, but to my surprise the postmaster said they were Han Dynasty Chinese tombs, and that these images of men went back to or were rooted back in an earlier custom of actually killing people and burying them in the tombs or of burying people alive. He had apparently reached this conclusion through the study of the materials themselves and of other Chinese sources, such as history, etc. Feb. 23. I sent Chin ^[[2]] Gih Uen across the Min River to look for artifacts on that side of the river, and with two coolies I went to the caves about ten li northwest on the Ya River. Chen Gih Uen got nothing of value, but got into a cave where there was a wild animal that may have been a wolf or a fox. He attacked the animal, but it got away. He bumped his head on the roof of the ca^[[v]]e-tomb and raised a good big bump. I got much more that he did, but was somewhat disappointed in the number and value of the artifacts collected. I secured two birds, one of which I believe is new as far as my collecting is concerned. I made some diagrams of caves, etc. When I was about to return to the city, I saw a rabbit chased into a patch of high grass about a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. I spent some time hunting for him, but did not find him. I did a good deal of walking and climbing today, and also did a good deal of work with the hoe. In many of the caves I had to lie flat and crawl into the caves and out of them. Feb. 24. Today I had to speak twice in the local church. Chen Gih Uen, the netter, worked in the Han Dynasty tombs, but got nothing worth while. We have covered many of these tombs, and it is getting harder to secure artifacts worth while. However, I cannot be sure that he tried hard, and really did his best. He is quitting as soon as we reach Suifu and I will try to find and train another man at once. I do not think he has been doing faithful work at Yachow during the past few months. This afternoon I went across the river near the Great Buddha and visited a number of the old tombs on that side of the river. I took some pictures of the artifacts from the Han Dynasty tombs that are in hands of the Kiating postmaster. Feb. 25. Finished packing this morning, and started down the river toward Suifu. Killed two gulls before leaving Kiating. I saw gulls as far down the river as Chien Way or Kienway. They are not found at Suifu. Stopped for the night at Yao-Gu-[[underlined]] Tao [[/underlined]]. ^[[? To]] Feb. 26. We struck a hard, up-river wind. It was so strong that the boatmen on another boat got off and pulled the boat downstream by the bamboo rope ordinarily used in pulling boats upstream. For six or seven miles three men walked downstream on the other side of the river, and we did not go any faster than they
- 3 - did. Either the robbers have been scared away, or they are busy enjoying the New Year season, for none of them are busy on this part of the river just now. On the way to Yachow I had a heavy escort, but I have none just now. We are stopping at Liu Shih Pien tonight, 40 li from Suifu. Feb. 27. At about 2:30 a.m. the moon was very bright, so the boatmen started for Suifu. They came to a bad rapid, and were soon stalled on some rocks, with danger that the boat would be wrecked. Life-boats began to hover about like vultures around a carcass. They would have demanded big sums of money to save us if we had been wreched. I jumped out of bed and worked for some time with bare feet--later took time to put my shoes on. After working over an hour we got into the right channel and got over the rapid. We started to land at Sobochi, but missed the landing and barely missed being hurled against some rocks. We turned back into the main stream to avoid the rocks, and finally landed in a little bay and anchored until morning, when we came on to Suifu. Spent the rest of the day unpacking, receiving callers, etc. A letter from my wife tells that the whole family, including my wife, has had the flu[[strikethrough]] e [[/strikethrough]], my wife and the baby quite badly. Feb. 28. Today I have had the skinner drying bird skeletons all day. Chen Gih Uen has done unsatisfactory work collecting in Yachow. He had trouble both with foreigners and with Chinese. He did not do faithful collecting, securing only a fraction of what he could have and ought to have secured. He was in a big gambling deal and one of the men who lost was a nurse in our Yachow hospital. The nurse felt so badly that he committed suicide. Chen Gih Uen said that the hospital persecuted him so much that he committed suicide, and started to cause a big disturbance against the foreigners by arousing the Chinese servants who were employed by the foreigners to strike, etc. He was persuaded to desist, but came within just a little of unjustly harming the foreigners at Yachow. Because he was sending in so few specimens I instructed a friend at Yachow to discontinue his salary and send him back to Suifu. He wrote a letter to me stating that he had lots of specimens on hand, and that he had written two letters telling about his unjust treatment, one to the Smithsonian Institution and one to the American Government. What he wrote, if he wrote at all, and who received those letters, I do not know. I sent him word that if he worked and secured specimens as he ought, his wages would be paid. He braced up, and had some good specimens when I reached Yachow, but said he was determined to quit and go into business. He said he wanted me to bring him back to Suifu, which I have done. We settled up finally today. He showed a bad spirit, and tried to find ways to compel me to give him more money than was due him. I am glad I am through with him, and have already taken steps to secure a new collector. I hope to get some of my specimens dried and forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution in a few days. March 1. Chen Gih Uen has asked permission to bring in any specimens that he may run across, and of being paid in proportion to the number of specimens secured, which I have agreed to. If he brings nothing he gets nothing. Since returning to Suifu I have had a very strenuous program. I have taken no time to rest, and have barely taken time to eat properly. The result is that today my digestive organs got badly upset. They are feeling better now.
- 4 - March 2. Today with the help of the skinner Ho I packed several boxes of bird skeletons. A letter from the American Express Company shows that all the 210 boxes of artifacts and specimens that I sent in during my first year, with the exception that either one number was skipped or the box with that number must have been lost, have been received and forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution by the American Express Company. This is pleasing news to me, of course. March 3. A boat coming down the Min River was fired upon, and then robbed. One man was killed and one wounded. I recopied all the anthropometrical measurements which I took at Yachow. I labeled a few boxes of specimens. I have already filled boxes including number 243, and probably have enough material on hand to fill fifteen more boxes. It is a problem to get paper strong enough to wrap these boxes on the outside. March 4. Labelled and packed boxes 244-245. I secured a salamander 44 inches long, or 111.8 m.m., and having a head with the breadth of 18.5 m.m. I am sending it along after it is well cured in formalin. I have packed seven boxes of fish. The carpenters are making boxes just the right size for the fish. Because tin is apt to rust and spoil the fish, I am trying the experiment of making boxes into which the fish fit closely, and simply putting the fish inside these boxes wrapped in cloth that has been soaked in formalin. I very nearly got a good mammal today, but lost it because I tried to jew the man down. He got mad and went away. March 5. Today the carpenter has been busy making boxes for specimens. I took one anthropometrical measurement. I packed several boxes of specimens, and labeled two. I took a long walk, and secured a few insects. I secured a few fish specimens. I gave a prospective collector a little instruction and developed one of the films I exposed on the trip to Kiating. I also took several pictures. March 6. Today I had the carpenter make some more boxes for shipping future specimens, and purchased a large bird. I'll have to get some new oilcloths made for the collecting of next summer. March 8. During the past few days I have been getting boxes made for the future shipping of specimens, and this morning I worked out a financial statement of the Smithsonian accounts to date, which will be mailed to Dr. Wetmore tomorrow. Within the next few days I expect to mail all the specimens I have on hand excepting a few fish that are not quite pickled. Then I want to take a trip up the Yangtse River to Shü Giang, four days west of Suifu. I have already labelled boxes of specimens up to and including box No. 256. March 9. Today I packed box no. 257, artifacts from the Han Dynasty caves, and sent seven boxes to the postoffice. All my boxes are now properly wrapped, labelled, and ready to send to the postoffice Monday morning.
-5- Several flocks of the large cranes have flown over, migrating northward. March 10. Filled box No. 258 with artifacts from the Han Dynasty tombs. The West China Union University would like very much to secure these artifacts, for not a few of them have not yet been found by anybody else. March 16. I have been preparing for a trip to Shü Kiang just beyond Pin Shan on the Yangtse River west of Suifu, on the Yunnan side. Chen Gih Uen asked that he be given some collecting materials and be allowed to bring in what he could receiving pay in proportion to what he brings in. I have consented, for in this way we shall pay only for what we receive. I have sent for a young man to come and learn collecting, going with me on the Shü Giang trip, and being taught each day, but he has not come. Just now I am meeting a few discouragements collecting. March 17. I was vaccinated for smallpox before starting this morning. Travelled 90 li to Ngan Bien or An Bien. Secured five birds, but only one that was specially interesting. Passed a small lake on which were what I think were grebes. The Chinese navigate this lake in tiny boats that can hardly hold two people, and are much in danger of filling with water. I wounded one bird, but it got away through its skill in diving. I got very few insects. Before starting on this trip I mailed all the boxes that I had filled including box No. 258. March 18. We travelled 120 li to Pin Shan ^[[2]], or Flat Mountain [[insertion]] ^[[平山]] [[/insertion]]. There is a high mountain near here flat on top. This was a very long trip to take on such a hot day. 100 li is a long day's journey. Last night about 11:30 the messenger [[underlined]] Lin [[/underlined]] ^[[Liu]] Shiang Bin came and knocked loudly on my door. He had a letter from Yang Fong Tsang who has killed two leopards, and has their skins and skeletons. They are worth at least $75.00 gold. I have sent the messenger to tell Yang to bring the specimens at once to Suifu. People have brought a lot of pressure on Yang Fong Tsang to get him to sell the skins and bones. Mammal No. 187, 188. March 19. Travelled 90 li to Shü Giang. Yesterday and today I saw many fields of growing opium, some of them in bloom. The poppies are the white variety--that is, their flowers are white. The white poppies are said to yield the best opium. Generally the ground covered on this trip is good collecting ground. This time it has been very poor. Probably the reason is that the weather is very hot and dry. It rained hard at Suifu a few days before I left. No rain fell this side of An Bien. The ground is very dry and hard, and insects are very few. I got four birds today at two shots, but they are not uncommon birds. The floods last year did a great deal of damage. [[, penciled over .]] to the towns along the river, destroying many houses and temples. March 20. Secured a few good insects. March 21. Killed three birds and secured some more insects. I was invited [end page]
- 6 - to a Chinese feast. Today is my birthday, but nobody here knows it, so the day has passed away very quietly. March 22. I have made arrangements to leave for Suifu by boat tomorrow. Packed for the trip down the river, and labelled specimens. Today I saw a Chinese beggar who was born at Lui Bo, west of here. His hair is like that of a towhead, flaxen. He squints his eyes nearly shut all the time. I took his picture and had someone open his eyes enough so I could see their color. They are blue. He is apparently much ashamed of it. His skin is white. I walked a long way but got only one bird, a rather common one. I do not waste ammunition on the most common birds. Ammunition is too hard to get. March 23. My ammunition is getting so low that I am going to use it very sparingly until the summer collecting trip, for it is not at all certain that more can get to me from Shanghai. I will bend my energies to preparing for the summer collecting trip, and will emphasize the securing of fish, trapping through collectors, etc. (Of course netting). I must replace many of the oil-cloths, for they are in a very bad condition. Because of the continued draught, the official here has ordered praying for rain. Already priests are reading the sacred books of the Dragon King, dressed in ceremonial robes, accompanied by the beating [[underline]] og [[/underline]] ^[[of]] drums, [[underline]] goup [[/underline]] ^[[gongs]], and timbrels, and with much bowing to the gods. Boys are getting ready to have the dragon parade. They are naked above the waist, and wear on their heads wreaths made of green willow twigs and leaves, and have a straw dragon in the parade. People throw water on the half-naked boys. This afternoon I received a telegram with birthday greetings from my wife and family. On March 18 I met a Lolo at Pin Shan.[[superscript]] ^[[2]] [[/superscript]] He stated that the clan system of families of the same name and descended from the same ancestors living together and marrying only members of other clans exists throughout Lololand. He said that the Lolos used the mouth harp, and that in marriages a cow, sheep, and wine are given for the bride as a sort of purchase price. I^[[|]]have travelled from Suifu to Shu Giang many times. The process of deforestation is going on a^[[symbol closing space between "a" and "pace"]]pace west of Pin Shan. Large trees are being cut down, and new trees are not growing in proportion to those cut down. Grass-fires (the grass grows very tall) are helping along the process by killing the young tress. This section may become semi-arid like that west of the Ta-Shiang-Lin Pass, especially if this process goes on. March 25. I did not get off yesterday, because there were important matters
- 7 - not yet attended to. This morning we got a late start, and reached Ngan Bien. The boat is a large one. I secured an escort from Pin Shan to Ngan Bien. The deforestation is less evident as we approach Suifu. One of the bothers in over-land travel in China is that a coolie carrying a heavy load is likely to secretly throw away some of it. This time I have been anxious about the disappearance of the anthropometrical instrument for measuring chests. It disappeared on the way to Shu Giang. I sent a trusted coolie down the river, to enquire at all the stopping-places, such as the inns, etc. We found the instrument in our chapel at Ngan Bien tonight, where the coolie dumped it secretly off his load just before starting from Ngan Bien to Pin Shan. It is lucky that he left it in our chapel instead of a strange inn. March 26. In the morning at Ngan Bien the opium tax collector came on the boat looking for opium. There was no opium. But he demanded some squeeze or a bribe before allowing the boat to proceed. The captain offered him a small amount. The collector demanded a larger amount. Words grew warm. The tax-collector struck at the captian with his iron cain. The captain warded off the blow, and shoved the collector down the hill. The collector had the cap^[[t]]ain arrested and publicly spanked until his hips were blue. We reached Suifu about 1:30. My friend Mr. Edgar, F. R. G. S., was in Suifu, on his way to Tatienlu. We had a fine visit, with thousands of interesting things to talk about. We hope the Smithsonian Institution will back a collecting expedition in 1930 into Tibet, as far as I can go. Mr. Edgar will then go along with me as guide, without salary or compensation. He can speak Tibetan. March 27. I am getting odds and ends of work settled, hoping to get specimens packed and forwarded soon. Yang Fong Tsang should get in with specimens soon. Last night it rained. March 28. A notice from the postoffice today will make some difficulties in forwarding some of the specimens. Those in alcohol or formalin will have to be sent to Shanghai in care of a friend rather than by parcel post. Yang Fong Tsang is overdue. He may be having some trouble. March 29. Filled boxes 259-264. April 2. It has been raining hard during the past few days. The messenger Liu and Yang Fong Tsang are long overdue, and there is no word from them. A letter from Yachow says that the Roosevelt party has been at Moupin [[underlined]] seeking the white bear [[/underlined]]. I am very anxious to try my luck getting that bear next summer, also the golden-haired monkey and the white leopard. Today I sent six boxes of specimens to the postoffice. There are reports of war in east China, and rumors of coming civil war in Szechuan Province.
- 8 - April 4. Yang Fong Tsang has arrived with his two leopards. There are also forty-seven small mammals. I spent a good deal of time labeling the specimens, reckoning accounts, etc. There are five bird skeletons and skins. Mammals No. 189-234 were all small mammals. Small leopard No. 235 Large " " [[Dittos for: leopard No.]] 236. This work kept me busy until after eleven P. M. In the afternoon I had a physical examination, and am in good physical condition. April 5. Last night I took the two leopard hides and skeletons into my bedroom, because in any other room in this house rats might get in and injure the specimens. A large rat evidently smelt the specimens, for about twelve o'clock one began gnawing loudly on the woodwork on the outside of my room trying to get in. He kept this up three hours, in spite of anything I could do, merely stopping temporarily when I made a noise. Then he gave it up and went away. Han Fong Tsang caught the small leopard in a trap, but to secure the large one he had to secure the help of several hunters, who c^[[la]]im most of the specimen. I have had to reward them twenty dollars gold. Such difficulties are generally faced in getting large mammals excepting when one is fortunate enough to secure the specimen himself. The coolie who brought Yang's load is a Chuan Miao, so I took his anthropometrical measurement yesterday. Filled box 265, bird and ratskins, 266, filled with fish. See notes of April 14. The numbers of these were changed later. Purchased a strange fish. Took two anthropometrical measurements today and some pictures. The Eastman films ordinarily have paper and mucilage so that you can stick the second end of the film fast. The last batch cannot be stuck fast, so that the films rolled up in rolls and spoiled. This makes it necessary to send the films to be developed instead of developing them in my own tank. A number of people have called to see the two leopards today. I have spent much time getting Yang Fong Tsang ready for his work during the next two months. He leaves tomorrow. Saturday, April 6. I spent today on the nearby mountains collecting. I did not see a single thing worth shooting, but caught a number of insects. I spent some time training a man who might possibly do as a collector. It was a good day, but tonight it is raining hard. April 7. This afternoon I went out collecting with a new man who wants the job of collecting. I will give him some training, and if he makes good, he can have the job. April 8. The new collector worked by himself today and while he brought back a number of insects, he brought back nothing worth while. I suspect that he
- 9 - is not bright enough to do the job, but cannot be sure yet. I bought lumber with which to make boxes in which to ship the leopards, and other specimens. April 11. During the last three days I have been packing specimens, and having the oilcloths repaired. Some of the oilcloths are in bad condition, but I am repairing them rather than securing new ones. It rained hard all day yesterday. I was innoculated for typhoid Tuesday evening and felt very poorly yesterday. The netter worked today again. April 12. One man went after water insects today, and did not get many. Another man went after flying insects and did not return with his catch. I wrote to the postmaster today, and if he says it is safe to ship specimens, I'll soon send the largest box I have yet sent, one containing two leopard skeletons, and some other specimens. There is evidently civil war in the northern part of the Province, but this city does not seem to be distrubed much about it. Almost every day I am making preparations of some kind for the collecting next summer. Took one anthropometrical measurement. April 13. Had one netter working near Suifu today. Secured a small mammal, Mammal No. 237. I am getting scared lest the Smithsonian Institution will not back up the collecting expedition to Moupin next summer. It ought to yield the richest results yet secured. A steamer with mail sunk in the Yangtse River, so Smithsonian letters may have been lost. April 14. The collector Shiao secured so little that it seemed evident that it was a waste of money to employ him, so I paid him off and sent him home. He is not bright. It takes a little brains to net or collect any kind of specimens. Filled boxes 265 bones, 266 ratskins, 267 bones, 268 animal skins, 269 leopard skin, box No. 270 ratskins, 271 fish, 272 birdskins, and 273 leopard skeletons. April 15. I have been a little under the weather during the past few days. Took a dose of salts this morning. Spent some time putting final labels and wrappings on several boxes of specimens. Box no. 273, containing two leopard skeletons, is the largest and heaviest that I have sent. I received word from the postoffice that it was not accepting and forwarding packages by parcel post at present. That means that I'll have to wait a while for the next shipment. Mail has not been coming up the Yangtse River for some time. April 18. Having lost one netter, I am trying to get a new netter that is worth his salt. It is not an easy task. The last man I tried was practically
- 10 - useless. Today I am sending a messenger to get a young man I know, hoping that he will be all right. It is reported that steamers will be coming soon, and then it should be possible to forward the next shipment of specimens. Filled box No. 274, a large salamander, length 111.8 mm, 44 inches, breadth of head 18.5 mm. April 19. Chen Gih Uen, our netter for several years, came in today with five large bottles and eight small bottles of specimens, and one box of insects. I paid him about two dollars and five cents gold, and he is satisfied. At Yachow he secured about the same number of specimens in one month, and he received about seven times as much pay for it as wages and food account. There is not doubt that he played possum at Yachow. He is going with me on the collecting expedition, and I can then watch him all the time and get very good work out of him. He is not on salary now, and is merely paid a small amount for the specimens be brings in. I am trying hard to find a netter that I can keep on time all the year. Filled box no. 275 mammal skins and skeleton. Box No. 276, 277, 278, containing fish specimens. P.M. This afternoon a young fellow came in who wants to learn to be a netter. I am going to try him out. This afternoon I took another anthropometrical measurement. April 21. Spent much time copying Chinese male anthropometrical measurements 51-75 for Dr. Hrdlicka. The work is unfinished. I took the new netter out to give him some training at netting insects. April 23. I have taken a short trip to Li Chuang. Secured two birds and some insects. It is now certain that civil war has actually begun in Szechuan Province. April 24. Mail has not gotten through from Shanghai for one month, probably because of warfare at Hankow and at [[underline]] Jehang [[/underline]]. ^[[Ichang]] April 24. Today the new collector, Shiao, aged 16, having been put up to it by the older collectors, struck for the same pay the older and more experienced collectors are getting. I told him that as he learned and gained experience I would add, but I would not add to his wages on any other basis--that if he did not want to do the job under that understanding, he could return home. He decided to continue. I am really training and trying out two new collectors paying the two of them "put together" about what I was paying Chen Gih Uen before he was taken off the salary list. Today I purchased four vases made out of the tree-stalks of fern-trees, which are found only in a locality near Suifu. Since they are rather heavy, I shall probably send only one to the Smithsonian Institution.
- 11 - I copied Chinese male anthropometrical measurements 51-75 to send to Dr. Hrdlicka and will mail them tomorrow. April 25. Today was a rainy, cold day, so little could be accomplished. The postmaster informed me that there is fighting near [[underlined]][[strikethrough]]L[[/strikethrough]]^[[S]]u [[/underlined]] Chow, east of ^[[Lu]] here, and that there has been fighting at Ichang. Letters are not getting through from Shanghai, so we have received no letters from America for at least a month. My specimens cannot at present be forwarded, but must await the end of civil war in Szechuan. I have gone over my ammunition, and find that it is as follows: Dust shot, 415 rounds No. 2 20 rounds No. 10 shot, 230 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] No. 1 125 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] No. 7 10 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] B.B's 145 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] No. 6 20 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] Newton High power 130 rounds No. 5 325 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] 32 extra longs 120 " [[Ditto for: rounds]] Buck, 150 rounds I am shortest of the kinds which I need most, no ten shot, and 32 extra long loaded with dust shot. This makes rather scant supplies for the Moupin trip, but with careful economy we can do with what we have. I will practically do no shooting until next summer so as to save my ammunition for the summer collecting. The ammunition which the Smithsonian Institution sent to Miss Lacey for me cannot possibly get to me in time for the summer trip. April 26. I spent the morning cleaning up the room where the collecting outfit is kept, and in straightening these article around. I also wrote labels on some of the boxes of specimens. This afternoon the sun came out, and the new netter collected some insects. April 27. Today I had two men out netting, one after water insects, and one after flying insects. Some of the water insects look interesting. April 28. Today I took anthropometrical measurements of two Chinese men. I wrote to Yachow and to Tatsienlu re future collecting. For over a month now, mail has not come through from Shanghai. It seems certain that neither ammunition nor photo supplies will reach me in time for the summer collecting trip. I will keep the films I have on hand, and very carefully take care of my ammunition. Just now I cannot forward the specimens on hand to Shanghai. I will have them all ready to mail as soon as it is possible to do so. April 29. The reports on the street today are that fighting has ceased in
- 12 - Szechuan at least temporarily. We hope the reports are true. For the first time in nearly five weeks foreign mail has arrived. There are several letters from the Smithsonian Institution. I expect to take the trip to Moupin this summer. This afternoon I went across the Yangtse River looking for a field mouse which I caught sight of, but did not capture. I have set two traps. This mouse was yellow, and had a dark stripe down its spinal bone. April 30. No field mice were caught. The new netter Shiao is leaving tomorrow. I think it is as well, for I do not think he could make good. I spent a lot of time on my accounts, and nearly have them straightened out. May 1. Filled box No. 279, Insects. " " " 280, bird bones and insects. All these boxes have been wrapped and are ready for mailing. I have now secured bottles enough for the summer collecting trip. There is severe fighting in central Szechuan, with many wounded. Some of the wounded have arrived at Suifu. May 2. Packed box No. 281, insects. " " " 282, snakes. May 3. Took a trip to the nearby mountain to collect. Secured two birds, some good insects, and a snake. A leopard was killed on the mountain yesterday, but I did not get to see it. I went to a cliff and by a rope let myself down to an old leopard hole, but there was no leopard. May 4. A collector went out to collect water insects, getting a few. May 5. It rained hard all day. May 8. A new collector started in today. He acts as though he wants to learn and to keep his job. I went out to show him how to net. I saw a white flycatcher. We secured some good insects. Mailed nineteen packages of specimens, one the largest I have ever sent, and several others large. Caught a snake. My netter worked all day collecting insects. Worked on the Smithsonian accounts. May 9. I went out with the new netter, Huang, to give him some new instructions. May 10. Netter Huang brought in a few insects. May 11. Today I spent some time packing the first box for the summer trip. The new netter has a sore foot.
- 13 - May 12. The doctor found that the new netter has a bad case of syphilis, so I have paid him off and dropped him. I am sorry, for he seemed a likely person. May 13. Called a new man to learn collecting, named Lin. Spent part of the afternoon and an hour after dark teaching him. May 14. Cold and rainy all day. Spent much time fixing travel boxes etc. for the summer trip. Chen Gih Uen brought in some specimens. The American Express Company reported that it sent a shipment of Specimens via the Suez canal. This might have been a typographical error. I wrote and urged that they send specimens by the speediest route, meaning the speedier route as between the Panama and the Suez Canal. They have sent a shipment by land across the United States. I am, therefore, telegraphing to send it by the Panama Canal. Mammal 238, mouse. April 15. A cold, rainy day when nothing could be collected. I took one anthropometrical measurement, and had the collector work on the travel-boxes to be used this summer. Many of the ropes were worn out and had to be changed. Prepared some films for mailing to Dr. Wetmore. May 16. Today the weather cleared up, and tomorrow the insects will be out. It is also rather warmer. Mailed some more films to Dr. Wetmore. May 17. Purchased four mammals, a mother and four pups, or kittens. Mammals No. 239-242. May 18. At daylight I went to the mountains where a young leopard was trapped in a coal mine. I gave him three shots with the 45 revolver, and one with the Newton high-power rifle. The first shot probably killed him. He was in too helpless a position to be exciting. Many visitors came to see the leopard. Mammal No. 243. When farmers or hunters cooperate with you in getting a large mammal, they expect a big reward from you. May 19. Secured another mammal. Mammal No. 244. It is different from the one I secured on the seventeenth. May 20. Filled box No. 283, insects. Box No. 284, skeletons. Box 285, bones of young leopard. Today the new netter, Lin, said that he could not collect regularly, but only occasionally. So I am not counting on him as a regular collector. I have had a very hard time getting a third person to collect. May 21. Filled box 286, frogs. Box 287, insects and eels, box 288, frogs. Box 289, snake; box 290, shrimp; box 291, snakes; box 292, [[underlined]] forgs [[/underlined]] ^[[frogs]]; 293, insects; Box 294, insects. Secured mammal No. 245, a young fox.
- 14 - May 22. Filled box 295, snails. Box 296, clams, 297 frogs and insects. Purchased Mammal No. 246. May 22. I took one anthropological measurement. I spent some time wrapping and labelling boxes of specimens. I went to the postoffice to see if packages could get through to Shanghai. Just now they cannot. Filled box 297, bones of mammal specimens. May 23. Today I spent considerable time packing for the big summer trip, and also drying the mammal skins over the stove. It takes care so as to get them dry, but not to scorch them. Someone brought around a [[underline]] hive [[/underline]] ^[[live]] cub bear, very small, but it was probably of no special value. May 24. The day has been roasting hot. We have wrapped some of the packages to be ready for shipping. I took one anthropometrical measurement, and secured some insects. A bad accident has happened. The shutter on the Eastman kodak will not work. I will have to send it to Shanghai to repair it, and it cannot get back by summer time. I will try my best to borrow an Ansco kodak from a friend at Kiating. It is the same size as the Smithsonian kodak. It would be very regrettable to take this summer trip without a kodak. May 26. Purchased a mammal. Mammal No. 247. May 28. I am having a very hard time to preserve the mammal skins we have secured recently. I am disappointed a little. The skinner evidently did not get some of the skins free of fat, and the fat has done harm. The skins are preserved as round, not as flat skins. The leopard skin is decaying around two of the feet. This skin should have been a flat skin, with the bones cleaned and laid bare. We will try to do better work in the future, and to learn from this experience. The ears should have been fastened down as they dried. I am very much disappointed with this leopard skin, and am tempted not to send it, but we will learn from this experience. It will help us avoid spoiling more important skins that we may secure next summer. We have had hard rain several days, but today the weather was clear. May 30. Filled box 298, mammal skins. May 31. I hardly dare hope that I have struck a streak of luck. A strong young man is trying the work of netter with the understanding that if he makes good, the job is permanent. He has gone off today to net water insects. I am sending a messenger to make sure Yang Fong Tsang is coming, and the former netter Chen. I have hope that this summer will be one of the most fruitful I have spent in collecting, about twice as fruitful as last summer. I am very much disappointed with some of the recent mammal skins. The
- 15 - weather has been so hot that there has been danger of the skins rotting in some place, as actually happened with the leopard skins. I dried them near the stove, and two of the skins were scorched and discolored above the nose. It looks as though all the mammal skins above the ordinary rabbit skin will have to be preserved as flat skins. June 1st. I went to the mountains to train the^[[|]]coolie that I hope will act as netter. Killed one bird. I am saving my ammunition for the Moupin trip. A very hot day. June 2. Today was a busy day. I delivered two addresses. I gave the new netter some instructions and he went netting, this afternoon. War has broken out in Szechuan again. Boats are being commandeered. June 3rd. Packed box no. 299, mammal skins. The new netter, Lai, worked all day catching insects. Worked a little getting ready for the summer excursion. June 4th. Packed box 300, insects. Received two letters from Dr. Wetmore. Did considerable packing for the summer trip. It rained all last night and most of today. June 5th. Filled box No. 301, fish and one snake. Mailed 17 packages of specimens. June 6th. I spent some time packing today. There was a long committee meeting that took considerable time. I am building high hopes for the Moupin trip, but today some bad luck showed its face. I sent a messenger a few days ago to bring in my aborigine hunter, Yang Fong Tsang. Today he returned. A large band of robbers is operating on the Yunnan border between the home of Yang Fong Tsang and Suifu. They have looted several small towns. There is war between them and the militia. The messenger was unable to get to Yang Fong Tsang, and the latter may not get to Suifu for the Moupin trip. Another indication of bad luck is that there is draught at Kiating and Yachow, which has doubled the price of rice. This will mean that some of our expenses are higher this summer. We will be disappointed if Yang Fong Tsang is not with us on the Moupin trip. ^[[for]] We need him badly. He will be safe where he is, [[strikethrough]] but [[/strikethrough]] there are caves to hide in where an enemy hardly dares to draw near, but we may have to make the trip without him. June 7. Chen Gih Uen, the old netter, came in with six bottles of frogs, a large weasel, Mammal No. 248, six small bottles, and three boxes of insects, Box 302-304. June 9. Received letters from Dr. Wetmore and Dr. Schauss. June 10. To my joy Yang Fong Tsang arrived today, with six boxes of insects, and a good number of snakes. He got a few mammals and birds, but this time he specialized in insects. We will have all the old collectors back again, and in addition a carpenter with a Chinese rifle, and a new netter whom I am training.
- 16 - This will be the largest number of collectors that I have had on one trip. The mammals include nos. 249-254. There were ten bird skeletons. Filled box 305, skeletons, box 306, insects, box 307 mammal skins. June 10. Filed box 308, pinned insects, box 309, insects, 310 insects, 311 insects, 312 snakes, 313 snakes, 314 insects. Filled and wrapped boxes 308-314. Prepared nine boxes of specimens for shipping, and took care of other specimens that will have to pickle in formalin until next fall. I am now reckoning and accounting for the salaries of the skinner and the aborigine hunter until July first. Tomorrow I will mail nine packages, the last before the summer trip, unless I am able to add one or two. June 11. Mailed nine packages of specimens, all that have been packed, and the last before the summer excursion. There were a few very interesting snakes and frogs in the lot. Spent most of the day packing with the help of Yang Fong Tsang and the new netter Lai. Delivered an address in the church. I found that I did not have a sufficient number of oilcloths to cover the boxes, so purchased some more cloth, and am rapidly making more oilcloths. I expect to leave Suifu Saturday, June 16th, making the trip to Moupin in eleven days, but going on soon westward through the great wooded valley between Moupin and Mong [[underline]] Rong [[/underline]] ^[[Kong]] or Mong Kong Ting, which is really the great Moupin district. That will give me about twenty-five days, the longest time I have spent collecting, I think, at any one place. I have very high hopes of making this the most fruitful collecting trip that I have yet taken. I have five collectors helping me instead of three. One of these is an old friend of mine who is a carpenter. He makes boxes very rapidly, and will make boxes as we need them. He also has a rifle, and will hunt and trap, and help in any way needed. I am taking a larger collecting outfit than on any previous trip. Months ago I sent to the Eastman Kodak Company, at Shanghai for films, but they have not yet reached me. I'll have some sent to [[underlined]] my [[/underlined]] ^[[me]] by mail. I am short of ammunition, for the shells sent by the Smithsonian Institution are still at Shanghai. I will not get them until a friend comes along who is willing to bring them along with him. I will save my ammunition and do practically no shooting until we reach the Moupin district. If I use up all my ammunition in the Moupin District, I will think that that is the wisest use to make of it. I will try not to neglect any of the ordinary lines of collecting. Among other things, I will keep my eyes and ears open for white bear, golden-haired monkey,
- 17 - tarkin, and white leopard. Of course I know that some small, unknown specimen may be as valuable as or more valuable than any of the above, not financially, but scientifically. Dr. Wetmore has instructed me not to do any archeological excavating at Kiating. I think he is wise in so doing, although I wish the Freer Art Gallery could send an expedition into Szechuan. Dr. Wetmore has not said that he wishes me to discontinue the purchase of artifacts that are not expensive and that are worth-while specimens for ethnologists or anthropologists. I shall try to be more careful in these purchases in the future than in the past. Next year I hope to take an excursion to the interior of Tibet with my friend, Mr. Edgar, F.R.G.S. A friend has recommended me for an F. R. G. S., but the reply has not yet been received. June 13. This has been a very busy day. I have been packing and packing and packing, with the help of the Chinese collectors and Yang Fong Tsang. Incidentally, I had two important committee meetings, and a number of callers. I had seven friends to dinner. Tomorrow I will mail this diary and a financial report to date. Then I will begin diary number seven, the account of the summer collecting expedition. I am not taking the victor talking machine along. I want to cut down expenses where I can do so without lessening the results in specimens collected. The main obstacle I now see to reasonabl[[strikethrough]]y[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]] expense accounts this summer is the fact that food has double in price at Yachow and probably at Moupin. I will probably purchase very few artifacts, spending most of the money on the actual task of securing biological specimens. David C. Graham, Suifu, Szechuan China June 13, 1929 I have tried to include all expenditures to date accounted for, so there would be none included in the summer collecting trip.