Diary no. 10, July 1, 1930-December 23, 1930

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This field book is a diary from 1 July to 23 December 1930 documenting Graham's field expedition to Tatsienlu (currently Lucheng) and Szechuan-Tibet border region. Graham provides a narrative description of daily activities including amounts and types of specimen he and associates collected or purchased. Graham collected mammals, birds, insects, and possibly other specimen. Mammal numbers range from 460-517. Descriptions of some specimens are occasionally provided. Graham also describes packing specimens to be mailed. Graham also collects artifacts and makes ethnological and anthropological observations during this trip. No scientific names are provided.

Date Range


Start Date

Jul 01, 1930

End Date

Dec 23, 1930

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Animals
  • Entomology
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • Sichuan
  • Lucheng
  • China


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007148

Collection name

David Crockett Graham Papers, 1923-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


1 Box Folder 12

^[[July 1. to Dec. 23. 1930]] Dairy 10 by D. C. Graham for the Tatsienlu trip, 1930, collecting natural history specimens for the Smithsonian Institution. July 1. I have lost or misplaced the book I expected to use for the diary this summer. We started from Suifu on June 26. This year I travelled in a small native boat, which is much cheaper than by steamer or overland. We arrived at Kiating today. The netters have collected insects during the day. It has been very hot, but the moon shines at night, so the night lanterns cannot be used. I have arranged to go to the Kia Kiang tomorrow. The[[strikethrough]]re[[/strikethrough]]^[[n]] I have to go to Mt. Omei. On the 6th I expect to come down the mountain, starting from Kia Kiang on the 7th. Then I expect to speed on to Tatsienlu. July 2. We started out fairly early this morning, and reached Kia Kiang considerably before dark. In the morning and early afternoon it was very hot. Before dark a heavy thunder storm came up. The netters all got wet. I expected to go to the mountains to attend for a few days the meetings that are being held by our Missions. But there is no decent place here to keep the collecting outfit, and so I am going on to Tatsienlu tomorrow . It is a disappointment to me not to go to Mt. Omei and it will be a disappointment to our Secretary, Dr. Franklin. For a wonder, about ten o'clock the storm was over and the moon came out. July 3. This morning at daybreak it was raining again. We got a late start. We got to the end of our stage at Tsi Heo Kai, in good time. I killed four birds, and we got some good insects. There has been so little rain in this section that many rice fields could not be planted with rice at all this year, and no other crop has been planted.
- 2 - Since reaching Kiating I have been much under the weather, but am improving now. I got a small frog that looks interesting. July 4. We crossed a high hill or mountain and by rapid travelling reached a small village called Da^[[4]] Shin^[[1]] Tsang^[[2]], or Great New Village. I have been under the weather recently, so I have had to ride much of the time in a two-man sedan chair. Today I shot only once, killing a black crow. This is the Fourth of July, the anniversary of the day when our ancestors declared their political independance, while of course none of my ancestors were among the signers of that declaration, a direct ancestor on my mother's side was a commissioned officer under George Washington. I am a long way from the good old U. S. A., but I hope to end my last days in [[underlined]] "my" [[/underlined]] country. We got some good day insects. Tonight the stars are shining. Yang Fong Tsang and Ho^[[2]] [[strikethrough]]Siu ^[[Son]][[/strikethrough]] ^[[4]] Chuen went to sleep in an inn and got left quite a way behind before they woke up. We arrived in Yachow early. The carpenter Wang was waiting for me. To my surprise I found that Dr. and Mrs. Crook have not left for Tatsienlu and that there is a party of single ladies here, (two single ladies) and Dr. Kilborn, physician, and Dr. Mullett, dentist, all going to Tatsienlu on Monday. I will join up with them. I am feeling much better already. Today I engaged coolies for Tatsienlu. I will probably take two different collecting trips in Tatsienlu, one without Mr. Edgar, and one with him. I had the carpenters make some boxes today, and we did some packing. I mailed boxes 666-669, all insects. I visited the local magistrate and arranged for the escort for Monday, We will start Monday morning for Tibet.
- 3 - All the foreigners in our party but Doctor Crook and me are Canadians. They are all fine people. July 6. We are all ready for departure to Tatsienlu tomorrow. I have spent the day packing and getting ready. I am feeling much better now. Will begin collecting in earnest tomorrow. I'll number mammals from Number 500 on, because I lost the Diary that had the right record of the mammals sent. July 7. Last night Doctor Crook's cook struck for higher wages, refusing to take the trip. This morning it was patched out, but we were delayed in starting. We are now at Ma Lin Tsang, altitude 3500. There was a lot of moonlight tonight, so there were few night insects secured. We got a good catch of day insects. We crossed the pass called Gi^[[1]] Tsi^[[3]] Gang^[[4]], which is about 5000 feet high. I secured samples of the hair of eight Chinese. I gave the carpenter Wang some training in the use of a foreign shotgun. He did fairly well. July 8. We travelled to Huang^[[2]] Li^[[3]] Pa^[[4]], 70 li. Before we arrived a very heavy rain began to fall. The official at Yuin^[[2]] Gin^[[1]] was very friendly and appointed ten soldiers with rifles. We will add four more tomorrow. The netters caught two varieties of butterfly that I have never seen before. Filled boxes 670-671, insects secured near Yachow. July 9. Filled box No. 672, insects secured on the Da Shiang Lin Pass, altitude between 4500 and 9400 feet. We started early, and crossed the Da Shiang Lin Pass, reaching Chin^[[1]] Chi^[[1]] S[[strikethrough]]p[[/strikethrough]]^[[h]]ien^[[4]]. It rained about the time we reached the summit, and later, just before the last loads arrived. Today was an ideal day for butterflies, and we secured some I have never seen before.
- 4 - I visited the official and arranged for the escort to Li^[[2]] To. We had so many specimens (insects) that took us a long time to take care of them. It was one o'clock before I got to bed. The Chinese got to bed earlier. July 10. About daybreak it began to rain very hard. It quit about 10 o'clock. I filled box 673, insects ([[strikethrough]]This[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Flies]] , pinned). The netters secured a few good insects. I fixed the gasoline lanterns so they can be used when the weather is favorable and oiled and cleaned the rifle,, etc. We also had our carpenters make eight insect boxes. One carpenter hunts and two of them net insects, while not busy making boxes. July 11. We reached Li To at about 5:30 P. M. Filled one box of insects, box No. 674. I visited the local magistrate to arrange for an escort across the next high pass, which we cross tomorrow. I walked all day. It was very hot. We killed 13 birds on July 9th and one on July 8th, but none today. We got some odd-looking dragon flies. We filled four small bottles with insects. This morning we had a wonderful view of the snow mountains. July 12. Today we climbed and crossed a mountain which is called the Fei^[[1]] Yuen^[[3]] Lin^[[2]], which, according to my barometer, is 9600 feet high. We started at Li To at about 6000 feet. It was very hard on the coolies, but we are here at Hua Lien Shi^[[4]] the elevation of which is about 7300 feet. We secured two small mammals numbers 460 and 461. I have lost my diary, and have probably skipped a few. Yesterday and today we saw most beautiful views of the Tibetan snow mountains, which must be seen to be appreciated.
- 5 - There is evidence everywhere of the tremendous rain day before yesterday, which washed out roads and bridges. If we had tried to travel, we would have come to some streams that could not be crossed. We got some fine butterflies. We were escorted across the pass by about 18 soldiers, most of whom were armed by crude, home-made muzzle loaders without sights. July 13. We travelled to Lu^[[2]] Din^[[4]] Chiao^[[2]], the altitude of which is about 4700 feet. Our coolies fooled around on the way so much that many of them arrived long after dark. This is a semi-arid district. Our collectors and I secured some good insects, but not a single bird. Part of the day there was a beautiful snow mountain in sight. Mailed four packages of insects at Lu Ding Chiao. July 14. We travelled from Lu Ding Chiao to Wa-Si-Keo, 60 li. Just before we crossed the Tong River on the chain bridge, we were held up by a customs official. Just after crossing, I was met by a Tibetan hunter who offered to get some mammals for me. I told him how to care for the skins, and to get all he could. We got a few insects. The climate along the Tong River here is semi-arid, and insects are not very plentiful. We filled four bottles with lizards. Here's where I got a new species of lizard, and I hoped at least to get more of the same variety. We should reach Tatsienlu tomorrow afternoon. We have a steep climb of 60 li. One of the coolies got into trouble on the street, and was badly beaten. During the past day we have seen many Chinese who were really half-breed aborigines, especially women.
- 6 - I have had to work late every night to care for specimens. We filled two boxes of insects, Nos. 675-6. This makes ten filled since leaving Suifu, and more left in unfilled boxes. Last night I mailed 4 boxes at Lu Din Chiao. The altitude here seems to be about 5100 or 5200 feet. July 15. We were given a royal welcome at Tatsienlu. The loads strung in until long after dark. We got one bird, and one mammal, no. 462. Filled boxes 677 and 678, insects, also 679, pinned insects. The altitude at Tatsienlu seems to be 8500 feet. July 16. I worked hard all day, getting ready so that I could leave tomorrow on the big trip. Mr. Edgar, F.R.A.I., and F.R.G.S., and Mr. Urech, have given a great deal of valuable help, securing animals, purchasing supplies, etc. Dr. Andrews of the American Adventist Society also helped. I visited the city magistrate. He is sending with us an interpreter who speaks Tibetan and Chinese. The netters are using the gasoline lanterns tonight, and are getting a good number of moths. We have engaged 17 saddle and pack animals. I had to have special boxes made for the trip. I am exceedingly lucky in that I have an old missionary of the Tibetan border as a guide, Mr. Edgar, and also a Tibetan guide and interpreter besides the hel[[strikethrough]]f[[/strikethrough]]^[[p]] of an English-speaking Tibetan who lives in Tatsienlu. We have secured more good butterflies than on most trips. The local magistrate is an old Suifu acquaintance, and is giving help and assistance. July 17. Filled box 680 with insects secured by the lantern last night. I packed as fast as I could, and we finally got away about noon. I was
- 7 - held up by the customs officers, but finally got away. We killed two pheasants and two birds, but the pheasants were very common, and we ate them. We traveled 40 li to Che To or Jedo. July 18. Last night we got a fair catch of insects at 12300 feet at Jedo. Today we crossed the Jedo Pass, which seems to be 15300 feet high (above sea level). The climb was exceedingly hard on the Chinese, especially the collectors. We secured a fair catch of insects. Two or three hundred Chinese soldiers passed us, and are ahead of us. A good many of them became very weak and sick, and one of them fainted and nearly died, but the doctors with us gave him some liquor and an injection, and I think he is still alive. Some of the Chinese and foreigners with us asserted that one of the soldiers did die and was left by the others beside the road. If he had died, he would have been left beside the road to be eaten by dogs, eagles, and wild animals. With so many of the Chinese soldiers ill, if we camped near them there would be danger that they would steal our pack animals during the night. We have therefore just crossed the pass and are camping on a level spot at 14700 feet in altitude. I have two gasoline lanterns working and a few night moths are coming to the light. Most of the Chinese collectors have mountain sickness, and are almost helpless. There is quite a group of collectors working in this part of Tibet. They are students and instructors in a university or school near Chungking, and are covering all branches of natural science. They are working under a German scientist. Another group is soon to arrive from the Sen Yat Sen University under a Swiss Geologist, Dr. Heim. There are two other foreigners and several Chinese.
- 10 - This morning it was hot. Then a fierce wind arose, and nearly blew the tent down. When I was pounding down the stakes, the hatchet flew off its handle and cut my hand. This evening it is raining. July 21. Yesterday some Tibetan apparently stole my (The Smithsonian's) hunter's hatchet. (Later it was recovered). The crows here make a sound that is very peculiar and very musical. I heard it yesterday. The Chinese say that one of the peculiarities of Li Tang is that the crows make noises like orioles(or some similar song birds). Because they may be of a different species, I will try to kill several of these crows. I think I got one of them yesterday. This is only fair hunting or collecting ground, or it might be called poor. We will move tomorrow to a better place. We have not caught a single rodent by means of the traps. July 22. It rained part of the day, but the netters secured some young fish and water insects, and some winged insects. The hunters secured several birds and one mammal, mammal No. 469. I visited the Devil Dance part of the day and interviewed the Living Buddha who is worshipped as a god, and regarded as a god, Also secured mammal 470. July 24, 1930. I took a number of pictures of the Devil Dance of the Tibetans. We secured four mammals, nos. 471-474, and several birds, including ducks and a crane, which winter in the lower altitudes of central Szechuan. It rained part of the time today, so we got only a small number of insects. We got a fair catch of night moths last night. We are camping just under an old fortress of stone which is on the top of a mountain where a Tibetan king once reigned. It was conquered and destroyed under the Emperor Kanghsi in the Manchu Dynasty.
- 11 - There is a large black crow here that makes a peculiar noise that is beautiful. I have two specimens of this crow. July 25. We had a hard time getting started this morning. Some important men did not show up. A Tibetan guide pre[[strikethrough]]n[[/strikethrough]]tended he was about to die, and dared not come along. He is now as well as I am. I went to the "Devil Dance," after the pack animals got started. The Tibetans who own the animals decided that they would take the caravan to the Devil Dance. Mr. Edgar made them go on. They crossed the river by fording it. We made a fair stage and are settled for the night. In fording the river there was danger that all our baggage would get wet, and Mr. Edgar prevented it. We got some good butterflies and moths. July 25. We made a good trip. We are about 13200 feet high. On the way here, we were caught in a shower, but later it cleared up. After we reached this place, I heard a large pheasant, which the Chinese call a Ma Gi or horse pheasant, calling on the side of the mountain above. I went after it, but failed to find it. I saw a black woodpecker with a red head, a very rare bird. Stevens saw this bird last year. I saw two wild animals, but did not have the rifle along, nor any buck shot. We go only 30 li tomorrow. We ought to be in very rich territory. We killed four birds and one small mammal, mammal no. 475. The scenery has been beautiful, and the Tibetans have been very friendly and obliging. Practically all the Tibetans have the Mongolian slant to the eyes, and very dark skins, much darker than the Chinese. Practically all of them have dark or black hair. Some have straight hair, and some have hair that is very wavy or curly. July 26. We crossed the Zya-Ha-La Pass, which is about15900 feet in
- 12 - altitude. We got a few birds, and some good insects, also mammal no. 476. We are camping at the elevation of 15000 feet, at Yu-Long-Si. Last night we got some good insects. Tonight the insects are coming in well, considering the fact that the elevation is so high. The Tibetans are quite friendly, and appreciate very much the picture postal cards I give them, provided by the Smithsonian Institution. We are collecting at higher altitudes than on any previous expedition, but we are getting a smaller quantity of specimens than last year. There are more specimens at lower altitudes. On the west side of the Zya-Ha-La Pass there is a creek which deposits yellow stone like the creek of the Yellow Dragon Gorge. We are having several showers every day and every night, which makes collecting more difficult. The travelling in these skin boxes makes the preserving of the specimens very difficult. They are not at all convenient for carrying and caring for specimens. Secured a small mammal, mammal No. 476. July 27. We killed one small mammal, 477 and 16 birds. Some of these birds I have not previously secured. It rained hard much of the day. We spent the time caring for specimens. The fires are not good enough to dry insects and other specimens. The mammals and bird skeletons have loads of maggots. We are hampered by the frequent rains, but are collecting at 15000 feet. July 28. On of my helpers, Shie, whom I brought along to do carpenter work when necessary, rebelled last night because the only boards we could purchase were rough, and there were not carpenters' 'horses.' The carpenter-hunter Wang and I sawed up boards and made the boxes, for we were desperately in need of boxes
- 13 - in which to place the insects caught. We got a good lot of insects by means of the night lanterns last night. It was very cold last night. For the first time this summer I put on my winter underclothing. Up to this time I have been wearing my B.V.D.'s. The rebellion of the carpenter-collector Shie today took all the ginger out of me, but the affair seems temporarily over. We got a fine view of a very high snow mountain, but it is not the great mountain called Ganka. We are among monads [[nomads]]. There are flocks of Yak and sheep all around us. The yak snort like the loud grunt of a pig. Several nomad tents are in sight, with their great fierce dogs, which Marco Polo said are as big as asses. They are as big as some asses. There is not a tree in sight, only shrubbery, like sage-brush, from one to three feet high. The valley we are in is U shaped, and is evidently the result of glacial action, an old glacial bed. There is very little water flowing out of Tibet in the summertime. There is little snow to melt. The streams are lowest and dryest on the hottest, sunshiny days, and are swollen only after heavy rains or showers. Yesterday I saw the insides of three nomad tents, and took notes about their interiors in another book where I am noting Tibetan customs, social and religious. The messenger arrived from Tatsienlu with two yak loaded with provisions. We also purchased and killed a sheep. We have been quite short of provisions. July 29. We travelled at least 70 li, a good day's trip for pack animals. We travelled down Yu Long Si Gorge, which is an old glacial bed, being U-shaped.
- 14 - We got a large number of insects and I got a snake. We saw the great mountain Ganka, which is becoming famous, because of its majestic height, and another snow mountain which is sometimes mistaken for it. It (Ganka) is worshipped by Tibetans as a god. We got 13 birds. We are in a most remarkable valley. It is called Yu Long Si. It is an old glacial bed, and is U-shaped. It is inhabited by nomads, but is remarkable in one way. The nomads live in tents in the higher altitudes in the summer, allowing their flocks to graze on the high hills and in the valleys. They have winter homes lower down the valley, with stone houses lower down the valley, with stone houses having windows, where they pass the winter. There are no flocks grazing in the lower districts during the summer, but the grass is left uninjured until the winter comes. Then their flocks of yak and sheep are brought down and during the winter they have plenty of good grass to eat in the lower altitudes. July 30. We got a very large catch of moths last night. We camped at the altitude of about 14000 feet. The moon is coming out again, and will hinder our night-moth work. However, we will get all the work done that we can. The netters worked with the gasolene lanterns until 1:30 A.M. last night, and the skinner and I worked with the birds until twelve. We got up at daylight. Altitude about 14300 feet. July 30. We got a fine catch of insects last night. We made a good stage today. It was hot about noon, but is cool tonight. We passed many stone houses built and owned by the Tibetans. I got a few specimens of Tibetan hair, hair of Tibetan people. Tonight we are camping in beautiful woods of fir and spruce, and in sight of the great mountain Ganka, which is almost exactly east of us.
- 15 - We had a scare about noon when a pack animal temporarily disappeared. Later the coolie carrying the lanterns could not be found for awhile. We got 16 birds, including three of the great pheasants called Ma Gi or horse pheasants. We got one pheasant with two sets of spurs and two mammals, nos. 478-479. Aug. 1. We did not finish our skinning last night, and will finish tonight or tomorrow. The hare is so badly shot up that we can only save the skeleton and some of the skin. We got several pheasants with two pairs of spurs, like those secured at Songpan, this morning, and one mammal, no. 480. We made a hard stage, and are now camping at the altitude of 14500 feet. There were not many insects by the way, and not many birds. Out [[Our]] Tibetans had a fight at noon. We stopped at a Tibetan house for dinner. After a while a fight broke out, and we had to be peacemakers. Our men threw rocks at their enemies. Our men were partly to blame. We passed through some wonderful country. There were high, rounded hills, over the flat, u-shaped valley. Higher up were bare cliffs, gigantic in size, of all conceivable shapes. Some resemble great castles, fortresses, battlements, and towers. They were of a grayish turquoise color. We are now camped in a valley between high mountains, at the foot of the pass over which we are to climb tomorrow. We are short of food for ourselves, but I have sent for eight loaves of bread and some cookies, and will buy potatoes near Gien Long Shien. At present we have no vegetables. The pass we are to cross tomorrow is called Wa Hu Pass. A great deal of time is lost each day in preparing the food. It is slow work three times a day because of the high altitude. That's the highest point where people have built houses to live in. There are nomads living in tents at higher altitudes.
- 16 - August 1. We crossed the Wa Hu Pass, the altitude of which is 16400 feet. We saw a great range of snow mountains to the west, but the great mountains to the east were hidden behind nearby mountains. We made a long day's journey, reaching Tang Gu, a village with a few houses which is at the highest point of human habitation, altitude 13600 feet. Houses are not found in Tibet, generally about 13500 feet. Above that are merely tents of nomads. We secured two small mammals, nos. 481-482. One seems to be rare. On the south side of the Wa-Hu Pass, for over ten miles, we went through virgin forests of great trees, fir, spruce, etc., of great size. They had a great deal of moss hanging from their limbs. We all arrived at Tang Gu very tired. Tomorrow Mr. Edgar and I will go to Gien Long Shien, and purchase supplies. We have been very short of food. I have not eaten any vegetables for days. Today I ate two raw potatoes rather than wait until they were cooked. The people in this village are mostly Tibetans, but there are a few Chinese, mostly men. Aug. 2. This morning the hunters and netters went to their tasks, while Mr. Edgar and I went to the village, Gien Long Shien, to purchase supplies, for without them there is no such thing as a successful collecting expedition. Our guide led us by the wrong road, and we had to return, after an hour of travel, to the place we started from. We got another guide, and went on. There are two very small villages quite close together at Gien Long Shien, with a total of about twenty-five houses of all kinds. The villages are over 1/4 a mile apart. In the main village there are about a dozen houses. Most of these also figure as shops. Some sell almost nothing but potatoes, or something of the kind. We found only two boxes of matches in the place, and the price asked was about ten times the real value of the matches. We did not purchase them. We purchased some potatoes,
-17- some pork, and some cheap paper, The magistrate was an English-speaking Chinese who was interpreter in France in the world war. He gave us a dinner, and was very friendly. Very few foreigners have been in Gien Long Shien. I think Doctor Rock was, and Mr. Stevens. The altitude at Gien Long Shien is 10500 feet. We got back to camp just before dark. The hunters secured 14 birds and two mammals, nos. 483-484. These are Chinese, Lolos, Tibetans, and Shi Fan aborigines in the Gien Long Shien district. There is quite a mixture of races. We saw two very high watch-towers, so high that they have topped to one side and their tops have fallen off. They have been abandoned. We passed today through great forests of fir, spruce, and pine. We met many aborigines. August 3. Secured mammals 485 and 486. All the collectors were busy collecting. I had a lot of work caring for specimens, but got out collecting in the afternoon. I sent Yang Fong Tsang to Gien Long Shien to secure a pack-animal and a saddle horse, but he did not return tonight. A german who is building up a college of science at Chungking has a large number of collectors at work in this region. They are his students and are making Gien Long Shien their base of operations. Three of my collectors are carpenters. One is a hunter, and two act as netters. I first brought a carpenter along because it is often impossible to get boxes made when they are seriously needed. One of the carpenter-netters (Mr. Shie) yesterday made boxes while the others were collecting. He wasted a lot of the lumber, and made a total of five boxes. The boxes were made exceedingly thick, which is a waste of lumber. Besides, the weight of the boxes is about twice as great as it should be. When I mentioned these facts, the carpenter-collector, became saucy. The other collectors think it was a mistake to bring him,
-18- but we have to use him as we can until the expedition is over. There are difficulties hard to imagine on these trips. One special difficulty on this expedition is that of keeping provisions for the crowd. Aug. 4. Last night we caught two mammals in the traps, nos. 487-488. One of our mammals, a hare, has been spoilt in skinning, and we have thrown it away. Other mammal skins that are flat are inferior because we could secure no boards on which to nail them. We left the Tibetan house in which we were living, and travelled what is here called 20 li upstream. In central Szechuan it would be counted about 40 li. We are at the foot of a mountain which is capped with snow. Farther down its sides, it has occasional snowdrifts, and still farther down are forests. In some places the mountain-side is red because of blooming rhododendrons. There is a large, level, open space at the base, through which the road runs. Here we have pitched our tents. Clear, cold mountain streams flow through this clearing. The clearing or open space is surrounded by forests of tall trees, mostly fir. Yesterday, Yang Fong Tsang went to Gien Long Shien with a letter from me to the magistrate. We needed a riding animal and a pack animal, and we asked the magistrate to secure them for us. Yang was to return yesterday, but did not do so. We moved this morning. Yang Fong Tsang came into camp with the animals this afternoon. Near Gien Long Shien he killed a wild parrot. There was a small flock of them. He also got a snake and several other birds. Wang killed two birds, and I killed two, both of which are woodpeckers. Yang Fong Tsang got another black woodpecker with a red cap on its head. It rained much of the day, and still harder tonight after dark. Aug. [[strikethrough]]6[[/strikethrough]] ^[[5]]. Secured mammals 489-90, and several birds. Yesterday, we all ate some mushrooms which our Chinese had gathered in the woods. Several of us became sick, especially the hunter Yang. He was very sick. He is a little better tonight.
-19- I went hunting twice, and Wang, the carpenter, climbed a high mountain near by. This is a poor place to collect, so we will move towards Tatsienlu. I never saw woods so devoid of birds, etc., as these are now. Ho, the skinner, was sick, but managed to do his work up-to-date. I helped him some. It is a very hard problem how to keep this expedition in provisions. Our Chinese collectors must have rice, and this increases the cost of their food. We are in territory much of the time where vegetables will not grow, and not even wheat or barley. Food must be brought a long way. Butter and milk may generally be procured, but not always. Sometimes a sheep may be bought and eaten. Aug. 6. Secured mammals 491-2, and about ten birds. We crossed the Wa-Hu pass on the way back towards Tatsienlu. We secured some good flies, and a few moths and butterflies. The full moon is out, so night-moth catching does not yield results. From the top of the pass we got a fine view of a snow mountain range directly westward. Some high peaks are bare, but others are covered with snow. We saw some glaciers. There is one glacier that is an immense snow drift, the snow drifting over mountains that are to the west of the drift. The drift must have a tremendous depth. The far-spread story that the high-waters of the Yangtse and its tributaries in the summer are due to the melting snows of Tibet is a myth. There is very little snow, comparatively, in Tibet to melt. Very little snow falls in Tibet in the winter-time, and its melting does not cause floods. During the summer, on hot sunshiny days, the streams are at their lowest. On cold, rainy days or just after heavy showers, the streams are at their highest. Most of the flood-waters of the Yangtse and its tributaries in the summer are due to heavy rainfall east of Tibet, in Szechuan, and in other parts of China. This paragraph is the result of years of observation and inquiry.
-20- We are getting short of provisions. We have no cookies, only a few pieces of bread, and no meat. We are expecting provisions every day. August 7. We are back where we got the large pheasants. At noon there was a heavy hailstorm with thunder. Secured mammal 493. We killed twelve pheasants and several other birds, including the black woodpeckers with red caps on their heads. Our pack animal with provisions has so far failed to arrive. I am buying some tsamba to partially take the place of bread, cake, and cookies, none of which we now have. We bought a big sheep for five dollars Mexican. Aug. 8. The hunters brought in five pheasants before breakfast. In previous expeditions I have done much of the hunting, besides netting and taking care of specimens. In this exhibition I have two hunters and four netters. Formerly I had two skinners. This time I have only one. The result is that I have to spend most of my time skinning and taking care of specimens. Secured mammals 494-495. We got a total of about ten pheasants today, and over 15 small birds. I am having to spend all my time helping the skinner and taking care of specimens. Tonight we got a fine view of the great mountain, Ganka. I bought a sheep so was to help out with the provisions. Mr. Edgar has taken over the cooking of his food and mine. This relieves the cook and skinner Ho for skinning. Aug. 9 Secured mammal 496-7. The part of Yu-Long-Si gorge where we camped for two days and got our big catch of birds is called Mi-Chih in Tibetan. Purchased Mammal 498. I was busy all day skinning and taking care of specimens, and until late at night. We got three pheasants and 9 small birds.
- 21 - We got an excellent view of the great Mt. Ganka. Aug. 10. Yesterday a German scientist passed us on his way to Gien Long Shien. He has collectors in all lines. This morning we started early about noon a heavy rain came up, and we went into a Tibetan house for shelter. Later it cleared up, and we made a good stage. Soon after we have pitched our tents, a heavy rain began to fall. We killed three pheasants and several birds, including a hoopoo. Our food load arrived, to our joy and delight. We were short of food. We received some letters from home. Aug. 11 We made a good stage, and went fifteen li beyond Yu-Long-Si, we had light showers during the day. We pitched camp about five o'clock, and soon afterward a very heavy rain came up. We are glad to be dry under our tents. We saw many herds of yak, and nomad tents. The barometer registers 16900, but I have found out that it over-registers altitudes from 700 to 1300 feet, so that I figure that we are camping at least 15600 feet above sea level, or almost three miles above the sea. It was so cloudy today that we got very few insects and only a few birds. Last night we trapped five mammals, nos. 494-498. I used the Broca scale on a Tibetan, and he registered Broca No. 25. The Tibetans vary much in skin color, but are generally much darker than the Chinese. Their hair is generally dark, but varies from straight to curly. They nearly always have the Mongolian slant to their eyes. Their noses vary from high and thin to low and broad. We collected five small birds. I was busy caring for specimens until nearly twelve o'clock. We camped near two Tibetan nomad tents. They have about(between them)four hundred yak. One of the great Tibetan dogs is loose, and is going
- 22 - around our camp barking at us. These are the last nomad tents before reaching the Ga-Ze-La Pass. (La means pass, so the pass is the Ja Ze Pass) Aug. 12. We crossed the Ja-Ze Pass, altitude 17150 feet. After crossing, we stopped for dinner at 15800 feet. It rained hard for a short time, then ceased. We are camping for the night in a canyon with a rushing mountain stream near. Today we passed several high snow mountains, with the snow not far away from us. We are now camping at the elevation of 14000 feet. Our Chinese and I are getting used to high altitudes, but a half-breed Tibetan has been very sick. The road is very rough in this canyon. There were lots of strange insects near the top of the pass, on this side. Today we got about 12 birds and one mammal,no. 499, a marmot. We got some good insects with the gasolene lanterns tonight, and to take care of our specimens four of us worked until 1:30 A. M. Aug. 1[[overwritten]]4[[/overwritten]]^[[3]]. We traveled over one of the worst roads I have seen to Yu-Long-Gong, where we are passing the night. The road was full of large, uneven, granite boulders, over which the horses and yak had a hard time to pass. We got some fine insects and a few birds. This evening Mr. Sherap and Dr. Heim arrived at Yu-Long-Gong. We had a fine visit with them. Doctor Heim is a scientist sent by the Nanking Government and the Sen Yat Sen University. Dr. Heim is a geologist. They are first to survey the great Ganka mountain. He has very costly instruments for doing so. Mr. Sherap is a Tibetan who is employed by the British Government. Mr. Sherap assisted me on my first Tibetan trip. We got some good moths and butterflies today, and a few birds. We are 30 li from Tatsienlu and 10400 feet above sea level. Aug. 14. We have our breakfast at U Long Kong, then started for Tatsienlu, where we arrived about twelve o'clock. After paying off all the coolies
- 23 - and owners of pack animals, I cared for the specimens, drew a map of the district covered, etc. The journey which we have just finished has been remarkable because of the high altitudes which we traversed, and on which we have collected. We have actually camped on ground higher than Mount Blanc, and have collected night moths there by the lanterns; we have collected day insects up to 17150 feet. In other words, we have collected over three miles above sea level. The districts covered are not actually pictured with even approximate accuracy on the maps of the world. Even Mr. Edgar, who has lived on the Tibetan border since 1902 had never traversed that territory, and to him it was unknown or at least unfamiliar ground. To have made such a trip and collected at such altitudes was an achievement. I have accomplished my ambition to collect at altitudes almost as high as birds and insects exist. Mr. Urech and Mr. Sherap have been collecting Tibetan artifacts for me. There are some good and interesting ones. I hope to add to the collection. There is an expedition here sent by the Nanking Government and Sen Yat Sen University to measure the great Mt. Ganka. In the expedition are three foreigners, Swiss scientists, including Doctor Heim. In order to make our recent tour, I had to engage pack animals for the whole trip, and pay them the same amount whether they traveled or rested. We were lucky to get pack animals at all. Mr. Edgar acted as guide and interpreter on the expedition, and even acted as cook much of the time so that Ho could skin when there were birds or mammals to skin. Aug. 15. Labelled boxes 681-734. Dried them all in the oven, and put moth-balls in them. We also dried the bird and mammal skeletons, over a charcoal fire to kill the maggots. We have now about sixty boxes of insects here. I will probably take them to Suifu and mail them there.
- 24 - I am purchasing a good many Tibetan curios, some of which will find their way into the U. S. National Museum. I will use pack animals out to Yachow and am having the Tibetan skin boxes repaired. Aug. 16. Filled boxes 735, 736, 737, 738. I spent all the day packing. We dried several boxes of insects, then wrapped them in oil paper and newspaper so as to protect them from dampness and vermins. Then we packed these boxes for transportation to Suifu. It was a busy day, and I worked until about 12 o'clock. I called on the military official. Two Swiss scientists (or the Heim party) started off today to measure, photograph, and map out the territory and mountains, sout of here, in the region we have just passed through. We have now 65 boxes of winged insects filled since leaving Yachow against 40 last year. I have had the skin boxes for pack animals repaired, for I expected to use them on the way to Yachow. Aug. 17. I addressed the local church meeting this morning. Most of the day I spent in packing for the trip to Yachow. I have arranged for nine pack animals and seven coolies, besides two riding animals and a special load with my most necessary collecting articles. I went to the magistrate's office to arrange for an escort, and visited the largest local lamasery. I have purchased a number of artifacts for the National Museum and also for my own use in lecturing. We expect to start tomorrow morning for Yachow.
- 25 - The territory in which we collected is marked "Unsurveyed territory" on the best maps. Doctor Rock has been there, probably, and the Roosevelts passed through some of it. Aug. 18. We had considerable bother getting off, but just before dark we reached Wa-Si-Geo. It began raining just before we arrived, and rained until hours after dark. We got two or three rare butterflies. We had no trouble with the local customs office at Tatsienlu. Mr. Urech and Mr. Edgar escorted me some distance out of the city of Tatsienlu. Mr. Edgar, F.R.G.S. and F.R.A.I. stated that the trip we have just finished is the trip with the highest altitudes of any trip he has ever taken, and that he does not know of any route with altitudes so high on the Tibetan border. On this trip we camped and slept at the altitude 15600 feet, the highest in his experience. He says that we can well congratulate ourselves that we successfully completed the trip. Aug. 19. The pack animals "ran away" from the coolies who are carrying loads. I was with the pack animals, and arrived at Lu Ding Chiao at 2;30 P. M. The last load arrived at about 5 P. M. We did not secure a single bird, and only a few insects. Last night we got a good catch by means of the night lanterns. It rained very hard last night, and today the Tong River is a high and muddy torrent. The melting of the snows does not cause such floods in this part of Tibet, but they are caused by freshets or heavy showers. Today I met a friend, Mr. Sinton, on his way to Tatsienlu for missionary work. He will return in a few days. This afternoon I have visited the magistrate's office, and the customs official. I also visited the Postoffice and paid forty cents still due on four boxes of specimens, I mailed on the way to Tatsienlu.
- 26 - I did not have dinner or lunch today, but ate an occasional peach or cactus fruit. Aug. 20. Today, again, we did not see a single bird worth shooting. Today's journey was the hardest between Tatsienlu and Yachow normally. We are at Hua Lien Pin, altitude about 7700 feet. Today we got a moderate catch of insects. Aug. 21. We got an early start, and crossed the high mountain pass, Fei Yuen Din, before I ate breakfast. It looked like rain so with the pack animals, now increased to ten, hurried on to Li To. Here we found a great festival in honor of the Earth God, or Lord of the Earth. The streets and inns were packed, but we found a good inn where the collectors and I could stay, and another for the pack animals and their loads. We got about fifteen birds, mostly near the top of the mountain, and a few good insects. We had an escort of four soldiers. Aug. 22 It was exceedingly hot during the day, and the roads were very rough. During the day I noticed that there were indications that a storm was brewing. We therefore hurried along as rapidly as possible. With the pack animals I arrived at the inn at Chin Chi Shien just before the storm broke. In a short time there was a stream of water running down the main street of the town. The collectors were all drenched. Some of the coolie loads arrived after dark. None of the specimens was injured. I called on the magistrate and secured an escort for tomorrow. We got no birds, and few insects. [[strikethrough]]July[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Aug.]] 23. It rained most of the night, but ceased about daybreak. We therefore started on our journey over the Da Shiang Lin Pass. Later it began to rain very hard, and continued most of the day. All of us got badly soaked, but we made our stage, and have since dried out most of our clothes. The creek
27 became a roaring torrent. If one had fallen in, there would have been no hope for him. I have sent a messenger on to Yachow to engage a raft and let them know (at Yachow) that we are coming. I rode most of the day on a fiery little stallion. The road was exceedingly rough. The stallion fell a couple of times. Because of the bad weather, we got practically no specimens. [[strikethrough]]July[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Aug]] 24. Last night it rained most of the time, and it was still drizzling this morning at day break. The horsemen requested that we delay until it stopped raining. Since, at this time of the year, it sometimes rains steadily for days or weeks at a time, I told them that in view of the fact that it was not raining hard, we would have to go ahead. Fortunately, it ceased raining after a short time. We are at Ma Lin Tsang. We hope to get to Yachow early tomorrow afternoon. At Yong (or Yuin) Gin Shien I met the magistrate, a young man, He was very friendly, and detained me quite a while to discuss Chinese and international problems. We are using all three of the gasolene lanterns tonight to catch moths. We got a fair catch of insects today, but no birds or mammals. Aug. 25. We started early in a drizzling rain, and crossed the pass before breakfast. It rained practically all the day, and before dark developed into a hard, steady downpour. We reached Yachow about 3:30 P. M., uninjured. Three of the netters are using the gasolene lanterns on a nearby hill. I reckoned and settled up with the coolies and horsemen. I am being well entertained by Dr. and Mrs. Crook. The river is so high that the rafts have not recently been able to reach Yachow, so we may be delayed here a few days. Aug. 26. The river is still very high and no rafts have appeared. I
- 28 - have filled in the time by arranging for the two hunters and the skinner Ho to go to Mupin, taking care of specimens, and repacking for Suifu. It has not rained today. One netter got a fine catch last night, but the others did not. Aug. 27. It did not rain today, but the floods have continued unabated. There are therefore no rafts at Yachow. I spent the day getting the two hunters Yang and Wang and the skinner Ho ready to go to Mupin. I hope to get a good white panda skin that can be mounted. I have here a better one than I sent before. I hope also to get some good mammals and birds to make up past deficiencies. I addressed a meeting of the local church tonight. The handle of the Newton high-power rifle is badly cracked, and will have to be repaired before it can be used. Aug. 28. Wrapped boxes 739-753, all winged insects. The rafts began to arrive, and I engaged a raft for Kiating. I put twenty large boxes on the raft, and packed so that I could leave for Kiating early tomorrow morning. There was no rain today, and the river is receding. The netters got a good catch last night, and some insects today. Before I left Tatsienlu, Mr. J. Huston Edgar, F.R.G.S., F.R.A.I., signed the following statement which is in my possession: "The territory we have passed over is unsurveyed and practically unknown. Altogether it is the highest route of any extent on the frontier. Two, at least, of the passes are among the most elevated in this part of Tibet. Travelers have rarely recorded such high camps. The road on this side of the Ja-Ze-La might easily find a place among the worst on earth." (Signed) J. Huston Edgar (F.R.G.S)
- 29 - Dr. R. L. Crook, who is health examiner or officer of our Mission, signed the following statement, which I will send to the Secretary of our Foreign Mission Society: "Yachow, West China, Aug. 28, 30 This is to cerify that Dr. D. C. Graham traveled with me several weeks this summer, that I saw him both at the beginning and the end of his vacation, and wish to further certify that he has benefited by his summer trip, being in better health now than when he commenced his vacation. Respectfully submitted, R. L. Crook." Aug. 29. After breakfast I got on the raft, with the four netters and all the specimens and baggage, and started for Kiating. Pastor Lan, an old friend, and Dr. and Mrs. Crook, escorted me to the raft. We passed over some very bad rapids, and reached Kia Kiang, 70 li from Kiating. On the way we passed Miss Brodbeck, one of our missionaries, at Yachow. Aug. 30. We arrived at the tax-station at Kiating f[[overwritten]]ia[[/overwritten]]^[[ai]]rly early. There the captain removed his cargo of wool. I crossed the river to interview the tax officer, who excused us from paying taxes. Then we shot down in the raft to the lower end of the city where the Min and the Ya River join. I then engaged a boat for Suifu. Mr. Lovegren and I kept going in a circle trying to find each other, and finally succeeded. I met our other Kiating missionary, Mr. Jensen. We finally got started down the river about four o'clock. We passed Dao^[[4]] Si^[[4]] Kuan^[[1]], one of the danger-spots during the time of high-water, and stopped for the night at Mo^[[4]] Tsi^[[3]] Tsang^[[2]]. As we glided down the Min River this afternoon, through the thin mist the [[underlined]]Great Mt. Omei,[[/underlined]] the Second Omei, and the Third Omei were all visible beyond the green hills nearby (which were covered with green trees, bushes and grass) ^[[ 大 山 眉 ]]
- 30 - all three mountains being purple in color. This is a very beautiful sight which has thrilled many a Chinese and foreigner and should be classed among the most beautiful views in the world. But if the Ganka of eastern Tibet were substituted for the Great Mt. Omei, it would loom nearly three times as high in the heavens and the upper half would be white with perennial snow. It is because it is in a less known part of the world, is more seldom seen, and is itself surrounded with snow mountains far above 20,000 feet in altitude, that the Ganka is so little appreciated. When we passed the dangerous cliff across from the Dao Si Kuan, the boatmen rowed with all their might, for the force of the water tends to drive the boats straight into the perpendicular cliff. Our boat was driven into that cliff when my whole family was in it a few years ago, and the captain fell into the water and barely escaped being drowned. Aug. 31. We were off at daybreak and reached Suifu at three o'clock in the afternoon. We took our baggage to the house, then reckoned accounts with the netters. Sept. 1. Labelled boxes 754-760, five of winged insects, two of insects in bottles. The netter Wu and Jiang went out with the gasolene lanterns tonight, but I see that the moon is out. It is not likely that they will secure many insects. Sept. 2. Labelled boxes 761-771. Sept. 3-4. I wrapped and prepared for shipping all the small boxes of specimens on hand, and sent twenty to the postoffice. Sept. 5. Labelled boxes 772-3, insects in small bottles. This makes a total of 100 boxes, mostly insects, which I am mailing at once. There are more to mail soon.
- 31 - Filled box 774, birdskins (45) and 775, birdskins (28). I'll have to have more boxes made before I can ship the rest of the specimens. Labelled mammals 500 (white panda), 501 leopard from Tatsienlu, and 502, an animal from Fu-Lin. 503 a mammal from Tatsienlu. Sept. 6. Filled boxes 776, bird and mammal skins, and 777, bird and mammal skins. 778, insects in bottles, box 779 birdskins. Sept. 7. Filled box 780, containing a white panda and a leopard skin. Box 781, 782, snakes, snails, fish, insects. I packed the eight boxes filled recently, and sent them to the postoffice. I sent for carpenters to make boxes for the rest of the specimens secured on the Tibetan trip. The Yangtse and the Min Rivers are now the highest they have been for several years. Quite a few houses are flooded with water. I packed all my films for forwarding to Chengtu where they will be developed. Sept. 9. Filled and labelled boxes 783-784, Lizards from Lu Ding Chiao. Sept. 10. Filled and labelled boxes 785, mammal skins, 786 bird skeletons, 787 bird skeletons. Sept 11. Filled boxes 788, 789, 790, 791, 792, all containing bird and mammal skeletons. I mailed all the boxes previously filled, 13 in all. I have a carpenter making boxes to contain specimens. Kiang, the netter, has gone to Chungking to work several weeks and Wu is netting at Suifu. Filled boxes 793-794 (insects in bottles, etc.) Sept. 12. Tonight I entertained the English-speaking foreigners of Suifu, and after supper gave a lecture on Tibet. Sept. 13. The netter Wu began work at night with the gasolene lantern last night.
- 32 - Sept. 14. Filled box 798, insects. Sept. 15. I mailed three more boxes of specimens. One of the collectors, Mr. Shie, whom I used last summer, and dismissed on reaching Suifu, has gone to a foreigner at Kiating, pretended he has been robbed and in the robbery lost my letter, and secured a small amount of money. He is evidently on the way to Yachow, and I have sent a telegram to warn the Yachowites against him. I have now forwarded all the natural history specimens secured last summer, excepting the large box containing the panda skin. I think the total number is 124 boxes. I expect to mail some artifacts before long. Sept. 16. Filled box 799, mammal skins, 800 insects, 801 curios. Sent these to the postoffice. Also filled box 802, curios. Sept. 17. Filled box 803, animal skin and insects. Box 804, a large black snake. I purchased four small fish and two birds. Sept. 18. The netter Wu got a few good insects yesterday and today. I have spent what spare time I have had on accounts and copying the diary in ink. Sept. 19. Filled box 805, winged insects. It is raining tonight. Sept. 20. Mailed boxes 803-805, filled box 806. I finished copying this diary in ink. During the summer, most of the diary was written with pencil. I have copied it with ink so that it would be more legible and durable. It will be fair to call last summer's catch 130 boxes, for up to date I have filled that many boxes and specimens and curios. I have important curios that I expect to send to the Smithsonian later, but for a while I expect to use them lecturing in the United States. Sept. 22. Mailed box 806, a Chuan Miao aborigine friend came to town. I took his measurements, and got a sample of his hair.
- 33 - Sept. 28. The Netter Wu is catching night-moths every night, and netting during the day. Filled box 807-9. Insects. Sept. 29. Mailed boxed 807-809. Fixed box 810, insects. Oct. 30. We have been collecting insects at Suifu during the past few days. I am working on the accounts. Filled box No. 811, Purchased two fish. Oct. 4. Giang came back today from Changking, with a rather poor catch. I ought to go through his insects and throw away about half of them, which are useless, but I am pressed for time, and will merely send them on, hoping that there are good insects in the lot. I am spending all the spare time I have on the accounts, so as to bring them up to date and make a report. Oct. 5. Skinned mammal No. 504, wildcat. Oct. 6. Filled boxes 811-819, insects from Changking. I mailed this report, spent some time packing the Smithsonian collecting outfit, and finished the collecting account to date, sending account No. 18[[whiteout]]8[[/whiteout]] to the Smithsonian Institution. I also mailed nine boxes of specimens. Oct. 8, 1930. Labelled boxes 820-824, frogs and insects from Changking 825, a pheasant. Oct. 16. The netters have been collecting constantly. Oct. 20. Purchased two birds and mammal No. 505, also labelled mammal No. 506, secured last spring near Mupin by the collector Wang. Labelled boxes 826-831, insects 832, fish. Box 833 skeletons. I am obliged to escort a new American family as far as Chien Way, a trip of five days. I have given the collectors enough gasolene to run them until I return. They will be collecting night moths near Suifu.
- 34 - Oct. 23. We returned to Suifu because there was a battle going on between robbers and soldiers on the Min River. The robbers have retreated, and we start again for Chien Wei tomorrow. Filled boxes 834-836, insects. Mailed 16 boxes of specimens. Oct. 27. Returned from the trip to Chien Way. I saw many of the large cranes, Oct. 28. Purchased mammal No. 507, and one bird. Prepared films for sending to Doctor Wetmore. Oct. 29. Purchased fish and five birds. Billed boxes 837-839, insects. Prepared films for mailing. Oct. 30. Labelled and packed boxes 840-841, insects, 842 snakes, etc., 843, water insects, 844 bones, 845 Tibetan teapot. Nov. 2. It has turned quite cold, but the netters have secured some fine moths at the altitudes of 1,000 feet and 2,000 feet respectively. Filled box No. 846, insects, and packed and labelled boxes 838-846. Nov. 3. Mailed 10 packages. Packed and mailed box 847, insects. Nov. 6. Labelled mammals 508-517, secured by the hunters on the Mupin trip. Filled and labelled boxes 848-860, mostly things collected by the collectors near Mupin. Yang Fong Tsang killed a rare mammal, red in color, with claws like a cat. He shot it out of a tree. Nov. 7. I mailed all the boxes mentioned above but box No. 860. I spent considerable time reckoning the accounts with the collectors. I bought a crane with red on the top of its head, which I think is unusual. I am saving its skin and its skeleton.
- 35 - Nov. 8. Filled box no. 861, insects. We spent some time cleaning and oiling the guns, packing away the Smithsonian outfit, etc. Nov. 11. Filled boxes 862, insects, 863 Chinese wedding dress, 864 Chinese idols. 865-866, 867, crabs, box 868, bones (skeletons). Today I spent all the spare time I had packing. The Suifu officials gave a feast, inviting a few of us missionaries and the leading Chinese officials. Nov. 12. Filled box 869, animal and bird skins. Mailed several packages, and purchased two birds. I am out of gasolene, and unless there is a gasolene for sale in the city, which I doubt, the night-moth collecting will have to cease. Yang-Fong Tsang is waiting until my successor arrives so we can make arrangements with him as to shipment of specimens. Nov. 14. Filled boxes 870-871, insects. Nov. 15. " " [[dittos for: Filled boxes]] 872, Museum specimens. Mailed four boxes of specimens. There was some formalin, some cyanide, and some arsenic for sale in the men's hospital. I have purchased it and stored it with the collecting materials. Nov. 17. Filled box 873, turtles, and 874, birdskins. Nov. 18. " " [[dittos for: Filled box]] 875, a Tibetan Rug for Doctor Wetmore. He can square up with the Smithsonian Institution. Nov. 19. Filled box 876, insects, 877 Museum specimens. Mailed several packages. I spent considerable time packing away and listing for the Smithsonian collecting outfit. Nov. 20. Filled box 878, leatherback turtles. Nov. 21. " " [[dittos for: Filled box]] 879, Tibetan wedding ornament. " " [[dittos for: Filled box]] 880, Tibetan charm box.
- 36 - Some foreigners (at least several) have tried to buy these curios from me. I expect to hand 879-880 over to the American Express Company in Shanghai. Nov. 22. I have had two netters working with gasolene lanterns every night, partly to find out what peculiar moths would appear late in the season, and partly to see how late they actually appear. Up to last night they have secured fair and interesting catches, but last night the weather became much colder, and practically no moths were caught. I expect to have the collector Wang working in the Mupin district and Yang Fong Tsan[[overwritten]]d[[/overwritten]]^[[g]] working sout^[[h]] of Suifu on the Yunnan border during my absence on furlough. The money on hand at Shanghai can be used for this purpose. I am busy now packing away and listing the Smithsonian collecting outfit, working at it every day. Nov. 23. Filled box 881-882, insects and mailed them. Nov. 25. Filled box 883, insects and bats. Nov. 27. The netters are using the gasolene lanterns every night and getting fair results. The two Swiss scientists who went through Tatsienlu to measure and map the high mountains of eastern Tibet have returned. They had continual foggy weather, and only two days clear enough to measure or diagram mountains. They also ran out of money. They have had [[underlined]] very hard luck [[/underlined]]. Nov. 29. Yesterday and today I have been invited to three Chinese feasts, given as farewell feasts by Chinese friends. One feast was given by the magistrate of Suifu, an old friend. Today the church held a farewell meeting for the Taylor's, who are leaving, and to me. I have received some beautiful presents. The netters are still working. I am packing everyday. Nov. 30. Filled boxes 884-887, insects, and mailed them, the last to be mailed from Suifu.
- 37 - Dec. 6. I have been very busy during the past few days. There were no steamers, so I started down the Yangtse River on a small Chinese boat with Rev. G. Henderson of the Scotch Bible Society. Dec. 7. We travelled till after dark when someone from shore ordered us to come to shore. We did not. Six shots were shot at us. Then we went ashore and found it was the militia, who mistook us for robbers. Dec. 9. Reached Chungking. Dec. 12. Left for Shanghai on the American through-steamer I TU. Dec. 17. Steamer fired on by comm[[strikethrough]]o[[/strikethrough]] ^[[u]]nists at Temple Hill, below Shasi. Arrived at Shanghai Dec. 21. Dec. 23. Seven boxes of birds and mammals are held up by the customs Chinese Government, permit necessary. They will be held up for weeks and I am delayed a day or two on their account.
- 8 - This part of the world is getting worked rapidly now. The road to the Jedo Pass led through a gorge that is evidently an old glacial bed. It is U shaped. We got a few night-moths tonight. The collectors were so scared, because of the death of a soldier, and because they had mountain sickness, and by the cold, that they were temporarily almost useless. For awhile the skinner Ho and the collector Yang simply rolled up in their beds and let the rest of us do the work. Later Ho got our supper. Two of the netters also went to bed. The other two netters also went to bed. The other two netters offered to watch the gasoline lanterns after they had eaten, but it was so cold that there was danger that they would become ill, so I watched the lanterns myself while I wrote my diary. I slept until about 3:30, when I awoke and remained awake until daylight, when we got up and broke up camp. July 19. We went 20 li before eating breakfast. The night before, the collectors were very grumpy, and had to be treated with care. A mutiny almost broke out. About breakfast time Yang Fong Tsang announced that he would not go any farther. This brought about a serious situation, and for a half an hour, we had the most tense time we have ever had on such an expedition and some rather disagreeable things. He Yang had become desperate because of the hard climb, mountain sickness, insufficient food (which was hard to cook properly because of the altitude, and because the main cooking vessel got broken) and fear because of the death of the soldier. He even decided to leave at once. The other collectors stood with me as I tried to reason with him, and finally he came along. In the afternoon, he became well, had eaten a good meal and had come to his senses. He worked hard, and killed a large hare and a marmot in order to please me and persuade me to overlook the incident. He is acting normal again. Today we killed two marmots and a hare, (I killed one marmot) Mammals 463-465.
- 9 - The netters got some good insects. Crossing the Jedo Pass yesterday, and saw some white stones set up on end thus [[image - thick vertical line]], as I have seen them set up near Mupin, where they are used as gods. The white stones are placed on the tops of graves, on tops of houses, on tops of piles of stones on which are written "Om-Mani-padme-hum," and are built in the sides of houses in ornamental designs, [[image - small circle above thick bowl shaped line]] The sun rising or setting over a U shaped valley, [[image - three pictograms, suggesting man with arms raised, ox head with horns, sun over valley]]. The oxhead is the most common design in this district. The yellow duck, called Huang Ya Po or huang gi po, apparently summers in these high mountains, for I saw several near the top of the Jedo Pass. July 20. We collected 5 birds, two of which are very interesting and uncommon. We also secured lots of day insects and a few night moths. I helped the skinner take care of bird specimens. The great and famous snow mountain, the Gonka, was visible today, and it was a grand sight. This is the mountain being discussed by the geographical societies, and we are taking pictures. July 20. We sent a messenger to Tatsienlu to bring provisions. We are getting short. Yang Fong Tsang is not standing the high altitude well. However, he is working. Today we are after insects, flying and water insects, fish, birds, and mammals. We expect to move tomorrow. Our Chinese and Miao collectors simply cannot live on Tibetan food such as tsamba. They must have rice, which is most expensive here. We are sending a special messenger to Tatsienlu to bring provisions. We got about ten birds and three mammals. There is a large hare that looks grayer than most of the hares. Mammals No. 466-468.