Smithsonian Institution Building, The Castle

Smithsonian Institution Building, by Unknown, 1903, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 94-12566.
Smithsonian Institution Building
Buffalo Behind Smithsonian Institution Building, by Unknown, c. 1886-1889, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, MAH 9731.
Buffalo Behind Smithsonian Institution Building
Fireworks for 150th Birthday Party on the Mall, by Bryant, M, 1996, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 96-25380-35 or 96-25380.35.
Fireworks for 150th Birthday Party on the Mall
Smithsonian Institution Building, by Tinsley, Jeff, 1990, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 90-6258.
Smithsonian Institution Building

Smithsonian Institution Building and The Mall, 1855, by Unknown, c. 1855, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 2004-10647 or 18603.The Smithsonian Institution Building, popularly known as the "Castle," was designed by architect James Renwick, Jr. The building is constructed of red sandstone from Seneca Creek, Maryland, in the Norman style (a 12th-century combination of late Romanesque and early Gothic motifs). When it was completed in 1855, it sat on an isolated piece of land cut off from downtown Washington, DC, by a canal. In the ensuing decades, the Castle became the anchor for the National Mall, as additional museums and government buildings were constructed around it. Over the years several reconstructions have taken place. The first followed a disastrous fire on January 24, 1865, which destroyed the upper story of the main segment and the north and south towers. In 1883, the east wing was fireproofed and enlarged to accommodate more offices. Remodeling from 1968 to 1969 restored the building to the Victorian atmosphere reminiscent of the era during which it was first inhabited. In 1977, the Castle was awarded Historic Landmark status.

Henry Family at East Door of Castle, by Unknown (Titian R. Peale?), 1862, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, SA-203 or sa-203.The Castle served as a home and office for the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Joseph Henry. Until 1881, it also housed all aspects of Smithsonian operations, including research and administrative offices; lecture halls; exhibit halls; a library and reading room; chemical laboratories; storage areas for specimens; and living quarters for the Secretary, his family, and visiting scientists. In 1881, the US National Museum, now known as the Arts and Industries Building, opened adjacent to the Castle to house most of the museum collections. In the late 1880s, the South Yard behind the Castle was home to the fledgling National Zoological Park.

Children's Room, SI Building, by Unknown, c. 1901, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, MAH-13391.In 1901, Washington's first children's museum was installed in the Castle's South Tower Room, where the original decorated ceiling and wall stencils were restored in 1987. Over the years, the Castle has been home to the Smithsonian Institution Archives and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Today, the Castle houses the Institution's administrative offices and the Smithsonian Information Center. Located inside the north entrance is the crypt of James Smithson, benefactor of the Institution, while outside on the Mall, a bronze statue of Joseph Henry executed by William Wetmore Story, honors the eminent scientist who was the Institution's first Secretary.

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Today in Smithsonian History

John H. Richard's Studio with Casts for Fisheries Exposition, by Unknown, 1879, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 82-3228.

April 20, 1880

The Berlin International Fishery Exhibition opens on April 20.  After receiving $20,000 in appropriations from the United States Congress, Secretary Spencer F. Baird appoints Assistant Secretary George Brown Goode as commissioner in charge of the exhibition displays. Given the short time for preparation, most of the exhibition comes from components of the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, plus a display of improved apparatus for fish culture. Though scheduled to close on June 1, the popularity of the display keeps it open until July 1. The U.S. exhibit wins the grand prize for the best display, a large vase beautifully worked in silver and gold.More

Did you know...

That President Lincoln observed signaling experiments in order to improve army communications from the Smithsonian Castle tower during the Civil War?

Related Media

Smithsonian Institution Building, by Charles Hoover.
Smithsonian Institution, n.d.
Trees and Flowers with the Smithsonian Castle in the background, 1919, Smithsonian Institution Archives, SIA RU007355 [SIA2010-2085].
North Facade of Smithsonian Castle, by Unknown, c. 1920, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, 27446 or MAH-27446.
View of the Mall from the Castle, 1983, by Richard Haas.
Smithsonian Commemorative Coin, STS-79, Designed by John M. Mercanti and Thomas D. Rogers, National Air and Space Museum, A19980084000.
Knickerbocker Snowstorm Hits Washington, D.C, January 29, 1922, Smithsonian Archives - History Div.
Japanese Armor in the Smithsonian Castle, 1873, by C. Seaver Jr.