SIA RU007222, Schultz, Leonard P (Leonard Peter) 1901-1986, Leonard Peter Schultz Papers, circa 1915-1970, with related papers from 1899

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Summary

Creator:
Schultz, Leonard P (Leonard Peter) 1901-1986
Title:
Leonard Peter Schultz Papers, circa 1915-1970, with related papers from 1899
Dates:
1899, 1899-1970, 1915-1970, with related papers from 1899
Notes:
Leonard Peter Schultz (1901-1986) was born in Michigan and educated at Albion College, the University of Michigan, and the University of Washington. He taught at Michigan, 1925-1927, and Washington, 1928-1936, before coming to the United States National Museum as Assistant Curator of the Division of Fishes in 1936. Schultz was made Curator in 1938 and retained that position until his retirement from administrative duties in 1965. He was Senior Zoologist from 1965 to 1968 and Zoologist Emeritus from 1968 until his death
Schultz's research interests included the classification and taxonomy of fishes, sharks and shark attacks, and the life history of fishes. He participated in a number of expeditions, most notably the Navy Surveying Expedition to the Phoenix and Samoan Islands, 1939, and the zoological surveys prior to and following the Bikini Atoll atomic bomb tests
Summary:
These papers include correspondence, notes, research data, published material, illustrations, photographs, and related material documenting Schultz's ichthyological interests and his teaching, curatorial, and research careers. Of particular note is an extensive correspondence file maintained by Schultz as part of his duties as Secretary of the Shark Research Panel of the American Institute of Biological Sciences; notes and data regarding the Bikini surveys; and photographs from his work on the Navy Surveying Expedition to the Phoenix and Samoan Islands, 1939
Restrictions:
Use of this record unit requires prior arrangement with the Archives staff
Topic:
Ichthyology
Subjects:
Schultz, Leonard P (Leonard Peter) 1901-1986, Bikini Scientific Survey, 1946, Bikini Scientific Resurvey, 1947, Crossroads Operation, 1946-1955, American Institute of Biological Sciences Shark Research Panel, Albion College, University of Michigan, University of Washington, United States National Museum Division of Fishes, Navy Surveying Expedition to the Phoenix and Samoan Islands (1939)
Form/Genre:
Photographs, Collection descriptions
Local Number:
SIA RU007222
Physical Description:
4 linear meters

Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Record Unit 7222

Schultz, Leonard P,(Leonard Peter),1901-

Leonard Peter Schultz Papers, circa 1915-1970, with related papers from 1899

Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at osiaref@si.edu.
Creator: Schultz, Leonard P,(Leonard Peter),1901-
Title: Leonard Peter Schultz Papers
Dates: circa 1915-1970, with related papers from 1899
Quantity: 4 linear meters.
Collection: Record Unit 7222
Language of Materials: English

Historical Note

Leonard Peter Schultz (1901- ) was born in Albion, Michigan. He received his A.B. degree from Albion College in 1924, his M.S. from the University of Michigan in 1926, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1932. Before accepting the position of assistant curator of fishes in the United States National Museum in 1936, Schultz taught at the University of Michigan, 1925-1927, and the University of Washington, 1928-1936. Schultz served as assistant curator of fishes from 1936 to 1938, when he was named curator-in-charge of the Division of Fishes, a position he held until 1965. He held the title senior zoologist from 1965 to 1968. Since 1968 Schultz has served as zoologist emeritus for the Museum.

Schultz participated in numerous biological expeditions during his career. Sponsoring organizations included the universities of Michigan and Washington, the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and the Departments of State and the Navy. Areas visited on expeditions included the western United States, 1926, 1934, and 1936; the Phoenix and Samoan Islands, 1939; Venezuela, 1942; and Bikini and the northern Marshall Islands, 1946 and 1947.

Beginning in 1958 a large portion of Schultz's time was spent on shark attack research. He served as secretary of the Shark Research Panel of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and collected international data about shark attacks under a grant sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

Schultz authored and co-authored numerous publications, largely resulting from his participation in various ichthyological expeditions. Major fields of interest include sharks and shark attacks, life histories of fishes, revisions of genera and families, spawning habits, classification, taxonomy, and races of fishes.

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Introduction

This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.

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Descriptive Entry

These papers concern Schultz's personal and professional life and include notes, correspondence, research data, sketches, manuscripts, meeting programs, clippings, and published works concerning general ichthyology; ichthyological nomenclature; sharks and shark attacks; professional societies; expeditions, particularly the Bikini survey and resurvey program in conjunction with the atomic bomb tests; Schultz's teaching, curatorial, and research careers; and books and articles he published.

Correspondents include: Tokihara Abe, G. Adam, Armonia S. Alonso, Dayton Lee Alverson, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Fisheries Society, American Institute of Biological Sciences, American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, American Scientific Congress (8th), American Society of Fish Prevaricators, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Chuichi Araga, Arctic Institute of North America, Mahlon Ashford, Atlantic Estuarine Research Society, James Wade Atz, Herbert R. Axelrod, Richard H. Backus, Spencer F. Baird (Ref.), Keppel Harcourt Barnard, Marie-Louise Bauchot, Barton A. Bean, L. F. De Beaufort, L. Bertin, Henry Bryant Bigelow, M. Blanc, Marinus Boeseman, James Erwin Bohlke, Rolf Ling Bolin, Cecil von Bonde, Paul Bonnot, Hubrand Boschma, Charles Marcus Breder, Jr., John Carmon Briggs, Vernon E. Brock, Merrill W. Brown, Jorge Brum Do Canto, Jose Manuel Castello, Paul Chabanaud, Wilbert McLeod Chapman, B. S. Chauhan, J. Howard Choat, Eugenie Clark, Frances Naomi Clark, Wilbert Amie Clemens, Bruce Baden Collette, Ralph S. Collier, C. M. Cooke, III, Victor M. Coppleson, Cosmos Club, D. R. Crawford, William H. Dall (Ref.), Jeanette D'Aubrey, John Richardson Dymond, (Capt.) P. Ellingsen, Rolande Esteve, Alexander G. Fairchild, L. J. Farley, Mrs. John Fletcher, Claude Flock, William I. Follett, Henry Weed Fowler, Thomas Gaerste, Sidney Roland Galler, John Andrew Frank Garrick, Jacques Gery, Perry Webster Gilbert, Raymond Maurice Gilmore, Nick Gorshenin, William A. Gosline, Leo M. Grace, John Enos Graf, P. H. Greenwodd, Herbert E. Gregory, Eugene Willis Gudger, Janet Haig, Bruce W. Halstead, T. L. Hankinson, Robert R. Harry, Daniel Lyman Hazard, (Ref.), Gene Helfman, Francis Hemming, Arthur W. Henn, Earl S. Herald, Albert W. Herre, W. S. Hiser, Sunder Lal Hora, Masayuki Hoshina, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Laura C. Hubbs, Robert Franklin Hutton, International Indian Ocean Expedition, K. C. Jayaram, Eldridge R. Fenimore Johnson, S. Jones, David Starr Jordan, Wolfgang Klausewitz, F. P. Koumans, Vicko Krunic, William A. Kyburz, Francesca R. Lamonte, Henry Landes, Thomas Large, William Leapley, Michael Lerner, Conrad Limbaugh, Limnological Society of America, Robert Livingstone, Jr., George Albert Llano, Martin L. Loftus, William D. Longest, Norman Barry Marshall, D. Ryle Masson, Gerald E. Maul, Hermann Meinken, Daniel Merriman, Cecil Miles, Erna Mohr, John F. C. Morgans, James Edwin Morrow, Jr., Al Murphy, George Sprague Myers, Teodor T. Nalbant, John Treadwell Nichols, Jorgen Nielsen, J. R. Norman, Paul Harry Oesher, Pacific Scientific Congresses, E. Parkes, Albert Eide Parr, James A. Peters, Julius B. Phillips, John Ernest Randall, A. M. Rapson, Michael Reed, Paulo De Miranda Ribeiro, Willis Horton Rich, William Edwin Ricker, Richard Heinrich Rosenblatt, Carl Sandquis, C. Gibson Scheaffer, Peter Schmidt, Waldo LaSalle Schmitt, William C. Schroeder, Leonard Peter Schultz, N. B. Scofield, Alvin Seale, William H. Sebeste, Shark Research Panel (American Institute of Biological Sciences), Hugh McCormick Smith, James L. B. Smith, John Otterbein Snyder, Society of Systematic Zoology, South African Oceanographic Research Institute, Stewart Springer, Victor G. Springer, P. V. Sreenivasan, H. Steinitz, Leonhard Stejneger, William M. Stephens, Donald Wishart Strasburg, Arnie John Suomela, Arthur Svihla, Frank H. Talbot, A. Vedel Taning, Gerard W. Teague, John Tee-van, Albert Lewis Tester, Enrico Tortonese, Ethelwynn Trewavas, Dehys William Tucker, Underwater Society of America, United States Naval Medical Research Institute, John Van Oosten, William Vorderwinkler, Joseph Howe Wales, Lionel A. Walford, Boyd Wallace Walker, Gordon L. Walls, Alfred C. Weed, Stanley Howard Weitzman, Arthur Donovan Welander, Alexander Wetmore, Peter J. Whitehead, Gilbert Percy Whitley, Wayne E. Williams, Howard Elliott Winn, Jack Winslow, Loren P. Woods, Richard Laurence Zusi.

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Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7222, Schultz, Leonard P,(Leonard Peter),1901-, Leonard Peter Schultz Papers

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Container List

Series 1

ICHTHYOLOGICAL RESEARCH FILE, CIRCA 1920-1968 AND UNDATED.

This series contains notes, measurements, sketches, descriptions of museum specimens, synonymy data, incoming and outgoing correspondence, and some drafts of articles concerning Leonard P. Schultz's ichthyological research. The file is arranged alphabetically by family of fishes. When a folder contains correspondence, a list of the correspondents is included. Material is undated unless otherwise noted.

Box 1

Folder 1 Acanthuridae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 2 Acipenseridae, 1933-1934 and undated. Includes correspondence with Wilbert McLeod Chapman, L. J. Farley, Eugene Willis Gudger, and Arnie John Suomela.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 3 Aluteridae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 4 Ambassidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 5 Amia Calva

Box 1 of 33

Folder 6 Amphilidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 7 Anabasstidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 8 Anguillidae, circa 1948-1958. Includes correspondence with Tokihara Abe, James Wade Atz, B. S. Chauhan, William A. Gosline, Eugene Willis Gudger, Bruce W. Halstead, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Vicko Krunic, Francesca R. LaMonte, William D. Longest, Norman Barry Marshall, Stewart Springer, Arthur Donovan Welander, Gilbert P. Whitley, and Loren P. Woods.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 9 Antennariidae, circa 1951-1967. Includes correspondence with Tokihara Abe, L. F. de Beaufort, Marinus Boeseman, James Erwin Bohlke, Jose Manuel Castello, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Gerald E. Maul, Richard Heinrich Rosenblatt, Donald Wishart Strasburg, Stanley Howard Weitzman, and Loren P. Woods.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 10 Apogonidae, circa 1938-1940. Includes correspondence with Keppel Harcourt Barnard, Cecil von Bonde, Paul Chabanaud, Herbert E. Gregory, Sunder Lal Hora, F. P. Koumans, George Sprague Myers, J. R. Norman

Box 1 of 33

Folder 11 Astroblepidae, circa 1942

Box 1 of 33

Folder 12 Atherinidae, circa 1934-1951. Includes correspondence with G. Adam, Keppel Harcourt Barnard, L. Bertin, Marinus Boeseman, Frances Naomi Clark, Rolande Esteve, Norman Barry Marshall, Paolo de Miranda Ribeiro, and Ethelwynn Trewavas.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 13 Aulostomidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 14 Balistidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 15 Batrachoididae, circa 1933-1938. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 16 Bathylaconidae, 1950. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and Albert Eide Parr.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 17 Belonidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 18 Blennidae, circa 1931-1952. Includes correspondence with William McLeod Chapman, Wilbert Amie Clemens, William Gosline, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, George Sprague Myers, J. R. Norman, Gilbert P. Whitley.

Box 1 of 33

Folder 19 Bregmacerotidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 20 Brotulidae

Box 1 of 33

Folder 21 Bunocephalidae, circa 1942-1943. Includes correspondence with William A. Gosline.

Box 1 of 33

Box 2

Folder 1 Callichthyidae, circa 1953-1961

Box 2 of 33

Folder 2 Callionymidae, circa 1951

Box 2 of 33

Folder 3 Canthigasteridae, circa 1951

Box 2 of 33

Folder 4 Caracanthidae

Box 2 of 33

Folder 5 Carangidae, circa 1946-1951

Box 2 of 33

Folder 6 Carapidae, circa 1946

Box 2 of 33

Folder 7 Carcharinidae, 1946, 1952. Includes correspondence with Armonia S. Alonso.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 8 Centropomidae

Box 2 of 33

Folder 9 Ceratiidae, 1933. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 10 Cetopsidae

Box 2 of 33

Folder 11 Chaetodontidae, circa 1947-1949

Box 2 of 33

Folder 12 Characidae - Africa

Box 2 of 33

Folder 13 Charaiidae - South America, circa 1956-1960. Includes correspondence with Herbert Axelrod, Hermann Meinken, Ethelwynn Trewavas, William Vorderwinkler, Stanley Howard Weitzmann, and Loren P. Woods.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 14 Chrysaora quinquecirrha, 1938, 1965

Box 2 of 33

Folder 15 Cichlidae, circa 1953-1964. Includes correspondence with Herbert R. Axelrod and Marie-Louise Bauchot.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 16 Cichlidae Symphysodon, 1960

Box 2 of 33

Folder 17 Cirrhitidae, circa 1951-1959. Includes correspondence with L. Bertin.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 18 Clinidae, circa 1939-1951. Includes correspondence with Norman Barry Marshall.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 19 Clinidae - Africa

Box 2 of 33

Folder 20 Cololabis saira, 1940. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and Alexander Wetmore.

Box 2 of 33

Folder 21 Congridae

Box 2 of 33

Folder 22 Coregonidae

Box 2 of 33

Folders 23-24 Cottidae, circa 1920-1935. Includes correspondence with Barton A. Bean, Rolf Ling Bolin, John Enos Graf, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, William Edwin Ricker, Peter Schmidt, Arthur Svihla, and Alexander Wetmore.

Box 2 of 33

Box 3

Folder 1 Cyclopteridae, circa 1931-1933. Includes correspondence with Wilbert McLeod Chapman, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, and George Sprague Myers.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 2 Cynodontinae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 3 Cyprinidae, circa 1937-1957

Box 3 of 33

Folder 4 Cyprinidae - Notropis, circa 1937-1939

Box 3 of 33

Folder 5 Cyprinidae - breeding of, circa 1928-1936. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and John Otterbein Snyder.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 6 Cyprinodontidae, circa 1938-1939

Box 3 of 33

Folder 7 Cyprinodontidae - Africa, circa 1957

Box 3 of 33

Folder 8 Dasyatidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 9 Diodontidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 10 Doradidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 11 Dussurnieridae, circa 1939

Box 3 of 33

Folder 12 Echelidae, circa 1950-1951. Includes correspondence with William A. Gosline.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 13 Echeneidae, circa 1946. Includes correspondence with John Treadwell Nichols, William C. Schroeder, and John Tee-Van.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 14 Embiotocidae, circa 1931-1933. Includes correspondence with Arnie John Suolema.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 15 Engraulidae, circa 1950-1964. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and Peter J. Whitehead.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 16 Exocoetidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 17 Fistulariidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 18 Gadidae, circa 1933-1940. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs, George Sprague Myers, Alfred C. Weed, and Alexander Wetmore.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 19 Gobiesocidae, circa 1944-1953. Includes correspondence with John Carmon Briggs, Henry Weed Fowler, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Cecil Miles, and Waldo LaSalle Schmitt.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 20 Gobiidae, circa 1939

Box 3 of 33

Folder 21 Gymnotidae, circa 1951

Box 3 of 33

Folder 22 Haemulidae

Box 3 of 33

Folder 23 Haplomi (order), circa 1929-1935. Includes correspondence with Charles Marcus Breder, Jr., Claude Flock, Eugene Willis Gudger, T. L. Hankinson, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Laura C. Hubbs, David Starr Jordan, Henry Landes, George Sprague Myers, J. R. Norman, Carl Sandquis (?), Alvin Seale, John Van Oosten, and Jack Winslow.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 24 Hemiramphidae, circa 1946-1954. Includes correspondence with Robert Livingstone, Jr.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 25 Holocentridae, circa 1938-1951. Includes correspondence with William A. Gosline, Norman Barry Marshall, Erna Mohr, Hugh McCormick Smith, and Leonhard Stejneger.

Box 3 of 33

Folder 26 Hybrids: Apocope/Richardsonius, circa 1932-1935. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and George Sprague Myers.

Box 3 of 33

Box 4

Folder 1 Kraemeriidae, circa 1923-1926, 1951. Also see Microdesmidae.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 2 Kuhlidae, circa 1939-1951.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 3 Kyphosidae, 1945.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 4 Labridae, circa 1946-1955. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs and Norman Barry Marshall.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 5 Leiognathidae

Box 4 of 33

Folder 6 Lepisosteidae

Box 4 of 33

Folder 7 Lobotidae, circa 1951-1957. Includes correspondence with Vernon E. Brock.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 8 Loricariidae - South America, circa 1942.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 9 Lutjanidae, circa 1947-1951.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 10 Malapteruridae

Box 4 of 33

Folder 11 Mastacembelus - Africa

Box 4 of 33

Folder 12 Microdesmidae, circa 1949-1956. Includes correspondence with James Erwin Bohlke, Robert R. Harry, George Sprague Myers, and James L. B. Smith.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 13 Mobulidae, 1947.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 14 Monocanthidae, 1951.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 15 Monocentridae, 1955.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 16 Moringuidae, circa 1946-1951. Includes correspondence with William C. Schroeder.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 17 Moringuidae - Africa

Box 4 of 33

Folder 18 Mugilidae, circa 1945-1951. Includes correspondence with Paul Harry Oehser.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 19 Mugilioididae (Parapercidae), circa 1964-1971. Includes correspondence with Chuichi Araga, Al Murphy, and P. V. Sreenivasan.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 20 Muraenesocidae, 1952. Includes correspondence with Eurico Tortonese.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 21 Muraenidae, circa 1940-1958. Includes correspondence with Francis Hemming, George Sprague Myers, and Boyd Wallace Walker.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 22 Nematognathi, circa 1942.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 23 Notopteridae

Box 4 of 33

Folder 24 Ophichthyidae, circa 1946-1956.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 25 Osmeridae, circa 1932-1935. Includes correspondence with Mrs. John Fletcher, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, and Martin L. Loftus.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 26 Osmeridae - Spirinchus dilatus, circa 1932-1933. Includes correspondence with Rolf Ling Bolin, Paul Bonnot, Frances Naomi Clark, John Richardson Dymond, Arthur W. Henn, Albert W. Herre, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Willis Horton Rich, N. B. Scofield, and Alexander Wetmore.

Box 4 of 33

Folder 27 Ostraciidae

Box 4 of 33

Box 5

Folder 1 Pempheridae, circa 1946.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 2 Percidae, circa 1926-1935.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 3 Peristedidae, 1958. Includes correspondence with Gerard W. Teague.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 4 Petromyzontidae, circa 1927-1935. Includes correspondence with Merrill W. Brown, P. Ellingsen, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Thomas Large, and Gordon L. Walls.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 5 Pimilodidae, circa 1942.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 6 Platacidae

Box 5 of 33

Folder 7 Platycephalidae, circa 1946.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 8 Pleuronectidae, circa 1936. Includes correspondence with Carl Leavitt Hubbs.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 9 Polynemidae

Box 5 of 33

Folder 10 Pomacentridae, 1939-1964. Includes correspondence with Norman Barry Marshall and Loren P. Woods.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 11 Pomadasidae, 1951. Includes correspondence with Cecil Miles.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 12 Pomatomidae

Box 5 of 33

Folder 13 Priacanthidae

Box 5 of 33

Folder 14 Pseudochalceus, circa 1964-1965. Includes correspondence with Herbert R. Axelrod, Jacques Gery, William A. Kyburz, James A. Peters, and Richard L. Zusi.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 15 Pseudochromidae, 1940-1966. Includes correspondence with Marie-Louise Bauchot, H. Boschma, P. H. Greenwood, and Frank H. Talbot.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 16 Pseudochromidae - Labracinus, 1965-1966. Includes correspondence with Marie-Louise Bauchot and Michael Reed.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 17 Pterophyllune Schultz, 1965.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 18 Pygidiidae, 1942.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 19 Raja kincaidi

Box 5 of 33

Folder 20 Rypticus revision, circa 1935-1937.

Box 5 of 33

Folder 21 Salmonidae, circa 1920-1930. Includes correspondence with D. R. Crawford and E. Parkes.

Box 5 of 33

Box 6

Folder 1 Scaridae-correspondence, 1953-1968. Includes correspondence with Marie-Louise Bauchot, M. Blanc, James Erwin Bohlke, J. Howard Choat, Bruce Baden Collette, William A. Gosline, Robert R. Harry, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Wolfgang Klausewitz, Norman Barry Marshall, Daniel Merriman, Jorgen Nielsen, John Ernest Randall, Richard Heinrich Rosenblatt, James L. B. Smith, Victor G. Springer, H. Steinitz, and Howard Elliott Winn.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 2 Scaridae - notes, data, and sketches, circa 1954-1967.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 3 Sciaenidae, circa 1938-1951.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 4 Scomberomorus

Box 6 of 33

Folder 5 Scombridae, circa 1946.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 6 Scorpaenidae, circa 1947-1958. Includes correspondence with Dayton L. Alverson, William I. Follett, William A. Gosline, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Norman Barry Marshall, Julius B. Phillips, James L. B. Smith, Ethelwynn Trewavas, Denys William Tucker, and Arthur Donovan Welander.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 7 Scorpaenidae - cranial spines

Box 6 of 33

Folder 8 Scorpaenidae - Sebastes, 1948-1954. Includes correspondence with William I. Follett and A. Vedel Taning.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 9 Scorpaenidae - Sebastodes, circa 1931-1956. Includes correspondence with Frances Naomi Clark, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, George Sprague Myers, William C. Schroeder, Joseph Howe Wales, Lionel A. Walford, and Arthur Donovan Welander.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 10 Serranidae, circa 1951-1960. Includes correspondence with John F. C. Morgans, James L. B. Smith, and Loren P. Woods.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 11 Siganidae, circa 1951.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 12 Soleidae, 1951-1954. Includes correspondence with Paul Chabanaud.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 13 Solenostomidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 14 Sphyraenidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 15 Sternoptychidae, 1937, 1954-1959. Includes correspondence with Henry Bryant Bigelow, Janet Haig, James Edwin Morrow, and J. R. Norman.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 16 Stromateidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 17 Syngnathidae, 1947-1950. Includes correspondence with Earl S. Herald.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 18 Synodontidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 19 Tetraodontidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 20 Trichonotidae, circa 1956. Includes correspondence. with Gilbert P. Whitley.

Box 6 of 33

Folder 21 Zanelidae

Box 6 of 33

Folder 22 Zoarcidae, circa 1965-1967. Includes correspondence with Teodar T. Nalbant.

Box 6 of 33

Series 2

SUBJECT FILE, 1915-1916, CIRCA 1922-1970.

This series contains notes, data, correspondence, meeting programs, manuscripts, and related material of Leonard P. Schultz concerning ichthyological and systematic societies; research topics of interest to Schultz; books and articles written by Schultz; expeditions; classes taught by Schultz; and Schultz's personal and professional life.

Box 7

Folder 1 Acclimatization of fishes. Bibliographic notes, undated.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 2 Albion College. Concerning honorary degree awarded to Schultz, 1964.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 3 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Includes meeting programs and correspondence, 1936, 1946, 1948, 1950.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 4 American Fisheries Society. Meeting programs, 1935, 1936, 1940.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 5 American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists. Includes minutes of meetings, correspondence, membership lists, and newsletters, 1962-1968.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 6 American Scientific Congress (Eighth). Includes programs and correspondence, 1940.

Box 7 of 33

Folder 7 American Society of Fish Prevaricators. 1940, 1947.

Box 7 of 33

Folders 8-10 American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Includes correspondence and programs concerning meetings, committees, membership, and other organizational matters, 1932-1958.

Box 7 of 33

Box 8

Folders 1-5 American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Includes correspondence and programs concerning meetings, committees, and other organizational matters, 1949-1965.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 6 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Also includes Limnological Society of America. Includes correspondence, meeting programs, membership lists, and Society publications, 1936-1953.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 7 The American Way. Correspondence concerning article written by Schultz for book, 1958.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 8 Aquarium management. Includes notes for lectures and bibliography, 1936.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 9 Arctic Institute of North America. Includes correspondence and publications, 1946-1949.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 10 Ascophus tadpoles. Manuscript, 1934-1935.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 11 Atlantic Estuarine Research Society. Includes membership lists, constitution, and programs, 1958-1966.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 12 Automobile accident. Correspondence and estimates on accident in which Schultz was involved, 1959.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 13 Board of U.S. Civil Service Commission Examiners. Rating procedures, 1956-1968.

Box 8 of 33

Folder 14 Boats. Includes information concerning boat construction kits, 1950-1952.

Box 8 of 33

Box 9

Folder 1 Breeding habits. Includes lecture notes, bibliography, and typescripts, 1928-1936.

Box 9 of 33

Folder 2 Breeding habits. Includes field notes on spawning habits of red salmon, 1931-1935, and silver salmon, 1933-1935; report, 1933; and statistics, 1931-1933.

Box 9 of 33

Folder 3 Calvert County Tercentenary. Natural History Day, 1954.

Box 9 of 33

Box 9

Folders 4-6 "A Classification of Fishes," outline and corrected copy, 1935 and undated.

Box 9 of 33

Folders 7-8 Classification, group endings. Survey of scientists' opinions on proposal to fix endings of groups above the level of genus, 1939-1957.

Box 9 of 33

Folder 9 Classification, nomenclature. Includes correspondence of American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Committee on Fish Classification for "Fishes of the Western North Atlantic," 1950-1952.

Box 9 of 33

Box 10

Folder 1 P. F. Collier and Son Corporation. Correspondence on encyclopedia article written by Schultz, 1947-1951.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 2 Cosmos Club. Correspondence, 1947-1953.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 3 Distribution of fishes, vertebrates, 1926 and undated.

Box 10 of 33

Folders 4-11 Drawings of fishes. Probably used to illustrate Keys to Fishes of Washington and Oregon, figures 1-389, circa 1936.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 12 D. Van Nostrand and Company. 1945-1955.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 13 Embryology. Drawings and notes, circa 1922-1924.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 14 Enemies of fish. Notes.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 15 Expeditions. University of Michigan expedition to western United States, 1926.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 16 Expeditions. Includes correspondence on ichthyological survey of Eastern Washington, and U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Survey in Glacier National Park, Montana, 1931-1934.

Box 10 of 33

Folder 17 Expeditions. Collections of fishes by Daniel Merriman, Oregon, 1933-1934.

Box 10 of 33

Folders 18-19 Expeditions. Travel log and color slides of Smithsonian-State Department Ichthyological Survey Expedition to Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, 1942.

Box 10 of 33

Box 11

Folders 1-12 Fishes of the Johnston Islands. Manuscript and corrected copies for Acanthuridae, Apodes, Blennies, Carangidae, Chaetodontidae, Cirrhitidae, Holocentridae, Labridae, Mollidae, Pomacentridae, Scorpaenidae, and Synodidae.

Box 11 of 33

Folder 13 Fishes of the Johnston Islands. Manuscript, Goby Records, circa 1947.

Box 11 of 33

Folder 14 Fishes of the Johnston Islands. Manuscript, miscellaneous groups.

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Box 12

Folder 1 "Fishes of the Western North Atlantic." Schultz was a member of the Editorial Board. Publication was sponsored by Sears Foundation for Marine Research. 1954-1964.

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Folder 2 George Washington University, the Graduate Council. Includes material on doctoral programs at the University, 1948-1958.

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Folder 3 Growth - temperature. Includes notes and experimental data on Oncorhynchus nerka eggs, circa 1934.

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Folder 4 Hall 28, Museum of Natural History. Script for exhibit on Comparative Osteology, 1963.

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Folders 5-9 Handbook of Tropical Aquarium Fishes. Includes acknowledgments for use of illustrations, 1953-1956; Herbert R. Axelrod correspondence, 1952-1955; corrections and letters, circa 1955-1956; McGraw-Hill correspondence, 1952-1955, 1959; and correspondence, 1954-1955.

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Folder 10 Hibernation and aestivation. Notes and bibliography.

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Folder 11 Honorary dinner programs. Honorees include Spencer F. Baird, William H. Dall, Daniel Lyman Hazard, and Leonhard Stejneger, 1915-1916, 1923, 1936-1937.

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Box 13

Folders 1-5 Ichthyological lectures completed. Includes Fish 101 at University of Washington. Circa 1935-1957.

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Folders 6-7 International Indian Ocean Expedition. Includes correspondence, reports, and other material related to Schultz's participation, 1960-1964.

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Folder 8 Jayaram, K. C. Thesis, 1957-1958.

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Folder 9 Length/weight relationship in fishes. Includes correspondence and data, circa 1937-1952.

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Box 14

Folders 1-6 Life history of fishes. Includes notes for lectures, research notes, data, and bibliographic notes on eggs and larvae, early life history, races and migrations, and the determination of life histories by the scale method, circa 1929-1936.

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Folders 7-9 "Marine Fishes of the West Coast Handbook." Manuscript, circa 1935.

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Folder 10 Maryland, University of. Correspondence regarding course in ichthyology to be taught by Schultz, 1955-1956.

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Box 15

Folders 1-2 National Geographic Society Book of Fishes. Correspondence and manuscripts, 1938-1963.

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Folder 3 National Wildlife Federation. Wildlife Conservation Stamp Series, 1950-1955.

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Folder 4 Navy Survey Expedition to the Phoenix Islands. Correspondence, expense account, maps, and extracts from log of USS Bushnell, 1939-1940.

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Folder 5 North American Food, Forage, and Game Handbook. Correspondence with publishers on proposed book to be written with Ernest A. Lachner, 1950-1951.

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Folder 6 Pacific Scientific Congress (Eighth). Correspondence, 1952-1954.

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Folder 7 Pacific Scientific Congress (Tenth). Correspondence, 1960-1961.

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Folder 8 Pacific Scientific Congress (Eleventh). Correspondence, 1965-1966.

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Folder 9 Photographs and negatives. Includes Wake Island, Tokyo fish market, Bataan, Virginia fishes, Glacier National Park, and personal photographs, 1933-1934, 1938, 1952.

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Folder 10 Poems. Circa 1936-1942.

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Folder 11 Positions/applications. Includes applications, Civil Service Ratings, lists of publications, and correspondence concerning Schultz's applications for ichthyological positions, 1927-1946. Also includes application of Dorothea C. B. Schultz, 1949.

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Folder 12 Positions held. Includes appointments, correspondence, and related material concerning position held by Schultz, 1924-1938, 1953-1954.

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Box 16

Folder 1 Quarrie Corporation. Correspondence concerning articles for World Book Encyclopedia, 1944-1946.

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Folders 2-5 Scales. Includes data, calculations, manuscript, and original temperature readings concerning the effects of temperature on the growth of scales of the salmon, 1935-1936.

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Folder 6 Schultz library. Correspondence concerning sale of Schultz's ichthyological library, 1968-1970.

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Folder 7 Smithsonian positions. Correspondence, forms, and related material concerning Schultz's tenure at the Smithsonian, 1936-1966.

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Folders 8-9 Society of Systematic Zoology. Includes correspondence, newsletters, membership lists, and related material concerning organizational matters and proposed reforms in the international rules for nomenclature, 1948-1951.

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Folder 10 Student correspondence, 1931-1936.

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Box 17

Folder 1 Temperature and rate of development of fish eggs. Notes, undated.

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Folder 2 Underwater Society of America. Correspondence and programs, 1963.

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Folders 3-6 The Ways of Fishes. Correspondence, manuscript, illustrations, rejected figures, bibliography, and related material concerning book co-authored with Edith Stern, and proposed revision, 1948-1950, circa 1953, 1961-1963.

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Folder 7 World Book Encyclopedia. Correspondence and manuscripts concerning articles written, 1959.

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Series 3

SHARK RESEARCH MATERIAL, 1958-1969; WITH RELATED DATA AND MATERIAL, 1899, 1913, CIRCA 1919-1965.

This series contains material accumulated by Schultz in his research on sharks and shark attacks. Schultz was secretary of the Shark Research Panel set up by the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) in 1958. The panel attempted to guide and coordinate research on sharks and shark attacks and to aid in the development of an effective shark repellant. Schultz's duties for the panel included the documentation of international shark attack incidents. Questionnaires were filled out for each case, and a cross-referenced file was maintained in the Division of Fishes until its transfer to the Mote Marine Laboratory in 1968.

This series contains Schultz's records from the Shark Research Panel including notes, correspondence, minutes, and publications; statements, contracts, and correspondence on Office of Naval Research contracts; correspondence with scientists, victims, observers, and others on shark attacks; scientific notes and material on sharks; and a microfilm copy of the Shark Attack Questionnaire File. The series is arranged by type of material, i.e., clippings and articles, correspondence, data and notes, illustrations, Shark Research Panel records, records on U.S. Navy contract NONR 1354 (07), and microfilm.

Box 18

Folder 1 Clippings and articles. Clippings on sharks and shark attacks assembled by Schultz, 1960-1967.

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Folder 2 Clippings and articles. Clippings and correspondence assembled by Carl Leavitt Hubbs, 1899, 1926, 1950-1963.

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Folder 3 Clippings and articles. Printed material, 1957-1968.

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Folder 4 Clippings and articles. Sharks as predators of man. Includes copies of comments by Pliny and Rondeletti, and summary of world shark attack statistics.

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Folder 5 Clippings and articles. Shark repellants, 1957-1966.

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Folders 6-7 Correspondence with victims, treatment facilities, observers, and others concerning shark attacks, filed alphabetically by name, subject, or locality, A-J, 1960-1967.

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Box 19

Folders 1-2 Correspondence with victims, treatment facilities, observers, and others concerning shark attacks, filed alphabetically by name, subject, or locality, K-Z, 1960-1967.

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Correspondence

Folder 3 American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1958-1965.

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Folder 4 Armed Services Technical Information Agency, 1959.

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Folder 5 Ashford, Mahlon, Puerto Rico Office of Tourism, 1949.

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Folder 6 Australia, Shark Research Society of, 1963-1966.

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Folder 7 Backus, Richard H., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1960.

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Folder 8 Barracuda and other fish attacks.

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Folder 9 Bean, Barton A., 1913.

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Folder 10 Brum do Canto, Jorge, 1959-1960.

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Folder 11 Carcharodon, 1959.

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Folder 12 Clark, Eugenie, 1959-1964.

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Folder 13 Cooke, C. M., III, 1959-1960.

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Folder 14 Coppleson, Victor M., 1959-1967.

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Folder 15 D. C. Heath and Company, 1964-1965.

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Folder 16 Fairchild, Alexander G., 1959-1961.

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Folder 17 Follett, William I., California Academy of Sciences, 1959-1964.

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Folder 18 Gaerste, Thomas, 1937.

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Folder 19 Galler, Sidney Roland, Office of Naval Research, 1960-1966

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Folder 20 Garrick, Jack A. F., 1966.

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Box 20

Folder 1 Gilbert, Perry Webster, Cornell University, 1958-1967.

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Folder 2 Gilmore, Raymond Maurice, Museum of Natural History of San Diego, 1959-1961.

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Folder 3 Gorshenin, Nick, 1958.

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Folder 4 Gosline, William A., University of Hawaii, 1960.

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Folder 5 Grace, Leo M., 1943.

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Folder 6 Herald, Earl S., California Academy of Sciences, 1959-1962.

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Folder 7 Hoshina, Masayuki, 1959-1960.

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Folder 8 Hubbs, Carl Leavitt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1958-1964.

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Folder 9 Hutton, Robert Franklin, Florida State Board of Conservation, 1958-1960.

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Folder 10 Johnson, Eldridge R. Fenimore, 1958-1962.

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Folder 11 Jones, S., Central Marine Fisheries Research Station, India, 1960.

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Folder 12 Leapley, William, U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, 1958.

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Folder 13 Lerner, Michael, Lerner Marine Laboratory, 1958-1960. Includes copy of shark attack clippings and correspondence compiled by Lerner.

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Folder 14 Limbaugh, Conrad, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1958-1959.

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Folder 15 Llano, George A., National Science Foundation, 1954-1964.

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Folder 16 Mason, D. Ryle, South African Scientific Liaison Office, 1960.

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Folder 17 Miscellaneous files incidents. News clippings, 1962-1966.

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Folder 18 Naval Photographic Office, 1963.

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Folder 19 Randall, John E., University of Puerto Rico, 1960-1964.

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Folder 20 Rapson, A. M., Division of Fisheries, Papua, New Guinea, 1961-1966.

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Folder 21 Schroeder, William C., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1960.

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Folder 22 Sebaste, William H., 1960-1964.

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Folder 23 Shark Research Committee. Includes correspondence with Ralph S. Collier and Gene Helfman, 1961-1965.

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Folder 24 Skin Diver magazine, 1959.

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Folder 25 Smith, James L. B., 1960-1963.

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Folder 26 South African Oceanographic Research Institute. Includes correspondence with John F. C. Morgans and Jeanette D'Aubrey, 1959-1967.

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Folder 27 Sports Illustrated, 1959-1960.

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Folder 28 Springer, Stewart, Stanford University, 1958-1966.

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Folder 29 Stephens, William M., 1959-1963.

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Folder 30 Tester, Albert Lewis, University of Hawaii, 1961.

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Folder 31 United States Air Force. Includes correspondence with Wayne E. Williams, 1964-1967.

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Folder 32 United States Coast Guard, 1961-1966.

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Folder 33 United States Naval Medical Research Institute. Includes correspondence with H. D. Baldridge, 1964-1966.

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Folder 34 United States Navy, Office of Naval Research, Oceanic Biology Programs, 1966-1968.

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Folder 35 Whitley, Gilbert Percy, Australian Museum, 1959-1963.

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Folder 36 Woods, Loren P., Chicago Natural History Museum, 1959.

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Box 21

Folder 1 Data and notes. Family Alopiidae, classification by teeth.

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Folder 2 Data and notes. Carcharadon fossil. Teeth identification.

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Folder 3 Data and notes. Family Carcharhinidae, notes and statistics on teeth and classification.

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Folder 4 Data and notes. Family Hexanchidae. Notes and typescript on classification by teeth.

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Folder 5 Data and notes. Family Isuridae. Classification by teeth.

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Folder 6 Data and notes. Family Sphrynidae.

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Folder 7 Illustrations. Includes illustrations of teeth.

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Folder 8 Shark Research Panel. Notes and minutes, 1958-1965.

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Folders 9-13 Shark Research Panel. Meetings, 1964-1967.

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Folder 14 Shark Research Panel. "Sharks and Survival," 1964-1966.

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Folder 15 Shark Research Panel. International Shark Tagging Program, 1964-1966.

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Folder 16 Shark Research Panel. Suggestions for data processing, 1966-1968.

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Folders 17-18 U.S. Navy Contract NONR 1354(07). Includes copy of contract bid for additional funds, correspondence, financial statements, and proposals for contract extension, 1964-1969.

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Box 22

Microfilm of shark attack file, cases 1-1441. 12 reels. Attacks dated circa 1919-1965.

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Series 4

CROSSROADS OPERATION, 1946-1955, WITH RELATED MATERIAL, 1924-1946.

The Crossroads Operation was an expedition to Bikini and the northern Marshall Islands in 1946 under the auspices of the Department of the Navy. Schultz was in charge of the biological investigation of the reef fishes in the area. His investigations centered on the relative abundance of fauna before and after the atom bomb tests. Specimens were collected for the purpose of comparison and to make possible a study of anatomical variations among the various island fish populations.

Box 23

Folder 1 Logbook, 1946.

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Folder 2 Crossroads (newsletter), March-May 1946.

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Folder 3 Personal correspondence, 1946.

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Folders 4-5 Correspondence and documents, 1946-1947.

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Folder 6 Reports. Include notes, specimen tables, and clippings, 1946-1947.

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Folder 7 Lecture delivered by Schultz at the Washington Academy of Sciences December 19, 1946. Includes outline, notes, and clippings.

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Folder 8 Complete list of Crossroads fishes sent out on exchange, filed alphabetically by recipient institution, circa 1947-1955.

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Folder 9 List of drawings of fishes, including new species, circa 1951.

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Folder 10 Photography. Includes exposure data sheets, photographic requests and releases, photos, negatives, and correspondence, 1946-1948.

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Box 24

Folder 1 Unclassified photos, 1946-1947.

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Folder 2 Photographic negatives of Enyu Island. Undated.

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Folder 3 Film listed as "not selected by Pathe News," circa 1946. [removed to box 33]

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Folder 4 Unidentified photographs, undated.

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Box 33

Film listed as "not selected by Pathe News," circa 1946. (3 reels)

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Box 25

Folder 1 Tide tables of Pacific and Indian Oceans, 1946.

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Folder 2 Field Charts Of: (1) Marshall Islands: Eniwetok Atoll, annotations by Schultz, 1946; (2) Marshall Islands: Bikini Atoll, annotations by Schultz, 1946.

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Folder 3 Field Charts of: (1) Marshall Islands: Kwajalein Atoll, eastern part, 1944; (2) Marshall Islands: Bikini Atoll, annotations by Schultz, 1946; (3) Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll; (4) Marshall Islands: Rongerick Atoll.

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Folder 4 Charts: (1) Plans of Marshall Islands from Japanese charts up to 1931; (2) field chart of Marshall Islands: Majuro Atoll; (3) Bikini Atoll - fathom lines outside and soundings outside; (4) field chart of Marshall Islands, northern portion, 1945; field chart of Marshall Islands, southern portions, 1924.

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Folder 5 Miscellaneous: (1) Table on specimen distribution; (2) Itinerary; (3) miscellaneous correspondence and documents, 1946.

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Series 5

BIKINI SCIENTIFIC RESURVEY, 1946-1956.

The Bikini Scientific Resurvey was an expedition conducted under the auspices of the Department of the Navy aboard the U.S.S. Chilton in 1947. Specimens were collected for the purpose of determining the effect of the atom bomb tests of the previous year on the relative abundance of fauna in the immediate area. Schultz served as ichthyologist for the Resurvey.

Box 25

Folder 6 Diary, 1947.

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Folder 7 Notes taken while aboard the U.S.S. Chilton, 1947.

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Box 26

Folder 1 Alphabetical Directory of Officers, Scientists and Technicians aboard the U.S.S. Chilton; Tide tables for the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana Islands, 1947.

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Folder 2 Bikini Backtalk (newsletter), Nos. 1-16, July-September, 1947.

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Folder 3 Correspondence; press releases; ship's memoranda; notes on Advisory Board Meetings; magazine articles, circa 1947.

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Folder 4 Biology of Bikini Atoll. Photographs of specimens, A-bomb explosion, and crew members of the U.S.S. Chilton, 1947.

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Folder 5 Ecology of Bikini Reef Fishes. Includes "outline of work that could be done on the Crossroads fishes," 1947.

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Folder 6 Geographic names, Northern Marshall Islands, circa 1948-1949.

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Folder 7 Contract Drawings by Dorothea B. Schultz. Includes purchase orders, 1948-1956.

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Folder 8 Bikini fishes, University of Washington. Includes species and locality.

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Folder 9 Bikini funds, Smithsonian and Office of Naval Research. Correspondence on publication of Crossroads Operations findings, 1946-1952.

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Folder 10 Duplicate series of specimens (V).

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Series 6

PUBLISHED WORKS, 1926-1970.

This series includes most of Schultz's articles, monographs, and books in their published format. A circled number in pencil probably indicates the correct sequence of publication. This number usually appears in the upper right-hand corner of the publication.

Box 27

Folders 1-3 Published works, 1926-1937.

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Box 28

Folders 1-5 Published works, 1937-1947.

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Box 29

Folders 1-4 Published works, 1948-1955.

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Box 30

Folders 1-6 Published works, 1956-1970.

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Series 7

NAVY SURVEYING EXPEDITION TO THE PHOENIX AND SAMOAN ISLANDS, 1939.

This series consists of photographs, negatives, and glass plate negatives taken and assembled by Schultz during his work as naturalist on the Navy Surveying Expedition to the Phoenix and Samoan Islands, 1939. Included are images of Schultz, specimens, native peoples, and scenery.

Boxes 31-32

Photographs, negatives, and glass plate negatives concerning the Navy Surveying Expedition to the Phoenix and Samoan Islands, 1939

Boxes 31-32 of 33

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