SIA RU007183, Clark, Austin Hobart 1880-1954, Austin H. Clark Papers, 1883-1954 and undated
- Clark, Austin Hobart 1880-1954
- Austin H. Clark Papers, 1883-1954 and undated
- Data Source:
- Smithsonian Institution Archives
- 1883, 1883-1954, 1883-1954 and undated
- Austin H. Clark (1880-1954) was born in Wellesley, Massachusetts. He received his A.B. from Harvard in 1903, and by 1906 his interests had focused on marine biology. From 1906 to 1907 he served as Acting Chief of the Scientific Staff of the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer, Albatross.
- Clark joined the staff of the United States National Museum in 1908 as Honorary Collaborator in the Division of Marine Invertebrates and was appointed Assistant Curator of the Division in 1909. He was promoted to the position of Curator of the Division of Echinoderms in 1920 when the echinoderm collection was removed from the Division of Marine Invertebrates and made a separate division. Clark held the position of Curator until his retirement in 1950 at which time he was made an Honorary Associate in Zoology, a position he retained until his death.
- Clark's principal research field was in the class Crinoidea, but he also did research in the areas of oceanography, marine biology, ornithology, and entomology. Clark was able to gain access to specimens collected on various international expeditions, including the Canadian Arctic Expedition and the Siboga Expedition, due to a reciprocal exchange agreement between the United States National Museum and foreign institutions.
- Clark displayed a deep interest in scientific journalism and was one of the first to realize the applicability of radio and television to the dissemination of scientific news and ideas. He helped develop the weekly radio talks aired by the Smithsonian from 1923 to 1926 in cooperation with the Carnegie Institution of Washington and various government agencies. In 1925 Clark and the Smithsonian were instrumental in establishing a series of radio broadcasts in the Boston area. Clark was appointed Director of Press Service for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 1928. He also served as Press Relations Officer for the Eighth Pan-American Scientific Congress, 1940, and the AAAS Centennial Celebration, 1948.
- These papers include incoming and outgoing correspondence; papers documenting Clark's participation in organizations outside the Smithsonian; records relating to the administration of the Division of Echinoderms; descriptive notes on specimen collections; bibliographic references; Addison Emery Verrill material maintained by Clark; charts and diagrams depicting the comparative bathymetric distribution of crinoids in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans; and a scrapbook containing postcards received by Clark in connection with a nomenclature question concerning Enerinus.
- Invertebrate zoology
- Verrill, A. E (Addison Emery) 1839-1926, Clark, Austin Hobart 1880-1954, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Carnegie Institution of Washington, United States National Museum Division of Echinoderms, Harvard University, United States Bureau of Fisheries, Albatross (Steamer), United States National Museum Division of Marine Invertebrates, Canadian Arctic Expedition (1913-1918), Siboga Expedition (1899-1900), Eighth American Scientific Congress (1940 : Washington, D. C.)
- Mixed archival materials, Collection descriptions
- Local Number:
- SIA RU007183
- Physical Description:
- 10.61 cu. ft. (19 document boxes) (1 half document box) (2 12x17 boxes)
Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives
Table of Contents
- Collection Overview
- Historical Note
- Descriptive Entry
- Index Terms
- Administrative Information
- Container List
- Series 1 - INCOMING AND OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1907-1954. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY CORRESPONDENT.
- Series 2 - PAPERS DOCUMENTING PARTICIPATION IN OUTSIDE ORGANIZATIONS, 1911-1952. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY ORGANIZATION.
- Series 3 - DIVISION OF ECHINODERMS ADMINISTRATION, N.D. UNARRANGED.
- Series 4 - SPECIMEN DESCRIPTIVE NOTES, N.D. UNARRANGED.
- Series 5 - MANUSCRIPTS, N.D. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY.
- Series 6 - BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES, N.D. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY
- Series 7 - ADDISON EMERY VERRILL MATERIAL, CA. 1883-1915. UNARRANGED.
- Series 8 - COMPARATIVE BATHYMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CRINOIDS, N.D. UNARRANGED.
- Series 9 - SCRAPBOOK OF POSTCARDS, 1909.
- Series 10 - ADD ACQUISITION, OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1909-1911.
Record Unit 7183
Clark, Austin Hobart, b. 1880
Austin H. Clark Papers, 1883-1954 and undated
|General Information About This Collection|
|Repository:||Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.|
|Creator:||Clark, Austin Hobart, b. 1880|
|Title:||Austin H. Clark Papers|
|Dates:||1883-1954 and undated|
|Quantity:||3.1 linear meters.|
|Collection:||Record Unit 7183|
|Language of Materials:||English|
Austin H. Clark (1880-1954) was born December 17, 1880, in Wellesley, Massachusetts. His childhood study of butterflies initiated his interest in natural history. At the age of 23 Clark graduated from Harvard University (A.B., 1903). By 1906 his zoological interests had focused on marine biology, and from 1906 to 1907 he served as acting chief of the scientific staff of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross. In 1906 he participated in the Albatross' eight-month Pacific cruise, which resulted in Clark's report of birds he had studied during that period.
Austin H. Clark's association with the United States National Museum began in 1908 with a position as honorary collaborator in the Division of Marine Invertebrates. In 1909 he was appointed assistant curator in the Division of Marine Invertebrates. When the echinoderm collection was removed from the Division of the Marine Invertebrates and made a separate division, Clark was promoted to curator of the Division of Echinoderms, effective April 1, 1920. Clark held the position of curator until his retirement in 1950, at which time he was made an honorary associate in Zoology, a position he retained until his death on October 28, 1954.
Clark did research in the areas of oceanography, marine biology, ornithology, and entomology, but the class Crinoidea constituted his principal research field. Due to a prevailing sense of international cooperation, Clark was able to gain access to specimens collected on various international expeditions, including the Canadian Arctic Expedition and the Siboga Expedition. The collections of the United States National Museum were also sent abroad for study. Notable recipients of these collections were Theodor Mortensen, Rene Koehler, Ludwig Doderlein, and Torsten Gislen.
Clark wrote 630 books and articles in English, German, French, Spanish, Russian, and Hebrew. Although most of these were published in the United States, the places of publication included twenty different countries. Among his books were Animals of Land and Sea (1925), Nature Narratives (vol. 1, 1929; vol. 2, 1931), The New Evolution (1930), and Animals Alive (1948). Clark and his second wife, Leila Gay Forbes (m. 1933), co-authored eight papers on the butterflies of Virginia.
Scientific journalism was an important field for Clark. He maintained close contact with various scientific editors and was one of the first to realize the application of radio and televison to the dissemination of scientific news and ideas. Clark was instrumental in the development of the weekly radio talks aired by the Smithsonian from 1923 to 1926 in cooperation with the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Navy Department, the Biological Survey, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Bureau of Fisheries, and other government agencies. In 1925 Clark and the Smithsonian were instrumental in establishing a series of radio broadcasts in the Boston area through the cooperation of Thornton W. Burgess, Harlow Shapley, and others. Clark was appointed director of press service for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 1928. He also served as press relations officer for the Eighth Pan-American Scientific Congress (1940) and the AAAS Centennial Celebration (1948).
Clark also held offices in other scientific organizations, notably the National Research Council's American Geophysical Union, where he served as secretary of the Section of Oceanography (1926-1928), chairman of the Section of Oceanography (1928-1933), and vice-chairman of the Union (1933). He was also president of the Washington Academy of Sciences, president of the Entomological Society of Washington, a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the National Parks Association, a member of the Executive Committee and Long Range Planning Committee of the Southern Association of Science and Industry, and a member of the Long Range Planning Committee of the Virginia Academy of Sciences.
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
The main body of the collection consists of incoming and outgoing personal correspondence. However, since Clark was curator and sole employee of the Division of Echinoderms from 1920 to 1950, his personal papers contain some official correspondence generated by the Division of Echinoderms during that period. Also included are papers that document Clark's participation in organizations outside the Smithsonian; records relating to the administration of the Division of Echinoderms; descriptive notes on specimen collections; manuscripts and typescripts; bibliographic references; Addison Emery Verrill material maintained by Clark; and charts and diagrams depicting the comparative Bathymetric distribution of crinoids in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans.
Correspondents include: Charles G. Abbot, Alexander Agassiz, Jerome Alexander, Wilfrid B. Alexander, E. J. Allen, Glover Morrill Allen, Joel Asaph Allen, George Andrew Ammann, Rudolf Martin Anderson, N. Annandale, Gilbert Archey, W. Arndt, Benjamin Walworth Arnold, J. P. Ault, Rene Bache, Clement W. Baker, Frank W. Ballou, H. A. Ballou, Outram Bangs, Nathan Banks, Thomas Barbour, H. G. Barnett, Harold L. Barrett, Albert L. Barrows, Paul Bartsch, F. B. Bassett, Charles Foster Batchelder, F. A. Bather, Ted Bayer, George Huddell Beatty III, F. Jeffrey Bell, Foster Hendrickson Benjamin, Marcus Benjamin, Charles T. Berry, Edward Willard Berry, Henry Bryant Bigelow, Lloyd C. Bird, C. V. Blackburn, A. F. Blakeslee, Howard Walter Blakeslee, Frank H. Blumenthal, Gilbert E. Bodkin, Herbert Bolton, H. Boschma, Harold Bowditch, Richard Le Baron Bowen, Jr., George M. Bowers, E. H. Bowie, William Bowie, Isaiah Bowman, George E. Brandt, Charles Marcus Breder, Jr., Walter E. Broadway, Paul Brockett, Alfred H. Brooks, Herbert Janvrin Browne, Charles Thomas Brues, George Kimball Burgess, Thornton W. Burgess, Alfred Cummings Burrill, Philip Powell Calvert, John H. Camp, James McKeen Cattell, Herbert Clifton Chadwick, J. M. Chamberlain, Asa Crawford Chandler, Eloise Christian, James Chumley, Hubert Lyman Clark, Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, John Mason Clarke, Theodore D. A. Cockerell, Hedley L. Coleman, Laurence Vail Coleman, William P. Comstock, Frederick Vernon Coville, Edward M. Crane, James Creese, Jr., Joseph A. Cushman, Edward Salisbury Dana, Violet Dandridge, Hubert J. Davis, William Thompson Davis, Elisabeth Deichmann, John A. Detlefsen, David Dickey, David Henry Dietz, Ludwig Doderlein, Franz Doflein, Cyril F. Dos Passos, James Drummond, Irving H. Dunlap, Charles Rochester Eastman, Ralph Edmunds, K. Ehrenberg, Harry Eltringham, William Keith Emerson, Richard A. Engler, Richard Etheridge, Barton Warren Evermann, David Grandison Fairchild, R. L. Faris, George T. Farran, H. B. Fell, Merritt Lyndon Fernald, Charles John Fish, Walter Kenrick Fisher, John Adam Fleming, Maynard D. Follin, William T. M. Forbes, Alexander Hume Ford, Charles McLean Fraser, E. E. Free, O. Fuhrmann, Louis Germain, John Hiram Gerould, Carl H. Getz, Charles Henry Gilbert, Walter M. Gilbert, Torsten Gislen, Seitaro Goto, Samuel Arnold Greeley, L. Paul Grey, James A. Grieg, Joseph Grinnell, Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, Maurice C. Hall, Chauncey J. Hamlin, R. Hamlyn-Harris, Sidney Frederic Harmer, Francis Harper, Clemens Hartlaub, Robert Hartmeyer, William Perry Hay, Kenneth Conrad Heald, Nicholas Hunter Heck, Joel Walker Hedgpeth, Edmund Heller, Francis Hemming, Samuel Henshaw, William A. Herdman, P. B. Hill, Edward J. Holmes, R. Horst, William Hovanitz, Leland Ossian Howard, Harrison E. Howe, Mark DeW. Howe, Archibald Gowanlock Huntsman, Louis W. Hutchins, George Evelyn Hutchinson, Albert G. Ingalls, Robert T. Jackson, Frits Johansen, D. Dilwyn John, Charles W. Johnson, T. Harvey Johnston, E. Lester Jones, David Starr Jordan, Harvey Ernest Jordan, Louis Joubin, Ernest Everett Just, Tamiji Kawamura, Vernon L. Kellogg, J. Scott Keltie, Stanley W. Kemp, Theodore G. Kern, Israel Klein, Charles H. Knowles, Rene Koehler, Charles Atwood Kofoid, Alfred L. Kroeber, Nagamichi Kuroda, Alexander Henry Leim, Frank Rattray Lillie, G. W. Littlehales, Burton Edward Livingston, Hubert Ludwig, Victor W. Lyon, Waldo Lee McAtee, George Francis McEwen, Ralph W. Macy, Albert Mann, William M. Mann, George Willard Martin, Bryant Mather, Hiko Matsumoto, John Campbell Merriam, Wilhelm Michaelsen, Roy Waldo Miner, C. C. A. Monro, Henry Frank Moore, Theodor Mortensen, Olaus Johan Murie, Robert Cushman Murphy, National Research Council: American Geophysical Union, Sidney Stevens Negus, Edward W. Nelson, Curtis Lakeman Newcombe, John Treadwell Nichols, Charles Cleve1and Nutting, Hiroshi Ohshima, Henry O'Malley, Wilfred Hudson Osgood, William Patten, Arthur Sperry Pearse, G. Pfeffer, John Charles Phillips, Morten P. Porsild, Carlos E. Porter, Frank A. Potts, Edward E. Prince, Lewis Radcliffe, Mary Jane Rathbun, Richard Rathbun, W. deC Ravenel, George William Rawson, Paul Marshall Rea, Paul S. Redington, August Reichensperger, W. Malcom Reid, Charles L. Remington, Willis Horton Rich, Jules Richard, Charles Wallace Richmond, William Emerson Ritter, Gilbert Thomas Rude, Rudolf Ruedemann, William Edwin Safford, W. N. Sands, Waldo Lasalle Schmitt, M. Jules Schokalsky, Jacob Richard Schramm, Charles Schuchert, Harlow Shapley, Ernest Shoemaker, Allen Shoenfield, Edwin E. Slosson, Edward H. Smith, G. Alex Smith, Hobart Muir Smith, Thomas Elliot Snyder, Arthur deC Sowerby, Frank Springer, J. Foster Stackhouse, Leonhard Stejneger, Charles Wardell Stiles, Matthew Stirling, Witmer Stone, Abbott H. Thayer, R. J. Tillyard, Olga A. Titelbaum, Walter Edmond Clyde Todd, Charles Henry Tyler Townsend, Frank W. Trainer, Parker Davies Trask, Frederick William True, Harold C. Urey, Frederick William Urich, W. A. J. M. Van Waterschoot, Van Der Gracht, C. Vaney, Ernst Vanhoffen, T. Wayland Vaughan, Addison Emery Verrill, Warren Herbert Wagner, Jr., Charles D. Walcott, Henry Baldwin Ward, Henry Stephen Washington, Francis Watts, Max C. W. Weber, Alexander Wetmore, David White, Edward Wigglesworth, C. B. Williams, Carroll E. Wood, Casey W. Wood, H. E. Woodcock, Bernard H. Woodward.
This collection is indexed under the following access terms. These are links to collections with related topics, persons or places.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science
- Carnegie Institution of Washington.
- Clark, Austin Hobart, b. 1880
- Division of Echinoderms (NMNH). Department of Biology (NMNH)
- Verrill, A. E. (Addison Emery), 1839-1926.
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7183, Clark, Austin Hobart, b. 1880, Austin H. Clark Papers
Series 1INCOMING AND OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1907-1954. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY CORRESPONDENT.
Consists of correspondence with fellow scientists, committee members, educators, and administrators. Much of the correspondence documents Clark's role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge via radio shows and the publication of his monographs. Clark's administrative and curatorial duties are documented in correspondence with various administrators, such as Abbott, Bartsch, Rathbun, Ravenel, Schmitt, Stejneger, Walcott, and Wetmore. See also add acquisition, Series 10, box 22.
A - Barrows
Bartsch - Brooks
Brown - Clark, H. L.
Clark, H. L. - Di
Do - Fu
G - Hor
Hos - Ku
L - Mortensen
Mortensen - Ran
Rathbun - Si
Sm - Sw
T - Wetmore
Folders 1-3 Wey - Z
Series 2PAPERS DOCUMENTING PARTICIPATION IN OUTSIDE ORGANIZATIONS, 1911-1952. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY ORGANIZATION.
Consists of copies of minutes, programs, and correspondence with other committee members of the various organizations. Additional correspondence may be found in Series 1 under the names of other individuals active in the organizations.
Folder 4 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1927-1934
Folder 5 International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature - Special Committee on Nomenclature of Echinoderms, 1911-1912
Folder 6 National Parks Association - Executive Committee, 1950-1952
Folder 7 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Membership and -Meetings, 1925-1934
Folder 8 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Minutes and Programs, 1919-1927
Folder 9 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-b, Membership and Committees, 1921-1925
Folder 10 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-c, Foreign Correspondence, 1921-1926
Folder 11 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-d, Reports (Reporters' Reports), 1924-1926
Folder 1 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-d, Reports (Reporters' Reports), 1923-1925
Folder 2 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-e, Invitations - Guests and Reports, 1921-1925
Folder 3 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-f, Agenda - Madrid Meeting, 1924
Folder 4 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Section 502-g and 502-h, Miscellaneous, 1920-1925
Folder 5 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Executive Committee, 1934-1938
Folder 6 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Correspondence, 1922-1926
Folder 7 National Research Council: American Geophysical Union Correspondence, 1927-1936
Folder 8 National Research Council: Committee on Marine Borer Research, 1921-1922
Folder 9 President's Scientific Research Board, 1946-1947
Folder 10 Southern Association of Science and Industry, 1943
Series 3DIVISION OF ECHINODERMS ADMINISTRATION, N.D. UNARRANGED.
Consists of reports about the division and records of incoming and outgoing specimen lists. The reports concern the history and functions of the division that do not have a specific addressee. Those reports made to a specific individual are in series 1 under the name of the addressee. The specimen lists refer to specimens sent to the Division by expeditions or other museums either for identification and return or to be retained for the collections of the United States National Museum. They are arranged alphabetically by the Museum or expedition.
Folder 11 Divisional Reports, n.d.
Folder 12 Specimen Lists: incoming and outgoing, n.d.
Folder 13 Journal of European trip to view Museum Collections, n.d.
Folder 14 Logbook: research requests, 1948-1950.
Series 4SPECIMEN DESCRIPTIVE NOTES, N.D. UNARRANGED.
Included is identifying information regarding nomenclature, classification, and location of specimens.
Folder 1 Crinoids - Color descriptions collected in Philippine Islands, 1912
Folder 2 Myzostoma
Folder 3 Pentacrinidae from the Carribean
Folder 4 Species in the Indo Pacific Atlantic Fauna
Folders 5-7 Miscellaneous - includes some specimens from Albatross expeditions
Folders 1-2 Unidentified, n.d.
Series 5MANUSCRIPTS, N.D. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY.
Titled manuscripts and typescripts are arranged alphabetically. Also included are untitled writings, radio scripts, and some articles by other authors. The writings are not all of scientific nature and include political statements as well as statements of Clark's personal philosophy.
Folder 3 Manuscripts, A-D
Folder 4 Manuscripts, E
Folder 5 Manuscripts, F-O
Folder 6 Manuscripts
Folder 7 Manuscripts, Pr-R
Folder 8 Manuscripts, S-Z
Folder 1 Radio Scripts, 1931-1944
Folder 2 Untitled Writings, n.d.
Folder 3 Untitled Rough Draft (re: worms), n.d.
Folder 4 Papers by other Authors, n.d.
Series 6BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES, N.D. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY
Includes references used in classification of specimen as well as those used in preparation of manuscripts. Those references grouped under a specific heading are filed alphabetically. The remaining references are in the order maintained by Clark.
Folder 5 Comatulae, n.d.
Folder 6 Hathrometra, n.d.
Folder 7 Stalked Crinoids, n.d.
Folders 8-9 Miscellaneous, n.d.
Folders 1-5 Miscellaneous, n.d.
Series 7ADDISON EMERY VERRILL MATERIAL, CA. 1883-1915. UNARRANGED.
Verrill (1839-1926) was a noted zoologist and geologist who investigated Atlantic and Pacific coast invertebrata and the marine fauna of the Caribbean. Verrill held several positions during the time period to which these papers relate: professor of zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) (1864-1907); curator of Zoological Museum, MCZ (1865-1910); associate editor, American Journal of Science (1869-1920); instructor of geology, Sheffield Scientific School (1870-1894); and assistant in charge of scientific explorations by the United States Fish Commission (1871-1887). How this material came into Clark's possession is undetermined.
Folder 1 Correspondence, 1883-1912; Manuscripts; bibliographic references; and captions for plates to be published
Folder 2 Manuscripts; bibliographic references, invoice of Specimens, 1896; and specimen descriptions
Folder 3 Geology exam; Specimen descriptions; and manuscripts (?)
Folder 4 Specimen descriptions; incoming and outgoing lists of specimens
Folder 5-6 Mss.; Specimen descriptions
Series 8COMPARATIVE BATHYMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CRINOIDS, N.D. UNARRANGED.
Includes oversized charts and diagrams used to support Clark's theories on the geographical distribution of recent crinoids in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Many of the documents are fragile.
Charts, diagrams, and text, n.d.
Series 9SCRAPBOOK OF POSTCARDS, 1909.
Scrapbook containing postcards received by Clark in connection with a nomenclatural question concerning the genus Encrinus. 1909.
Series 10ADD ACQUISITION, OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1909-1911.
This bound letterpress book was acquired after the original processing of the collection and contains outgoing correspondence carried out by Clark while he served as assistant curator in the Division of Marine Invertebrates, 1909-1911.
Outgoing Correspondence, 1909-1911.
Using the Archives' Collections
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