SIA RU007002, Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887, Spencer F. Baird Papers, 1833-1889
- Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
- Spencer F. Baird Papers, 1833-1889
- 1833, 1833-1889
- The career of Spencer F. Baird (1823-1887) is fully documented in the Smithsonian Archives. Most letters between Baird and Louis Agassiz have been published in Elmer Charles Herber, editor, Correspondence between Spencer Fullerton Baird and Louis Agassiz -- Two Pioneer American Naturalists (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1963).
- The Baird Papers begin about 1833 with family correspondence and early journals and include records of Baird's education and teaching career, the latter dating from 1846 to 1850. The period between 1843 and 1869 Baird devoted to investigation of the vertebrate fauna of North America, and throughout the forty years from 1840 to 1880 he contributed greatly to scientific literature in this and other areas of natural science. From 1850 to 1878 Baird was Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and from 1878 to his death he was Secretary. Baird was a prolific correspondent. He wrote most of the important naturalists of his day, and almost one-half of these papers consists of letters written or received by Baird. Although official correspondence theoretically was relegated to Smithsonian records, in practice Baird observed no boundaries between professional and official; thus, these papers contain drafts of Smithsonian reports and correspondence relating to official functions. From 1871 until his death, Baird served as United States Fish Commissioner. Most of Baird's work as Commissioner is documented in this record unit. The extensive correspondence, here and in the Assistant Secretary's records, of Baird's work with the exploring expeditions, especially the Ringgold, Hudson Bay Territory, United States and Mexican Survey, and the Northern Pacific Railroad Route, is also important.
- Ichthyology, Natural history, Ornithology
- Agassiz, Louis 1807-1873, Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887, Baird, Lucy Hunter 1848-1913, Ringgold, Cadwalader 1802-1867, Smithsonian Institution, United States Fish Commission, United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary, Hudson Bay Territory Expeditions, United States North Pacific Exploring Expedition (1853-1856), Northern Pacific Railroad Route Expedition
- Mixed archival materials, Collection descriptions
- Local Number:
- SIA RU007002
- Physical Description:
- 39.3 cu. ft. (74 document boxes) (3 half document boxes) (5 3x5 boxes) (oversize material)
Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives
Table of Contents
- Collection Overview
- Historical Note
- Descriptive Entry
- Index Terms
- Administrative Information
- Container List
- Series 1 - CORRESPONDENCE REGISTER, 1850-1853.
- Series 2 - PRIVATE OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERPRESS BOOKS, 1849-1888.
- Series 3 - PRIVATE INCOMING AND OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1845-1887.
- Series 4 - FAMILY CORRESPONDENCE AND FAMILY MEMORABILIA, 1793-1887.
- Series 5 - CORRESPONDENCE, 1847, 1855-1888. ARRANGED BY SUBJECT.
- Series 6 - JOURNALS AND DIARIES, 1839-1887.
- Series 7 - RESEARCH MATERIALS, 1838-1883. ARRANGED BY SUBJECT.
- Series 8 - SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES, CIRCA 1860-CIRCA 1871.
- Series 9 - PHOTOGRAPHS, PORTRAITS, AND PERSONAL MISCELLANY, 1836-1887.
- Series 10 - DICKINSON COLLEGE, 1846-1850.
- Series 11 - AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCES, 1848-1887.
- Series 12 - SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION REPORTS AND MEMORANDA, DIARIES, AND PUBLICATION EXPENSES AND SPECIMEN DISTRIBUTION, 1846-1887.
- Series 13 - EXPLORATIONS, 1852-1876.
- Series 14 - UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES, 1871-1888.
- Series 15 - GENEALOGY AND BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS, 1888-1915, 1923.
- Series 16 - JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES, AND PUBLICATIONS, 1880-1923.
- Series 17 - SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES AND INDICES TO SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS AND
- Series -
- Series 18 - LARGE FORMAT MATERIALS.
Record Unit 7002
Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887
Spencer Fullerton Baird Papers, 1833-1889
|Repository:||Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.|
|Creator:||Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887|
|Title:||Spencer Fullerton Baird Papers|
|Quantity:||9.6 linear meters and oversize.|
|Collection:||Record Unit 7002|
|Language of Materials:||English|
Spencer Fullerton Baird, a zoologist and administrator, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania on February 3, 1823. After his father's death in 1833, Baird's family moved to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where other family members resided. Baird attended Nottingham Academy in Port Deposit, Maryland, during 1834, and Carlisle public school from 1835 to 1836. Baird then attended Dickinson College where he received an A.B. degree in 1840. During the fall of 1841, Baird was a medical apprentice under Dr. Middleton Goldsmith in New York City, but by January 1842, he decided not to pursue further studies in the medical field. He continued his education at Dickinson College and received an M.A. in 1843.
As a child in Carlisle, Baird developed an interest in natural history nurtured by long treks through the countryside in the company of his oldest brother, William, an accomplished amateur ornithologist. By 1840, Baird began a period of intensive studies and specimen collecting of natural history in the New England and mid-Atlantic states.
Baird was given an honorary professorship at Dickinson College in 1845. A year later, he received a permanent position at Dickinson in which he served as librarian and curator of the college's natural history collections, as well as professor of natural history.
In 1850, Baird left Dickinson College to become an Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (SI). He served in this capacity from 1850 to 1878. In May 1878, Baird was elected the Smithsonian's second Secretary. Baird served as Secretary until his death on August 17, 1887.
During his long career at the SI, Baird oversaw the development of the United States National Museum (USNM), the holdings of which increased from some 6,000 specimens in 1850 to over two and one half million at the time of his death. In addition, Baird oversaw a vast network of natural history collectors, administered the USNM, served as mentor and friend to a generation of young naturalists such as Robert Ridgway, William H. Dall, Robert Kennicott, and William Stimpson, and continued to produce scientific work of real distinction.
From 1871 to 1887, Baird served as the first Commissioner of the Commission of Fish and Fisheries, an unpaid position he held concurrently with his Smithsonian post. As Fish Commissioner, Baird pioneered in the development of economic ichthyology in North America; established the Marine Biological Station at Woods Hole, Massachusetts; organized the expeditions of the Fish Commission's research ship, Albatross; and coordinated the state fish hatcheries.
Baird's main scientific work was in ornithology, herpetology, and ichthyology, and several of his publications remained definitive works for decades. His meticulous description and technique influenced the American ornithological community to such degrees that he was credited with founding the so-called Bairdian school of ornithology. Baird also edited and translated the Bilder-Atlas zum Converzation Lexicon from German to English. The American version, Iconographic Encyclopedia of Science, Literature and Art, was published in 1852.
- February 23, 1823
- Born in Reading, Pennsylvania, third child and third son of Samuel Baird, II, and Lydia MacFunn Biddle; named after Spencer Fullerton, a distant relative who died a few months prior to Spencer F. Baird's birth.
- Samuel Baird, II (born 1786), died of cholera, Reading, Pennsylvania.
- Baird family moved to Carlisle, Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), to live near mother's relatives. Spencer F. Baird attended Nottingham Academy near Port Deposit, Maryland, for six months.
- Attended Carlisle day school.
- Entered Dickinson College in Carlisle.
- Began keeping meteorological record of the Carlisle vicinity; and began collecting birds with oldest brother, William McFunn Baird, who was also an amateur ornithologist.
- Began keeping journal of activities, and specimen collections.
- Visited the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; and conducted surveying trip with an uncle along the Schuykill River, near Philadelphia.
- June 4, 1840
- First letter to John James Audubon regarding a new species of fly catchers.
- June 9, 1840
- Received A.B. degree from Dickinson College.
- January 1841
- Attended the Periodical Library Association meeting. Field trip, hiked 83 miles.
- March-August, 1841
- Hiked 565 miles.
- Fall 1841
- Medical apprentice under Dr. Middleton Goldsmith, New York City.
- January 1842
- Ill with flu, returned to Carlisle; decided not to pursue a career in medical sciences.
- March 1842
- Field trip, hiked 105 miles.
- Walked to Baltimore, then traveled by train to Washington; examined specimens collected by the Wilkes Expedition stored at the United States Patent Office.
- Declined to join John James Audubon's expedition to the Yellowstone River Valley (Montana) due to poor health and family anxieties.
- July 13, 1843
- Received M.A. degree from Dickinson College.
- "Birds of Cumberland County," co-authored with William M. Baird, published.
- "Trees and Shrubs of Cumberland County," co-authored with William M. Baird, published.
- Fall 1845
- Elected honorary professor of natural history without pay at Dickinson College, and curator of the college's natural history cabinet.
- First visit to Boston.
- August 8, 1846
- Married Mary Helen Churchill (born 1821).
- Fall 1846
- Elected full professor of natural history with pay at Dickinson College.
- Recommended for Curator of the Smithsonian Institution's natural history collections.
- February 8, 1848
- Birth of daughter, Lucy Hunter Baird.
- Translated the Bilder-Atlas zum Conversation Lexicon from German to English; renamed the Iconographic Encyclopedia of Science, Literature and Art, published 1852.
- Field trip to western Virginia. Became seriously ill with dysentery; later recovered.
- July 5, 1850
- Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (SI).
- October 5, 1850
- Started as Assistant Secretary of the SI.
- November 3, 1850
- Transported two freight cars of personal natural history collection to SI.
- Permanent Secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS).
- Attended AAAS meeting at Cincinnati, Ohio. Field trip with J. K. Kirtland.
- "A Catalogue of North American Serpents," published.
- "A Catalogue of North American Mammals," published.
- Received Doctor of Physical Science degree, Dickinson College.
- "A Catalogue of North American Birds," and "Mammals of North America," volume 8, Pacific Railroad Report published.
- "Birds of North America," volume 9, Pacific Railroad Report published.
- "Reptiles and Amphibians of North America," volume 10, Pacific Railroad Report published.
- Summer 1861
- Field trip to New Jersey, New York, New England. Attended conference in Montreal, Canada.
- Summer 1862
- Field trip to New York and New England; first visit to Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
- "Review of North American Birds, 1864-1866," published.
- January 24, 1865
- Smithsonian Institution building fire.
- Scientific editor for the Harper's Weekly.
- Commissioner of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries (USCFF); served without pay.
- Summer 1871
- Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
- Summer 1872
- Eastport, Maine.
- Summer 1873
- Peake's Island, Maine.
- Summer 1874
- Noank, Connecticut.
- "A History of North American Birds," co-authored with Robert Ridgway and Thomas M. Brewer, published.
- Summer 1875
- Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
- Member of the Board of Directors for the International Exposition of Philadelphia (United States Centennial). Coordinated SI, USCFF, and USNM exhibits.
- March 1877
- Visited Florida.
- Summer 1877
- Glouchester, Massachusetts. Delegate at the Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada), Fisheries Conference.
- May 18, 1878
- Death of Joseph Henry, SI's first Secretary.
- May 19, 1878
- Elected SI's second Secretary.
- Summer 1878
- Gloucester, Massachusetts.
- Summer 1879
- Provincetown, Massachusetts.
- USNM building under construction; opened 1881.
- Summers 1881-1887
- Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
- USCFF's temporary buildings at Woods Hole burned; permanent structures built.
- James Chenowith, an examiner for the United States Department of the Treasury, accused the USCFF of misappropriation of funds for staff living quarters; USCFF acquitted.
- Doctorate of Law from Harvard University.
- August 19, 1887
- Died at Woods Hole, aged 64.
- Congress compensated Baird's widow and daughter for Baird's unpaid service as USCFF Commissioner, and for the USCFF's use of Baird's home for offices, $50,000.00.
- Death of Mary Helen Churchill Baird, aged 69.
- Death of Lucy Hunter Baird, aged 65.
- "Spencer Fullerton Baird," by William H. Dall, published.
The Spencer F. Baird Papers are the combination of several different deposits. One group was originally labeled "Private" by the Smithsonian Institution Archives at the time they were received. Another group came to the Smithsonian from Lucy Hunter Baird (Baird's daughter), or from her estate after her death.
The Spencer F. Baird Collection documents Baird's personal and professional life. Included are records from his career as administrator at the Smithsonian Institution (SI), the United States National Museum (USNM), the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries (USCFF), and to a lesser extent, Dickinson College. Some of the collection postdates Baird's life, including condolences to family members, the lobbying efforts to compensate Baird's widow and daughter for Baird's unpaid service at the USCFF, and correspondence between Baird's biographers and acquaintances. Also, there are documents which predate Baird's life, including mementos from Baird's wife's family.
Spencer F. Baird was a prolific letter writer. This collection includes a correspondence register which lists incoming and outgoing correspondence, 1850-1853; and Baird's private correspondence, incoming and outgoing, 1845-1888. Correspondents include family members, naturalists, personal acquaintances, politicians, field collectors, publishers, newspaper reporters, medical physicians, merchants, business associates, government officials, staff members, and scientific organizations.
Other materials relating to Baird's life include diaries and journals, newspaper and journal articles, photographs, drawings, personal miscellany, medical miscellany, and fiscal matters. Papers relating to Baird's family include correspondence, photographs, genealogical information, drawings, and mementos.
Papers relating to Baird's scientific interests, especially in the synonymy of North American fauna and flora, include specimen lists; a draft of the synopsis of North American birds; monograph drafts; extracts from scientific publications; bibliographical references; portions of Baird's translations of the Iconographic Encyclopedia; an unbound German version of the Bilder-Atlas; and lithographs.
Papers relating to Baird's career as a professor at Dickinson College include drafts of annual reports and lecture notes.
Materials concerning the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) include correspondence, member lists, meeting announcements, fiscal records, and circulars sent out to AAAS members in 1852.
Papers relating to SI and the USNM contain Baird's drafts of SI annual reports, including drafts of annual reports for the USCFF; diaries, mostly documenting library and visitor activities; lists and distribution records of SI publications and specimens; correspondence, mostly concerning specimens; memoranda; and circulars sent to SI correspondents, 1875.
Materials relating to explorations in which Baird distributed equipment and information to field collectors and collaborators include correspondence, reports, account books, lists, and receipts for equipment purchased.
Papers relating to the USCFF include documentation relating to the Chenowith Case of 1885; the lobbying efforts to compensate the Baird family for Baird's unpaid service as USCFF Commissioner; reports and expense receipts; newspaper articles; correspondence; and memoranda.
Papers relating to Baird's daughter, Lucy Hunter Baird, include typescripts of entries extracted from her father's journals and correspondence, including notations, and correspondence with family members and acquaintances.
Papers relating to the biographers (George Brown Goode, William H. Dall, and Lucy Hunter Baird) include correspondence with Baird acquaintances; and a photograph of the Baird family home in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 1914.
Oversize materials include certificates of membership to scientific organizations, diplomas, Baird drawings, a German lithograph portrait with Baird's handwriting, 1855, and a photograph of Baird, circa 1880.
(1) Some items cannot be reproduced because of legibility and bindings; (2) record unit partially microfilmed; (3) use of this record unit requires prior arrangement with the Archives staff.
This collection is indexed under the following access terms. These are links to collections with related topics, persons or places.
- Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873
- Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887
- Mexican-United States Boundary Survey, 1855-1857.
- Pacific Railroad Surveys.
- Pacific Railroad Surveys. Northern Pacific Railroad Route Expedition.
- Smithsonian Institution
- United States Fish Commission
- United States-Mexican Boundary Survey, 1855-1857.
- United States-Mexican Boundary Survey, 1855-1857.
- Baird, Lucy Hunter, 1848-1913
- Hudson Bay Territory Expeditions.
- Northern Pacific Railroad Route Expedition.
- Northern Pacific Railroad Route Expedition. Pacific Railroad Surveys.
- United States North Pacific Exploring Expedition (1853-1856)
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7002, Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887, Spencer Fullerton Baird Papers
Series 1CORRESPONDENCE REGISTER, 1850-1853.
Folder 1 Correspondence Register (Letters sent and received), 1850-1853
Folder 2 Incoming Correspondence Index
Series 2PRIVATE OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERPRESS BOOKS, 1849-1888.
This series consists of forty volumes of letterpress books containing Baird's private outgoing correspondence. Volumes one to thirty-nine cover the period from 1849 to 1887, beginning when Baird was a natural history professor at Dickinson College, and ending shortly before his death. Correspondents include family members, naturalists, personal acquaintances, merchants, government officials, and staff members.
Of special note, volume thirty-eight includes outgoing correspondence written by Baird's daughter, Lucy Hunter Baird, and Baird's wife, Mary Helen Churchill Baird, during 1888. Volume thirty-nine, entitled, "Specially Private Letters, 1885-1887," contains correspondence with politicians and newspaper reporters in connection with the Chenowith Case during 1885; and correspondence with physicians in which Baird described his health and medical treatments. Volume forty contains outgoing correspondence with members of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences from 1850 to 1854, including the period when Baird served as Permanent Secretary.
Letterpress volumes are restricted. Microfilms of these volumes are available for viewing. Also, Baird's daughter, Lucy, extracted selected outgoing correspondence for a biography of her father. These excerpts were copied from volumes one, two, and five.
Folders 1-2 Volume 1. November 3, 1849-December 31, 1850. Also includes 10 documents, May 12, 1856-June 15, 1856, and undated, and excerpts from volume 1.
Folders 3A-5 Volumes 2-3. January 11, 1851-April 26, 1860. Includes excerpts from volume 2.
Folders 1-3 Volumes 4-5. June 17, 1856-December 30, 1864. Includes excerpts from volume 5.
Folder 4 Volume 6. December 31, 1864-December 26, 1869.
Folder 1 Volume 7. December 31, 1864-December 26, 1869.
Folders 1-4 Volumes 8-11. December 25, 1869-May 28, 1872.
Folders 1-4 Volumes 12-15. May 29, 1872-May 13, 1874.
Folders 1-4 Volumes 16-19. May 14, 1874-June 24, 1876.
Folders 1-3 Volumes 20-22. June 24, 1876 (cont'd)-July 27, 1878.
Folders 1-3 Volumes 23-25. July 29, 1878-December 28, 1880.
Folders 1-3 Volumes 26-28. December 13, 1880-May 16, 1883.
Folders 1-4 Volumes 29-32. May 16, 1883 (cont`d)-March 31, 1885.
Folders 1-4 Volumes 33-36. April 1, 1885-June 21, 1887.
Folder 1 Volume 37. May 21, 1887-February 20, 1888.
Folder 2 Volume 38. "Specially Private Letters," August 15, 1868-March 9, 1885.
Folder 3 Volume 39. "Specially Private Letters," April 18, 1885-May 9, 1887.
Folder 4 American Association for the Advancement of Sciences. September 14, 1850-April 5, 1854.
Series 3PRIVATE INCOMING AND OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1845-1887.
This series consists of Spencer F. Baird's private incoming and outgoing correspondence relating to his personal life and professional career. Baird maintained an extensive correspondence with domestic and international scientists in all fields of natural history. Correspondents include officers and staff members of the Smithsonian Institution (SI), the United States National Museum (USNM), the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries (USCFF), government officials, publishers, naturalists, field collectors, business associates, family members, and friends. Correspondence concerns the administrations of SI, USNM, and USCFF; dealings with publisher Rudolph Garrigue regarding the Iconographic Encyclopedia; transportation arrangements; architectural details for the USNM building; collecting specimens; purchases of equipment; publication details; and personal matters. Correspondence and other files relating to scientific societies, government agencies, and other organizations can be found in series 2-18.
Other Baird correspondence, which may be related to correspondence in this collection, is located among official records of the Smithsonian Institution. See Record Units 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, and 33 of the Smithsonian Archives.
Folder 1 Aale, Nicolai(?), 1845
Folder 2 Abbe, Cleveland, 1876-1881
Folder 3 Abell-Abert
Folder 4 Academy-Adams
Folder 5 Adams Express Company, 1866-1885
Folders 6-7 Agassiz, Alexander, 1873-1887
Folder 8 Agassiz, Elizabeth C., 1870, 1885
Folder 9 Agassiz, Lizzie, 1851, 1853
Folders 10-14 Agassiz, Jean-Louis, 1847-1873. NOTE: Letters between Baird and Agassiz have been published in Elmer Charles Herber's edition, Correspondence Between Spencer Fullerton Baird and Louis Agassiz Two Pioneer American Naturalists (Smithsonian Press, 1963).
Folder 15 Agriculture, United States Department of, 1867-1879
Folder 16 Aigner-All
Folder 17 Allen, G.-Allen, W.
Folder 18 Almen-Alvord
Folder 19 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, The, 1880; American and Foreign Teacher Agency, 1879
Folder 20 American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, 1850-1857. Consists of incoming correspondence to Baird while he served as Permanent Secretary of AAAS. Also includes financial reports, proceedings and membership lists, and records regarding distribution of the AAAS's Proceedings.
Folder 21 American Association of the Red Cross-American Watch Company
Folder 22 Ames-Appleton
Folder 1 Archer-Art
Folder 2 Ashland-Ashmead
Folder 3 Askew-Associated
Folder 4 Atchison-Atwater, C.
Folders 5-6 Atwater, Wilbur Olin, 1873-1879
Folder 7 Atwood, Myrick-Atwood, N. E.
Folder 8 Audubon, John James, 1840-1846. This folder includes: a) Copy of a letter, dated July 30, 1842, in which Audubon recommended Baird to help with the specimens collected by the United States Exploring Expedition; b) Typescript abstracts from Baird's journal containing references to Audubon, 1841-1847; c) Lists of dates and numbers of letters from Audubon to Baird, 1840-1847; d) Lists of inquiries and words looked up in letters from correspondence by S. F. Baird and William M. Baird.
Folder 9 Audubon, Victor Gifford, 1843, 1846, 1850, 1854
Folder 10 Ayres, W. O., 1853, 1859
Folder 11 Babcock, D. S.-Babcock, O. E.
Folder 12 Bache, Alexander Dallas, 1852-1854
Folder 13 Bacon-Bailliere
Folder 14 Baird, A.-Baird, J.
Folder 15 Baker G.-Baker, S.
Folder 16 Baldwin-Bannister
Folder 17 Barker, G. F., 1875-1883
Folder 18 Barker, J.-Barryman
Folder 19 Bartholo-Bayard
Folder 20 Beale-Becker
Folder 21 Beckhaus and Allgaier, 1860-1865
Folder 22 Bectam-Belknap
Folder 23 Bell-Beyerle
Folder 24 Bibb-Biddle, C.
Folders 25-30 Biddle, Thomas A. and Company, 1865-1887
Folder 31 Bigelow-Bishop
Folder 1 Blackburn, Thomas, 1882
Folder 2 Blackford, Eugene G., 1878-1884
Folder 3 Blackwell-Blair
Folder 4 Blake, C.-Blake, W.
Folder 5 Bland-Blumenthal
Folders 6-12 Boardman, George A., 1865, 1867-1887
Folder 13 Boehmer-Boswell
Folder 14 Boulton-Boyer
Folder 15 Bradfield-Brehm
Folder 16 Brevoort, J. Carson, 1852-1853, 1867-1878
Folder 17 Brewer and Pilesher-Brewer, S.
Folders 18-23 Brewer, Thomas M., 1844-1867
Folders 1-7 Brewer, Thomas M., 1868-1879
Folder 8 Bridges-Brooks
Folder 9 Brown, A. D.-Brown, S. A.
Folder 10 Brown, S. C., 1882-1887
Folders 11-12 Brown, Solomon G., 1855-1870
Folder 13 Brown, T.-Bryan, E. C.
Folder 14 Bryant, E. B., 1864-1878
Folders 15-17 Bryant, Henry, 1859-1867, 1869
Folder 18 Bryant, W. S.-Bryres
Folder 19 B, unidentified
Folder 1 Cabinus-Candler
Folder 2 Canfield-Cassin, C.
Folders 3-13 Cassin, John, 1843-1868
Folder 14 Cassin, R.-Caton
Folder 15 Cemtire(?)-Century
Folder 16 Centennial Commission, United States, 1873-1876
Folder 17 Chadbourne, B. L., 1857, 1865-1870, 1879
Folder 18 Chadbourne, L.-Chase
Folder 19 Chenoworth-Chouteau
Folder 20 Christian-Clark, J. H.
Folder 21 Clark, John Henry, 1857-1882
Folder 22 Clark, Joseph-Clarke
Folder 1 Clem-Clover
Folder 2 Cluss, Adolf, 1878-1885
Folder 3 Clutter-Collins
Folder 4 Colt-Cooper
Folder 5 Cope, Edward Drinker, 1869-1886
Folder 6 Coppee-Corson
Folder 7 Cosmos Club, 1878-1886
Folder 8 Couch, Darius Nash, 1853-1855, 1860
Folders 9-14 Coues, Elliott, 1864-1886
Folder 15 Coues, S.-Cozzens
Folder 16 Craig-Crawford
Folder 17 Creswell-Curtis
Folder 18 Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1879, 1882
Folder 19 Cushing, W.-Cuyler
Folder 20 Dahlgren-Dall, C.
Folders 21-25 Dall, William Healey, 1866-1885
Folder 1 Damon, G.-Damon, W.
Folder 2 Dana, Edward Salisbury, 1874-1879
Folder 3 Dana, Henrietta Silliman, 1866-1874
Folders 4-5 Dana, James Dwight, 1844-1881. Includes a copy of "instruction of Captain Wilkes," 1838.
Folder 6 Dandridge-Davidson
Folder 7 Davis, A.-Davis, W.
Folder 8 Dawes-Day. Dawes, H. L., includes correspondence and memoranda preliminary to the passage of law establishing the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 1870.
Folder 9 Deacon-Dexter
Folder 10 Dickinson, C.-Dickinson, T.
Folder 11 Diebitsch-Dieter
Folder 12 Diggs, Meredith, 1878-1879
Folder 13 Diggs, S.-Dinwiddie
Folder 14 District of Columbia: Special Assessment Office, 1880, 1885-1886
Folder 15 District of Columbia:
Folder 16 Dixon-Doe
Folders 17-19 Donaldson, Thomas, 1876-1887
Folder 20 Dorflinger-Dow
Folder 21 Draper-Drexler
Folder 22 Dubarry-Dwight
Folder 23 Earll-Easton
Folder 24 Edmunds, George F., 1868-1886
Folder 25 Edmunds, M.-Edmunds, S.
Folder 26 Edwards-Elliot
Folders 27-28 Elliott, Daniel Giraud, 1863-1864, 1869
Folders 29-30 Elliott, Henry W., 1863-1886
Folder 31 Elliott, L.-Elwyn
Folder 1 Emmerich-Eno
Folder 2 Eschricht-Executive
Folder 3 Fabbri-Farley
Folders 4-5 Farlow, W. G., 1874-1886
Folder 6 Farmers-Fay, H.
Folders 7-9 Fay, Joseph S., 1863-1886
Folder 10 Fay, S.-Felton
Folder 11 Ferguson, J.-Ferguson, S.
Folders 12-17 Ferguson, Thomas B., 1878
Folder 18 Feuardent-Fitch
Folder 19 Flegel-Flint
Folders 20-21 Flugel, Felix, 1858-1870
Folder 22 Flugel, T.-Forbes
Folder 23 Force, William Q., 1863-1864, 1878
Folders 24-27 Foreman, Edward, 1843, 1850-1855, 1867-1879
Folder 28 Foster-Fox
Folder 29 Fracelton-Fristoe
Folder 1 Gaither-Gant
Folder 2 Gardiner, Annie E., 1855-1887
Folder 3 Gardiner, Frederick, 1868-1878; Gardiner, Frederick, Jr., 1879-1881
Folder 4 Gardiner, Robert H., 1880-1887
Folder 5 Gardner-Garnett
Folders 6-10 Garrigue, Rudolph, 1847-1856
Folder 11 Gates-Getz
Folder 12 Gibbes-Gibson
Folder 13 Gifford-Giles
Folder 14 Gill, Herbert A., 1882-1887
Folder 15 Gill, Theodore, 1865-1871
Folder 16 Gillin, S. M., 1854-1859
Folder 17 Gilliss-Gilman
Folder 18 Girard, Charles Frederic, 1851-1859
Folder 19 Giraud, Jacob P., 1842-1843
Folder 20 Giraud, W. C.(?), 1868-1869
Folder 21 Gitts-Gomes
Folders 22-29 Goode, George Brown, 1871, 1876-1880
Folders 1-18 Goode, George Brown, 1881-1887. Mostly S. F. Baird outgoing correspondence and some incoming correspondence.
Folder 19 Goode, Sarah F., 1880
Folder 1 Goodloe-Goodwin
Folder 2 Gordon-Gowans
Folder 3 Graham-Grand
Folders 4-6 Gray, Asa, 1846-1864, 1868-1887
Folder 7 Gray, F. C.-Grayson
Folder 8 Great-Green
Folder 9 Griffin-Grinnell
Folder 10 Griset-Guyot
Folder 11 Habicht-Haines
Folders 12-14 Haldeman, Samuel S., 1842-1853, 1878
Folder 15 Hale, C.-Hale, M.
Folder 16 Hale, Robert S., 1864-1880
Folder 17 Hale, Safford E., 1855-1887
Folder 18 Haley-Hall
Folder 19 Haller-Hallowell
Folder 20 Hamilton-Hammond, P.
Folder 21 Hammond, William A., 1863-1886
Folder 22 Hand-Harman
Folders 1-16 Harper and Brothers, 1846, 1868-1886
Folder 17 Harper, M.-Hawley
Folder 18 Hay-Hayden, E.
Folders 19-22 Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer, 1853-1860
Folders 1-4 Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer, 1867-1881
Folder 5 Hayes-Hazen
Folder 6 Heath-Hennegins
Folder 7 Henry, H. A.-Henry, H. L.
Folders 8-11 Henry, Joseph, 1847-1874
Folder 12 Henry, M.-Herr
Folders 13-15 Hessel, Rudolph, 1877-1887
Folder 16 Hetzel-Heyerdahl
Folder 17 Hickling-Hillman
Folders 18-21 Himes, Charles F., 1869-1885
Folder 22 Hinckley, C., 1846
Folders 23-24 Hind, Henry Youle, 1878-1880. Includes printed materials and reports on the Halifax Fisheries Conference, 1880.
Folder 25 Hinkley-Hitz
Folder 26 Hobart-Hodge
Folder 27 Hoff-Holcomb
Folders 28-29 Holden, Edward S., 1876-1880
Folder 30 Holden, W.-Holzer
Folder 1 Homes-House
Folder 2 House of Representatives, 1855, 1879. Contains summons to appear at committee meetings.
Folder 3 Howard, E.-Howard, O.
Folder 4 Howe-Hoy
Folder 5 Hubbard-Hudson
Folder 6 Humbold-Hunt
Folder 7 Hunter-Hyerdang
Folder 8 Iconographic-Ito
Folder 9 Jackson-Jardine
Folder 10 Jenkins-Jesup
Folder 11 Jewett, C.-Jewett, E.
Folder 12 Jillson-Joy
Folder 13 Kagge-Kaufman
Folder 14 Keems-Kelsey
Folder 15 Kemp-Kennedy
Folders 16-20 Kennerly, Caleb Burwell Rowan, 1849-1861
Folder 21 Kennerly, J.-Kennicott, M.
Folders 22-24 Kennicott, John A., 1855-1862
Folders 25-31 Kennicott, Robert, 1853-1857
Folders 1-9 Kennicott, Robert, 1858-1866, and undated
Folder 10 Kerr, R. C., 1850
Folders 11-14 Kidder, J. H., 1875, 1877-1887
Folder 15 Kimball-King, Caroline
Folder 16 King, Clarence, 1867-1872
Folder 17 King, G.-Kirkwood
Folders 18-19 Kirtland, J. P., 1846-1854
Folder 20 Kitchell-Kunz
Folder 21 Lafitte-Lansburgh
Folder 22 Larcombe-Lawrence, E.
Folders 23-29 Lawrence, George N., 1851-1852, 1862-1868
Folders 1-10 Lawrence, George N., 1869-1887
Folder 11 Laws, David O., 1868
Folder 12 Lea, Henry C., 1849
Folder 13 Lea, Issac, 1841, 1869-1885
Folder 14 Leach-Leaming
Folder 15 LeConte, John Eatton, 1842-1855
Folders 16-20 LeConte, John Lawrence, 1842-1882
Folder 21 LeConte, Joseph, 1845-1850
Folder 22 Lee, A.-Lee, W.
Folders 23-26 Leech, Daniel, 1870-1887
Folder 27 Leech, Emma L. L., 1868
Folder 28 Lees-Lehnert
Folder 29 Leidy, Joseph, 1846-1885, 1901. Includes a letter from Richard Rathbun to Lucy Hunter Baird concerning Leidy's correspondence to Baird, 1901.
Folder 30 Leiler-Lewis
Folder 1 Library-Lincoln
Folder 2 Lindeman-Lippincott
Folder 3 Litcomb-Little, G.
Folders 4-8 Little, Brown and Company, 1868-1885
Folder 9 Livingston-Looray
Folder 10 Loosing-Lownds
Folder 11 Lubbock-Lyman
Folder 12 Maccoun, Robert. T., 1841-1850
Folder 13 MacDonald-Magyar
Folder 14 Mahon-Marohaus
Folder 15 Marsh, Caroline-Marsh, Charles
Folders 16-22 Marsh, George Perkins, 1847-1882
Folder 23 Marsh, Otheniel Charles, 1867-1885
Folder 24 Marsh, S.-Mason, J.
Folder 25 Mason, Otis Tufton, 1874-1879
Folder 26 Massachusetts-Massey
Folder 27 Mather-Mayer
Folder 28 Mayew-Maynard
Folder 29 McAdoo-McDonald
Folder 30 McGiloray-McNeal
Folder 31 Meek-Merchant, A.
Folder 1 Merchant, G.-Merchants
Folder 2 Merriam-Metropolitan
Folder 3 Michelotti-Miller
Folder 4 Milner, James W., 1879
Folder 5 Milner, Sarah A., 1879-1880, 1885
Folder 6 Miner-Mish
Folder 7 Mitchell-Mittag
Folder 8 Millhausen-Morrill
Folder 9 Morris, John G., 1843-1850, 1869-1870
Folder 10 Morton-Myers
Folder 11 N. A. Cyclopedia-Nantucket
Folder 12-13 National Academy of Sciences, 1866-1886
Folder 14 National Bazaar-National University
Folder 15 Nature-Nerny
Folders 16-21 Newberry, John S., 1852-1884. Includes letter to G. B. Goode, 1890.
Folder 22 Newberry, S.-Newcomb
Folder 23 New England Glass Company, 1862-1872
Folders 24-25 New England Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1852-1887
Folder 26 New England Transfer-New York Life
Folder 27 New York Lithographing-New York State Cabinet
Folder 28 New York Tribune, 1873-1882
Folder 29 New York, University of the State of, 1841-1842. Passes to lectures.
Folder 30 Nicholls, G.-Nichols, I.
Folder 31 Nicholson-Nye
Folder 1 Oak-Olcott
Folder 2 Old-Orton
Folder 3 Orsborne-Ostermoor
Folder 4 Otis-Owen
Folder 5 Packard, Alpheus Spring, Jr., 1870-1879
Folder 6 Packard, E.-Panama
Folder 7 Paret-Parker
Folder 8 Parlin-Pawson
Folder 9 Peakes-Pennsylvania
Folder 10 Pepper-Phelps
Folder 11 Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, 1878-1887
Folder 12 Phillips, B.-Phillips, J.
Folder 13 Philosophical-Pirz
Folder 14 Poesche-Porter
Folder 15 Post-Powell
Folder 16 Pratt-Provident
Folders 17-18 The Public Ledger (Philadelphia), 1865, 1867-1874, 1878, 1882, and undated
Folder 19 Purvis-Pywell
Folder 20 Queen, James W. and Company, 1882, 1886
Folder 21 Radde-Raoul
Folder 22 Rathbun, Richard, 1878-1887
Folder 23 Rau, Charles, 1870, 1875-1879
Folder 24 Rawlins-Raynolds
Folder 25 Read-Rhees, J.
Folders 26-34 Rhees, William Jones, 1854-1872, 1878-1887
Folder 1 Rhodes-Rich
Folders 2-7 Richard, John H., 1853-1874
Folder 8 Richards-Ricksecker
Folder 9 Ridgway, E. A., 1875-1885
Folders 10-13 Ridgway, Robert, 1869-1876, 1879-1887
Folder 14 Rieman, W. J., 1857-1858
Folders 15-16 Riggs and Company, 1854-1887
Folder 17 Riggs-Ritter
Folder 18 Robbins-Robinson
Folder 19 Roche-Roessler
Folder 20 Rogers-Romero
Folder 21 Roosevelt-Rutter
Folder 22 Sage-Salvin
Folder 23 Sammons-Sayre
Folder 24 Scammon-Schillinger
Folder 25 Schirner-Schott
Folder 26 Schumann-Sclater
Folder 27 Scott-Scudder
Folder 28 Seagh-Sercomb
Folder 1 Sergeant, E. N., 1845-1846
Folders 2-8 Sergeant, J. Dickinson, 1838-1880
Folder 9 Seward-Shannon
Folder 10 Sharp-Shepard
Folders 11-12 Sheppard, Edwin, 1867-1870
Folder 13 Sheridan-Sherman
Folder 14 Shilling-Shuman
Folder 15 Sibley, A.-Sibley, G.
Folder 16 Siedhof-Silliman
Folder 17 Simpson-Sloane
Folder 18 Smead-Smiley
Folder 19 Smillie-Smith, H.
Folder 20 Smith, J.-Smith, S.
Folder 21 Smith, T.-Smith, W.
Folder 22 Social-Spangler
Folder 23 Spear-Squier
Folder 24 Stabler-Stejneger
Folder 25 Stephens-Stewart
Folders 26-31 Stimpson, William, 1857-1870, 1880
Folder 1 Stites-Stolley
Folder 2 Stone-Stowe, N.
Folder 3 Stowe, William, 1847-1849, 1866-1887
Folder 4 Stratton-Strong
Folder 5 Stuart-Stuff
Folder 6 Sturm-Sturtevant
Folder 7 Suckley, George, 1859-1861, 1866
Folder 8 Suckley, J.-Sullivan
Folder 9 Sumner, Charles, 1867
Folder 10 Sundevall-Syester
Folder 11 Tanner-Taylor
Folder 12 Tehuantepac-Thomas
Folder 13 Thompson, C.-Thompson, Z.
Folder 14 Thomson, Frank, 1883-1887
Folder 15 Thomson, John H., 1870
Folder 16 Thomson, W.-Thurston
Folder 17 Tiffany, Charles C., 1846-1878
Folder 18 Tiffany, O. H., 1849-1878
Folder 19 Tirdale-Tolles
Folder 20 Toner, Joseph M., 1875, 1879
Folder 21 Torrey, John, 1854-1872
Folder 22 Torrey, J.-Treasury
Folder 23 Trego-True
Folder 24 Tuley-Turnbull
Folders 25-27 Turnbull, William P., 1865-1870
Folder 28 Turner, G.-Turner, L.
Folder 29 Turner, M.-Turner, W.
Folder 30 Tustin-Tyndall
Folder 1 Ufford-Ulke
Folder 2 Union-University
Folder 3 Valentine, Mann S., 1878
Folder 4 Van Duzer-Van Vliet
Folder 5 Varden, John, 1860-1862
Folder 6 Vaughan-Vendi
Folder 7 Verreaux, Edouard, 1865-1866, 1869
Folder 8 Verreaux, J. P., 1866, 1868, 1870
Folder 9 Verrill, A. E., 1870, 1878, 1885-1886, 1914. Includes 1914 letter from A. E.Verrill to W. H. Dall.
Folder 10 Victor-Vitzthum
Folder 11 Wadsworth, M. E., 1881
Folders 12-15 Wahl, William H., 1869-1882
Folder 16 Waite-Walker
Folder 17 Wallace-Wanamaker
Folder 18 Ward-Warfield
Folder 19 Warm-Washington
Folder 20 Wassermann-Webster
Folder 21 Weerth-Welford
Folder 22 Welling-Wentworth
Folder 23 Wesley, William, 1867-1873, 1878
Folder 24 West-Weston
Folder 25 Wharton-Whitlock
Folder 26 Whitney, A., 1849
Folders 27-32 Whitney, Josiah Dwight, 1862-1884
Folder 33 Whitney, W.-Wiley
Folder 1 Wilkes-Williams
Folder 2 Williamson-Wilson
Folder 3 Wimer-Wise
Folder 4 Wolcott-Wood
Folder 5 Woodburne-Wormley
Folder 6 Wright-Wrightington
Folder 7 Wyckoff, William, 1875-1882
Folders 8-10 Wyeth John, 1861-1885. Also Wyeth, John and Brothers.
Folder 11 Wylie-Wyman
Folder 12 Xantus, John, 1863-1866
Folder 13 Yandell-Youmans
Folder 14 Young, C. B., 1870
Folder 15 Young, Casey, 1878-1879
Folder 16 Young, E.-Youth's
Folder 17 Zealandian-Ziegler
Folder 18 Unidentified correspondence
Series 4FAMILY CORRESPONDENCE AND FAMILY MEMORABILIA, 1793-1887.
This series consists of incoming correspondence with Spencer F. Baird and family members. Of particular interest is a letter describing Spencer F. Baird's birth (see under Valeria Fullerton Biddle Penrose, February 4, 1823). Also included is outgoing correspondence, mostly from Baird to his brother, William, and to his wife, Mary Helen Churchill Baird. Additional outgoing Baird family correspondence can be found in Series 2.
Family mementos consist of documents from Mary Helen Churchill Baird's grandfather and father. Mary's grandfather, William Hunter (1754-1827), served as Judge of Probate for the District of Windsor, Vermont, 1801-1816, and as United States Congressman, 1817-1819. Included in this series are Hunter's certifications of election as Judge of Probate; a promissory note dated 1793; miscellaneous receipts, 1807-1817; and correspondence to family members. Mary Helen Baird's father, Sylvester Churchill (17??-1862), served as Quartermaster, United States Army, 18??-1862. Included in this series are Churchill's certifications of promotion of rank signed by U. S. Presidents and Secretaries of War, 1836, 1841, 1846, and 1847; miscellaneous receipts, 1805-1814; and correspondence with family members.
Folder 1 Baird, H. H., 1874
Folder 2 Baird, Harriet, 1843, 1846 (aunt)
Folder 3 Baird, Henry Carey, undated
Folder 4 Baird, Lucy Hunter (daughter, b. 1848-d. 1913). Confirmation, Epiphany Church, Maryland, 1880.
Folder 5 Baird, Lucy Hunter. Correspondence from Robert Kennicott, 1860.
Folder 6 Baird, Lucy Hunter. Correspondence with her maternal grandparents, Sylvester and Lucy Hunter Churchill, 1851-1860.
Folder 7 Baird, Lucy Hunter. Correspondence with her parents, 1854-1874.
Folder 8 Baird, Lucy Hunter. Diagnosis from J. H. Kidder, 1879.
Folder 9 Baird, Lucy Hunter. Valentine's Day notes, 1853 and undated.
Folders 10-11 Baird, Lydia MacFunn Biddle, 1850-1870 (mother, b. 1797-d. 1871)
Folder 12 Baird, Lydia Spencer, 1852-1856, 1866-circa 1870 (sister, b. 1827-d. 1876)
Folder 13 Baird, Mary, 1882
Folders 14-23 Baird, Mary Helen Churchill (wife, b. 1821-d. 1890). Letters to Spencer F. Baird, 1844-1883.
Folders 24-35 Baird, Mary Helen Churchill. Letters from Spencer F. Baird, 1844-1887.
Folder 36 Baird, R. C., 1885
Folder 37 Baird, R. P., undated (aunt)
Folder 38 Baird, Rebecca Potts, 1839, 1865-1887 (sister, b. 1825-d. 1907)
Folder 39 Baird, Robert H. (Bob), 1868, 1870, 1884 (nephew)
Folder 1 Baird, Samuel, II, 1831, 1833 (father, b. 1786-d. 1833)
Folders 2-12 Baird, Samuel, III, 1838-1884 (brother, b. 1821-d. 1884)
Folders 13-14 Baird, Thomas, 1844-1885 (brother, b. 1831-d. 1897)
Folders 15-24 Baird, William McFunn, 1841-1872 (brother, b. 1817-d. 1872)
Folder 25 Baird, William McFunn, 1841-1853. Letters from Spencer F. Baird to his brother. Transcribed by Lucy Hunter Baird from letterpress books in Series 2.
Folder 26 Biddle, E. M., 1847-1878
Folder 27 Biddle, E. W., 1874-1884 (cousin)
Folder 28 Biddle, Henry Jonathan, 1854-1862 (brother-in-law, d. 1862)
Folder 29 Biddle, Henry Jonathan, Jr., 1877-1886 (nephew)
Folder 30 Biddle, J. Williams, 1866-1876 (nephew)
Folder 31 Biddle, Julia A., undated (aunt)
Folder 32 Biddle, J. D., 1846
Folder 33 Biddle, L. M., 1878
Folder 34 Biddle, Lydia Spencer, 1837, 1841-1848 (grandmother)
Folders 35-37 Biddle, Mary Deborah Baird (Mrs. Henry J.), 1850s-1886, and undated (sister, b. 1829-d. 1900)
Folder 38 Biddle, S. J. 1855
Folder 39 Biddle, Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1865-1885 (nephew)
Folder 40 Biddle, William B., 1867, 1870, 1881
Folder 41 Biddle, W. M., 1854
Folder 42 Miscellaneous Baird/Biddle correspondence.
Folder 1 Churchill, Alice (Mrs. Charles Cunningham), 1876-1881 (sister-in-law)
Folders 2-4 Churchill, Charles Cunningham, 1845-1887 (brother-in-law)
Folder 5 Churchill, E. M. (Mrs. William Hunter), 1858
Folders 6-11 Churchill, Franklin Hunter, 1848-1887 (brother-in-law)
Folder 12 Churchill, James, circa 1852
Folder 13 Churchill, Josie, 1872-1873 (niece)
Folder 14 Churchill, J. P., 1885
Folders 15-17 Churchill, Lucy Hunter, 1818-1942, 1860-1862 (mother-in-law, d. 1862)
Folders 18-19 Churchill, Richard Randolph Cuyler, 1859-1879 (nephew)
Folder 20 Churchill, Sylvester (father-in-law, b. 1783-d. 1862). Certificates of promotion in rank in the United States Army, 1836, 1841, 1846, 1847.
Folder 21 Churchill, Sylvester. Correspondence from his wife and children, 1832.
Folder 22 Churchill, Sylvester. Correspondence with his mother-in-law, Mary Hunter, 1842.
Folders 23-24 Churchill, Sylvester. Correspondence with his son-in-law, Spencer F. Baird, 1848-1862.
Folder 25 Churchill, Sylvester. Miscellaneous receipts, 1805-1814.
Folder 26 Churchill, William Hunter (brother-in-law, d. 1847). Correspondence with his cousin, Villeroy Aikens, 1830.
Folder 27 Churchill, William Hunter, Jr., 1878 (nephew)
Folder 28 Churchill/Hunter Family Memorabilia. Included are tickets to balls; a directory of living quarters of members of Congress, 1818; and a silhouette of an unidentified woman.
Folder 29 Clinton (?), V. B., 1869
Folder 30 Cutting, Churchill H., 1870-1884 (Mary H. C. Baird's cousin)
Folder 31 Cutting, Elizabeth M. (Mrs. Sewall S.), 1870
Folder 32 Cutting, F. H., 1853
Folder 33 Cutting, Gardiner S., 1853, 1864, 1876 (Mary H. C. Baird's cousin)
Folder 34 Cutting, Guy H., 1848, 1853
Folders 35-38 Cutting, Sewall S., 1837-1881 (Mary H. C. Baird's cousin)
Folder 39 Cutting, Sewall S. Contains "Pittsburgh Papers," including copies of Sylvester Churchill correspondence to various persons concerning accusations of disobedience against him, 1826-1827.
Folder 40 Cutting, William J., 1847-1858
Folder 41 Hunter, Franklin (Mary H. C. Baird's uncle). Correspondence to his sister, Lucy Hunter Churchill, 1817-1818.
Folder 42 Hunter, William (Mary H. C. Baird's grandfather, b. 1754-d. 1827). Certificates of election as Judge of Probate, District of Windsor, Vermont, 1801-1815.
Folder 43 Hunter, William. Correspondence with his brother-in-law, Asa Aikens, 1818.
Folder 44 Hunter, William. Correspondence with his daughter, Lucy Hunter Churchill, 1818-1819.
Folder 45 Hunter, William. Memorandum of agreement, witnessed and signed by Lucy Hunter Churchill and William Hunter, 1814.
Folder 46 Hunter, William. Promissory note, 1793.
Folder 47 Hunter, William. Receipts, 1807, 1809, 1817.
Folder 48 Hunter, William G., 1862, 1869
Folder 49 Penrose, Charles Bingham, 1841, 1851-1852, 1857 (uncle)
Folder 50 Penrose, Clement Biddle, 1844-1882 (cousin)
Folder 51 Penrose, Mary L., 1868 (cousin)
Folder 52 Penrose, Richard Alexander Fullerton, 1843-1869 (cousin)
Folder 53 Penrose, Valeria Fullerton Biddle, 1823, 1866-1880 (aunt)
Folder 54 Penrose, W. M., 1840-1857 (cousin)
Folder 55 Penrose, W. M., 1868
Series 5CORRESPONDENCE, 1847, 1855-1888. ARRANGED BY SUBJECT.
This series consists of letters of condolence sent to family members after Baird's death, 1887; announcements of membership from scientific organizations, including membership certificates, 1855-1878; letters of congratulations upon Baird's election as SI Secretary, 1878; copies of letters of recommendation sent to the SI Board of Regents in response to Baird's application for Curator position, 1847-1850; invitations to expositions; travel arrangements; a draft letter to President James A. Garfield recommending a diplomatic position for a friend; correspondence with scientists regarding photograph requests, 1884-1886; and pay (salary) receipts.
Folder 1 Board of Regents, Smithsonian Institution, 1887. Resolution of condolence to the Baird family.
Folder 2 Calling Cards
Folder 3 Condolences, 1887
Folder 4 Congratulations, 1878. On Spencer F. Baird's election as Secretary of SI.
Folder 5 Curatorship, 1847. Copies of letters of recommendation from scientists and politicians to members of the Board of Regents and to Joseph Henry.
Folder 6 Exhibition and Exposition invitations, 1873-1886
Folder 7 Fulton Market Fish Mongers' Association, 1888. Resolution of condolence to the Baird family.
Folder 8 Japan, 1887. Hokusui Kyokwai (Northern Fisheries Society) articles (in Japanese) on Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 9 Monroe, M. C., circa 1881. Spencer F. Baird's draft letter to President James A. Garfield recommending Monroe for a diplomatic post.
Folder 10 Pay receipts, May-July 1887
Folder 11 Photograph requests, 1884-1886. Incoming correspondence in response to Spencer F. Baird's circular requesting photographs of American scientists.
Folders 12-14 Scientific organizations, 1855-1887. Letters and certificates of membership from scientific organizations. Also includes extracted descriptions of certificates written on index cards (transcriber unknown). Oversize certificates were removed to map case.
Folder 15 Smithsonian Institution, 1887. Formal announcement of the death of Spencer Fullerton Baird, LL.D.
Folder 16 Travel arrangements, 1882-1887
Series 6JOURNALS AND DIARIES, 1839-1887.
This series consists of Spencer F. Baird's journals and diaries in which he described the weather and daily events. Typescripts of these entries were made by Baird's daughter, Lucy Hunter Baird, in preparation for a biography of her father. These typescripts are part of series 16.
Folder 1 Journals, October 26, 1838-May 9, 1839, May 1841-November 1843
Folder 2 Journals, May 1, 1839-December 1, 1850. Bound volume. Includes lists of letters written and received, 1844-1850; lists of books read, 1846; and copies of letters to George R. Gray, Zoological Department, British Museum, and to H. R. Lichtenstein, Director of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, 1845.
Folders 3-5 Journals, January 1, 1866-December 31, 1879
Folders 1-3 Journals, January 1, 1880-December 31, 1885
Folder 4 Journals, January 1, 1886-May 25, 1887. Entries for May 11-25, 1887, are not in Baird's handwriting.
Folders 5-8 Diaries, 1851, 1852, 1855, 1859
Folders 1-6 Diaries, 1851-1865
Folder 7 Diaries, January 1, 1861-December 31, 1865. Copied from the originals (transcriber unknown).
Folder 8 Abstract on health, 1885-1887. Spencer F. Baird's entries in which he described his health.
Folder 9 Miscellaneous abstracts: F(ish) C(ommission) Report, 1879; Miscellaneous articles, 1879; Abstract of work done in 1879; Memorandum of events, 1879.
Series 7RESEARCH MATERIALS, 1838-1883. ARRANGED BY SUBJECT.
This series documents Spencer F. Baird's scientific interests, especially in the synonymy of North American fauna. Also included are parts of Baird's translation of the Bilder-Atlas zum Conversation Lexicon from German to English. The American version, Iconographic Encyclopedia of Science, Literature, and Art, was published by Rudolph Garrigue of New York in 1852. Documents contain specimen lists; a draft of the synopsis of North American birds; drafts of monographs; extracts; publications; drawings; and bibliographical references. Iconographic Encyclopedia materials include Baird's drafts on certain subjects distributed to colleagues for editing; an unbound German version of the Bilder-Atlas; and lithographs.
This series is divided into three parts: Birds, Iconographic Encyclopedia, and Natural History, and alphabetically by subject thereunder.
Folder 1 Anatidae. "Monograph of the Anatidae," by T. C. Eyton, London, 1838.
Folder 2 Batrachia. "Revision of the North American Tailed Batrachia with description of new genera and species," by Spencer F. Baird, 1849. Also included is a printed version published by the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, October, 1849.
Folder 3 California. Three copies of the "Catalogue of North American Birds," Smithsonian Institution Miscellaneous Collection, 1859. Each catalogue has symbols and notations pertaining to lists of color drawings and illustrations of the collection of Californian birds in the SI collection. This information was probably sent to the Geological Survey of California during 1865.
Folder 4 California. "Notes on Birds Collected in California," by Colbert A. Canfield, undated.
Folder 5 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Birds seen about in Cumberland County and Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 1840-1843.
Folder 6 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Lists of birds shot in the vicinity of Carlisle, 1840-1844.
Folder 7 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. "Catalogue of Birds Found in the Neighborhood of Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pa.," by Spencer F. Baird, 1845.
Folder 8 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Catalogue of birds in the Baird collection, 1839-1844.
Folder 9 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. First appearance of birds in Carlisle, 1840-1844.
Folder 10 Carlisle, Pennsylvania. List of osteological preparation made, 1841-1842.
Folder 11 Catalogue. Catalogue of Baird's bird collection (?), undated.
Folder 12 Central America and the Caribbean. "S. F. Baird's list," catalogue of birds. Published list of birds with notations, undated.
Folder 13 Central America and the Caribbean. Description of birds. In English, Spanish and Latin, undated.
Folder 14 Central America and the Caribbean. Descriptions of birds from various publications (?), 1867.
Folder 15 Central America and the Caribbean. "List of Mexican, Central American and West Indian Birds Not Contained in the Collection of the Smithsonian Institution," by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folder 16 Coerebidae. "Monograph of Coerebidae," by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folder 17 Costa Rica. List of birds of Costa Rica, undated.
Folder 18 District of Columbia. List of birds observed in the District of Columbia, by William McFunn Baird, up to March 1844.
Folder 19 Drawings: Color drawings of birds by Spencer F. Baird, 1839
Folder 20 Drawings: Grallatores and Rasores (comparative anatomy)
Folder 21 Drawings: Insessores (anatomical drawings with notes)
Folder 1 Drawings: List of drawings
Folder 2 Drawings: Natatores
Folder 3 Drawings: Raptores
Folder 4 Eggs and Nests. List of bird eggs and nests in the SI, 1858-1859, by Spencer F. Baird. Bound volume incorporating the "Catalogue of North American Birds."
Folder 5 Egg Emptying. Note on emptying eggs, by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folder 6 Europe. "Catalogue of Birds of Europe," by Carlo Bonaparte, 1842. Extracts copied by Spencer F. Baird, 1845.
Folder 7 Europe and North America. "Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America," by C. L. Bonaparte, 1842. Extracts copied by Spencer F. Baird, 1845.
Folder 8 Expeditions. "Record of the Collection of North American Birds Brought In By Expeditions," by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 9 Fossils. Lists of fossils, 1858-1859. Bound volume incorporating the "Catalogue of North American Birds Chiefly in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution". Notations by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 10 Greenland. "Birds of Greenland," by Captain Sabine, undated. Copied by Spencer F. Baird, 1841.
Folder 11 Grus Americana. "On the Habits of Brown Crane (Grus Americana), by Robert Kennicott, February 1854. Copied by unknown person; title by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 1 History of North American Birds . Miscellaneous notes. Pertain to the book, published in 1874.
Folder 2 History of North American Birds. Proof plates of color drawings of heads of birds, 1875. Include prints of Robert Ridgway pencil drawings.
Folder 3 Helminthophaga virgincae, Baird. Spencer F. Baird's manuscript, undated.
Folder 4 March, W. Thomas. Lists and brief notes on birds sent to SI, 1862-1863.
Folder 5 Moulting. "Register of Moulting of Birds," by Spencer F. Baird, 1844-1847.
Folder 6 Muscuapinae. "Monograph of the Muscuapinae of the United States," by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folder 7 Museum List. Bound volume of lists of birds sent and received, 1842-1851. Possibly for Baird's private museum, not USNM.
Folders 8-9 Museum Register. Lists of birds in the SI collection, circa 1835-circa 1865.
Folder 1 North American Birds. "Corrected List N. A. Birds." Galley proof of specimen catalogue.
Folder 2 North American Birds. "Notes Memoranda, N. A. Birds Done With," 1866.
Folder 3 North American Birds. Proposed arrangement of N. A. birds by distribution.
Folder 4 North American Birds. Proposed jacket cover for "The Birds of North America," drawing by Robert Ridgway, undated.
Folders 5-6 North American Birds. Reference to descriptions of N. A. birds and index to collections of government expeditions.
Folder 7 North American Birds. Report on birds.
Folder 8 North American Birds. Miscellaneous specimen lists.
Folder 9 Osteology of SI bird collection. Bound volume incorporating "Smithsonian Museum/North American Birds/Osteology," and the "Catalogue of North American Birds."
Folder 10 Parasites. List of Anopleura, etc. Intestinal worms or parasites on birds or quadrupeds, 1846-1847.
Folder 11 Raraforms and Hylaforms. By Spencer F. Baird, undated. Contains descriptions on new species of raraforms and hylaforms in SI.
Folder 12 Sylvicola. By Spencer F. Baird, undated. Contains descriptions of Sylvicola.
Folder 13 Sylvicola Kirtlandii. "Description of a new species of Sylvicola," by Spencer F. Baird, 1852.
Folder 14 Tern. "Description of a Tern Thought to be New," by William M. and Spencer F. Baird, September 10, 1843.
Folder 15 Unfigured Birds. Descriptions of birds in the SI museum not included in the Pacific Railroad Report, Volume 9, 1858, by Spencer F. Baird, 1860s.
Folder 16 United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. "Notes Taken in Reference to the Birds Collected by the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Commission," by C. B. R. Kennerly, 1854-1855.
Folder 17 Vireo. "Notes on the genus Vireo based upon specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution," by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folder 18 Vireosylvia Magister. Galley proof sheet from Birds of North America, 1873.
Folder 19 Xantes, John. Lists of birds collected by John Xantes in Mazatlan, Mexico, 1861. Contains museum register sheets.
Folder 20 Xantes, John. "Common names of the birds and mammals of Lower California," by John Xantes, 1861.
Folder 21 Miscellaneous notes on birds, 1845, and 1850s.
Synopsis of North American Birds. Consists of cutouts taken from the Pacific Railroad Report, volume IX. Arranged by genera.
Folder 1 Iconographic Encyclopedia, Manuscripts: Chemistry
Folder 2 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Meteorology
Folders 3-4 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Geology, Parts I and II
Folder 5 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Geography
Folder 1 Iconographic Encyclopedia, Manuscripts: Botany
Folder 2 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Fish and Reptiles
Folder 3 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Birds
Folders 4-5 Iconographic Encyclopedia: Anthropology, Parts I and II
Folders 1-4 Bilder-Atlas zum Converzation, pages 1-138, 153-230, 301-320, 355-424. Unbound copy in German. Folder 1 also includes notes in English and a handwritten table of contents for the German text.
Folder 5 Bilder-Atlas zum Converzation, lithographic illustrations
Folder 1 Botany. "Instructions for the collection and preservation of botanical specimens," undated.
Folder 2 Cacti. "Instructions for such as have an opportunity to observe and collect Cacti in the field," undated.
Folder 3 Deer. Extract notes on reindeer and deer species, undated.
Folder 4 Fish. Cottus gracilus, 1848.
Folder 5 Fishes. Catalogue to Spencer F. Baird fish collection (?).
Folder 6 Fishes. Drawings of fishes copied from article, "Fishes of the Ohio, " 1842. Drawings by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 7 Fishes. North American Fishes, galley plates. Lithograph illustrations.
Folder 8 Fishes. Fishes from Cincinnati sent to Professor Agassiz, 1851.
Folder 9 Fishes. "Description of new species of fishes collected in Texas, New Mexico, and Sonora by Mr. John H. Clark on the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey and in Texas by Captain van Vliet, USA," by Spencer F. Baird and Charles Giraud, 1854.
Folder 10 Fishes. Miscellaneous notes, undated.
Folder 11 Frogs. "Monograph of North American Frogs," by Spencer F. Baird, 1854 (never published). A perfected copy was given to Professor E. D. Cope, February 1, 1867.
Folder 12 Geographical distribution of animals other than birds, 1850s
Folder 13 Hare. Lepus baird(?), circa 1867.
Folder 14 Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles. Bibliography of publications copied on cards, summer 1868.
Folder 15 Mammals. "Characteristics of some new species of mammalia collected by the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, Major W. H. Emory, USA, Commissioner," by Spencer F. Baird, 1855.
Folder 16 North American Mammals. "Catalogue of North American Mammals," by Spencer F. Baird, 1857.
Folders 17-18 North American Mammals. Index to description of North American Mammals, up to 1857, by Spencer F. Baird, February 1, 1867.
Folder 19 Mammals. Catalogue to Spencer F. Baird's mammal collection (?).
Folder 1 Mollusks and Shellfishes. Lists of mollusks and shellfishes from Nicaragua and Alaska, 1865-1867.
Folder 2 Natural History. List of publications (arranged by author), 1850-1883.
Folder 3 Natural Sciences. Extracts from various articles, 1838-1844. Primarily concerning ornithology.
Folder 4 Pacific Railroad Reports, Volumes I-XII, 1854-1860. Extracts from various volumes.
Folder 5 Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences (PANS). List of specimens described in the PANS publications. Used for Pacific Railroad Reports, 1855-1865.
Folder 6 Physical Technology. "Physical Technology or Introduction to the Preparation of Physical Experiments and the Construction of Physical Apparatus With The Simplest Possible Means," by J. Frick, undated. Extracts by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 7 Quadrupeds. List of quadrupeds of North America, 1841. Extracts from John James Audubon's manuscript by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 1 Reptiles. Assorted notes of observations, chiefly near Carlisle, Pa., 1847-1848.
Folder 2 Reptiles. Catalogue to Spencer F. Baird's collection (?).
Folder 3 Reptiles. "Characteristics of some new reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution," by Spencer F. Baird and Charles Giraud, 1852.
Folder 4 Reptiles. Index to reptiles of North America, by Spencer F. Baird, undated.
Folders 5-7 Reptiles. Notes, undated.
Folder 8 Reptiles and Amphibians. Specimens received, 1851-1854. Spine of notebook reads "Museum Lists Receipts II". Contains names of donors and lists of specimens.
Folder 9 Reptiles. Miscellaneous notes, undated.
Folder 1 Serpents. Serpents of New York, by Spencer F. Baird, 1854.
Folder 2 Shrews. "Remarks on the Shrews of North America," by Spencer F. Baird, 1861. Unpublished.
Folder 3 Trees and Shrubs. "List of Trees and Shrubs in Herbarium," by Spencer F. Baird, June 20, 1841.
Folder 4 Trees and Shrubs. "Contributions Toward a Catalogue of Trees and Shrubs of Cumberland County, Pa.," by Spencer F. Baird, February 1845.
Folder 5 Vertebrates. Manuscript Indices Vertebrata, undated, by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 6 Vertebrates. List of species of vertebrates in various journals and books. Extracts by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 7 Wild Cats. "Habits of Wild Cats," by Spencer F. Baird, 1842.
Folder 8 Zoology. Index of works and articles on zoology by Spencer F. Baird, 1844; Index of Birds, 1845.
Folder 9 Zoology. Extract from letter of Dr. Sartorius, Merador, Mexico, August 15, 18??.
Folder 10 Zoology. Natural history memoranda for Dr. Hayn, by Spencer F. Baird. Instructions for collecting specimens in the Arctic region.
Series 8SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES, CIRCA 1860-CIRCA 1871.
This series contains scientific articles preserved in letterpress books, written by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 1 Color Chart, by Spencer F. Baird, undated
Folder 2 Comets and Asteroids. Proposal to record extraterrestrials observed across the Atlantic Ocean, undated.
Folder 3 Comparative Zoology, Museum of. List of employees, 1871-1872.
Folder 4 Griest, Ernest. Extracted articles, undated. Copied by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 5 Hudson Bay Company. List of correspondents, 1872.
Folder 6 Library Arrangement. Proposed system of arrangement, undated.
Folder 7 North American Mammals. Catalogue of North American Mammals, circa 1857. Includes miscellaneous notes and publication expenses.
Folder 8 Outline for book (?), 1874
Folder 9 "Water Company," circa 1820. Part correspondence and part essay on the problem of providing drinking water in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. Author unknown.
Folder 10 "Workshop." Incomplete instructions on the use of shop, undated. Author unknown.
Folder 11 Miscellaneous manuscripts
Series 9PHOTOGRAPHS, PORTRAITS, AND PERSONAL MISCELLANY, 1836-1887.
Folder 1 Album. Contains drawings by William Hunter Churchill, lithographic prints of West Point, New York, and drawings by unknown artists. Oversize drawings by Spencer F. Baird consist of sketches of the Nescopeck Creek Railroad Bridge across the Schuykill River; houses and countryside scenes around Carlisle, Pa., 1841, 1845; mechanical drawings, circa 1838-1839; and natural history drawings (birds, plants, snails, and insects), 1839-1842. See oversize in map case.
Folder 2 Expense receipts, 1846, 1847
Folder 3 Humor extracts
Folder 4 Medical, miscellaneous. Includes Spencer F. Baird's body weight, April 13, 1886 to April 15, 1887, and doctor's advice, April 20, 1886.
Folder 5 Music, 1842-1843. Composed by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 6 Notebook: Expenses and lists of books borrowed or read, November 1836
Folder 7 Notebook: Newspaper articles, and Roman history test (questions and answers), 1836, 1838
Folder 8 Notebook: Lists of books, family birth dates (page 66), and personal miscellany, 1836-1839
Folder 9 Notebook: Personal Miscellany, 1837
Folder 10 Notebook: Scientific notes, 1837-1840
Folder 11 Notebook: Meteorological data, Carlisle, Pa., May-June 1838
Folder 12 Notebook: Personal expenses, 1839
Folder 13 Notebook: Field and scientific notes and specimen lists, 1839-1841
Folder 14 Notebook: Expense book, Carlisle, 1846-1848
Folder 15 Notebook: Mathematical extracts, undated. Copied by Spencer F. Baird.
Folder 16 Photographs and Portraits, 1847-1882, and undated. Includes:
Folder 17 Property tax statement, 1878
Folder 18 Recipes
Folder 19 "Tales about the islands in the Pacific Ocean," by Peter Parley, 1831. A gift to Spencer F. Baird from his father, later handed down to his daughter, Lucy Hunter Baird.
Series 10DICKINSON COLLEGE, 1846-1850.
From 1846 to 1850, Spencer F. Baird taught natural history and chemistry at Dickinson College. In addition to teaching, Baird was in charge of the college's natural history collection, and served as the college librarian. This series consists of Baird's drafts of annual reports and lecture notes.
Folder 1 Lecture Notes: Mostly on comparative anatomy, 1846-1850
Folder 2 Lecture Notes: Land birds, spring 1849. Delivered before freshman class.
Folder 3 Lecture Notes: Physics and chemistry, 1849-1850
Folders 4-5 Reports, 1847-1849. Includes annual reports of Baird's activities as professor, librarian, and keeper of natural history. Folder 5 includes list of specimens in Natural History collection.
Series 11AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCES, 1848-1887.
Spencer F. Baird served as Permanent Secretary of the AAAS from 1852 to 1854. Baird's duties as Permanent Secretary were to attend the AAAS meetings, and to write and publish the semi-annual reports. In 1852, Baird sent out to AAAS members a circular which included the following questions: name, address, occupation, and field of interest. The responses to these circulars are included in this series. Also included are member lists, correspondence registers, meeting announcements, and financial records. For incoming AAAS correspondence, see series 3. For outgoing AAAS correspondence, see series 2.
Folder 6 AAAS: Records of distribution of Proceedings, 1852. Includes lists of members and drafts for annual report.
Folder 7 AAAS: Financial Records, 1850-1854. Includes account book and receipts.
Folder 8 AAAS: Letter Book, 1850-1853. Includes lists of incoming and outgoing correspondence.
Folder 9 AAAS: Notebook, 1853-1854. Includes lists of miscellaneous memoranda; nominations at the Cleveland and Washington, D. C., meetings; and receipts and expenses.
Folder 10 AAAS: Proceedings and Member lists, 1848-1887. Contains published lists of members and meeting announcements.
Circulars to AAAS members, 1852-1853.
Series 12SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION REPORTS AND MEMORANDA, DIARIES, AND PUBLICATION EXPENSES AND SPECIMEN DISTRIBUTION, 1846-1887.
This series consists of drafts of SI annual reports, 1852-1877, including annual reports for the USCFF; diaries, mostly documenting library and visitor activities; distribution lists of SI publications; specimen distribution lists; correspondence, mostly concerning specimens; memoranda; and circulars to SI correspondents, 1875.
Folder 1 Annual Reports, 1852-1853, 1867. Concern explorations, and specimen and publication exchanges with foreign institutions.
Folder 2 Annual Reports, 1857-1865
Folder 3 Annual Reports, 1871
Folder 4 Annual Reports, 1867-1877. Includes reports for the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries.
Folder 1 Assistant Secretary of the SI, 1884. Includes draft proposal to appoint William J. Rhees as Assistant Secretary.
Folder 2 Correspondence and Publications, 1853-1883. Contains list of names and publications sent out.
Folder 3 Diary, 1861. Documents books withdrawn and returned from SI Library, and meteorological data for Washington, D. C. Author unknown.
Folder 4 Diary, 1870. Documents the coming and going of visitors to SI building. Author unknown.
Folders 5-6 Explorations, 1865, 1869. Contains SI annual report drafts on various SI exploration activities.
Folder 7 Foreign scientific institutions and scientists, 1861, 1867-1869. Contains lists of publications sent abroad.
Folder 1 General Order, 1867. Includes Joseph Henry's memorandum regarding official Smithsonian correspondence.
Folder 2 Gillis' Report, 1853-1854. Includes statement of expenditure for publishing Lt. Gillis' report.
Folder 3 Government scientific collections, circa 1857. Contains draft and galley proofs of circular pertaining to SI's role in maintaining United States government scientific collections.
Folder 4 Journal, 1850-1854. Documents publications and specimens sent and received by the SI, and expense estimates for publishing reports.
Folder 5 Memoranda and expense receipts, circa 1846-1887
Folder 6 Natural History, circa 1867. Concerns distribution of publications.
Folder 7 Patent Office, 1856. Contains summary of natural history collections kept at the Patent Office.
Folder 8 Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge, 1859. Inventory lists.
Folder 9 Smithsonian Publications, 1864, 1871. Inventory lists.
Folder 10 Smithsonian Publications, 1881, 1882. Contains "Checklist of Publications of the SI, to December 1881," including Spencer F. Baird's inventory of SI books, January 1882.
Folder 11 Specimen lists, 1852-1858. Documents specimens received, loaned out, or borrowed by the SI.
Folder 12 Suckley, George, 1855. Includes list and receipts of publication sent to Suckley.
Folder 13 United States National Museum, 1880. Draft reports for FY 1880.
Folder 14 Miscellaneous computations
Folder 15 Answers to Circulars, original front cover
Folder 16 Circular (copy)
Folder 17 Answers to Circulars, Abell-Avery
Folder 18 Answers to Circulars, Baer-Bogue
Folder 19 Answers to Circulars, Bois-Byrnes
Folder 20 Answers to Circulars, Cabaniss-Cutting
Folder 1 Answers to Circulars, DaCosta-Fuller
Folder 2 Answers to Circulars, Gardiner-Gunn
Folder 3 Answers to Circulars, Haas-Hyland
Folder 4 Answers to Circulars, Ingalls-Luther
Folder 5 Answers to Circulars, Mack-Myers
Folder 6 Answers to Circulars, Nafis-Quick
Folder 7 Answers to Circulars, Randle-Rust
Folder 8 Answers to Circulars, Safford-Swiggert
Folder 9 Answers to Circulars, Talbot-Tyson
Folder 10 Answers to Circulars, Uhler-Younglove
Folder 11 Answers to Circulars, Unidentified names
Folder 1 Specimen Distribution, index, 1846-1866
Folders 2-7 Specimen Distribution, 1846-1866. Documents to distribution of specimens to U.S. institutions. Includes correspondence with recipients.
Folder 8 Specimens Distributed/Desiderata of Correspondents, 1846-1866. Bound volume containing specimen catalogs with annotations, mostly by Spencer F. Baird. Documents specimen collection, organized by individual and institution.
Series 13EXPLORATIONS, 1852-1876.
Spencer F. Baird assisted the various exploring expeditions sponsored by the United States government, providing instruments, equipment, and personnel.
This series consists of lists and receipts for equipment purchased by SI between 1850 and 1876. The Pacific Railroad Surveying Expeditions, 1852-1855, the North Pacific Surveying and Exploring Expedition, 1853-1854, the United States and Mexican Boundary Surveying Expedition, 1852-1854, the United States Arctic Expedition, 1866, the Hudson Bay Territory (Canada) Expedition, 1859-1862, the Upper Yellowstone Expedition, 1871, and expeditions to Central and South America are represented in this series.
Folder 1 Account Books, 1852-1855
Folder 2 Bessels, Emil, 1870-1872. Contains reimbursement for property lost during the U. S. Arctic Expedition (Polaris).
Folder 3 Carlisle, Pa., 1876. Concerns Spencer F. Baird's cave exploration.
Folder 4 Hudson Bay Territory Expedition, 1859-1862
Folder 5 New York State Cabinet of Natural History, 1853
Folder 6 MacFarlane, Roderick Ross, undated (Accession 06-281)
Folder 7 Marcy, Captain R. B., 1853. Contains receipts of payment received by individuals who worked on reports of Marcy's Pacific Railroad expedition (38th Parallel).
Folder 8 Pacific Railroad Survey (47th to 49th Parallel), 1853
Folder 9 Page, Thomas Jefferson, 1852-1853. Concerns expedition to Rio Paran and Rio de la Plata, South America. Includes correspondence from Asa Gray to Spencer F. Baird regarding payment for supplies purchased for Page.
Folder 10 Palmer, Edward, 1870. Concerns expedition down the Colorado River from Utah. Includes drafts of report on expedition.
Folder 11 Peters, D. W. C., 1856. Contains list of apparatus sent to Peters in New Mexico.
Folders 12-13 Ringgold Expedition, 1853-1855. Concerns North Pacific Surveying and Exploring Expedition.
Folder 14 Samuels, E., 1855. Contains list of apparatus shipped to Samuels in California.
Folder 15 Trowbridge, Lt. William Pettit, 1853. Concerns survey of western coast.
Folder 16 United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 1853-1856
Folder 17 Upper Yellowstone Expedition, 1873. Includes correspondence recruiting scientists.
Folder 18 Woodhouse, Samuel W., 1853. Concerns expedition to Central America (Nicaragua).
Series 14UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES, 1871-1888.
From 1871 until his death in 1887, Spencer F. Baird served as Commissioner of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries (USCFF). Baird received no compensation and charged no rent to the USCFF for its use of his home for office space.
This series documents Baird's involvement in the Chenowith Case of 1885. James Chenowith, an auditor for the United States Treasury, accused the USCFF and Baird for unauthorized use of government funds to build living quarters for staff members at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, where the USCFF had its summer headquarters. In the end, Baird and the USCFF were exonerated of any misdeed. This series also documents the lobbying efforts by Baird supporters to compensate the Baird family after Spencer F. Baird's death for his service and the use of his home for office space. In 1888, Congress passed a sundry bill in which the Baird family received $50,000.00 in compensation.
Also included are a confidential letter regarding the dismissal of an USCFF employee and his reappointment to a position at SI; reports and receipts; and an authorization letter from the United States Department of the Interior appointing Baird as Commissioner of the USCFF.
Folder 1 Appropriation sheets, 1884, 1886. Includes estimates of expenses.
Folder 2 Chenowith Case: Abstracts from newspaper articles, 1885
Folder 3 Chenowith Case: Correspondence, 1885
Folder 4 Chenowith Case: Newspaper articles, 1885
Folder 5 Compensation: Congressional Proceedings, and other reports, 1888
Folder 6 Compensation: Congressional Record, and excerpts, 1888
Folder 7 Compensation: Correspondence and notes, 1888
Folder 8 Compensation: Newspaper articles, 1888
Folder 9 Congressional bill creating Fish Commission, 1871
Folder 10 Ferguson, Thomas B., 1887-1888. Includes newspaper articles on his efforts to succeed Baird as USCFF Commissioner.
Folder 11 General, 1885-1887. Includes newspaper articles concerning USCFF, and fish breeding.
Folder 12 Hessel, Rudolph, 1881. Includes complaint against Louis Gury, a watchman for the USCFF building.
Folder 13 Letter of Appointment, 1871. Includes letter from U. S. Department of State announcing Baird's appointment as Commissioner and as SI Secretary.
Folder 14 McCue, Alexander, 1887. McCue succeeded Baird as USCFF Commissioner. Folder includes newspaper articles.
Folder 15 Memoranda to Congress, 1879, 1886. Includes drafts of memoranda describing Baird's relationships to the USCFF as Commissioner and as SI Secretary.
Folder 16 Receipts for private purchases, 1885-1886. Used as evidence that no public funds were used.
Folder 17 Reports, 1884, and undated
Folder 18 Miscellaneous memoranda, 1887
Series 15GENEALOGY AND BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS, 1888-1915, 1923.
Lucy Hunter Baird (1848-1913) transcribed some of her father's correspondence and journal entries for a biography of her father. Other persons involved with the biography of Spencer F. Baird included George Brown Goode and William Healey Dall. Dall published a biography of Baird in 1915.
This series includes correspondence between the biographers and other persons acquainted with Spencer F. Baird, mostly concerning photographs of Baird and the Baird residence in Carlisle, and genealogical information. Also included are transcribed notes extracted from Baird's journals, 1838-1853; correspondence concerning a portrait and statue of Baird for SI, and the USCFF headquarters at Woods Hole; and miscellaneous Lucy Hunter Baird notes and correspondence.
Folders 1-3 Biographers' Correspondence, A-Z, 1888-1923
Folder 4 Biographers' Miscellaneous notes
Folder 5 Biographers' notes. Mostly by Lucy Hunter Baird.
Folder 6 Genealogy: Family trees and notes
Folder 7 Genealogy: Genealogical Collections Concerning the Sir-Name of Baird, etc. Contains a description of Baird families in England and Scotland between the 15th and 18th centuries.
Folder 8 Genealogy: Genealogical tree of the Baird and Potts families, by Spencer F. Baird, 1840
Folder 9 Genealogy: Summaries of Baird ancestors. Correspondence mostly with George Brown Goode, 1890.
Folder 10 Genealogy: Notes and Extracts from Baird's journals, 1838-1884. By Lucy Hunter Baird.
Folders 11-12 Genealogy: Notes and Extracts from Baird's journals, October 26, 1838-August 22, 1846
Folders 1-4 Genealogy: Notes and Extracts from Baird's journals, August 28, 1846-November 1, 1853
Folder 5 Baird statue and portrait, 1888-1894. Concerns congressional action regarding Baird statue.
Folder 6 Woods Hole Monuments, 1890-1900
Folder 7 Baird, Lucy Hunter, 1888, 1901. Contains correspondence.
Series 16JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES, AND PUBLICATIONS, 1880-1923.
Folder 1 Baird, Lucy Hunter, 1913. Includes obituaries and probate of will.
Folder 2 Baird, Mary Helen Churchill, 1881. Includes an article on Mrs. Baird's improved health.
Folders 3-4 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Biographies and memoirs, 1887-1980
Folder 5 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, General, 1880-1887
Folder 6 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Obituaries, 1887
Folder 7 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Probate of will, 1887
Folder 8 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Proceedings of Societies, 1871-1874
Folder 9 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Promotion to Secretary of the SI, 1878
Folder 10 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Rumor of Baird's transfer to Yale University. Includes interviews with reporters, 1885.
Folder 11 Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Baird statue, 1888
Folder 1 Harper's Monthly, "Editor's Scientific Record," April 1870-June 1874
Folder 2 Harvard University, 1886. Concerns Harvard's 250th anniversary.
Folder 3 Mummies, 1881. Concerns unveiling of Egyptian and American mummies.
Folder 4 Ridgway, Robert, 1887. Includes reviews of "A Manual of N. A. Birds."
Folder 5 Smithsonian Institution, 1886-1888. Concerns Baird's successor, 1887; appointment of the Assistant Secretary, February 1887; an illiterate copyist, 1886; a summary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1886; and summaries of Joseph Henry's and Baird's roles at the SI, 1888.
Folder 6 Spencer Fullerton Baird Naturalist Club, undated. Contains announcement of new club for naturalists, Reading, Pennsylvania.
Folder 7 Miscellaneous articles
Folder 8 Photographs sent to the Smithsonian Institution, 1880. Contains record book of American and foreign scientists responding to circulars.
Folder 9 Publications. Includes "Directions for Collecting, Preserving, and Transporting Specimens of Natural History prepared for the Use of the Smithsonian Institution," by Spencer F. Baird, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 34, March 1859, 3rd edition; and "Hints for Preserving Objects of Natural History Prepared by professor S. F. Baird for Dickinson College," 1846.
Folder 10 Addresses of scientists in the United States, 1873. Includes log of photograph circulars sent and received.
Series 17SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES AND INDICES TO SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS AND
This series consists of scientific articles and indices to scientific articles. The articles were extracted from scientific publications, mostly by Spencer F. Baird. They are arranged numerically, and preserved in letterpress books. The indices are contained in day books and index rerums. The entries were written by persons other than Baird.
Folders 1-3 Scientific articles, 1866-circa 1871
Folders 1-5 Indices to scientific publications arranged by subject, and names of individuals, circa 1830s, 1839, 1845, 1867, 1873
Folders 1-11 Day Books, 1867-1879. Indices to scientific publications, arranged numerically. (Books 1-9, numbers 1-10,000; Books 10-11, numbers 201-1352.)
Index to correspondence
Series 18LARGE FORMAT MATERIALS.
Awards and Diplomas
Drawings by Spencer F. Baird, 1839-1845 (3 folders). Include natural history drawings (birds, plants, snails, and insects); mechanical drawings; and houses and countryside scenes.
Lithograph drawing of Spencer F. Baird, with his handwriting, 1855. Galley proof set used for a German publication.
Photograph of Spencer F. Baird, circa 1880
Using the Archives' Collections