Agency history, 1849-1992
Usage Conditions ApplyThe Smithsonian Institution Archives welcomes personal and educational use of its collections unless otherwise noted. For commercial uses, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Jewett, Charles C (Charles Coffin) 1816-1868
- Abbot, C. G (Charles Greeley) 1872-1973
- Adler, Cyrus 1863-1940
- Hodge, Frederick Webb 1864-1956
- Kidder, Jerome
- Rathbun, Richard 1852-1918
- Williams, D. G
- Berry, Ferdinand V
- Boehmer, George H
- Turner, Jane A
- Winlock, William Crawford
- Lesnik, Pauline Tina
- Collins, Jeremiah A
- Estes, John E. d. 1982
- Conroy, Richard T
- Diebitsch, Hermann
- Gass, F. E
- Shoemaker, Coates W
- Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
- Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary in Charge of Office and Exchanges
- Smithsonian Institution Libraries
- Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary for Public Service
- Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary for Administration
- Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary in Charge of the Library
- Smithsonian Institution Assistant Secretary in Charge of Library and Exchanges
- Smithsonian Institution Directorate of International Activities Office of Publications Exchange
- This is an agency history. It does not describe actual records. The Smithsonian Institution Archives uses these histories as brief accounts of the origin, development, and functions of an office or administrative unit to set that unit in its historical context. To find information on record holdings, please double-click the highlighted field "Creator/Author", which will open on a brief view of relevant records.
- Robert S. Hoffman memorandum, May 20, 1992
- Michael Collins memorandum, March 8, 1979
- Robert McC. Adams announcement, September 19, 1984
- Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1852-1964
- E-mail, Lucien Rossignol to James A. Steed, October 18, 2002
- Smithsonian Year, 1965-1984
- In 1849 the International Exchange Service, as it was then called, was created to exchange Smithsonian Institution publications with foreign scientific and learned societies and, more broadly, to facilitate exchange of printed scientific information among nations. In 1851 the publications of United States agencies and of non-profit organizations were included in the exchanges as well. Such exchanges were infrequent and expensive when the Service began. The exchange program greatly assisted international information exchange but was gradually supplanted by newer exchange programs of foreign, U.S. government and private entities. In 1992 the Exchange Service was closed.
- The International Exchange Service reported to the Assistant Secretary in Charge of the Library in 1852. In 1853 it began reporting to the Assistant Secretary in Charge of Publications, Exchanges, and Natural History. This arrangement continued under the same or similar titles until 1896, when the International Exchange Service began reporting to the Assistant Secretary in Charge of Office and Exchanges. In 1906-1907 the unit reported to the Assistant Secretary in Charge of Library and Exchanges. The Service continued to report to an Assistant Secretary as late as 1979, when it was reporting to the Assistant Secretary for Administration. In 1979 the Service was transferred to the Assistant Secretary for Public Service. In 1984 the Service was transferred to the Directorate of International Activities and renamed as the Office of Publications Exchange. The Service reported to Smithsonian Institution Libraries from 1988 until its 1992 closure. At some point after 1987 the unit was again called the Smithsonian International Exchange Service.
- Charles C. Jewett was Assistant Secretary in Charge of the Library in 1852. Spencer Fullerton Baird was Assistant Secretary in Charge of Publications, Exchanges, and Natural History in 1853. For some years the annual reports identified no specific Smithsonian staff members below the Assistant Secretary level as connected with the International Exchange Service. From 1869 to 1872 Jane A. Turner was a clerk in the Service, joined in 1873-1874 by another clerk, Hermann Diebitsch. Diebitsch continued as a clerk, circa 1875-1880. George H. Boehmer served in the same capacity, 1881-1887, and was succeeded by Jerome Kidder, Curator, Bureau of Exchanges, 1888-1889. On Kidder's death in 1889 William Crawford Winlock replaced him, serving 1889-1896. From 1896 to 1900 Exchange work was attributed to Richard Rathbun, Assistant Secretary of Charge of Office and Exchanges. Frederick Webb Hodge served as Acting Curator of Exchanges, 1901-1905. During 1906 and 1907 Exchange work was attributed to Cyrus Adler, Assistant Secretary in Charge of Library and Exchanges. Ferdinand V. Berry was Chief Clerk, International Exchange Service, 1908-1909, followed by Coates W. Shoemaker, serving 1910-1941. Exchange work was attributed to Secretary Charles G. Abbot, 1942, and passed to F. E. Gass, Acting Chief Clerk, 1943-1945. D. G. Williams succeeded him as Acting Chief Clerk (1946) and Chief Clerk, 1947-1957. Jeremiah A. Collins was variously Chief Clerk, Chief, and Director, 1958-1974. John E. Estes was Director, 1975-1982. After a vacancy Richard T. Conroy became Acting Manager, serving 1985-1987. Pauline Tina Lesnik managed the unit from 1988 to 1992.
- For a history of the larger creating unit, refer to "Forms part of" above.
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Capital Gallery, Suite 3000, MRC 507; 600 Maryland Avenue, SW; Washington, DC 20024-2520
- Scientific literature
- International cooperation
- Exchanges, Literary and scientific
Mixed archival materials