Joseph Henry Gives Smithsonian Linguistic Materials on American Indians to John Wesley Powell, October 1876, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, First Smithsonian Secretary Joseph Henry gives all of the Smithsonian's linguistic materials and questionnaires on Indian life to John Wesley Powell, director of the United States Geological Survey. Three years later, the materials come back to the Institution when Powell is appointed to direct the newly established Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian..