Operation Moonwatch Event, Biloxi, Mississippi, by Unknown, c. 1958, Smithsonian Archives - History Div, Under a banner for Operation Moonwatch, people are lined up at the entrance to a Satellite Demonstration set up in Biloxi, Mississippi. The Moonwatch Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was created in 1956 as part of the Satellite Tracking Program and established to track and photograph the artificial earth satellites to be launched during the International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958..