Margaret Eliza Maltby (1860-1944), Smithsonian Institution Archives, Physicist and educator Margaret Eliza Maltby (1860-1944) was the first American woman allowed to take a degree at GtĖ˛tingen University (in 1895); she became professor of physics and department chair at Barnard College, 1903-1934. In 1926, the American Association of University Women established a fellowship in Maltby's honor..