Executive Order 12635, Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to Panama

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In response to the policies and actions of General Noriega, President Reagan declared a national emergency to deal with the threat of those actions and policies to the national security, foreign policy and United States economy. The order blocks all property of the government of Panama in the United States, prohibits direct and indirect payments to the Noriega/Solis regime, all payments due will be made to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and help in trust for the Panamanian people. These payments included social security payments from organizations, such as STRI, to the Government of Panama for their Panamanian workers.


  • Reagan, Ronald
  • Noriega, Manuel Antonio
  • Palma, Manuel Solis
  • United States President
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI)


Smithsonian Legal Documents

Legal document information

  • Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse
  • Executive Orders


The section of the order regarding payments to the Noriega/Solis regime was amended on June 15, 1988 to allow the payment of social security taxes to the regime by persons and subsidiaries located in Panama.

Contained within

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 94-128, Assistant Secretary for Research, c. 1989-1993, Records, Box 8 (Documents)

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520, SIHistory@si.edu




  • Labor laws and legislation
  • Economics
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Law and legislation
  • Personnel management
  • Sanctions (International law)
  • Employees
  • Panama Canal (Panama)
  • Taxation
  • Property
  • Executive orders
  • Employee rights
  • Taxation--Law and legislation
  • Economic sanctions



Physical description

Number of pages: 2; Page Numbers: 1-2

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