Journey to Justice: The Wintu People and the Salmon

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  • This catalog was published on the occasion of the inaugural exhibition, "Journey to Justice: The Wintu People and the Salmon" held from June 8, 2002 through October 19, 2003 at Turtle Bay Exploration Park in Redding, California. The catalog, richly interspersed throughout with historic photographs and illustrations, covers the history of the Winemem Wintu and the chinook salmon of the McCloud River area in the Sacramento Valley.
  • The first and longest chapter written by Alice Hoveman, the curator of history for Turtle Bay Exploration Park and Museum, is an in-depth examination of the life and legacy of the Winemem Wintu, native people of the upper Sacramento Valley foothills, and their struggle to maintain their livelihood in the face of losses of life, land, and sovereignty. The scope of Hoveman's chapter examines the Wintu's traditional way of life, their tragic relations with white settlers during the mid-nineteenth century, the construction of the Shasta Dam, the federal government's Indian policy, and the Wintu's attempts to gain tribal recognition.
  • Among the many events Hoveman highlights in the history of the Wintu people is the unique relationship that developed with Livingston Stone and the Wintu when Stone founded a salmon breeding station on the McCloud River in 1872 under the direction of Smithsonian Secretary and first Commissioner of the United States Fish Commission, Spencer Fullerton Baird. Direct quotations from Stone's reports to Baird on his progress breeding the chinook salmon also describe his observations of Wintu culture and his interactions with individual Wintu. In addition to the rich documentation of Stone's efforts, the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History houses the collection of artifacts which Stone acquired during his time in the McCloud River area.
  • The chapter written by Elaine Sundahl is on the archaeological evidence of the prehistory of the Wintu people followed by a list of references on the material culture of the Wintu. The last chapter by Ronald M. Yoshiyama describes the history of the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) once abundant in the McCloud River area, the human activities that severly affected their numbers, and the efforts to save them.
  • Following the appendix on the biology of the chinook salmon and list of references at the end of the chapter are approxiamtely forty color photographs of Wintu artifacts from the collections of the Turtle Bay Exploration Park and Museum and the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.


  • Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
  • Stone, Livingston 1836-1912
  • National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)
  • United States Fish Commission
  • Journey to Justice: The Wintu People and the Salmon (Exhibition) (2002-2003: Turtle Bay Exploration Park, Redding, CA)


Smithsonian Institution History Bibliography

Contained within

(Exhibition Catalog)

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,




  • California History
  • Law
  • Salmon
  • Secretaries
  • Historians
  • Anthropology
  • Fisheries
  • Ethnology
  • Museums
  • History
  • Fisheries--History
  • Legislation
  • Indians of North America


  • United States
  • California
  • North America

Physical description

142 pgs

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