Government Geologists and the Early Man Controversy: The Problem of 'Official' Science in America, 1879-1907

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Discusses several controversies in nineteenth century anthropology, geology and paleontology which involved United States government scientists, including theories on the origin of American Indians, the early man hypotheses, mound builders debates, and glacial man theories, as well as the rise of official anthropology and geology science bureaus and surveys, and criticisms of the role of the United States Geological Survey.


  • Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933
  • Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology
  • United States Geological Survey (USGS)


Smithsonian Institution History Bibliography


Ph.D. dissertation

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Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,




  • Discovery and exploration
  • Scientific expeditions
  • Geology
  • Science
  • Anthropology
  • Field Work
  • History
  • Physical anthropology
  • Prehistoric peoples
  • Science--History


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