Avian Relicts and Double Invasions in Peninsular India and Ceylon

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S. Dillon Ripley presents his scientific data and findings about relicts and double invasion in Southern India and Ceylon. Ripley points to three factors that suggests similar, isolated biota were created: geologic, climatic, and rainforest conditions created by moonsoon rains. Ripley presents nine examples of how these factors work in the environment.


Smithsonian Institution History Bibliography


Reprinted as a pamphlet by Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster, Pa.

Contained within

Evolution Vol. 3, no. 2 (Journal)

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520, SIHistory@si.edu


June 1949


  • Scientific expeditions
  • Animals
  • Biogeography
  • Evolution
  • Birds
  • Ornithology
  • Research


  • Sri Lanka
  • Ceylon
  • India

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