MMT Used to Make Historic Measurement

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The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) is used to make the first measurement of possible proto-galaxy-sized gas clouds seen at cosmological distances. The international team of scientists, which included Fred Chaffee, a Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory researcher, used an observation technique employing a natural gravitational lens in space.


  • Chaffee, Frederic H. 1941-
  • Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory
  • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory)
  • Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory


Chronology of Smithsonian History


Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1984. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985, p. 409.

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,


February, 1984


  • Observatories
  • Astrophysics
  • Firsts
  • Telescopes
  • Astronomy

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