Joseph Henry's Record of Experiments Book 1

ID: SIA2013-07234 through SIA2013-07398

Creator: Henry, Joseph 1797-1878

Form/Genre: Paper

Date: August 15, 1834, to September 1839

Citation: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 21, Folder: 1

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Summary

  • Joseph Henry's Record of Experiments book 1. Joseph Henry, first Smithsonian Secretary, kept this record of his scientific work from 1834 to 1839 while he was a professor of natural philosophy, the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. Henry, a physicist, included notes on his experiments dealing with electromagnetism and other scientific topics.
  • Henry reused a ledger for his notes. Book 1 begins with a set of accounts in an unknown neat clerical hand. In this book, Henry's entries begin in the middle of the volume, continue to the end, and then pick up again at the beginning of the book, ending in the middle.

Subject

Princeton University

Category

Historic Images of the Smithsonian

Notes

See SIA2013-07399 through SIA2013-07575 for Henry's Record of Experiments Book 2 and SIA2012-6592 through SIA2012-6786 for Henry's Record of Experiments Book 3.

Contained within

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 21, Folder: 1

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024-2520, SIHistory@si.edu

Date

August 15, 1834, to September 1839

Restrictions & Rights

No restrictions

Topic

  • Secretaries
  • Science
  • Laboratory notebooks
  • Electromagnets
  • Experiments
  • Records
  • Physics
  • Electromagnetism
  • Physics--Experiments

Form/Genre

  • Paper
  • Book

ID Number

SIA2013-07234 through SIA2013-07398

Physical description

Number of Images: 165; Color: Color; Size: 8w x 13h; Type of Image: Document; Medium: Paper

Full Record

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[[Front cover]] (1.) [[image - small pen drawing of profile of man]] [[image - larger pen drawing of profile of man]]
[[inside of front cover - blank]]
[[left margin]] Milk about 1/2 the length of [[were?]] [[shocksless?]] [[/left margin]] [[ink has bled through from opposing side]] Page Clide John B & Jno.tt [[?]] Micheal 6 Carl Henry Instn..... 7. Cooper [[James?]], .... 35. Clark & Street. . . . . 38. Caldwell. William. . . . . 48. Chapin Henry. . . . . . . 50. Thomas Clark. . . . . 38. Carter & Davies . . . . 56. And I of course concluded that it is too fine for the induced current to be generated in it. This fact is one of considerable consequence in the practical repetition of exp. of the kind. Since no doubt a very long wire of considerable thickness would produce a better effect than a thin one of the same length particularly in case of [[strikethrough]] [[unga?]] [[/strikehthrough]] galvance induction since the action is on all bodies, at considerable distance. ____________________ Exp 3rd Gave the shock to Schmitt from the long helix on the flat coil No 3 and afterward from the same helix placed within coil No 2 Tho feeling discribed was that in [[strikethrough]] [[?]][[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion] the first [[/insertion]] case the shock was felt higher up in the arms but in the second greater pain was produced. _________ Exp 4 attached the small red magnet to the Thermal battery with hot iron, & salt and snow below the magnet would support the small armature of the cast iron magnet but not the 7th armature of my 1st made magnet. M. Mathias of London has made [[magnets?]] by Thermo-Electricity { N.B The same magnet can be rendered magnetic by the [[magnet-Elec machine?]] [[underline]] Note [[/underline]] The small cylindrical battery would not act this morning examined it found that the reduced metal had been deposited along the
sticks which separate the Zinc and [[underlined]] Copper [[/underlined]] and thus prevented the action May [[underlined]] 26th 1838 [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] Exp 1 [[/margin]] Made a metallic thermometer with wire from the end of the spiral dipper [[dipped?]] into pool of mercury after the manner of [[Dida Reeds?]] arrangement. A current of galvanium set through but the effect was not very striking. Thermo electricity produced no actions or in other words with this instrument gave no indication of a current of heat. [[left margin]] Exp 2 [[/margin]] Repeated the experiment with the electrical machine. 1st wires 4 inches apart Large Jar [[slow?]]-needle magnetized slightly contrary direction. 2nd smaller charge needle more strongly magnetized -- 3rd Large Jar + battery needle magnetized in the same direction -- with the wires 2 inches apart magnetism stronger same direction. These exp. in keeping with those made in Phil[[superscript]]ad[[/superscript]]. [[Philadelphia abbreviation]] where with the large battery the secondary current was always found in the same direction with the primary [[left margin]] Exp 4 [[/margin]] Decomposition produced with the secondary current for the long helix with the apparatus of Clarkes machine--with Faradays vol [[caruche??]] no decomposition could be obtained. The other article has very fine points resembling almost the g[[^u]]arded ones of Wallastor. [This exp. was made yesterday] [[left margin]] Exp 5 [[underline]]th [[/underline]][[/margin]] Repeated the exp. for determining the direction of the needle with galvanic currents. Found as before that the secondary current is always in the same direction as the battery current no change of direction observed It would [[best guess]]appear[[/best guess]] [[small tear in page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Fairbanks [[Joshua?]] . . 54. [[Fonda?]], & [[?]] . . . . 9. Ford [[James?]] [[?]] Fairfield Archibald . . . 76 [[above list is underlined]] from the circumstance of the [[best guess]]penumbracy[[/best guess]] of the direction of the 2nd current by galvanism that it resembles in its action [[strikethrough]] cor [[/strikethrough]] a heavy charge of common electricity since with Dr Hare's battery no [[strikethrough]] action [[/strikethrough]] charge [[change?]] is perceptible. [[underline]] [[/underline]] May 29th Exp 1 Put [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] the large battery to the large magnet -- sustained 3587 lbs [[strikethrough]] attached [[/strikethrough]] with the compound lever attached without [[and?]] the acid on one occasion for about a 1/4 oz a minute, 1500 lbs were supported without the action of the acid, or in other words when the connection with the battery was broken. [[underline]] [[/underline]] Exp-- applied iron filings to a [[plate?]] were rendered red hot by the galvanic current -- adhesion took place and continued until the filings were melted to the wire [[set in large parentheses]] Try if the attraction will take place between melted iron and the wire -- Also the attraction of [[ampre?]] between two wires both white hot [[/set in large parentheses]] [[underline]] [[/underline]] Exp Placed two coiles paralel to each other. [[image - two pairs of circles with concentric inner circles stacked on top of each other like an eight]] Each coil was about 2 feet in diameter the one formed of coil (ribbon) No 1 and No 2. the other of coil No 3 No 4 [[4 written over a 3]]. The coils were gradually separated and needles made magnetic.
Gilston John............^[[Page]]] 4 at each distance until at the distance of about two feet all signes of magnetism disappeared. The magnetism was constantly in the same direction as that of the current from the battery no change of direction could be observed. The magnetism disappeared at that distance on account principally of the oblique action of the two sides of the coil. [[underline]] [[/underline]] Exp 3rd [[image--[[underline]] a [[/underline]] double line circle (as of wire) with a smaller circle inside. This inner circle has two lines extending outward with 'handles' on the ends. [[underline]] b [[/underline]] directly underneath (a), a second, multiple loop circle with two lines coming off the bottom (as if ends of the wire)]] The shocking spiral was put within the upper coil the two ends of which were not in contact. The shock at the distance of 16 inches was very disagreeable The ends of the coil [[underline]] a [[/underline]] were not placed in contact no effect or a very slight one was now perceptable (good exp) [[underline]] [[/underline]] Exp Put the compound lever on the large magnet magnetized it [[by?]] the large battery arranged as 8 plats, suffered the whole to remain until next morning (May 30) found that it required 621 lbs to detach the armature. The exp was made by means of a sliding weight. [[end page]] [[start page]] Heart Thomas. Page 17 Heart Thomas & Co. 18 Hattit Barune & Co. 30 Hormitton J. Alexandes. 6 [[unlike previous pages, writing follows ledger's pre-scored columnar divisions]] [[left column]] [[strikethrough]] May [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] June 4th 1838 [[/underline]] Arranged the coils and one helix (the 2nd) for producing the secondary shock. attempted to get the direction of the current but did not succeed either by decomposition or making magnets -- Separated the helix from which the shocks were produced by means of blocks from the coil to the distance of 7 or 8 inches still the effect was produced So that the 2nd current acts[[^ing]] at a distance produces shocks similar to the battery current. When the two handles were rubbed together sparks were produced from the tertiary current I am anxious to produce some [[decisive?]] evidence of the direction of the tertiary current since I now suspect that its direction is opposed to that of the secondary current and that the streaming effect is produced in the same [[manner?]] as in the case of common electricity -- may not the first discharge act like the large battery (Dr. Hares) and produce currents always in the same direction and may not the current thus [[end left column]] [[right column]] produced act on acco[[unt]] [[page folded]] of its [[smallings]] like a [[? page folded]] battery or jar and give [[page folded]] to a secondary or rat[[ther?]] [[page folded]] to a tertiary current in an oppo[[sing?] [[page folded]] direction at all small dist[[ances]] [[page folded]] or at the distances at which the coiles are placed in the experiments? ^(This supposition found to be correct) To test this make [[secondary?]] and tertiary currents [[interfere?]] [[underline]] [[/underline]] Lectures to the class have prevented any experiments until today July 11th 1838 Tried the following exp. Put a quantity of lamp oil into a glass vessel, connected [[image - of glass beaker half full of liquid with wires going from the liquid to the left and the right]] one end of a wire with the large machine of the college, the other placed above the surface of the oil. Also held in hand another wire at the same distance above the surface. When the machine was turned a depression was formed under each wire as if the oil were repelled. When the ends were plunged into the oil a violent motion was observed from each point producing currents apparently in the oil at the same time [[strikethrough]] the oil [[/strikethrough]] a film of oil was seen to be repelled up the side of the wire and then thrown off in a spray in some cases on all sides but most generally in straight lines to the sides of the glass thus -- [[end right column]] [[end page]]
[[Two columns of text, column one]] Page Innis Robert & Co.......44. Innis & Grant...........44. James & McCabe..........65 James & Flack...........65 [[Image 1 - pen sketch of vase half full of liquid with a dark wire at left dipped into liquid in vase and thin wire at right dipped into liquid in vase. Dark lines like sparks emanate from dark wire at surface of liquid in vase.]] or [[Image 2 - three thin vertical lines with three horizontal or diagonal lines emanating off either side of the collective verticals near the bottom.]] These phenomena indicate a great [[strikethrough]]attraction[[/strikethrough]] [[insertion below strikethrough]]repulsion[[/insertion]] between the particle of the oil when electrified and also between the wire and the oil and this takes place even when these bodies act as the plus and minus pole and illustrate the fact that a [[strikethrough]]body[[/strikethrough]] the particles of a body are mutually repellant even when conducting a stream of electricity _ The vase containing the oil was nex partially filled with water [[strikethrough]] [[&]] [[/strikethrough]] [[^]]so that[[/^]] a stratum of oil about 3/4 of an inch deep covered the water The + [[positive]] pole was then plunged through the oil (and insulated from it by a fass tube) into the water When a wire was held over the oil a violent oscillation took place both the upper Surface[[^ indicated by underscore]]and lower[[/^]] of the oil became concave until in some cases the watter appeared through This [[illustration of vase with opposing arcing lines on surface of liquid in vase.]] appearance was probably produced by the same action as that mentioned above. The oil is a worse conductor than the water the repulsions of it are therefore more apparent. The water in the vessel in this arrangement acts as the one pole whil the wire held over it is the other and for the same reason a depression [[/column 1]] [[Column 2]] was formed under each wire a depression from each pole is here produced The whole effect is purely analogous to what takes place in the air I was induced to try this exp from reading an article in the annals de chems &. for Aug 1836 _ The dimples or depressions produced when both the wires were out of the liquid was probably produced by the repulsion of the air which became electrical and was thus affected . [[underscore denoting section break]] July 18[[superscript]]th [[/superscript]] Made some exps on the long small wire helix with the Shaker battery - Shock produced with smallest coil with thee pairs of plates with about 10 pairs sparkes The Shock quite intense but the spark very feeble. Induction with the small battery from the larger of the three Valves to the second perceptible but not intense as tested by the shock - from the 1[[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] to the 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] coil no apparent action - from the 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] to the 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] with the [[rash?]] action some what intense - [[underscore denoting section break]] [[underscore]]July[[/underscore]] 19 Arranged the coils No 2 as a primary current from one division of the battery. Coil no 1 was arranged as 2 coils one half in No 1 other half Out So as to form an arr [[illustration]] arrangement for currents of the third order The third current was induced on the [[thin ?]] ribbon coil N 3. [[/column 2]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Kevin Anobreer & Williams....27. Kipp Leonard Jesse. ..........34. Ekorne Elias & Co............69 [[line]] and its direction determined by the magnetizing spiral and needle. The needle was strongly magnetized but its [[underlined]] direction was contrary [[/underlined]] to that of the battery current - The experiment was repeated several times with the same result, and from the degree of magnetism exhibited by the needle, no doubt could be entertained relative to the direction. I had before concluded, from the analogy of common electricity and the imperfect indication of the 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] Exp May 7 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]], that the direction of the 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] current is the same as that of the 1[[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] and 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] but from this it plainly appears that my first opinion was not correct. This correction is very important, since it gives a clue to the interference or [[streaming?]] effect. It would appear from this, that the wave of electricity in the secondary currents produces and effect similar to that of common electricity- at a verry small distance probably, the current changes its [[strikethrough]] distance [[/strikethrough]] direction and thus acts in opposition to the current from the battery. It appears that the intensity of this action diminishes very rapidly, since when the middle part of the third coil was placed [[image - pen sketch showing coil]] within the [[2?]][[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] one no magnetism was produced but when the flat part of the 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] coil [[rested?]] on [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] the flat part of the 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] coil then a [[strikethrough]] shock [[/strikethrough]] magnetism was produced - and yet from Exp 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] May 29 it would appear that the
action extends to some considerable distance this however may only be of sufficient intensity to produce shock by means of the long helix Try the third current with the 1 apparatus of tin foil in spirals[?] within and without Try Interference of currents of 2 different orders 3 Try Interference of magnetic Iron in one coil July 20 [[superscript]]th [[/superscript]] Exp on the interference of currents of different orders 1 Arranged Coil no 1 for the 1 [[superscript]]st [[/superscript]] or battery current put on this coil no 3, under it coil No 4; attempted to pass them through long helix No 2, but the electricity was not sufficiently intense. 2 Joined the two currents to Coil no 2 [[image - two coils with joining wires]] When the currents passed in the same direction the shock was quite intense when the ends of the ribbons were crossed then there was no action Complete interference of two currents from the same source [[blank space on page]] The more wave [?] sent through a wire by induction also produces a current by induction in an other wire and hence it must also be under the same influence. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[begin table - two columns]] [[column 1]] [...........................] Page M[?]ine Jones [?]..............3. Morgan O'Henry.................19. Mc[?]. Gregor. John & Alexander.28. Mc. Gregor. John.................39. Ma[?]. Jonnes[?]...............40. Mawalt[?]. John Jun[ior?]......70. Maber. Peter & Simeon..........74. Mc. Cabe [?] Thomas,...........73. Mc. Gorshoen[?] & Williams.....80.[?] Mc. Queen Robert...............18. [[end column 1]] [[begin column 2]] [...........................] Page Lawrence. John................20. Logan Sheldon. Esq. Y.........51. Lands. T......................59. [[end column 2]] [[end table]] Exp. 2nd. Sent the [[^]]secondary[[/^]] current from the large helix which was inclosed in coil "2 through the fu[?] app[?], with [[small diagram in left margin]] a spiral of tin foil on the outside, and in magnetized needle, not very intensely by markedly found the direction of the tertiary current the same as that of the primary[.] Hence the action of the secondary current is pracicly [?] the same as that of a discharge of common electricity and with the experiment of yesterday shows that there is a neutral noise[?] & that the current changes its direction. Repeated this exp. on the 21st July with the same result needle fee[?] ([?]) Exp. 3rd The interferance with magnetism. Placed coil No. 2 in connection with that batter; helix No. 1 within this, and helix No. 2 within this [?]. Shocks of course could be obtained from the 2nd helix when the ends of Helix No. 1 were not joined. When [[strikethrough]]the new[?][[/strikethrough]] several pieces of iron were placed in, the shock was more intense -- When the ends of helix No. 2 were joined, the streaming[?] influence was produced but not to such a degree as to [[strikethrough]]des[[/strikethrough]] neutralize all action a higher shock could be felt. but when the iron was in this shock was much greater. [[end page]]
July 20 1838 The screening effect did take place when the iron was placed within the helix, but the action was not as intense as when the screening arrangement was made. --------- Exp 4 on screening Performed one of the original Exp [[hand-drawn diagram]] cut plate into the [[form in the figure?]] - drew out current - found its direction the same as that of the original current. -- This Exp was devised in the first stage of the inquiry -- [[note in margin]] Catching in current from the plate --------- Exp 5 attached lon[[g]] helix to the ends of the spindle of the magneto elec machine[[?]] with the armature on for sparkes[[?]]. The 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] helix was placed within the first and arranged for shocks, no perceptible effect, but when the ribbon coil No 1 was substituted for the long helix then 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] currents were produced - Hence the same induction action takes place, between a neutral wire, and a current of magneto electricity, as between the currents of the same kind from the galvanic battery - The current under these circumstances may be called the tertiary current, since the current from the magneto electrical machine[[?]] is itself a current of induction. [[note in margin]] Secondary currents from magneto elect. ---------- Exp 6 Made a needle magnetic by the induced current from magneto electricity but the direction of the induced current was not determined by it on account of the precaution not being taken of guarding against the effect of attenuations [[end page]] [[start page]] [[begin table]] [........................]Page Northup & Galaspie.............21 Noirice[[?]] Eliphelet,........22 Notes Reviseable[[?]],.........58. Northrop Isaac....... ........63 [[end table]] Try the following exp. Put large iron into large ribbon coil and above this, placed several [[hand-drawn diagram]] plates of lead to screen the action of the lower coil. By this [[strikethrough]]we[[/strikethrough]] means, we can [[?]] the magnetic effects from the galvanic, and thus study the two seperately -- July 21[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] Tried the above Exp without Success. no shock could be obtained from the [[strikethrough]]wire[[/strikethrough]] iron with the above arrange[[strikethrough]]arrange[[/strikethrough]]ment It is however probable that the intensity of action of the iron was not sufficient to give a shock Exp 2nd Arranged third helix with rod of iron inside [[hand-drawn diagram]] put magnets in connection with each end, so as to form a magneto electrical current. A scroll of copper ribbon was then interposed between the spiral and the iron, but the same action was exhibited at the galvanometer as before. No screening[[?]] could be observed, perhaps the action was due to the ends of the iron and these were [not?] covered by the copper. [[note in margin]] May 12[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1839 See Exp of this date This exp. illustrates the importance of Regersting[[registering?]] all the facts observed within[[?]], in accordance or not with previous results since - I now find that there is a remarkable difference in the action of this arrangement and the other cases of screening. -------------- Exp 3 Placed plate of Zinc between coil No 2[[? smudged]] n[[?]] 2 needle [[?]] slightly[[?]] magnetice[[?]] withdrew Zinc. needle strongly magnetic, screening only partial, as [[?]]al action in the same direction with the battery current Repeated Exp of [[J C Henry?]] between 2 & 3 and current [[end page]]
July 21st by means of the shock not perfect but quite perceptible by means of the Lime plate [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 4 Arranged the coiles and helices so as to produce a shock at a distance with the [[strikethrough]]th[[/strikethrough]] tertiary current - distance constantly increased shock continually decreases in intensity - at the distance of about a foot the effect appears to suddenly cease - no effect was observed beyond - In another current shock 18 inches [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 5 Repeated the Exp of day before yesterday on the direction of the tertiary found it is an adverse direction so that of the 2nd and primary current The magnetism was at first very strong where the two spirals were near each other, it gradually decreased and at the distance of about 6 inches [[?]] disappeared. [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 6 [[hand-drawn diagram]] Placed compound helix [[strikethrough]]is[[/strikethrough]] (that is first and second) around the end of the large hollow electro magnet The same screening effect was produced but not quite as [[?]] as in the case of the coils [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 7 Stree[[e overwritten as t to correct misspelling]]tched two wires each 130 feet long parallel to [[strikethrough]]each[[/strikethrough]] each other and almost in contact through [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] such [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] secondary current through one reduced current in the contrary direction The distance of the wires in this Exp may be considered as the diameter of one of them [[?]] strongly magnetic [[end page]] [[start page]] [[start table of names and page numbers]] [[.............................]]Page Puk[[?]] H. Henry.................8 Pierson George....................62 Phelps Olivia Esqr................66 [[end table]] July 25th My attention today was directed to the[[?]] singular case of of capillary attraction a lead tube was soldered at one end to the plate of a galvanic battery and the other which was several inches higher was plunged into a cup of mercury. The metal was seen on the plate of the battery having passed apparently through the tube like water through a syphon [[open bracket]] [made arrangements to investigate this] [[close bracket]] [[score across page denoting section break]] July 26th 1838 Exp 1 [[hand-drawn diagram]] Arranged 4 posts and on these placed a thick wire about 2 feet or 2 1/2 [[^]]high[[/^]] [[strikethrough]][[illegible]][[/strikethrough]] in the form of a parallelogram. Then sent a shock from the battery of 12 jars through the thick wire - a long wire, which was wound several times (5 times) around the posts and [[strikethrough]]the[[/strikethrough]] a magnetizing[[?]] formed of one part of it [[strikethrough]]The shock[[/strikethrough]] [[?]] the lateral action - The needle was constantly magnetized in an adverse direction to that of the current. - [[strikethrough]]Jos. Aug[[best guess]][[/strikethrough]] [[^below struck text]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] the rope of wire [[?]] [[open bracket]] [which was covered] [[close bracket]] [[?]] was constantly elevated. The action still continued until the rope was at the distance of about 2 1/2 feet from the lower wire; this was the limit of altitude yet tried. [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 2 Instead of the rope of many strands a single wire was next placed in its stead - The small magnetizer [[or magnetized?]] helix was used with the same discharge as [[unidentified symbol or notation?]] quantity the needle was magnetized so as to indicate an inverse current to the [[?]] on a current in the same direction as the battery current NB the rope was not removed during the experiments with the single wire and probably its presence had some influence on the result -- This is a very puzzling result. The magnetizing helices were nearly of the same diameter [[strikethrough]]and[[/strikethrough]] but of the same size of wire - It was at first thought that the result might be due to the difference in [[?]] of these helices The one however was substituted [[?]] for the other with still the same result [[note written along inside margin beside last paragraph]] See page 146 2nd Book [[end page]]
[[start table of names and page numbers in different hand]] [[.............................]]Page Risley Daniel....................12 Roosevelt James..................25 Ruby [[?]].......................45 Ri[[?]]..........................53 Richards John....................21. Runkin [[?]].....................20. [[end table]] Exp 3 Several spheres of the rope separated to the distance of about an inch from each other 1 needle in wrapped end which is nex the battery needle highly mags direction [[strikethrough]]N[[/strikethrough]] current [[underscore]]reverse[[/underscore]] 2 slightly mag. N " [[ditto current]] reverse 3 strand slightly more [[?]] no magnectism[[?]] 4 magnetism very slight if any [[small score denoting section break]] Exp 4 Put helix on single wire which is in the midst of the strands of the other 1 needle mag N slightly current adverse 2 small shock strongly N current adverse 3 small shock 10[[degree symbol]] strong N -- adverse 4 Removed the rope strand with [[strikethrough]]all[[/strikethrough]] its end to the distance of 2 feet upwards magnetism strong [[insertion]][[subscript]]^[[/subscript]]S[[/insertion]] current in the direction of battery current [[score across page denoting section break]] Exp 5 5 Rope of wires brought down to the same place needle [[underscore]]slight[[/strikethrough]] mag N = current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] 6 Same as above discharge strong no magnetism perceptible - 7 same as above charge feeble[[?]] mag N current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] 8 Arrangt same as above except ends of the wire open no magnetism NB The rope was stil above [[end page]] [[start page]] [[start table of names and page numbers in different hand]] [[...............................]]Page Stevens Barret G. [[?]]............29. Shap. Robert & John................31. Stereat[[?]] Alexanders Ville......67 Shanse[[?]]. John, [[long dash]] 31. Swank John,........................74 [[end table]] arrangement the same as the last mag N- current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[long dash]] distance feeble mag [[underscore]] [[?]] [[/underscore]] [[underscore denoting section break]] Exp 5 Rope [[best guess]]shoved up[[/best guess]] charge [[underscore]]small[[/underscore]] [[underscore]]1[[/underscore]] needle mag strong So[[underscore]]uth[[/underscore]] current [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 2 Rope down mag not quite as strong S. current direct discharge feeble 3 change still less mag N - [[space]] reverse 3 change still smaller (30 turns) N [[space]] reverse 4 change still less (20 turns) N [[space and faint score]] reverse 5 change smaller (10 turns) N [[space]] reverse [[indented]]stronger - 6 same as before (10 turns (no magnet. . rope circuit shut 7 same except rope open mag N - [[space]] reverse [[underscore denoting section break]] Ex 6 Rope [[best guess]]put up[[/best guess]] small change 1 mag feeble S - current [[space]] direct 2 same longer [[larger?]] charge mag strong south - -- direct It is evident from the above expt that the mere proximity of the the [[repeated word]] rope coil changes the direction of the current in the single wire -- and that the intensity of the magnetism is stronger with the same small charge when thus[[?]] reversed then when direct [[end page]]
[[start table of names and page numbers in a different hand]] [..................................]Page Tomlinson David,....................11. Thomson John.........................5. Ten Eyck Abram & Co.................43 Taylor John.........................46 Trotter Matthew.....................71 [[end table]] Exp 7 1 The single wire removed, the rope used alone at the distance of 9 inches with strong charge, no magnetism or very feebly N. - [[underscore]]reverse[[/underscore]] 2 with very feeble charge mag stronger -- N - [[space]] [[underscore]]reverse[[/underscore]] [[underscore denoting section break]] Exp 8 1 Same arrangement, excet rope brought down - in contact with conducting wire [[underscore]]no magnetism[[/underscore]] strong charge - [[0 ?]] - 2 Small charge 10 [[times?]] strong N. [[space]] current -- reverse It would appear from all these experiments that [[strikethrough]]the[[/strikethrough]] several [[spires ?]] of the compound wire act on each other so as in some way to reverse the current. - A feeble current is more easily reversed than an [[strikethrough]]la[[/strikethrough]] intense one The following conclusions are deducible 1 With a single wire and the battery - the current is in the same direction as the battery current 2 With the [[strikethrough]]strand[[/strikethrough]] rope of wire the current is in the opposite direction; more feeble with large current 3 The proximity of the rope to the single wire inverts the current - when the rope has its strands together 4 the single wire indicates a current in the same direction, and the intensity constantly increases with the intensity of the charge 5 no so the inverse current 6 when the rope has its end joined no magnetism or very feeble one [[end page]] [[start page]] [[start table of names and page numbers in a different hand]] [..................................]Page Van [[DeReyden ?]] David...........16 [[Vogal ?]] Charles T. & Co.........32. Van Horn James.......................7. Vedder..............................73 [[end table]] [[strikethrough]]9[[/strikethrough]] [[underscore]]Exp[[/underscore]] 9 Sent charge from battery through coil current in 2[[supercript]]nd[[/superscript]] coil with fluss [[interposed ?]] in the [[strikethrough]] [[reverse?]] [[/strikethrough]] adverse direction. This agrees with the [[experiments?]] on the long wires. Put plate between with cut in current still adverse - Exp [[1st]] July 27 [[score to page edge indicating section break]] 1 Coil as in the last exp., except second coil interposed with the ends open, [[strikethrough]]char[[/strikethrough]] charge feeble, current still in the [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] direction 2 Placed a single turn of wire around the coil, magnetism [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] 3 Stretched out the two coils used [[in left margin]][[underscore]]NB[[/underscore]] in Exp 1, into two parallel ribbons magnetism in the same [[underscore]]direction[[/underscore]] [ [[score across page indicating section break]] 2 Exp 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] [[Illustration: four vertical lines arranged at corners of a parallelogram (i.e. rectangle); four sets of four lines at horizontal intervals apparently represent wires strung around the perimeter formed by the four verticals]] Put the rope wire with the strands separate around the great [[nut?]] sent through this the battery current caught the induced current first on the lower wire - found it - [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 1 Again put small single wire above caught the current on this, found it as before [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] 2 The current (battery) was sent through the thck bottom wire & the discharge caught on the compound wire and at [[^]]two[[/^]] different parts of the circuit; the current was [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] in bothe case [[end page]]
[[start table of names and page numbers in different hand]] Page Wright Calvin,.......................13 Wendill. Robert.....................23 White Brothers & Co.................35. Websters C. R. & George.............37. Warren Henry & John.................49 Woodhull & Smith....................41 Woodhull & Kipp.....................42 Welch Dudley & Co...................64. Websters & Shinner..................37. Weed Smith and Son..................55. [[end table]] July 27th 1828 Passed current through the small wire - received induction as before on the compound wire middle strand, magnetism pretty strong N - current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[in margin]]NB[[]] as the small wire is a worse conductor then the large wire, a larger charge was required to produce the same degree of magnetism, when the small wire was the conductor From these exp. it appears that 1st The compound rope wire acts like a sing[[l]]e wire, in inducing a current on an other wire 2 a thin wire produces the same kind of induction as a thick wire 3 When the compound wire is the receiver then a small charge produces the greater magnetic effect. [[score across page indicating section break]] Ex, 3rd Arranged the strands of the compound wire on each side of the single wire. Sent the discharge 1 through the latter - current at first slightly [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] 2 no magnetism [[underscore]]stronger[[/underscore]] charge [[space]] [[underscore]] 0 [[/underscore]] 3 charge feeble magn. with marked [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug. 1st [[underscore]]1838[[/underscore]] [[3-D Illustration: (Label: "4 strands of wire") written above diagram consisting of four vertical lines arranged to form parallelogram (i.e. rectangle). Two sets of four lines drawn to connect each vertical around the perimeter of the parallelogram (as though wires strung around four posts) (Label: "7.7" written in space between forward-left and rear-left verticals = depth) (Label: "23.9" written in space between forward-left and forward-right vertical = width)]] Enlarged the frame of the reel to as to make the whole current about 120 feet - 1st put compound wire above where the current was broken in one place, the needle put in an other, became powerfully [[^]][[underscore]] directly [[/underscore]][[/^]] magnetic This effect must have been produced by the elect cutting [[across ?]]. for when the strands were seperated, no effect was produced -- 2nd strand united and in one continued circuit - very litle magnetism but in [[underscore]] contrary [[/underscore]] direction -- 3 Seperated the wires again; ie removed the [[?]] [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] about a foot from each other. the needle magnetic, but in [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] manner. 4 again not quite so much seperated current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] 5 The wires were placed together, so as to form again the rope - very little or no magnetism. [[word circled]]Avg[[/word circled]] 60 degrees[[symbol]] very strong charge 6 Again the same as above but the charge weak magnetism decided current adverse -- The ends of the rope were [[grasped?]], shock [[word circled]] [[recur ?]] [[/word circled]] -- spark very brilliant and of a pecular appearance -- N.B. Current was attempted to be found in direction by the decomposition of the iodide of pottash but without effect [[end page]]
[[entry in different hand]] [[......................]]Page Young George..............72 [[end entry in different hand]] [[notation along left page margin]] In all these experiments the single wire gave a current direct [[end notation]] August the 1st continued Removed the rope, wire [[strikethrough]] [[which]] [[/strikethrough]] substituted for it, long gauge [[strikethrough]] wire [[/strikethrough]] ribbon - charge about 35 degrees[[symbol]] distance one foot, current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] [[score indicating section break]] Repeated the same, elect [[30]] degrees[[symbol]] same result -- [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] [[score indicating section break]] Repeated the same, except distance increased to 2 feet - elect 30 degrees[[symbol]] magnetism feeble, direct Repeated the same, excep elect 60 degrees[[symbol]] magnetism very feeble current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] Elevated the ribbon about a foot higher, [[no agrieling?]] in the same direction, but feeble - elect 30 degrees[[symbol]] direct Again the same as above - elect 60 - no current, or very feeble, opposite direction [[space]] 0 ---- Again the same arrangement - elect 70 magnetism descided [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] raised the ribbon to the height of 5 feet, elect 30 degrees[[symbol]] -- magnetism descided, current [[space]] [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] The same arrangement, elect 60 degrees[[symbol]] magnetism stronger, current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] again the same, different sized, needle, elect 30, mag stronger cur Direct [[end page]] [[start page]] [[entry in different hand]] [[...........................]]Page Zobriskie Andrew,..............15 [[end entry in different hand]] Small wire substituted for the ribbon magnetism descided current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] Elect 30 degrees[[symbol]] Glass [[strikethrough]]coil[[/strikethrough]] ribbon brought down, ends open, Elect 30 degrees[[symbol]] -- current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] magn descided. Same arrangement, ends of flat ribbon open, magnetism feeble cur()t [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] [[score indicating section break]] Attached spiral ribbon No 1 to the end of the ribbon current, still in the same direction [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] (two expents. same result, magnetism strong.) NB Discovered that most of the expemnts had been made this afternoon with out a supply wire to the machine, consequently the charges were not as great as was indicated by the electrometer, since the battery was placed on a stool with [[fe...?]] legs -- [[score indicating section break]] Repeated the above exp with small 1 charge current [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] 2 again [[underscore]] needle [[/underscore]] direct charge [[underscore]] same [[/underscore]] 3 again charge 10 degrees[[symbol]] [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] 4 again charge 10 degrees[[symbol]] [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[indented]]strength of magnetism depends [[........]]apparently on the kind of needles [[........]]used 5 again charge about 8 degrees[[symbol]] direct [[end page]]
[[Begin ledger in different hand]] [[double underscore]] 1 [[/double underscore]] [[page header in large script]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Alexander [[double score across page begins scoring of page for ledger entries]] [[page scored vertically to create 7 columns -- columns are not labeled -- will denote as C1, C2, C3, etc.]] [[C1}1800 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[C2]] 16 [[C3]] To. Sundries, as pr Waste Book...... [[C4]] 46 [[C5]] 2658 [[C6]] 10 [[C7]] 8 [[new line]] [[C3]] To a [[Band guin ?]] up. ditto [[Waste Book above - same column]]..... [[C4]] 46 [[C5]] 500 [[C6]] 0 [[C7]] - [[0]] [[new line]] [[C1]] 1801 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] [[C2]] 1 [[C3]] To. Ballence in favor of A. Alexander.... [[C4]] [[C5]] [[underscore]]16267 [[C6]] 7 [[C7]] 8[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[C5]] £19425 [[C6]] 18 [[C7]] 4 [[double score runs diagonally across C3+C4 from bottom of line 5 to underneath total above in C5-C7]] [[double score runs horizontally across C3-C7]] [[C2]] " [[appears before joint of scores above]] [[C3]] To. Sundris, as p[[superscript]]r[[superscript]] Waste Book.... [[C4]] 47 [[C5]] 877 [[C6]] 3 [[C7]] 9 [[new line]] [[C3]] To Ballence in favor of A. Alexander.... [[C4]] [[squiggly line]] [[C5]] 15390 [[C6]] 3 [[C7]] 7 [[score across C5-C7 denoting total to follow]] [[new line]] [[C5]] £16267 [[C6]] 7 [[C7]] 4 [[double score runs horizontally across C3-C7]] [[C1]] 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] [[C2]] 1 [[C3]] To Sundry Debts as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book,..... [[C4]] 61 [[C5]] 2001 [[C6]] 15 [[C7]] 7 [[new line]] [[C3]] To Ballence in favor of A. Alexander.... [[C4]] [[squiggly line]] [[C5]] 15090 [[C6]] 7 [[C7]] 1 [[score across C5-C7 denoting total to follow]] [[new line]] [[C5]] £17092 [[C6]] 2 [[C7]] 8 [[double score runs diagonally across C3+C4 from bottom of line 5 to underneath total above in C5-C7]] [[double score across C3-C7]] [[Begin Joseph Henry journal entries]] [[notation - in left-hand margin - written sideways]] Ribbon at the distance of a foot in all these exp., coil attached [[end notation]] [[overwritten]] ch [[/overwritten]] [[underscore]] Augt 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] 1838 [[/underscore]] Charge the battery very long 6 7 8 10 &c all [[gave?]] the curent magnetism strong [[space]] direct again charge 40° mag feeble current -- [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Same with a short needle charge the same (40°) mag strong current [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] Again with short needle charge 40° (strong) direct [[score indicating section break]] Wire closed which was around in the same plane with the ribbon mag slight Elec 10° [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[brace in left margin]] Again Elect -- 5° [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] mag slight Again Elect 40° mag tolerably strong [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Begin ledger in different hand]] [[page header in large script]] Alexander C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double score across page begins scoring of page for ledger entries]] [[page scored vertically to create 7 columns -- columns are not labeled -- will denote as C1, C2, C3, etc.]] [[C1]] 1800 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[C2]] 18 [[C3]] By Lands. as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book...... [[C4]] 43. [[C5]] 8912 [[C6]] 10 [[C7]] - [[0]] [[new line]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 18]] [[C3]] By, Bonds, " [[ditto per]] ditto, [[Waste Book]]....... [[C4]] 44 [[C5]] 5098 [[C6]] 7 [[C7]] 4 [[new line]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 18]] [[C3]] By Notes. " [[ditto per]] ditto, [[Waste Book]]....... [[C4]] 45 [[C5]] 1165 [[C6]] 12 [[C7]] 5 [[new line]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 18]] [[C3]] By, Lands, " [[ditto per]] ditto, [[Waste Book]]....... [[C4]] 45 [[C5]] 260 [[C6]] 0 [[C7]] - [[0]] [[new line]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 18]] [[C3]] By, Sundris " [[ditto per]] ditto, [[Waste Book]]....... [[C4]] 46 [[C5]] 1037 [[C6]] 3 [[C7]] 9 [[new line]] [[C2]] 31 [[C3]] By, ditto [[under "Sundris"]], " [[ditto per]] ditto, [[Waste Book]] [[C4]] 47 [[C5]] [[underscore]]2952 [[C6]] 4 [[C7]] 10[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[C4]] [[Large script "L" with cross-hatch, possibly British Pound symbol]] [[C5]] [[double underscore]]£19425 [[C6]] 18 [[C7]] 4[[/double underscore]] [[new line]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 31]] [[double score across C3-C7]] [[C2]] " [[ditto 31]] [[C3]] By Ballence, in favor of A. Alexander...... [[C4]] ..... [[C5]] [[double underscore]]£16267 [[C6]] 7 [[C7]] 4[[/double underscore]] [[new line]] [[double score runs diagonally across C3+C4 from bottom of line 3 to underneath total above in C5-C7]] [[double score across C3-C7]] [[new line]] [[C1]] 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] [[C2]] 1 [[C3]] By Lands as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book [[C4]] 62 [[C5]] 9364 [[C6]] 9 [[C7]] ... [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Bonds, " [[ditto per]] " [[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] " [[ditto 62]] [[C5]] 3508 [[C6]] 17 [[C7]] 9 [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Notes, - " [[ditto per]] " [[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] 63 [[C5]] 1163 [[C6]] 6 [[C7]] 6 [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Bonds & Notes, " [[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] " [[ditto 63]] [[C5]] 185 [[C6]] 14 [[C7]] 4 [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Acc[[superscript]]ts[[/superscript]] " [[ditto Notes]] " [[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] " [[ditto 63]] [[C5]] 823 [[C6]] 10 [[C7]] 4 [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Ditto "[[ditto Notes]] "[[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] " [[ditto 63]] [[C5]] 431 [[C6]] 3 [[C7]] 3 [[new line]] [[C1-C2]] [[blank]] [[C3]] By Sundris "[[ditto Notes]] "[[ditto Waste Book]] [[C4]] 64 [[C5]] 1615 [[C6]] 1 [[C7]] 6 [[score across C5-C7 denoting total to follow]] [[new line]] [[C5]] £17090 [[C6]] 2 [[C7]] 8 [[double score across C3-C7]] [[end ledger entries]] [[Begin Joseph Henry journal entries]] [[underscore]] wire opened [[/underscore]], mag slight, Elect 8° - currand [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Again, Elect 10, mag feeble current [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Again, Elect 10, slight - [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Apparently, every condition the same as when the current was open before Again, spiraled the wire in one Spot, where it touched the ribbons, still mag slight but decidedly [[circled]] repuls [[/circled]] [[space]] or cur [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Removed the iron [[ace ?]] which held the wires in the mag helix. Same effect, Elect 10° current [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Put ribbon under coil with same charge, still [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[strikethrough]] adverse [[/strikethrough]] Brought the coil near the large wire, which t[[?]] [[its?]] the shock [[sill ?]] adverse [[end page]]
[[double underscore]] 1 [[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Mess[[superscript]] rs [[/superscript]] Douglass & [[double line across page, below which vertical rules for accounting descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 6 To Cash, as Pr. Waste Book..... | 1|| 81|16|-- To Cash, " [[Ditto for: as Pr. Waste Book]] | 8|| 100| 0|-- ________ £|| 181|16| -- [[double, partly single line across most of page]] Spark from long wire [[underscore]] very [[/underscore]] intense [[Within double lines]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] James [[the surname is on the facing page]][[end matter between double lines]] 1801 June 18 To Tobacco, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book.... |54|| 23| 7|-- [[new line]] 1802 April 19 To ditto, ditto,....|65|| 8|11| 4 June 9 To ditto, ditto, |67|| 4| 9|-- [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 20 To Interest, ditto.....|74|| 1| 2| 11 [[new line]] 1803 April 13 To a q[[superscript]]u[[/superscript]] of Cash [laine?] ditto,....|78||[[underscore]] 17|17| 6[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[double underscore]]£ 55|17| 9[[/double underscore]] [[Double lines denoting new section]] [[underscore]] Same series continued [[/underscore]] with the coil needle, but not so far in to the [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] helix, all else the same still - current - [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] magn still slight. [[line indicating insertion of sideways note in left margin]] [[handwritten note on side of page]] Septr 24[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1840 All the experiments given in the four or five pages along [[here?]], were at the time of making them, excedingly perplexing but I think they can now all be explained by the action of the spiral and the coil causing the [[median?]] or terminal current, to predominate. [[end marginal note]] Charge still 10° - wires croſsed, a spark was seen to paſs from one [[image of wires and helix] of the ribbons to the other needle, now strongly mag, current still - [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] Seperated the wires, mag same but very slight, - [[underscore]]adverse [[/underscore]] Removed the strand [[wire or more]] from Each oth, still adverse still adverse. [[end of page]] [[new page]] Lawrance C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By Tobacco, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .| 1||£181|16|-- [[double line across most of page]] [[doodle]] [[double line across most of page]] Ford C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across most of page]] 1802 April 16[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] By Cash on a/c. as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |65|| 10| 0|-- [[new line]] By a Cask Tobacco Returned . . |70|| 4| 9|-- [[new line]] 1803 March 24 By Shingles " " . .|77|| 6| 4|-- [[new line]] April 9 By Cash " " . .|78|| 4| 0|-- [[new line]] 13 By Butter " " . .|78|| 1| 5| 4 [[new line]] May 2 By Shingles " " . .|78|| 3|15|-- [[new line]] 10 By ditto & Butter " . .|79|| 8| 4| 3 [[new line]] 14 By ditto " . .|79|| 4|10|-- [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 31 By Cash, " . .|81|| 4| 0|-- [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 26 By Sundris " " . .|82||[[underscore]] 9|10| 2[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £ 55 | 7 | 9 [[double line across most of page]] [[written on the double line:]] Series with the coil[[end written on line]] Opened the circuit so as to remove the coil out of the influence of the wires, charge 10°, [[strikeout]]current[[/strikeout]] [[above the strikeout]]Mag[[end above]] feeble, doubtful, current still - [underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[image: drawing of circuit with features]] Elect 40°, mag strong, current + [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] [[new line]] Elect 20°, mag feeble current + direct [[new line]] Elect 10° current tolerably + direct strong -- Elect 20°, mag feeble, current - - + direct [[end page]]
[[underscore]]2[[/underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John [[the surname is at the top of the right-hand page, below]] [[double line across page; vertical ruling beneath this double line separated the page into columns for what appear to be the date, quantity, item description, another figure perhaps for a volume number, and three more for money in pounds shillings and pence]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 To Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . | 1|| 87| 7| 7 [[new line]] To Cash " . . | 8|| [underscore]] 50| 0|..[[/underscore]] £137| 7| 7 [[line across page as division; beneath the item description it is a double line]] [[underscore]] Series with the coil [[/underscore]]continued apparatus arranged as before 1 Elect, again at 40° mag feeble Current - [[underline]]adverse[[/underline]] 2 Elect at 60° Strong mag, Current -[[underline]]adverse[[/underline]] ---- New series, same arrangemt, Elect 3°, - mag strong Current + [[underline]]direct[[/underline]] [[smear]]m[[/smear]]Elect 5°, mag strong Current + [[underline]]direct[[/underline]] Elect 8, mag still strong, Current + [[underline]]direct[[/underline]] Elect [[next figure (10) is written over (5) or more likely (15)]] 10°, mag little stronger Current + [[underline]]direct[[/underline]] Elect 15°, mag not quite as strong, [[indent]] +[[underline]]direct[[/underline]] Elect 18°, mag about same, Current + direct Elect 25°, about same Current + direct Elect 30 little weaker, Current + direct Elect 33 [[possibly 35, second digit overwritten]], mag about same, Current + direct Elect 40 mag weaker Current + direct [[end page]] [[new page]] Agnew C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[^]]William[[/^]] [[double line across page; beneath, vertical ruling as on facing page]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By Tobacco, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . | 1||£137| 7| 7 [[line across page, doubled under the item description column]] Elect 45°, mag About same, or little strong Current + direct Elect [[50 written over what appears to be 60]] 50°, mag [[strikethrough]] feeble [[/strikethrough]] weaker, current + direct [[underscore]] Elect 60 [[degrees]], mag: stronger [[/underscore]] + [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] [[line across the page]] Again - ExCt 5°, - mag weak current + direct Elect 20, - mag stronger current + direct Elect 40°, mag Strong current + direct [[line across the page]] Coil removed, wire remng the Same, Elect 15° - no magnetism 0 Current --- [[underscore]]0[[/underscore]] [[underscore pointing to note in margin]] [[insertion of note in margin -- written sideways]] Probably caused by [[strikethrough]] mag [[/strikethrough]] ribbon near circuit. [[/insertion of note in margin]] Again Same, current the Same [[underscore]]0[[/underscore]] Again Elect 5°, - magnetism feeble, but [[descr al? (could this possibly be "discerned"?]], current --- - [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] Same Elect 20° Mag [[___ed?]], but feeble, current --- + [[underscore]] [[written over "adverse"]] direct [[/underscore]] Same, Elect 5°, mag feeble, current direct + direct Same, Elect 20, verry feeble current + direct [[end page]]
[[underscore]]3[[/underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] James [[double line across page beneath which are column divisions for accounting]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 To Sundries, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[note: on this, preceding, and succeeding pages this is 19th century version of the much earlier so-called fishtail letter P which denotes the Latin word "per" and is occasionally to be read "pro"]] Waste Book...1||128|0|.. 1799 April 20 To Cash an a/c......[[the following ditto is supposed to be under the word Book, as are those in the next two lines]]"...9||266|8|.. July 18 To ditto, ".."....."...11||450|16|2 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To "...ditto."....."...25||[[underscore]]482|10|7[[/underscore]] [[flush right]][[British Pound Sign]] 1327|14|9 [[double line across page]] 1800 March 29 To Cash in full,,.....,,......30||[[British Pound Symbol]]80| 0|.. Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book...39||100|0|.. [[blank space under month]] 27 To a note. ,,[[this is the first of a series of ditto marks under the word "Waste" in the preceding line]] ditto... ..||465|0|.. Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 To Cash, " ditto...41||102|12|2 1801 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 9 To Cash, " ditto...47||180|0|- April 3 To Cash.. " .. ditto...48||60|0|- May 16 To Cash & [[Trust? or: Fusr?]] ,..ditto...50|[[underscore]]|121|0|-[[/underscore]] [[British Pound Symbol]]||1028|12|2 [double line across page]] 1807 June 20 To Sundres, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]], Waste Book,...103||391|0|1 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] ditto,...114||84|0|- To Ball. due this day $1417.66/100... -||[[underscore]]554|8|8[[/underscore]] [[flush right]] 1029|8|9 [[double line across page]] 1808 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 8 To Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, ... 116||82|0|- Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 11 To Cash by J. [[Watten? could also be Walton]],...119||80|0|- Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]23 To Sundries,...120||190|0|- 1809 March 3 To Cash P[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] him by Boyd & [[Stans? or Storm? or Horn?]] as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Receipt.-||42|11|4 June 12 To Order on Henry H Beekman for Ball. in full -||[[underscore]]159|9|4[[/underscore]] [[flush right]]554|8|8 [[double line across page]] Same arrangement, shock through the [[word circled]] [[new? nem? nan?]], from the ribbon very severe But no spark at 5 [[degrees]]- [[line across page]] Is it not possible that the [[direct?]] induction may have some effect in producing the direct discharge. Thus [[illustration of upturned wide U shape with + at the right end and a sideways - at the left end]] both ends give a current, [[illustration of an unjoined oval - opening like a gateway at middle of bottom - with arrows pointing down on left and right outsides]] but the one next the + end, or near the jar, will be the stronger and thus produce a current in the same direction, but this will not account for the current in the adverse direction, although it will serve to explain some of the results obtained before Thus when the [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] ribbon was seperated from the [[xocre?]] at the first side, the effect was very small [[end page]] [[start page]] Menning & Co. [[double line across page with vertical ruling below for accounting]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By Merchandize as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . . 1||840|18|9 99 April .. By, ditto . . [[this ditto mark is under Pr]]" . . [[this ditto mark is under Book]]" . . 11|462|9|.. Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29. By Interest, . . " . . " . . . 25|| [[underscore]]24|7|..[[underscore]] [[flush right]][[British pound symbol]]1327|14| 9 [[double line across page]] .. By my note on demand for $200, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . 25|[[British pound symbol]]80|0|.. [[double line across page]] 1800 April 1 By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoie Book A Page 18 . . . ..|1000|15|2 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 By Sundris, " Waste Book .. . . .41|[[underscore]]27|17|..[[/underscore]] [[flush right]][[British pound sign]]1028|12| 2 [[flush left]][[British pound sign]][[underscore and overbar]]1028.12.2[[/underscore and overbar]] [[double line across page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 By Sundies as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book, . . 41||605|13|.. 1807 June 17 By ditto, ... ditto .. . 55||404|17|.. Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 By Interest to this day, . . . . ..||[[underscore]] 18|18|9[[/underscore]] [[flush right]]1029|8| 9 [[double line across page]] By Ball. due for which I gave my Notes, ..|[[double underscore]]554| 8| 8[[/double underscore]] [[double line across page]] [[illus. in left margin in two sections, upper one rough square with a figure inside its upper right corner; the other section another rough square next to about lines 4 to 7 of this part of the text with letters d on left and c on right, and what may be a coil interrupting middle of the bottom line and the letter f]] Made a new [[strikethrough]]arrang[[/strikethrough]] arrangement Thus large current of large wire as before small wiere arranged as [[underscore the two letters separately]] c d [[/underscoring]] need c at f with the whole battery, the magnetism was feebly + at the distance of 1 1/2 feet With 2 Jars it was - and when the wires were separated to the distance of 2 1/2 feet the needle became strongly - adverse, but one of the jars broke in the discharge. Repeat this Exp, put spiral at [[separately underscored]]d c[[end underscoring]] and also at f. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 4 D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John [[double line across page, accounting vertical column rules beneath]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 To Cash as pr. Waste Book . . . 1|| 36|16|- 1799 April 20 To Cash on a/c . " . . . 9||221|14| 5 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 5 To Cash " . " . . . 14| 60| 0| - Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To Cash in full, to Ball. . . . |25||[[underscore]]949| 4| - £1267|14| 5 [[double line across page] 1800 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 17 To a Draft, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . . 38||[[underscore]]£528| 0| - Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 To S [[entry on this line seems to be rubbed out]] [[double line across page]] 1801 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book |57|| 480| 0| - Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 25 To Cash in full. . . "[[that ditto mark is beneath the word "Book" in preceding line]] . . .58||[[underscore]] 67| 1| 7[[/underscore]] 547| 1| 7 [[double line across page]] 1802 April 5 To Cash by HB [[or HR]] [[Teller?]], " . .|65|| 80| 0| - Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 9 To a Draft as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |69||131| 4|.. [[double line across page]] Sepbr 13 To Cash in a letter 70 20 0 - 231 4 - 1804 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . . |87||[[double underscore]]405| 4| -[[/underscoring]] [[double line across page]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 To N[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] proceeds of 15 Bb[[superscript]]s[[/superscript]] Beef, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book |87|| 28| 5| 10 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 7 To Cash, as pr Waste Book, . . |98|| [[underscore]]100|19| 5[[/underscore]] 129| 5| 3 [[double line across page]] [[underscore]]Aug. 3[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript /underscore]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Gilston, C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]. [[double line across page, from which vertical rules for accounting descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By, Merchandize as pr. Waste Book. . . | 1||419| 6| 1 99. April ~ By ditto..".."[[these ditto marks are under "pr." and "Book"]]. . . |11||819| 8| 4 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By Interest a/c. . " . " . . ||25|[[underscore]] 29| 0| ~[[/underscore]] £1267|14| 5 [[double line across most of the page]] 1800 April 1 By. Goods as pr Invoice Book A page 19. . .|19||373| 3| 2 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 By Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . .|41||[[underscore]]154|16|10[[/underscore]] £528,0,~ [[double line across most of the page]] 1801 May 15 By Merchandize as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A Pages 28 & 29. . .|~||[[double underscore]]547| 1| 7[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1802 [[the 1802 is written over 1801]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 30.. |..||226| 6| 5 By a wantng in money Sent him ... |65|| 2| 0|.. 1802 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 13 By Interest due, . . . |..| [[underscore]] 2|17| 4 231| 4| 0 [[double line across most of page]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice, . . .|71|356|19|~ 13 By wine. ditto. . "[[the " is under Pr]] . .|72||[[underscore]] 48| 5| ~[[/underscore]] 405| 4|.. [[double line across most of page]] 1804 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . .|87||[[double underscore]]129| 5| 3[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 22 By my note in 30 days for $160. . .|..|| 64| 0| - [[drawing of an apparently hollow object with the left end open]] [[end of page]]
[[underlined]] 5 [[/underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] John [[double line across page, from which descend vertical rules for accounting]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 29[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] To Cash in full as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|25||£133|10| 8 [[double line across most of page]] 1800 June 20 To Cash, as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |34|| 20| 0| .. Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 20 To. Sundres pr. M. Trotter, " . . .|40||220| 0| .. Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 To ditto p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Jno. Wotton " . . .|40|| 50| 0| .. Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 To ditto, as pr. Riceipt, " . . .|41||266| 0| .. 1801 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 9 To a Draft, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book " . . .|47||182| 0| .. May 16 To Sundeis. . . " . . " . [[Ditto for: As per Waste Book]] |50||[[underscore]] 28| 5| 2[[/underscore]] £756| 5| 2 [[double line across most of page]] To an Error as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. " . . |52|| 1|13| 2 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 16 To Cash " " . . .|56| 12| 0 | .. Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 25 To Cash " " [[Ditto for: As per Waste Book]] . . .|58|165|15| 1 1802 March 9 To ditto " " [[Ditto for: As per Waste Book]] . . .|65|[[underscore]] 40| 0| .. [[/underscore]] £219| 8| 3 [[double line across most of page]] 1804 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 7 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . . .|87||[[double underscore]]310| 0| 7[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 To Cash in full, . . .|98| 10|19| .. [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 18 To Cash On Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste-Book, . .|102| 24| 0| .. Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 To Cash . ditto, . . ditto, [[Ditto for: As per Waste Book]] |115| 80| 0| .. To Ball. due this day, . . |..|[[double underscore]]433| 7|11[[/double underscore]] 537| 7|11 [[double line across most of page]] 1808 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as Pr. Waste Book . .|120| 80| 0| .. 1809 June 13 To ditto . . ditto, [[Ditto for: As per Waste Book]] . .|..| 40| 0| .. Aug 3[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript]] [[underscore]]continued[[/underscore]] Exp 1 To test the idea of yesterday relative to the [[chem?]] which the extra particle might have in determining the [[strikeout]] charges in [[/strikeout]] current - commenced experimng with the apparatus described before [[image: drawing of object shaped something like a tube with a large bulge in the middle, and vertical lines dividing it into sections]] The jar was placed on glass [[strikeout]] jar [[/strikeout]] stand. Charge sometimes + and sometimes minus on inside The following was the result Jar - [[<
[[underlined]] 6 [[/underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Mess[[superscript]] rs [[/superscript]] John B Clute [[double line across page from which vertical rules for accounting columns descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 6 To Tobacco as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .| 1 | [[underlined]] 360 | 1 | 6 [[/underlined]] £ [[double underlined]] 360 | 1 | 6 [[/double underlined]] [[two diagonal lines through blank part of page]] Repeated the Experiment with screening put plate of Zinc between needle not mag - Plate removed needle Mag + [[double line across much of page]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Alexander Ja[[superscript]] s [[/superscript]] [[double line across much of page]] 1800 Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . | 39 || 40 | 0 | .. Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 To Cash in full. . ,, . . | 41 || [[underlined]] 10 | 7 | 6 [[/double underlined]] £ 50| 7| 6 [[double line across most of page]] [[underlined]] Exp 3 [[/underlined]] I opened the rope wire at one spot, the distances of wires about one inch, needle strongly magnetic in the [[double underlined]] direct [[/double underlined]] [[underlined]] current [[/underlined]]. This looks like the action of a [[circled]] fore [[/circled]] at right angles to the wire which acting on the wires thus, would produce a current in one or the other direction. [[image - drawing of wires connected as explained in the experiment with arrows indicating current]] Thus suppose the intensity of action was not the same throught the whole wire, but gradually decreased towards the negative pole. Suppose at the end ≠ the intensity of action (repulsion), is 3a [[strikethrough]] than [[/strikethrough]], at the point g.2a, at [[underlined]] h [[/underlined]] it will be nothing, and this will determn two Currents, one each way towards [[underlined]] h [[/underlined]], but one of these, that from f will be the stronger, and thus a current will be produced in the direction of [[left margin ]] Repeat this Exp [[/marginal note]] [[end page]] [[start page]] & John M[[superscript]] c [[/superscript]] Micheal Jun[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line, partly filled, across the page, from which descend rules creating columns for accounting]] 1799 Jan[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 14 By Cash as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book C. . .| 6 || 16 | 0 | .. " 28 By ditto, . . ." . . .| 7|| 79| 6| 6 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 9 By ditto, " .. " . . .|11|| 20| 0| .. March 23 By ditto " .. " . . .| 8|| 69| 6| .. April 8 By ditto " .. " . . .| 8|| 28| 8|10 May 9 By Sundris " .. " . . .|10||104|10|6½ July 10 By Cash " .. " . . .|11|| 40| 0 | .. 29 By Cash " .. " . . .|13||[[underscore]] 16| 0| ..[[/underscore]] 353|11|10½ 1800 Mach 17 By Ball. due. |30||[[underscore]] 6| 9| 7½[[/underscore]] £360| 1| 6 [[line sometimes double across most of page]] attempted this afternoon the exp of Provost with a frog. An iron needle was first heated red hot then thurst into the thy of the Frog, iron filings were next heated red hot to deprive them of magnetism - the result was watched with an eye glass, but no magnetic effect could be observed, I was assisted by Dr Allison of Philadelphia Hamelton C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double, then single line across most of page]] 1800 March 31 By Goods, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 17. . .|..||£ [[underscore]]50| 7| 6[[/underscore]] Dr Allison showed me the heart of a Fish (cat Fish) which pulsated several hours after being removed from the body [[double line across much of page]] of [[underscore]]f[[/underscore]], [[underscore]]h[[/underscore]] or in the adverse direction to the primary current The currents of galvanism may possibly be produced by a similar action. [[underscore]]Aug 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1838[[/underscore]] Repeated the expermnt on screening with the coils, and common electricity with the same results as at first [[left margin]] Exp 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] [[/left margin]] 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] Put Zinc plate [[strikeout]][[?]][[/strikeout]] between, then took out plate - needle magnetized in the 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] case, not in the first; several times repeated the expernts. [[line across page]] [[left margin]] Exp 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] [[end left margin note]] Put lead plate between caught current, [[drawing, pie with missing slice showing a coil]] current [[underscore]] contrary [[/underscore]], tolerably strong with one jar; no mistake about this.
[[double underscore]]7[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Henry [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 7 To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .| 1||142| 6| 2 [[new line]] .. 31 To ditto " " | 5| ..|16| .. [[new line]] 99 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 10 To Interest " " . .|14|| 1|16| 7 [[new line]] May 1 To Interest" " |..| 2|17| 3 [[new line]] 1801 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 To Sundris " " . .|57||[[underscore]] 8|14| 9[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 156|10| 9 [[double line across most of page]] To Ballence [[following 5 words are written over an erasure]] due See Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] on file . .|..| 8|18| 8 [[new line]] 1803 March 5 To Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book ..|77|| 1|16|-- [[new line]] 1805 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 To a Draft, " " . .|93|| 32| 7| 9 [[new line]] 1806 Mach 7 To Sundris " . " . .|95||[[underscore]] 42| 0|--[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 84| 2| 5 [[double line across most of page]] To Ballence brought from the other Led[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]|..|| 1| 1| 6 Exp 3 Experimented again with the rope wire [[image, like side view of topless box above a square. Bottom square has an object along its left side labeled "break" and another object centered along its base labeled: "Charge / 60°"]] 3 jars distance one foot [[brace along left side of the lines that start with "1" "2" and "3"]] 1 [[underscore]]open[[/underscore]] current strong [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 2 3 jars d[[damaged portion]] 3 feet [[underscore]]open[[/underscore]] strong 3, 3 jars dist 3 feet shut slight direct adverse [[circled word:]]probuln [[brace; at its point is:]] 40° [[text embraced:]] 9 jars dist 3 feet open no current [[underscore]]0[[/underscore]] 9 jars charge litle highe shut [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 60° 3 jars 3 feet [[underscore]]open[[/underscore]] strong - [[written over "adverse":]] direct 60° 3 jars 3 feet [[underscore]]shut[[/underscore]] slight adverse 60 3 jars 3 feet open strong [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Corl Jun[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which descend accounting column rules]] 1799 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 18 By Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . | 7|| 42| 0|.. [[new line]] May 9 By ditto, . ." . .| 9| 40| 0|.. [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By ditto. . " . .|25|| 22| 0|.. [[new line]] 1801 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 By Cash . ." . |57|| 48| 0|.. [[new line]] By Ballence due A. A. . .|..||[[underscore]] 4|10| 9[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 156|10| 9 [[double line across most of page]] 1805 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 13 By my note given up, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |93|| 30| 0|.. [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] By Merchandize, . ." . ." .|94|| 14| 3| 7 [[new line]] 1807 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 12 By a Draft Returned " . " . |98|| 38|17| 4 [[new line]] By Ballence due A. Alexander . .|..|[[underscore]] 1| 1| 6[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 84| 2| 5 [[double line across most of page]] Changed the position of the coil, so that the opening and the cylender woud be on the opposite side of the parallelograms [[image: open-topped rectangle above a square. Square has a coil (curly line) centered along its top edge; and two small objects along its right side, labeled: opng]] 3 jars mag strong dist. one foot open, current [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 3 jars, curent shut, dist same, mag feeble [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[line across the page]] [[underscore]] Oct 15[[the 5 is written over a numeral not recognized]] [[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1838[[/underscore]] [[image to left, somewhat like a gallows for two]] [[sideways marginal note with an arrow pointing at the image]] In these Exp 4 jars were used -[[end margin note]] Arranged two coiles, one from the thick wire 50 feet long - other cotton covered long wire, each coil about 4 feet diameter the one [[figure like a Greek lower case mid-word sigma]], the small wire a little larger perhaps 4½ feet -- Passed shock through the large wire coil several times in succession, with the coils at different distances [[end page]]
[[double underscore]]8[[/double underscore]] [[header]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Henery [[header]] [[log]] [[first column]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[second column]] 7 [[third column]] To Sundies as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book........... [[fourth column]] 1 [[fifth column]] £40 [[sixth column]] 10 [[seventh column]] 4 [[double line across most of page]] [[new line]] [[first column]]Octob[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[second column]] 1 [[third column]] To his Bond & Judgment to Alexander & Tomlinson} [[new line]] as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] in this Note Book............} [[fifth column]] £105 [[sixth column]] 10 [[seventh column]] 10 [[double line across most of page]] from 2 or 3 inches to 15 inches in all cases current [[underline]]adverse[[/underline]] When the circuit of the [[creening?]] coil, was closed by the [[hands?]], the discharge through the other by induction gave no shock-- [[underline]]2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]][[/underline]] Passed the charge through the small long wire now the [[strikethrough]]ele[[/strikethrough]] magnetism of the needle was more intense and still [[underline]]adverse[[/underline]] 3rd [[image- two hanging coils]] Sent charge through the long thin coil [[received?]] from the thick wire spiral at [[underline]]a[[/underline]] current [[underline]]adverse[[/underline]] 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Next added another long piece of wire so as to make a break for the spiral as [[underline]]b[[/underline]] current still tolerably strong Adverse [[end page]] [[begin page]] H. Peek, C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 By Cash & Furs as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book,. . . | 4||£ 40|10| 4 [[double line across most of page]] " 31 By Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .| 5|| 12| 0|.. [[new line]] July 22 By ditto, . " . " . .|11|| 4| 0|.. [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 16 By, do. . " . " . .|14|| 6|17|.. [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By a payment from T Shannon . .|16|| 6|18|.. [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By Cash from Jo. Shurtliff Esq[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] . . .|17|| 5|16|.. [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 4 By Beef, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|25|| 1|12|.. [[new line]] 1800 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 22 By Cash, " . " . .|29|| 2| 0|.. [[new line]] March 17 By ditto " . " . . |30|| 2| 0|.. [[new line]] April 16 By Pork. " . " . .|32|| 2| 4|.. [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 29 By Cash," . " . .|37|| 6| 0|.. [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 By Sundris " . " . .|40|| 9|10|.. [[new line]] 1801 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 9 By ditto " . " . .|58||[[underscore]] 46|13|10 [[new line]] £105|10|10 [[double line across most of page]] Ex 5[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] (Same figure as the last) - opened the long wires at [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]] Spiral at [[underscore]]b[[/underscore]] no magnetism - In this exp care [[underscore]]was taken to put the needle[[/underscore]] in the [[underscore]]Spiral after the battery was charged[[/underscore]] as I discovered that in charging the battery soars were given off by induction from the outer coating which passing through the air to the receiving coil might magnetize the needle and in some of the previous experiments have related the results - Repeated the same with the same [[underscore]]effect[[/underscore]] Repeated the same with a small charge same effect no magnetism ---- Exp 6 Shut the circuit at [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]] [[mag?]] needle magnetic as at first magnetism adverse ---- [[underscore]]N B[[/underscore]] In these experiments the conductor from the machine did not come in contact with the knob of the Jars. [[marginal note to left of the notes on the 5th experiment:]] 4 jars strongly magnetized in this the charge was sent through the thin wire [[end page]]
[[double underscore]]9[[/double underscore]] [title] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Eliud [double line across page] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 To Sundies as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . | 2|| 5|18|.. [[new line]] 19 To Woolen Check, . . " . | 4||[[underscore]] 3|10|.. [[new line]] £ 9| 8|.. [[double line across most of page]] Exp. 7[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Opened the coil at [[underscore]]6[[/underscore]] same figure helix as before - no magnetism ------ It appears therfore from these experiments with two coils that [[mostly double line across most of page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Mes [[superscript]]rs[[/superscript]] Fonda & [[double line across most of page]] 1800 July 22 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . . |36||£ 12| 2|.. [[double line across most of page]] 1801 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 25 To Cash in full, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|58||[[double underscore]] 30|16|10 [[double line across most of page]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 To Ginseng as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|59| 16| 0|-- [[new line]] 1803 To an Error in this Bill as Noted, . .|71|| ..|16| 6 [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 31 To a payment by M. Tutter, . .|82|| 17|19|.. [[new line]] 1807 -- [[the dash is a ditto]] 4 To a note - as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|109||[[underscore]] 44| 0|--[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 78|15| 6 [[double line across most of page]] 1808 June 10 To L. Wumis Note for $90 36/100 to Collect.|117|| 36| 2|11 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 16 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Receipt, $36. 77/100, .|119|| 14|14| 2 [[new line]] 1809 To Ballece from Old Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]]. . |..|| 5|10| 3 [[new line]] March To Ball. due F. & W. . |..||[[underscore]] 58| 1| 3[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[double underscore]]114| 8| 7 [[double line across most of page]] June 20 To Cash, aspr Waste Book . .|121|| 22| 0|.. the results are always definite and the current adverse - [[brace, beside which is:]] N B [[text next to the brace]] The long thin wire made 13 turns the thick wire 4 turns) | [[end of the text beside brace]] It must be recollected that in these experiments care was taken to guard against the [[end page]] [[begin page]] Davice C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 14 By Cash in full as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .| 7|| £9| 8|.. [[new line]] £9..8..0 [[with wavy rules above and below that money amount]] [[double line across most of page]] Winne C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across much of page]] 1800 June 24 By Looking Glasses as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book page 21.|..|| £12| 2|.. [[double line across most of page]] 1801 May 15 By Crockery, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 28. .|..|| 13| 3| 2 [[new line]] June [[blank]] By, ditto, P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John Lawrence. . .|54|[[underscore]] 17|13| 8[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 30|16|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1802 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 9 By Crockery as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Bill, . .|71|| 16| 9| 6 [[new line]] 1803 June 8 BY ditto, ditto . .|80|| 17| 2| 6 [[new line]] 1806 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 4 By ditto, as pr Invoice Book . .|43|| 22|19| 3 [[new line]] 1807 May 11 By ditto, . ditto [[the second "ditto" is below the middle of the words "Invoice Book" in the line above]] . .|47|| 16|14|-- [[new line]] By Ball. ovr-paid. . |--||[[underscore]] 5|10| 3[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 78|15| 6 [[double line across most of page]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 1 By Crockery as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Bill . .|74|| 28| 5|-- [[new line]] 1808 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 11 By Looking Glasses, .. ditto . .|80|| 3|11|-- [[new line]] Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 18 By debt, Assumed, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |116|| 16| 0|-- [[new line]] By Crockery the 20[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] last. . .|..|| 19| 7| 6 [[new line]] June 7 By ditto, to [[H?]] Weed. . .|..|| 5|19| 7 [[new line]] 1809 By L Wemiss Note Return'd . .|..|| 36| 2|11 [[new line]] March 1 By Int[[superscript]]s[[/superscript]] an Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] to this day, . .|..||[[underscore]] 5| 2| 7[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 114| 8| 7 [[double line across most of page]] " By Ballnce due, as Pr. their Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] Rendred|..|| 58| 1| 3 effect of free electricity, by puting the ^[[end of the]] conductor, which led from the machine at the distance of an inch, from the knob of the battery, [[strikeout]] so that there might the [[/strikeout; the "the" at end may be written over "be"]] it would be charged by sparkes, and thus there be
[[double underline]] 10 [[/double underline]] Dr James & William [[begin ledger entries; seven columns]] 1798 Decr | 11 | To Sundris, as per Waste Book | 2 || 8 | 7 | ~ " [[ditto for: Decr]] | 24 | To Tea " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 4 || 7 | 0 | ~ 1799 April | 8 | To Gun powder " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 8 || 6 | 5 | ~ May | 4 | To Linceed Oil " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 9 || 10 | 17 | ~ July | 22 | To Cash " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 11 || 28 | 0 | ~ Augt | 22 | To 1 [[?]]h° Rum " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 14 || 38 | 12 | ~ Octbr | 3 | To Sundris " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 15 || 1 | 9 | 9 [[blank]] | 9 | To an Order an M. Trotter " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | ~ || 213 | 2 | 6 [[blank]] | 14 | To Tobacco " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | ~ || 53 | 13 | 11 [[blank]] | 17 | To Him order per W. Glastr. " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 16 || 8 | 3 | ~ [[blank]] | 29 | To Fox Skins " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | ~ || 6 | 6 | ~ Novr | 29 | To order paid I. Manning " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 25 || 60 | 0 | ~ 1800 April | 16 | To Sundris " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 32 || 18 | 19 | 11 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[in columns 5-7]] £ 460 | 16 | 2 1/2 [[double score across columns 2-7; except single underscore across column 6]] ~ [[ditto for April]] | 23 | By Ballence due this day as per a/c Tendered | ~ || £ 2 | 0 | ~ [[2 double-score dividing lines across columns 3-7]] 1801 April | 17 | To [[Flairs ?]] as per Waste Book " | 49 || 15 | 13 | -- July | 7 | To Oil as per Waste Book " | 55 || 3 | 14 | 5 Octbr | 30 | To Cash in full " | 57 || 3 | 18 | 7 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[in columns 5-7]] £ 23 | 6 | ~ [[2 double-score dividing lines across columns 3-7]] [[end ledger entries]] Oct 16th continued but a small excess of electricity on the one side or that there might be but little free electricity in the discharge which might interfere with the result - Besides, in these experiments the spirals were insulated which might also tend to give more constant results. I should have before mentioned that the magnetism was generally the stronger when the battery charge was sent through the long wires and the resulting action received by the shorter one. [[end page]] [[start page]] Anderson Cr [[begin ledger entries; seven columns]] 1798 Decr. | 12 | By [[Capries ?]] as per Waste Book [[C ?]] | 2 || - | 6 | 10 1/2 99 Jany | 14 | By Cash " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 6 || 1 | 4 | ~ March | 16 | By Gin " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 8 || 10 | 0 | ~ July | 15 | By Paint & Oil " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 10 || - | 16 | 10 Octbr | 3 | By a/c Tendered " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 15 || 287 | 9 | 9 [[blank]] | 9 | By Cash " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | ~ || 80 | 0 | ~ Decr | 19 | By ditto [[ditto for: Cash]] " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 28 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 29 | By ditto [[ditto for: Cash]] " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 29 || 16 | 0 | ~ 1800 April | 10 | By Sundris " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 32 || 16 | 18 | 9 [[blank]] | 23 | By Ball. due this day | -- || 2 | 0 | - [[score across columns 5-7]] [[in columns 5-7]] £ 460 | 16 | 2 1/2 [[2 double-score dividing lines across columns 3-7]] 1800 June | 18 | By Sundris as per Waste Book | 34 || - | 10 | 6 [[blank]] | 30 | By Order Accepted " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] [[jo ?]] | 35 || 1 | 4 | ~ July | 22 | By Sundris " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] [[jo ?]] | 36 || - | 6 | 6 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[in columns 5-7]] £ 2 | 0 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7; except single score across column 6]] 1801 May | 4 | By Sundris as per Waste Book | 50 || 5 | 14 | 5 ~ [[ditto for: May]] | 28 | By ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 51 || 6 | 4 | ~ June | 26 | By Indigo " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 54 || 5 | 11 | ~ July | 7 | By [[thin ?]] a/c " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 55 || 5 | 16 | 7 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[2 double-score dividing lines across columns 3-7]] [[image]] Exp 8th Oct 16th Took down the the large thick wire spiral and suspended in the centre of the long cotton wire spiral the helix of ribbons No. 2 sent charge through long wire, [[strikethrough]] [[smudged]] [[/strikethrough]] ^[[received]] the [[strikethrough]] result [[/strikethrough]] ^[[action]] on ribbon coil in centre magnetism feeble but [[underlined]] adverse. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] 4 Jars as before [[/underlined]] Reported the same magnetism feeble but adverse. [[broken dividing line across page]] Exp 9 [[image]] Placed the flat helix near the side of the coil, magnetism stronger, still adverse with smaller shock magnetism about the same such and [[underlined]]a[[/underlined]]adverse Reversed the coil, mag reversed
[[double underscore]]11[[/double underscore]] [[heading]]D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] David[[heading]] [[log]] [[column]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 To Sundris as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .| 3|| 3| 4|-- [[new line]] " 24 To Jillice Van Vants note . . | 4|| 4|18|-- [[new line]] April 8 To Sundris . . .| 8||[[underscore]] 40| 4| 2[[/underscore]] [[new line - columns 5-7]] [[underscore]] 48| 6| 2[[/underscore]] £ [[double line across most of page]] 1803 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 16 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |81|| 40| 0|-- [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 22 To Sundris . " . .|82||[[underscore]] 51| 9| 5 [[/underscore]] [[new line - columns 5-7]] 91| 9| 5 Oct 16th continued [[double line]] [[image 1" oval shape with horizontal bisecting line through a smaller 1/4" oval just left of center]] Ex 10[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] The same arrangement as before, except that the smaller coil was now placed with its plane at right angles to the plane of the larger one, now no magnetism appeared - [[single line]] [[image double walled 1" tall oval with a horizontal bisecting line which has an inverted and curved "V" starting at its center and curving down left and right to the inner line of the double walled oval]] Exp 11[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Substituted again for the ribbon the large circle of thick wire, which was used in the 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] &c Exp of today magnetism [[underline]] Strong [[/underline]] Current still [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] The magnetizing spiral was placed in the above experiment in the middle to eliminate every cause of action on account of the ends of the wire, the coil was turned around the wertical axis. the effect was still the same, namely the current [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Tomlinson C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 By Sundris, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .| 2|| 8| 9|-- [[new line]] " 24 By Jillice Van Vant's Note . . | 4|| ..|10| 6 [[new line]] " 31 By Jo[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] P. Trux Note, . . | 5|| ..|17| 3 [[new line]] " " By Gun Powder as pr. Waste Book, . .|..|| 22|10|-- [[new line]] 99 Jan[[superscript]]y[[superscript]] 2 By A/C paid P. V. Sleyck, . . .|..|| 1|12|-- [[new line]] 5 By Dact[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] W. Adams a/c, . . .| 6|| 6| 2| 4 [[new line]] March 1 By Goods, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . | 7|| 3| 4|-- [[new line]] April 8 By Sundris . . . .|| 8||[[double underscore]] 5| 1| 1 [[new line]] £ 48| 6| 2 [[double line across most of page]] 1801 July 25 By my note, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . .|81||[[underscore]] 91| 9| 5[[/underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] Exp 12[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[image: standing oval with heavy outer wall and thin inner wall. The bottom apex of the inner wall is looped at each end. Above these joined loops is the letter 'a'.]] Placed inside of the long coil used before a single circle of wire open at for the insertion of the hilix. The magnetism in this case was tolerably strong ---- current [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] Reversed the inner ring, so that the side which in the last exp was turned to the East, is now turned to the West Very strong adverse When the discharge was made, a spark was seen to paſs between the knobs of the battery, and the near end of the conductor; thinking that possibly the free electricity thus communicated might have some effect, the battery was removed beyond the striking distance but the result was still the same. Magnetism strong Current Adverse. [[Sideways notation in left margin]] Sept 24[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1840 This expernt is a little at variance with my supposition, thus a single wire gives a direct current; the discrepancy how may be due to the kind of magnetiz spiral used
[[double underlined]] 12 [[/underlined]] Dr David 1798 Dec |11|To Sundris as fr. Waste Book, 6..........|2||250|7|2 99 Jany |29|To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] ... " [[ditto for: as fr. Waste Book, 6]] ...|7||119|18|~ Feby |15|To Axis... " [[ditto for: as fr. Waste Book, 6]]...|7||2|17|-- May |8|To Sundris... " [[ditto for: as fr. Waste Book, 6]]...|9||170|10|2 July |29|To a note of hand " [[ditto for: as fr. Waste Book, 6]]...|13||34|4|~ |"[[ditto for: 29]]|To Interest on do [[ditto for: note of hand]] ...... |" [[ditto for: 13]]||-|14|2 Octbr |2|To ditto "[[dittos for: Interest on note of hand]]......|15||2|9|8 | | | ||£581|0|2 [[double line across page]] 1801 June |18| To Tobacco as fr Waste Book.....|54||7|7|~ [[double line across page]] Oct 15th [[underlined]] continued [[/underlined]] [[image - large ring suspended in a frame on a desk]] Next arranged two single rings of covered wire, each about or nearly 4 feet in diameter With a small charge the magnetism was tolerably strong and in the direct direction. [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] With a large charge, the current was in the same direction but very feeble. Again with a strong charge, magnetism the same but very feeble direct Again with a small discharge the magnetism was strong and possibly the elect did not make the whole circuit, and went back small distance as there was a [[lack?]] [[?]] to the [[underlined]] adverse [[/underlined]] wire again with small charge adverse again with small charge [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] with large charge NB appeared to touch direct - small charge [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Risley Cr 1799 March|8|By Sunidris as fr. Waste Book ......|8||1|18|~ April|18|By an order on Mr Trotter, ."[[ditto for: As fr. Waste Book]]....|8||30|0|~ May |13|By Cash ..."[[ditto for: Mr. Trotter]]..."[[ditto for: fr Waste Book]] ...|10||42|0|~ July |18|By ditto [[ditto for: Cash]]..."[[ditto for: Mr Trotter]]..."[[ditto for: fr Waste Book]]....|11||248|0|~ "[[ditto for: July]] |29|By a payment.."[[ditto for: on Mr Trotter]]..."[[ditto for: fr Waste Book]]....|13||24|0|~ Octbr|2|By a Draft on Mr Trotter... "[[ditto for: fr Waste Book]]...|15||213|2|6 1800 March|4|By Sundris, "[[ditto for: on Mr Trotter]] ..."[[ditto for: fr Waste Book]]....|30||21|19|8 [[horizontal line indicating total sum]] | | | ||£581|0|2 [[double horizontal line]] | |By my order paid......|70||7|7|~ [[double horizontal line]] It would appear from the exp of today that in all cases with a double current, the current is [[underlined]] adverse [[/underlined]] but with a single wire, as the conductor of the discharge, the induced current at the same distance is direct. It is possible that the cutting across may have some influence on the last results, since the wires were separated by corks. To test this properly, it will be necessary to pass the wire carrying the discharge through glass tubes. {Try the effect of a single wire for the discharge and a compound one for the induction. [[image - a pentagon hanging on a frame]]
[[double underscore]] 13 [[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]] [[underline]]r[[/underline]] [[/superscript]] Calvin [[double line across page from which rules for 7 accounting columns descend]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 12 | To Sundris as p[[superscript]]r [[/superscript]] Waste Book C . .| 3||163| 7|10 [[new line]] ~ |28| To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] ..| 5|| 75| 0| 7½ [[new line]] 99 Feb [[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] | 1 | To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] ..| 7|| 37| 8| 4 [[new line]] ~ |8| To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] | ~ | 4| 2| 5 [[new line]] May | 6 | To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] ..| 9||1| 8| 6 [[new line]] Nov [[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 6 | To Interest " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] . .|16|| 7 |11| 6 [[new line]] 1800 May | 24 | To Cash " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] ... " [[ditto for: C]] . .|34|| 12| 0|~ [[new line]] 1801 March | 2 | To Cash " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] ..|48|| 1| 4| ~ [[new line]] | | To 10 Cashers Tobacco . " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book C]] . .|48|| 71| 3| 4 [[new line]] April | 7 | | To Sundris " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] .. | 49 || 22| 7| 1 [[new line]] | | To Cash " [[ditto for: P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . " [[ditto for: C]] ..|49||111|19| 9 [[Single line columns 5 to 7]] [[new line]] [[totals for col. 5,6,7]] 508| 3| 7½ [[double line across col. 3 through 7]] 1801 Mach | 2 | To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book " [[ditto for: C]] . .|48|| 1| 4|~ [[new line]] | | To [[1 ocashes ?]] Tobacco, " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|49|| 71| 3| 4 [[new line]] April | 7 | To Sundris " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|49|| 22|17| 1 [[new line]] May | 27 | To Sundris " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|50||620|19| 2½ [[new line]] June | 28 | To Sundris " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|55|| 93|16|~ [[new line]] July | 28 | To Sundris " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|55|| 63|19|~ [[new line]] Sept [[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 19 | To Cash, " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|56|| 40|10|~ [[new line]] | 24 | To Glass " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|57|| 27|10|~ [[new line]] Octb [[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] | 23 | To Cash " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|57|| 20| 0|~ [[new line]] Nov [[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 14 | To ditto [[Ditto for: To Cash]] " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|58|| 22| 8|~ [[new line]] Dec [[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 8 | To Sundris " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|60||312|10| 8 [[new line]] 1802 Jan [[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] | 21 | To ditto " [[ditto for: Sundris]] " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|64|| 21|18| 8 [[new line]] June | 8 | To ditto " [[ditto for: Sundris]] "[[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|67|| 121 | 5| 5 [[new line]] | 20 | To ditto " [[ditto for: Sundris]] " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|67|| 53 |10| 6 [[new line]] July | 26 | To Glass " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] " [[ditto for: C]] . .|68|| 22 |15| 6[[Single line columns 5 thru 7]] [[new line]] [[for totals columns 5, 6, 7]] ||1516| 7| 4½ [[double line columns 3 thru 7]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 3 | To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |69||460|17|11½ [[new line]] | 16 | To Furrs " [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|69|| 48| 3|~ [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 2 | To Cash [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|70|| 28| 0|~ [[new line]] | 11 | To ditto [[ditto for: Cash.]] "[[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|70|| 8| 0|~ [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 4 | To Cash " [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|71||200| 0|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 23 | To an Error " [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|74|| 4|12|~ [[new line]] 1803 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] | 14 | To Cash " [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book]] . .|75|| 1 | 11 | 1 1/2 [[Single line columns 5,6,7]] [[new line]] [[For total columns 5, 6,7]] 751| 4| 1 [[double line column]][[Single Line column 4]][[double line columns 5 thru 7]] [[new line]] 1804 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 19 | To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|89|| 1| 3|~ [[new line]] 1806 May |28| To Bond to John [Glover or Glouex?], . .|95||134| 8|~ [[new line]] 1807 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] |12| To Sundris as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |98|| 2| 0| 8 [[new line]] March |14| To Ball, Settled this day . .|~||274| 8| 4 | [[Single line columns 5 thru 7]] [[new line]] [[For total columns 5,6,7]] 412| 0|~ [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Wright C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting 7 columns descend]] 1799 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] |2 [[superscript]]d[[/superscript]]| By Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book C . .| 7|| 12| 0|~ [[new line]] March |30| By Sundris, " ditto [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]]] " [[ditto for: Waste Book C]] . .|ditto, . .| 8|| 30| 7| 9 [[new line]] April |18| By ditto . " . " . .[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] | 9|| 74|14|10 [[new line]] May |6| By ditto . " . " . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] | 9|| 30| 5| 5 [[new line]] July |15| By ditto " . " . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] |10|| 16| 0|~ [[new line]] November |6| By ditto "."." . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] |16||125|11| 5½ [[new line]] 1800 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] |24| By ditto " . " . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] |29|| 80| 0|~ [[new line]] March |13| By ditto . " . " . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] |30|| 28| 0|~ [[new line]] April |18| By ditto . " . " . ..[ditto for: Sundris as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book C] |32|| 16| 0|~ [[new line]] | | By Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] of Cash, Tobacco & Pork. . .|~||95| 4| 5| [[single line columns 5 thru 7]] [[new line]] [[For total columns 5,6,7]] 508| 3| 7½ [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] 1801 May |20| By Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |50|| 2| 0|~ [[new line]] | | By Sundies " ditto, . . ..[ditto for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book] |64|| 49|15|~ [[new line]] June |1| By Cash . " ditto, . ...[ditto for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book] |66|| 11| 6|~ [[new line]] 1802 June | | By Goods " ditto . ...[ditto for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book] | 67|| 5| 15| 6 [[new line]] | | By Sundies as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] . . | 69|| 1183| 4| 11 [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |3| By Ballence due A. Alexander . .|~|| 264| 6| 11 | [[Single line columns 5,6,7]] [[new line]] [[For total columns 5,6,7]] 1516| 7| 4½ [[double line beneath columns 5,6 7]] [[double line diagonally across the columns 4 thru 3 (right to left, across approximately the space for 6 lines)]] [[new line]] | | Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] Brought . . .|~|| 1516| 7| 4½ [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] 1802 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |11| By a Bale Racoons Returned " . ....[" for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book]| 70|| 48| 3|~ [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |24| By Cash at Louoniburgh . " . . [" for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book]| | 71|| 2| 0|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |23| By Sundrys . . " . .[" for: as P[superscript]r[/superscript] Waste Book]| | 74|| 701| 1| 1| [[Single line columns 5 thru 7]] [[new line]] [[For total columns 5,6,7]] [751| 4| 1 [[double line beneath columns 5,6 7]] [[double line diagonally across the columns 4 thru 3 (right to left, across approximately the space for 6 lines)]] [[New Line]] 1804 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |19| By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|89||412| 0|~ [[double line beneath columns 5,6,7]] [[double line diagonally across the columns 4 thru 3 (right to left, across approximately the space for 4 lines)]] [[new line]] |[[erased 412]]||412| 0|~ [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] [[end page]]
[[underline]] 14 [[/underline]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Amasa & Euathan 1798 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]|14|To Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. Waste Book......|3||96|0|11 1/2 " [[ditto for: 1798 Decr]] |31|To ditto..."..." [[ditto, " for: To Sundris as pr. Waste Book]] ...|5||23|10|~ 99 Septr |28|To Interest.."..." [[Ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]]| 15||3|0|~ [[Single line across columns 5,6,7, entry for total] £122|10|11 1/2 [[double horizontal line across to separate]] 1800 April|20|To Sundris, as pr. Waste Book...|32||31|10|11 1/2 [[double diagonal line]] [[double horizontal line]] Oct 1[[6 written over]]7th [[17th]], 1838 [[image - pentagon-shaped object suspended from a frame, with arrow from words "Exp [[underline]] 1st [[/underline]] Made a pentagon of glass tubes, enclosing a copper wire; also another set of tubes enclosing a wire for receiving the induction - Passed charge from 4 jars through the conductor, the spiral placed [[at ?]] a needle strongly magnetic, current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] In this experiment there could be nothing like cutting across of the electricity [[horizontal line drawn across page connecting to other lines and forming a circle]] [[image - Sketch of bottle with sphere on top, and rod terminated with a sphere positioned horizontally next to the bottle's sphere]] In charge the battery with the large conductor, the end of the same happened to be coated with lime, accidentally put on in the white-washing of the room. When the shank passed through the white wash, the light was of a beautiful crimson [[through ?]] about 1/4 of the length of the shank. Make experiments on this with the large conductor, and different substances put on. [[end page]] [[start page]] Andrews C [[underlined superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 1799 May |13|By Cash as pr. Waste Book...|10||10|0|~ July|5|By " ditto..."..." [[ditto for: Cash as pr. Waste Book]] ...|10||20|0|~ Septr|28|By " ditto..."..." [[ditto for: Cash as pr. Waste Book]] ...||15||31|4|~ 1800 March|4|By " ditto..."..." [[ditto for: Cash as pr Waste Book]] ... |29|61|6|11 1/2 [[single line - for total]] £ 122 | 10 | 11 1/2 [[double horizontal line to separate]] 1801 July.|12|By Cash as pr. Waste Book...|48||10|0|~ May| |By ditto..."..." [[ditto for: Cash as pr. Waste Book]] ...52||16|0|~ | |By Ballance due but not collectable,... |~||5|10|11 1/2 [(Single line across columns 5,6,7)][(entry for total)]|31|10|11 1/2 [[double horizontal line across columns 3-7]] [[vertically in column 1)] Sept. 29th 1840 I regret that in these experiments I have not mentioned the kind of magnetizing spiral which was used, since probably some of the changes were induced by this. [[/vertical note in column 1]] Exp 2nd Sent very feeble charge through conductor - with the 4 jars, Magnetism feeble, current still [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] Exp 3rd Small charge with [[strikethrough]] 8 [[/strikethrough]] 9 jars, needle strongly magnetic, current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] Exp 4th Strong charge, Current strong, mags [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] 9 Jars Small charge - direct 9 Jars Large charge, elect 60° - direct 9 Jars Large charge, elect 64 [[strikethrough]° [[strikethrough], Magnet feeble, tolerably [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] 9 Jars charge elect 50°, Mag strong, current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] 4 Jars elect 64°, Mag strong, current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]]
[[double underlined]] 15 [[double underlined]] Dr Andrew [[text is entered into a preprinted table]] 1798 Decb.| 18| To Sundris as pr. Waste Book, 6 ... [[dots across page to right columns]] | 3 | 67| 5|~ 99 Jany | 14| To ditto, [[ditto for: Sundris]] "[[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]] ... | 6 | 39| 18|~ [[line across right columns to sum]] | |£ 107| 3|~ [[double line across page]] April | 15| To Cash. as pr. Waste Book ... | 14| | 12| 6 Novb | 6| To Sundris " "[[dittos for: as pr. Waste Book]] ...| 16 | 12 | 2| 6 1800 Jany | 20| To Sundris " "[[dittos for: as pr. Waste Book]] ... | 29| 1| 6|~ March | 20| To Taxes paid for House. " [[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]] ... | 30| 1| 12|~ July | 11| To Cash "[[ditto for: for House]] "[[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]] ...| 35| 11| 7|~ [[line across right columns for sum]] | |£ 27| 0|~ [[double line across page]] 1803 July | 26| To Cash as pr. Waste Book, ...| 76| 2| 5| 4 [[double line across page]] [[/text in preprinted table]] Same continued 9 Jars Elect 62° [[degree symbol]] mag strong - current [[underlined]] adverse[[/underlined]] 9 Jars Elect 60° [[degree symbol]] mag strong + current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] - 9 Jars Elect 64° [[degree symbol]] mag + current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 9 Jars Elect 62° [[degree symbol]] mag strong current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 9 Jars, Elect 60 break made in the farther end of the circuit, still mag strong + current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 9 Jars, Elect 64° [[degree symbol]] magnet feeble- current - adverse [[end page]] [[start page]] Lobriskie Cr [[text is entered into preprinted table]] 1799 Jany | 14| By Sundris as pr. Waste Book. 6 . . . [[dots across page to right columns]] | 6| 31| 9|~ May | 9| By Cash " "[[dittos for: as pr. Waste Book 6]] ... | 10| 42| 0|~ Augt | 8| By Cash. " "[[dittos for: as pr. Waste Book 6]] ... | 13| 33| 14|~ [[line across right columns for sum]] | |£ 107| 3|~ [[double line across page]] Decr | 23| By payment as pr. Waste Book ... | 29| 12| 0|~ 1800 March | 20| By. Cash of Lewis Hargharsan, for House Trust, ... | 30| 15| 0|~ [[line across right columns for sum]] | |£ 27| 0|~ [[double diagonal line across page, from right column sum to left columns, connecting double line horizontally across page]] 1803 May | 3| By Cash, as pr. Waste Book ... | 78| 2| 5| 4 [[double line across page]] [[/text is entered into preprinted table]] 9 Jars, charge 20° [[degree symbol]] magnetism feeble + current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 9 Jars, charge 40° [[degree symbol]] magnet + much stronger current [[underlined]] direct[[ /underlined]] 9 Jar charge 62° [[degree symbol]] magnetism feeble current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[circled]] 10 small + one large jars 60° [[degree symbol]] magnetism strong current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[insertion, diagonally across page]] doubtful charge may never [[?]] now [[/insertion]] 10 same, charge 42° [[degree symbol]] mag strong current direct [[/circled]] 10 Jars, charge 64° [[degree symbol]] strong mag current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 10 Jars, charge 60° [[degree symbol]] not strong [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 10 "[[dittofor: Jars charge]] 58° [[degree symbol]] stronger direct 8 Jars, 64° [[degree symbol]] strong - [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[margin, written vertically, bottom to top]] In all these exp the waves were about the mean distance of 1/2 an inch apart /margin]]
[[double underlined]] 16 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] David Van [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 To Sundies as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book C . . .| 4||126| 0| 2½ 99 Jan[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 24 To Cash & Coin, . " . .| 6| 2|16|- Feb[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 15 To a Tinder Box, . " . .| 7|| -| 2| 6 April 6 To 1 Bbl Pork, " . .| 8|| 5|18|- " [[Ditto for: April]] 18 To Sundris " " . .| 9|| 6|14|- May 6 To ditto [[Ditto for: To Sundris]] .." ." ... | 11|| 33| 5 |3 July 29 To ditto [[Ditto for: To Sundris]], . " ". .|13|| 37|10| 6 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 10 To Cash . " " . .|14|| 1| 3|- " [[Ditto for: Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] ]] 22 To Sundris " " . .|14|| 7|10|-- Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 8 To Cash " " . .|14|| 1| 4|- " [[Ditto for: Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] ]] 17 To Cash " " . .|14||2| 4|-[[two horizontal lines indicating addition]] £224| 7| 5½ [[double line across page]] .. To Ballence due Alexander Alexandes, this day |..|| 45|14| 3½ Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 4 To Sundris as pr. Waste Book, . . |26|| 47|10| 6 16 To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]], " ditto [[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]]. .|28|| 16|10|- 1800 March 14 To Cash. " ditto [[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]]. .|30|| 30| 0|- [[line indicating addition]] £139|14| 9½ [[double line across page]] May 6 To Sundris, as pr Waste Book, . .|32|| 22|11|10 June 9 To Cash . " . ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] .|34|| 1|10| 6 To Sundris " . ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . .|33|| 38|15|- July 11 To Cash " . ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . .|35|| 1|10|- Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 15 To Cash, " .ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . . |36|| 1|12|- 21 To Sundris " . ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . .|37|| 2|19|-- Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] To Cash . " . ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . .|37|| 1|12|-- 22 To Sundris " ditto [[ditto for: as pr Waste Book]] . .|38||876| 7|10 [[line indicating addition]] £946|18| 2 [[double line across page]] 23 To Ball. due as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Acc[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] Rendered, . .|..| 87|14| 3 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 To Sundris, " " . .|42|| 3| 8|-- 31 To Interest, " " . .|47|| 1| 7|- [[line indicating addition]] £ 92| 9| 3 [[double line across page]] 1801 April 6 To Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|49||684|14|10 To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " " . .|49|| 39|13| 8 May 16 To Storage &[[superscript]] c [[/superscript]] " " . .|50|| 1| 0| 6 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 16 To Sundris " " . .|56|| -|12|-- 2 To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " " . .|56|| -| 5| 6 Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 9 To ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] . " " . .|58|| 169| 2| 7 [[line indicating addition]] £895|10| 1 [[double line across page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Derheyden [[double line across page, from which descend column rules for accounting]] 1799 Jan[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 2 By Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . | 5||119|14|10 July 29 By freight of Goods " " . .|13|| 47| 8| 4 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 22 By Sundris . " " . .|14| 11|10|-- Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 7 By Ballen due A. Alexander, . .|..||45|14| 3½ [[line indicating addition]] [[underlined]] £224| 7| 5½ [[/underlined]] [[line striking through blank part of main column]] [[double line across page]] Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 4 By a Draft, as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|26||120| 0|- 1800 Mach 14 By, his Note An demand, " . .|30|| 19|14| 9½ [[line indicating addition]] [[underlined]] £139|14| 9½ [[/underlined]] [[line striking through blank part of main column]][[double line across page]] May 6 By Sundris, as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|32|| 24|12|-- Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 22 By ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] " " ditto [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|38||834|11|11 23 By Ball due this day as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] a/c Rendered, .|..|| 87|14| 3 [[line indicating addition]] [[underlined]] 946|18| 2 [[/underlined]] [[line striking through blank part of main column]] [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 25 By Sundris as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |39|| 4|16|-- Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 31 By his note, d[[superscript]] o [[/superscript]] [[ditto for: as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book " . .|47|| 87|13| 3 [[line indicating addition]] £[[double underlined]] 92| 9| 3[[/double underlined]] [[double line across page]] 1801 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 16 By the proceeds of Bearskins as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book |56|| 6| 0|- Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 9 By Sundris, as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|58||889|10| 1 [[line indicating addition]] £[[double underlined]] 895|10| 1 [[/double underlined]] [[line striking through blank part of main column]][[double line across most of page]]
[[double underscore]]17[[/double underscore]] [[Ledger header across both pages]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Thomas [[double underscore across columns]] [[page pre-scored with columns]] 1798 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]. | 20 | To Wine as per Waste Book.... | 4 || 18 | 14 | .. [[underline]] Oct 19th [[date written over, maybe 17th or 18th?]] 1838 [[/underline]] [[image - sketch of apparatus]] Arranged apparatus to determine the effect of the extra quantity for this purpose Made use of the arrangement in the figure. The large conductor was placed in connection with the out side of the jar, so as to make the extra quantity on that side - the needle was still magnetized [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] Repeated many times in succession, changed the arrangement so that [[double underscore across 3rd column]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]. James Van [[double underscore across 3rd column]] [[underscore across columns 4-6]] 1800 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 20 | To Cash on a/c as per Waste Book... | 40 || 8 | 0 | .. Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]. | 12 | To Sundris.."..."... | 40 || 8 | 16 | .. [[flush right]]₤|| 16 | 16 | .. [[double underscore across page]] 1802 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 11 | To Sundris as per Waste Book, ... | 58 || 84 | 7 | 6 [[double score across page]] the extra quantity was on the inside but the + charge was on the out side, [[slile?]] magnetism strong, current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] It would appear conclusive from these experiments, as well as from those I have made before, that the extra particle is not the cause of the magnetization of the needle [[end page]] [[start page]] Hart C[[superscript]] [[underlined]] r [[/underlined]] [[/superscript]],, 1799 March | 1st | By Cash in full as pr Waste Book... | 7 || 18 | 14 | .. [[double underscore across columns]] [[side bracket]] The following experiment would lead to the supposition that the extra quantity had some influence. Connected the large conductor with the inside of the jar so as to increase the quantity of electricity, and now the current was adverse twice in succession - Adverse Seperated the large conductor and the current was - direct This result was probably caused by the touching of the wires, a small current only passed through which gave a change in the direction. [[/side bracket]] [[double underline across columns with illegible comment]] See subsequent experiments same day - Horn C[[superscript]] [[underlined]] r [[/underlined]] [[/superscript]],, [[double underline across page]] 1800 June | 30 | By [[Tobacco?]] as pr Invoice Book page 21.. | ₤ || 16 | 16 | .. [[double underscore across columns 3 & 5-7; underscore across column 4]] 1802 April | 7 | By Sundries as pr Waste Book.. | 65 || 84 | 7 | 6 [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] Again with 20 turns [[insertion]] ^ and the large conductor not on [[/insertion]] of the main the current was + direct with twenty turns of the machine conductor on - current [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] [[written vertically]] Made with 3 jars [[/written vertically]] Again 25 turns without conductor Magnetism not [[stikethrough]] very [[/strikethrough]] strong [[indented]] direct Same number of turns with the conductor on [[underline]] direct [[/underline]]
[[double underscore]]18[[/double underscore]] [[Ledger entry header - continues on opposite page]] [[left page]]Dr. Thomas [[double underscore across both pages]] [[seven pre-scored columns]] [[Ledger entries]] [[1]]798 Dec. | 20 | To Sundries as per Waste Book,... | 4 || 134 | 17 | 2 99 [[Jan-y?]] | 2 | To ditto ..."..."... | 6 || 36 | 5 | 8 Octbr. | 29 | To Interest on a/c.."... | 16 || 8 | 0 | .. 1800 Jan'y | 3 | To ditto . . ditto "... | 29[[superscript]]-[[/superscript]] || -- | [[10? (smeared)]] | 2 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[flush right]][[British Pound symbol]] 179 | 17 | .. [[double underscore across column 3; underscore across columns 5-7]] [[end ledger entries]] Next gave about 30 turns with the conductor on now the current was still direct Repeated this experiment with various [[^]]not very small[[/^]] charges always with the same result and could not again get a[[n]] adverse current At length concluded that [[double underscore across page]] [[Ledger entry header - continues on opposite page]] [[left page]]Dr. Robet [[double underscore across columns 3 & 4]] 1807 July | 12th | To Sundries as per Waste Book... | 98 || 282 | 16 | - | | | To Cash per [[Astrander ?]] for [[ball.?]]... | .. || 37 | 4 | | [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[flush right - i.e., columns 5-7]] 320 | 0 | . [[double underscore across columns 5-7]] [[double underscore across columns 4-7]] [[end ledger entries]] in the cases of the adverse current that the main body of the [[charge ? (middle characters overwritten)]] has cut across in the discharge [[illustration: balloon shape with two tails]] To test this [[supposition?]], in which I was the more strengthened by the sound of the report which in the case of the adverse current was loud and almost like the breaking of the jars - The wires were placed across so that the main part of the discharge would not pass through the current and in this case twice in succession as adverse current was obtained [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Ledger entry header - continued from opposite page]] [[right page]]Hart & Co. Co. [[double underscore across page]] [[seven pre-scored columns]] [[Ledger entries]] 1799 Nov'r. | 19 | By Cash as per Waste Book ... | 25 || 120 | 0 | .. 1800 March | 4 | By [[Cash?]] in full..."... | 30 || 59 | 7 | .. [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 5-7]][[British Pound symbol]] 179 | 17 | .. [[diagonal double underscore across column 3 to underscore above]] [[horizontal underscore across column 3; underscore across columns 4-7]] [[end Ledger entries]] To know whether this current (adverse) was produced by the small charge which passed around the wire, - or by some other cause, a very charge was passed round and in this case an [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] current was produced twice in succession the magnetism was however feeble [[double underscore across columns 4-7]] [[Ledger entry header - continued from opposite page]] [[right page]]Mc Queen & Co. [[double underscore across columns 3-4; underscore across columns 5-7]] 1807 Feb'y | 12 | By my note as per Waste Book... | 98 || 320 | 0 | .. [[diagonal double underscore across columns 3-4; double underscore beneath amounts above across columns 5-7]] [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] [[end Ledger entries]] with about [[turn?]] [[strikethrough]] current [[/strikethrough]] magnetism feeble but decidedly [[indented]] -- current [[flush right]] [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] with 5 turns [[indented]] magn -- feeble [[indented]] current [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] NB in the above Exp the long conductor was on - with 5 turns conductor off [[indented]]magnetism little stronger [[blotted/smeared]][[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] [[^ sideways marginal note]] all made with 3 jars[[/^]] with 6 turns also [[line indicating ditto of "little stronger" above?]] [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] with [[underscore]] 7 [[/underscore]] turns seemingly no magnetism [[indented]] current nothing with [[new?]] very little magnetism if any [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]]
[[double underscore]]19[[double underscore]] [[Ledger entry header - continues on opposite page]] [[left page]]Dr. Henry B [[double underscore across page]] [[seven pre-scored columns]] [[ledger entry]] 1799 Jan'y | 5 | To Sundris as per Waste Book... | 6 || 95 | 13 | 8 1/2 [[end Ledger entry]] [[^ sideways margin note]] all made with 3 jars [[/^]] with 12 turns magnetism still increasing and now decidedly [[indented]] [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] again with 15 turns [[indented]] magnetism still feeble [[indented]] but direct with 20 turns still stronger [[indented]] direct again with 4 turns [[indented]] magnetism + [[partially underlined]] adv[[erse?]] with 6 turns slight + [[indented]] direct again with 9 turns ----- adverse [[double underscore across columns 3-4]] [[Ledger entry header - continued on opposite page]] [[left page]] Dr. Peter & Abram [[double underscore across columns 3-6]] 1806 March | 6 | To Cash as per Waste Book | 95 || 40 | 16 | -- [[double underscore across columns 5-7]] [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] 1807 June | 18 | To Cash on acct. as per Waste Book... | 103 || 16 | 0 | -- Dec'r | 10 | To..ditto...ditto... | 104 || 40 | 0 | -- 1808 Nov'r | 23 | To ditto...ditto | 120 | 40 | 0 | -- [[end Ledger entries]] with the large conductor on 4 turns [[decidedly ?]] [[" ?]] [[?]] -- [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] Again with conductor 15 turns magnet feeble [[indented]] [[?]] direct 20 turns magnetism much stronger decidedly [[flush right]] [[underscore]] direct [[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Ledger entry header - continued from opposite page]] [[right page]]Morgan Co. [[double underscore across page]] [[seven columns pre-scored]] [[ledger entry]] 1804 March | 7 | By Cash as per Waste Book... | 84 || 2 | 1 | 9 [[end Ledger entry]] From all the experiments made today it would appear that the lateral action has little or nothing to do with the phenomena, and thus at the distance at which the wires have been placed about 3/4 of an inch, [[?]] is a turn in the direction of the current with a small charge, with 3 jars from adverse to direct the change in the direction depends on the intensity of the charge. [[double underscore across columns 3-4]] [[Ledger entry header - continued from opposite page]] [[right page]] Brinkerhoff Co. [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] 1804 Nov'r | 12 | By goods as per Waste Book... | 88 || 38 | 14 | 6 | | | By Interest , ..."... | -- || 1 |1 | 6 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 5-7]] 40 | 16 | -- [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] 1806 Nov'r | 22 | By Merchandize as per Invoice... | 39 || 170 | 14 | 11 1808 Nov'r | 23 | By Int.s added... | 120 || 13 | 14 | -- [[end ledger entry]] with [[underscore]] one jar [[/underscore]] magnetism was with 4 turns [[flush right]] adverse with one jar 6 turnes [[flush right]] [[underscore]] adverse [[/underscore]] with 10 turns feeble but still [[indented]] adverse with about 20 turns the current was [[flush right]] [[strikethrough]] direct [[/strikethrough]] [[flush right]] direct
[[double underline]] 20 [[/double underline]] [[large centered]] D [[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John [[/large centered]] [[double underscore across both pages]] [[ledger with 7 pre-printed columns]] [[ledger entry]] 1799 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] | 22 | To Rum as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book C. . . . . . . | 6||£ 3| 14|~ [[/ledger entry]] [[double underscore diagonally across one row of description column]] [[double underscore separating first entry]] [[ledger entry]] 1801 Marh | 23 | To Tobacoo, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book. . . . . . | 48|| 7| 7|~ [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry]] May | 18| To Sundris, " . " [[dittos for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] ...... | 52, 53, 54 || 483| 6| 3 [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry]] July | 28| To Sundris " . . " [[dittos for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] ...... |55|| 62|13|- [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] | 16 | To Sundris " . " [[dittos for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] ........ |56|| 11| 0|- [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry]] 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]]| 1 | To Interest . " "[[dittos for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] .... | 64||[[underscore]] 2| 5| 3 [[/underscore]][[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry - blank until right hand column, where sums are totaled]] 567|11| 6[[/ledger entry]] [[Double line across page]] [[ledger entry]] | |To Ballence brought over. . . . | -|| 91| 3| 6 [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry]] June| 1 | To Sundris as P[[for]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book .... |66||[[double underscore]] 3|13|| 6 [[/ledger entry]] [[ledger entry - blank until right hand column]] £ 94|17|~ [[/ledger entry]] [[double line across page]][[in the date which follows, 18 is written over 17]] Oct 18[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[underline]] continued [[/underline]] [[Image - beam or rack from which are suspended two roughly sketched pentagons]] Arranged the apparatus at a greater distance in order to note the effect of a change of distance [[on?]] [[double line across page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Ranken & [[double line across page]] [[ledger entry]] 1808|Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 | To cash on my Bond ...... |120|| 42| 0| ~ [[/ledger entry]] [[new line]] [[faint pencil entry]] | |To do on do -[[p?]]300| || | | [[new line]] the direction of the current with 8 jars distance 10 inches current pretty strong [[underlined]] adverse [[/underlined]] [[circled on page]] Exp Preliminary[[/circled on page]] with 8 jars elect 60 distance 2 inches [[indented]] current [[underlined]]adverse[[/underlined]] dist 4 inches 60° adverse dist same 10 adverse [[end page]] [[start page]] Lawrance C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 July 1 By Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|10|| 2| 0|~ [new line]] 1800 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 16 By Cash in full, . " [[ditto for: as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . .|29||[[underscore]] 1|14|~ [[new line]] £ 3|14|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1801 July 28 By the Sales of 58 Bb. Flour as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] W. Book . .|55||226| 4|~ [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 16 By " [[ditto for: the Sales]] of 60 " " [[dittos for: Bb. Flour as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] W. Book]] . .|56||242| 2|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 By " [[ditto for: the Sales]] of 1 "P-Ashes " . .|60|| 8| 2|~ [[new line]] 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 1 By Ballence due, " " . .|64||[[underscore]] 91| 3| 6[[/underscore]] [[new line]] | ||567|11| 6 [[double line across most of page]] " June 1 By Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|66|| 81|16| 3 [[new line]] By Cash in full . " . .|70||[[double underscore]] 13| 0| 9[[/double underscore]] [[new line]] £ 94|17|~ [[double line across most of page]] [[double underscore]]Oct 19[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]][[/double underscore]] Experiments relative to the distance continued - 10 [[the 10 is written over 9]] Jars distance 5 inches Elect 40 current [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] direct [[new line]] In this experiment the discharge appeared to be but partial perhaps the discharge cut acroſs See next exp. [[double line across part of page]] Hyer C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]],, [[double line across most of page]] 1807 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] By my Bond to pay in two years $615.29=|120||246| 2| 5 [[new line]] 10 jars dist 5 [[underline]] inches [[/underline]] elect 40° magnetism - pretty strong current - adverse Same Same Elect 5°[[the 5 is written over 10]] - [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]] Same Elect 10° + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] [[double underline]] Same same Elec [[/double underline]] 15° + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] 20 + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] feeble 30 + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] 35 [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] 40 + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] 50 + [[underline]] direct [[/underline]] [[it is difficult to determine whether that plus sign belongs with the line starting "50" or the one starting "60"]] very feeble 60 direct feeble 62° [[underline]] adverse [[/underline]]
[[double underscore]]21[[/double underscore]] [[Ledger entry header - continues onto opposite page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Northup & [[double line across page - seven pre-scored columns beneath]] [[Ledger entries]] 1799 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] | 28 | To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book C . . | 6|| 25| 5|~ [[new line]] March | 16 | To Ditto " . " . . | 8 || 2|16| 4 [[new line]] April | 10 | To Interest " . " . |14||[[underscore]] -|10| 8[[/underscore]][[new line]] £ 28|12|~ [[double line across column 4; line across columns 4-7]] [[end ledger entries]] distance sam 4 jars Elect 50 current - direct Same same current 70° - strong [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] X In these two altered the position of the battery //distance 2 inches 4 Jars Elect 60 Repeted removed the orig conductor [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] from the [[machine?]] still [[strikeout]]di[[/strikeout]] direct turned round [[stile?]] - direct [[double line across part of page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John [[double line across most of page]] 1807 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 25[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . |[[double underscore]]99||380|16| 5[[/double underscore]] April 7 To his Note for Ballence due . .|~||380|16| 5 [[new line]] May 12 To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste-Book . .|101||383|19| 5 [[new line]] 29 TO Cash advanced Alexander Thomson .|101|| 26| 0|~ [[new line]] June 3 To Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|102||710| 7| 8 [[new line]] 11 To 1 Hh[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] for dry Goods & 1 [[Tine?]] for fish 8/ & 6/ - |..|| ~|14|~ [new line]] 25 To Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|104||185| 2| 8 [[new line]] July 1 To ditto, . ditto . .|106||275|10| 8 [[new line]] 20 To ditto " . ditto . |107||159|19| 2 [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 4 To ditto, . ditto, . .|109||160| 0| 9 [[new line]] 7 To ditto, . ditto, . .|110||159| 9| 1 [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 9 To ditto, . ditto, . .|112||574| 5|10½ [[new line]] " | To ditto, . ditto, . .|112|| 2|14| 7 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 To ditto, . ditto, . .|114||218|19| 6 [[new line]] To [[Shot?]] . ditto, . |114|| ~|17|~ [[new line]] 1808 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 12 To Sundris, . ditto, . .|116||152| 8| 3 [[new line]] Mach To Int[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] . ditto . .|117||[[underscore]] 24| 8|~ [[new line]] 3415|13| 0½ [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]] [[new page]] Galaspie C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 19 By Cash on a/c as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|25|| 26| 0| ~ [[new line]] 1800 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 22 By Ball. Rec[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] . ditto . . |38||[[underscore]] 2|12|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £ 28|12|~ [[wavy underscore below that total of £28.12.-]] [[double line across most of page]] Changed the distance a little farther of -- 3 inches still 4 jars and Still direct -- [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] The only difference in the arrangement and that of yesterday is that the 4 jars stood on a stool with glass legs [with 8 jars --- [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Put on the stool still the same [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Removed the distance to 10 inches 4 Jars direct [double line across part of page]] Richards C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across most of page]] 1807 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 25 By Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . }|99|380|16| 5 [[new line]] April 7 By his Note to Ballence the Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] . .}| [[the money amount just above apparently is encompassed in the brace which faces the two lines of text above]] [[double line across most of page]] 9 By Cash Indorsed on hos note $110 . |100|| 44| 0|~ [[new line]] June 3 By flour, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|102||163|12|~ [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 4 By Sundris, . ditto, . .|109||215| 3| 3 [[new line]] 7 By Cash " ditto . .|110|| 56| 0|~ [[new line]] 25 By Sundris, ditto . .|110||230| 7| 1 [[new line]] Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 9 By P. Ashs, . ditto, . .|112|| 68| 7|11 [[new line]] " By ditto, . ditto, . . |113|| 96|13| 5 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 By Sundris, . ditto, . . |114|| 9|16| 1 [[new line]] 1808 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 12 By Ditto, . ditto, . . |116||268| 9| 3 [[new line]] Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 4 By ditto, . ditto, . . |116||160| 0|~ [[new line]] 24 By ditto, . ditto, . . |117||240|| 0|~ [[new line]] By Cash, and his note for Ball. |117|[[underscore]]|1863| 4| 0½[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[double underscore]]3415|13| 0½[[/double underscore]] [[new line, beneath diagonal double line to bring into position with the end of the debit side]] Acco[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] brought down . . .|[[rubbed out and lined out]]3415[[end rubout and lineout]]||3415|13| 0½ [[double line across most of page]] Transferr'd to Page 22.--- [[end page]]
[[double underlined]] 22 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Eliphelet [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1800 June 18 To Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|34||830| 5|~ To an Error, as ditto [[ditto for: p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . . |34|| 8| 9| 2 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 To Interest, as ..."... ditto [[ditto for: p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book]] . . .|42|| 8| 1| 4 [[double line indicating summation]] £846|15| 6 [[double line across columns 5 - 7]] [[double line across column 3]] [[double line across most of page]] Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 To Ballence due A. Alexander, this day, . |..|| 115| 4| 7 [[double line across columns 5 - 7]] [[double line across column 3]] [[double line across most of page]] To Ball. due on judgment, the 27[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] Octb[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 1800 .|..|| 68|19| 4 To Sundris as P[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |84||473| 9|10 1808 Ball. the 8[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] Sept. [[line]] $2953.18 = [[pound symbol]] 1181. 5. 6 [[line]] [[double line across column 3]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] John [[double line across column 3]] 1808 June 16[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] 16 To Sundres as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . |118||128|19|~ July 26 To Cash Returned as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] ditto [[ditto for: Waste Book]]. |119|| 8| 0|~ Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] 12 To freight of P. ashes .. ditto [[ditto for: Waste Book]] | " [[ditto for: 119]]|| 3|16|~ To an Error of Cash and Pass'd to his C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]} the 10[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] June [[S?]] Waste Book . } || ~| 54| 1|~ Sept[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 8 To his note of Mach last for . .|119|| 1825|13| 5 [[line indicating summation]] ||2020| 9| 5 [[double line across most of page]] [[vertically in margin]] this 9 inches [[/marginal notation]] [[bracket]] With 8 jars distance 10 inches strong charge [[underlined]] Elec 60° [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] adverse [[/underlined]] With 4 jars [[underlined]] Elect [[/underlined]] 60 current [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] With 8 jars elect 25 [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 8 with Charge of 50° [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[/bracket]] [[marginal note]]4 inches apart [[/marginal note]][[bracket]] 8 jars 4 inches apart Elect 45° - [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] 8 jars Elect 60° [[underlined]] feeble [[/underlined]] direct Do Do Do [[Dittos for: 8 jars Elect 60°]] [[underlined]] direct [[/underlined]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Norrice C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 Feb[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 1[[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] By Tho[[superscript]] s [[/superscript]] Morris Draft, as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, C . | 7|| 80| 0|~ 1800 Mach 1 By Cash on a/c. . " . .|29|| 24| 0|~ June 18 By Interst a/c . . " . .|34|| 8| 9| 2 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 18 By Sundris . . " . .|42|619| 1| 9 " [[ditto for: Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] ]] By Ballnce due A. A. " . . | ~|| 115| 4| 7 [[line indicating summation]] £846|15| 6 [[double line across most of page]] 1803 Jan[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] 25 By a Paymet, as p[[superscript]] r [/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|75|| 46| 5| 3 By Ballence due . . . |~|| 68|19| 4 [[line indicating summation]] ||115| 4| 7 [[double line across most of page]] By Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|84||478|15|~ [[double line across most of page]] Richards C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across much of page]] 1808 April 18 By Cash, on Acc[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book |117|| 65|12|~ June 4 By Sundris as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] ditto, .| "|| 40| 0|~ 10 By ditto, . " ditto, . | "|| 54| 1|~ 30 By ditto, . " ditto, . |118||212| 1| 6 July 4 By ditto, . " ditto, . | "||128| 0|~ 26 By ditto, . " ditto, . |119||156| 8|~ Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 5 By ditto, . " ditto, . | "|134|10| 3 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 By ditto, . " ditto, . |119|[[underscore]]1229|16| 8[[/underscore]] ||2020| 9| 5 [[double line across most of page]] [[multiple linked braces at left of text]] [[marginal note]] 6 inches apart [[/marginal note]] 8 jars mag feeble Elect [[underscore]]60°[[/underscore]] curr [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 8 jars Elect 25° feeble [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 8 jars Elect 10°- [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] 4 jars Eelc 60° feeble [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] [[vertical note to left of the underlined "direct" notations]] all feeble [[\vertical note]] [[/linked braces]] [[horizontal line across page]] 10 inches [[marginal note]] 10 inches apart [[/marginal note]][[brace at left of text]] 4 jars Elect 55° feeble direct 8 jars Elect [[strikethrough]] 5 [[/strikethrough]] 45° mag [[underscore]]strong[[/underscore]] [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[/brace]] 8 jars Elect 40° mag feeble direct
[[double underscore]]23[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Robert [[double line across page from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To Sundris on a/c as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |25|| 90| 9| 2 [[new line]] 1800, Mach 29 To Cash " " " . .|30|| 70| 2| -¾ [[new line]] To Ball. due this day " " . .|..||[[underscore]] 40| 0|~ [[new line]] £200|11| 2¾ [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |39||£82| 2|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1801 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .|59|| 62|13|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1802 July 14 To a Draft as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .|68||£160| 0|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 18 To Cash On Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] as pr Waste Book |103|| 80| 0|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 10 To ditto . " " ditto |114|| 88| 6| 4 [[new line]] To Ballnce due this day . |..||[[underscore]]226| 0|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 394| 6| 4 [[double line across most of page]] 1808 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|130[[written over 140?]]||100| 0|~ [[new line]] 1809 June 13 To ditto ditto . .|..|| 60| 0|~ [[brace on left edge embracing the following text; marginal note associated with the brace:]] [[underscore]]10 inches[[/underscore]] [[end margin note]] 10 inches elect 60° magnet not strong distance same as last adverse [[line across page]] Oct 20[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[underscore]]1838[[/underscore]] [[image of tube with bulge in middle]] [[Tried?]] with attempts to get some more definite information relative to the action of parallel wires I commened this morning with the first Spiral apparatus - [[in left margin]]Exp 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]][[end marginal marking]] Exp sent shock through it from battery of 4 jars current as always before [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Again from battery of 8 jars highly charged and again [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Magnetism in both cases very strong - [[underscore]]Attempted to get a shock[[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Wardell C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 July [[27?]] By Goods as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|11||144|15|11 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[either 11 or a " mark, best guess would be eleven]] By " ditto, . " . .|16||[[underscore]] 55|15| 3¾[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £200|11| 2¾ [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Mach 29 By Ballence due this day " " . .|..| 40| 0|~ [[new line]] Apil By Goods as p Invoice Book A page 19, . |..||[[underscore]] 42| 2|10[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £ 82| 2|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1801 May 13 By Merchandize as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 25 |..|| 62|13|10 [[double line across most of page]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] By my note payable the 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] June . . |£160| 0|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 22 By Merchandize as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book -|37||115| 3| 6 [[new line]] 1807 June 18 By ditto, . ditto, . -|57||275| 1|11 [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 10 By Int[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] to this day, . . |..||[[underscore]] 4| 0|11[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 394| 6| 4 [[double line across most of page]] - " By Ball. due for Which I gave my note|..||226| 0|~ [[new line]] 1809 June 13 By Interest, . . . | || 22| 1| 8 [[underscore]]NB[[/underscore]] Noticed a singular phenomenon in the discharge of the 8 jars through the Spiral apparatus - I notied that after the discharge, the ends of the tin-foil were turned-up, repeated the shock from the 8 jars, and now the ends of each piece of the foil were turned back and even curled backwards, as [[strikethrough]] if acted on by a fire e[[?]]ting from the discharge at right angles[[/strikethrough]] - The turning up took place on the tin foil through which the discharge paſsed, [[margin note:]] Exp 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] [[end margin note]] and the action is therefore as if the parts of the tin foil were strongly repulsive Pasted [[strikethrough]]piece[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]slip[[/^]] of tin foil on glaſs plate, sent charge through foil thrown up along the whole course The parts should lap over each other [[note sideways in far left margin close to end of page]]Good claſs experiment[[end note]] [[sideways note in left margin next to "NB" and succeeding lines:]]Where the slips overlaped holes were perced in the tin foil in the Cap [[end margin note]] [[image of tube with thicker middle section and four vertical lines dividing it is next to the 4th and 5th MS. lines in the section beginning "NB"]] [[to left of the final 4 lines of this page are two images, both material within rectangles, one with a very long thin rectangle inside it, the other with what look like 3 sausage links inside it]] [[end page]]
[double underscore]]24[[/underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Abraham [[double line across page from which rules for 7 accounting columns descend]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |29| To Cash in full as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|24||£133|19| 9 [[double line across columns 3 through 7]] 1800 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |18| To Cash, as pr. Waste Book. . . |41||£ 14| 2| 6 [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] 1804 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] |21| To Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |85||110| 0|~ [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] |22| To ditto, [[ditto for: Cash]] ]. " "[[ditto for: as P [[superscript]]r [[/superscript]] Waste Book]] .... |86|| 13|17| 9 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |7| To ditto, [[ditto for: Cash]] ]. " "[[ditto for: as P [[superscript]]r [[/superscript]] Waste Book]] .... |87||[[underscore]] 25|15| 1[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[for total columns 5,6,7]] ||149|12|10 [[double underscore columns 5,6,7]] [[new line]] | |Oct 20[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1838| [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] [[complicated image to the left of the text: A horizontal cylinder the center diameter necks down to equally sized smaller ends (shaped similar to a oil lamp hood). Each end is a oval providing dimension to the shape. Inside the cylinder, 4 vertical lines slightly curved to the right, connect top to bottom. The lines are equally spaced from the center, to where the cylinder necks to the smaller diameter of the ends. A lines runs horizontally thru the center of the cylinder. The line exits the cylinder from both ends and loosely wraps around a second image 3 times (the line is not broken); The second image is two circles, the slightly smaller circle within a larger, connected by 17 "spokes" around the entire circle from the outer circumference of the smaller to the inner circumference of the larger. There is a mark approximately in the middle of the smaller circle. Two lines, each attached to either the top or bottom apex of the outer circle. The lines extend away from the circle to the right, on about a 10 degree upward angle from horizontal. Each line ends with a small cylinder, slightly larger in diameter of the the line]] Arranged the apparatus to get a shock from the secondary curent, or rather the tertiary current. Large flat coil No 2 connected with glass cylinders; and long coil - No 1 put [[into?]] this [[strikethrough]]w[[/strikethrough]] with small charge of battery with 8 jars, small shock, [[underline]] with large [[underline/]] charge, no shock ------ Substituted for receiving coil [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]], No 1 flat coil, and for the long helix [[^]][[underscore]]b[[/underscore]],[[/^]] flat coil No 2. No shock with this arrangement nor with the long helix on coil No [[underscore]]One[[/underscore]] [[line across page]] [[complicated image to left of the text: A horizontal cylinder the center diameter necks down to equally sized smaller ends (shaped similar to a oil lamp hood). Each end is a oval providing dimension to the shape. Inside the cylinder, 6 vertical lines slightly curved to the right, connect top to bottom. The lines are equally spaced from the center, to where the cylinder necks to the smaller diameter of the ends. Lines connect to the center of each oval. The lines extend away from and down from the cylinder. The lines form a coil and remain unbroken. A second coil overlaps the first coil. The lines that from the second coil extend from the top & bottom apex of the coil, unbroken, to form 5 turns around a vertical line.]] Exp on tertiary currents, placed flat [[strikethrough]]spiral[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]coil[[/^]] No 1 in connection with Spiral apparatus and No 2 on this current, [[strikethrough]]betwn[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]from[[/^]] 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] [[strikethrough]]and[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]+[[/^]] 3[[superscript]]rd[[superscript]] current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[large brace at left margin]] With pece of Zinc between current Nothing With pece of glass betwn, Magnetm 40 Elect Adverse Again with a tin piec of the foil beween current [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Without tin foil, current direct [[/large brace at left margin]] [[vertical in left margin left of brace]] Same irregularity betwn these as the others [[end margin note; it has another small image which may be a doodle, like a jagged illegible autograph]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Brinkerhoff C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which descend rules for 7 accounting columns]] 1799 July |22| By Goods as pr. Waste Book . . .|11||£133|19| 9 [[line across column 3 thru 7]] [[line across column 3]] 1800 April |1| By Goods as pr. Invoice Book A page 18 . . |~||£ 14| 2| 6 [[line across column 3 thru 7]] [[Broken line across column 3]] [[line across column 5 thru 7]] 1802 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |10| By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice, . . .|71||135|15| 1 1804 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] |2| By an Error as Pr. Waste Book . .|87||13|17| 9 [[line across column 5 thru 7]] [[For total columns 5,6,7]] 149|12|10 [[double line across columns 5 thru 7]] [[double line across columns 3 thru 7]] Small gharge gives needle more magnetism, but still [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] Attempted to get a 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] order of current with common elect, but did not succde [[line across page]] [[complicated image to the left of text: A horizontal cylinder the center diameter necks down to equally sized smaller ends (shaped similar to a oil lamp hood). Each end is a oval providing dimension to the shape. Inside the cylinder, 3 broken vertical lines slightly curved to the right, connect top to bottom. The lines are equally spaced from the center, to where the cylinder begins to neck to the smaller diameter of the ends. Lines connect to the bottom of each oval end extend downward to form 4 turns around a horizontal line. A line connects to the top right of the cylinder narrow end and extends in a sine wave shape to the right. A curved line connects to the top left of the cylinder narrow end and extends to connect to a circle (the circle is broken at 120 & 225 degrees. A vertical line connects the circle at these points). Two horizontal lines connect to the circle at 120 & 225 degrees and extend to the left.]] Produced a strong inductive current from [[left margin:]]5[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[end margin marking]] the large conductor - direction, magnetm strong direct [[line across page]] [[sideways note in far left margin:]] Current from large conductor[[end far left margin note]] [[complicated image to the left of the text: Two hexagons, drawn essentially on top of each other (one is offset slightly to the left). A line connected to the left end of the top horizontal line of one hexagon (that is offset to the left)and extends to the left to connects to a circle at 60 degrees. The circle is broken at 120 & 225 degrees, vertical line connects the circle at these points. Two horizontal lines connect to the circle at 120 & 225 degrees and extend to the left.]] [[notation below image:]]Exp 6[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Sent current from large conductor through large coil in glass rods, 3 strands induction, current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] wires about 1 [[ 12? a "9" has been written over the "2" in "12", This is most likely a strikeout based on the text that follows, leaving the text as 1]] inches apart 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] Seperated the wires to about 4 inches Still [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] Seperated the wires to the distance of a foot, made the discharge as before, one end of the wires being attached to the rubber of the [[machine?]] current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] Removed to the distance of about 18 inches, still slightly magnetic Current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]]
[[double underscore]]25[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] James [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 July To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|13|| 56|19|10 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 19 To Cash in full " . . . |24||[[underscore]] 60| 6| 4 [[new line]] £117| 6| 2 [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|39|| 61|17|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 13 To Cash in full, . . |102|| 86| 0| 6 [[double line across most of page]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 20 To Cash by Cap[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] J.L. [[Grange?]] as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Receipt|~|| 40| 0|~ [[new line]] 1808 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To ditto, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Receipt, . . |120|| 40| 0|~ 7[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Changed the position of the magnetism helix, but the effect was still the same Adverse [[strikethrough]]From thee experim[[/strikethrough]] Also put the helix on the compound strand, and the discharge through the other, still the direction continued [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] 8[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Put up the single coil so as to have [[to single?]] wires, still current [[underscore]] adverse[[/underscore]] From these experiments it would appear that the same charges are produced by the current from a large conductor, as with a jar, but perhaps the effect is somewhat more simple - These explain some of the [[?]]ts which were obtained with the large reel lateral currents, were in some cases produced, which interfered with the results In these experiments no cutting acroſs [[end page]] [[begin page]] Roosevelt C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1798 [[?]][[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 6 By Sugar as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . | 1|| 56|19|10 [[new line]] 99 July 22 By ditto " " . .|12||[[underscore]] 60| 6| 2[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £117| 6| 2 [[double line across most of page]] 1800 April 1 By Sugar and p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 18 . |..}} 61|17|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 21 By Sugar as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book, . |25|| 86| 0| 6 [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 17 By Sugar as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book . .|53|| 88| 1| 8 [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 20 By ditto ditto . . |80|| 49| 4| 5 By Int[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] due on acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] . . [[blank where money amount should be]] Could take place, since the coils were formed with wire in glaſs tubes three times plied. The whol length of wire thus covered with glaſs tube in the compound current was 6x3½x3 = 63. The ends or oints of the hexigon were secured by pieces of mica, interposed so that no escape of elect could take place the[[re?]] - The whole effect was therefore due to induction [[image to left, hexagon with bulge marked "3½"]] [[underscore and a similar line above]]NB[[/underscore and upper line]] In these Exp with the long conductor the farther end of the wire was attached to another which led to the cushion of the [[underscore]]machine[[/underscore]] Tried the same with the two flat coils [[underscore]]advers[[/underscore]] [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[image to left, two objects joined with what may be two wires]] 1 with plate of Zinc between [[underscore]]No current[[/underscore]] 2 with glaſs betw adverse 3 with piec of tin foil betwn current stopped--- [[end page]]
[[double underscore]]26[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Henry [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To Cash in full paid James Cooper, . . .|25||£104|14| 9 [[double line across most of page]] Oct Monday 22[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] [[underscore]]1838[[/underscore]] [[image to left, hexagon with complications]] Arranged the compound current with glaſs rods so that the spark would be drawn from the farther end and thus a smaller dispersion take place on account of the lateral descharge Seperated the two (ie compound and single) current from distance of 3 or 4 inches to about 20 inches current constantly [[strikeout]]adv[[/strikeout]] [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] At the distance of aout 4 feet no magnetism Put up in place of the single circuit of wire covered with glaſs the compound [[?]] of cotton 13 turns. At distance of about 4 feet very feeble magnetism adverse [[horizontal line across page]] [[image to left, hexagon with radial lines to vertices, surrounding circle; marked in margin:]] Singular result [[end margin note]] Compound [[strikeout]] helex[[/strikeout]] [[^]]current [[/^]] in the middle of the other No magnetism [[Right margin note:]] Reversed this exp slight magnetism adverse [[end margin note]] [[horizontal line across page]] [[image to left, rectangular plane with spirals above and below]] Two flat coils seperated by glaſs on [[on no?]] contact with large conductor spark drawn from father end - current [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Aaron C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page with descending rules for accounting columns]] 1799 July 22 By Goods as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |11|£104|14| 9 [[double line across most of page]] NB Made a number of experiments with the small magnetizing helix to determene if it were possible to procure a reversion of polarity but always the current was direct with a spark from the large conductor also different charges from a [[strikeout]]jar[[/strikeout]] battery of 4 jars [[heavy multiple shaky line across page]] Exp 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] Arranged the battery (large) to repeat Some of the old experiments - used box of the battery No 5 [[chart to left, numbers 5-8 in left column and 'No' plus numbers 1-4 in right column] [[horizontal line under chart and across page]] [[underscore]]Oct 23[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript]] 1838[[underscore]] Made a very long coil of fine copper wire and attached it to [[strikeout]]coil[[/strikeout]] ^[[helix]] No 1 (long) and placed this with [[strikeout]][[flat?]][[/strikeout]] ^[[ribbon]] coil No 2, needle magnetic very strong current [[underscore]]direct[[/underscore]] [[image to left, flat ring with indication of coiled wire attached ]] [[vertical left marginal note beside the few preceding lines of text:]]Never before succeeded in this exp.[[end margin note]] [[horizontal line halfway across page]] [[image to left, like image above but with an additional flat ring connected with lines to the first ring]] current adverse [[underscore]]is[[/underscore]] the induced current from the primary to the secondary is direct but from the secondary to the tertiary it is [[underscore]]adverse[[/underscore]] [[line across most of page]] [[image similar to two above but with three circular objects connected together]] Arranged the apparatus so as to produce 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] 3[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript]] & 4[[superscript]]th[[superscript]] order of currents found a change in the direction of the 1[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] & 3[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] - 3[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript]] and 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]]-- [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[heading]]27 Dr. Andrew & William[[heading]] 799 [[March?]] 29 To Sundries as fr. Waste Book... [[pound sign]]25|109| 1 [[dash]] 1800 March 29 To Cash in full..."... 30 |[[pound sign]]80|0 Novr [[?]] To Cash. as fr. Waste Book...42 [[pond sign below line]]|11[[b?]]|3 [[dash]] 1803 July 13 To Cash as for waste book...80|37|8 [[dash]] 1806 Novr. To Cash [[pencil thin??]] on Acct.[[strikeouts]]with [[Intr?]][[/strikeouts]]98|43|15 [[dash]] 1807 June 18 To ditto "..."...102|80|0 [[dash]] Sept. 5 To Cash & my note for $50 to [[Buller?]] [[dash]] 51|12|6 [[totals]] 175|7|4 Oct 23rd 1838 continued [[image - double ring with lines possibly indicating an opening to a solid; lines lead to a vessel resting on a surface.]] [[image - double rings possibly indicating an opening to a solid with lines joining it to two small squares; beneath is a spiral]] [[double underscore]]Exp on screening[[/double underscore]] sent battery charge through coil No 1 placed long helix in flat coil No 2 held the one over the other. when the ends of flat coil open shocks very severe but when closed shock securely nothing. The two, namely the helix and the coil, in this exp are both at the same distances from the exciting coil and nothing is [[interposed?]] to action of the [[lower?]] [[underline]] flat [[/underline]] [[spiral?]] The effect was [[purely?]] the one of interferance and explains the experiment of Mr Faraday insomuch two [[strikeout]] [[current?]] [[/strikeout]] wires are bound together &c [[in margin beside the paragraph above: Important exp]] [[endpage]] [[start page]] [[heading]] Keven [[Cr]] [[/heading]] 1799 April [[?]] By shoes & Boots as fr Waste Book...12 [[pound sign]]109 14 [[squiggle]] Novr. 29 By my note at 5 days as fr. Waste Book...25 [[pound sign]]80 0 ii 1800 April 3 By Shoes as per Invoice Book A page 19 & 20 ... 99 4 [[squiggle]] July 9 By ditto ...ditto... 22 [[pound sign 116 3 [[squiggle]] 1802 Novr. 12 By Shoes as per Bill...72 37 8 [[squiggle]] 1805 Decr 24 By Shoes as per waste Book ...93 123 15 1806 Novr 25 By Shoes as pr Invoice Book ...42 23 4 6 1807 June 20 By ditto ...ditto,...59 21 5 - By Interest d[[?]]...ditto...| [[dash]]|6|12|6 Sept 5 By ditto...ditto...|--|-|10|4 [[totals column]] 175|7|4 [[double line across page]] [[image]]Decomposition of acidulated water by th induced current. Nitric acid and water put into the apparatus of the magneto-electric machine, copious disengagement of gas, [[even?]] when the coils were at the distances of 6 inches. The coils [[used were?]] No 1 flat coil, and helix No 7. When the wires were drawn from the mercury, sparks were produced [[short line drawn across page]] Again, instead of [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] helix No 1, coil No 2 was used, with this, decomposition was also produced by not so copiously as with the other. [[short line drawn across page]] The decomposing apparatus was next placed in connection with the arrangement for the third current, decomposition was again produced [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[heading]] [[double underscore]]28[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John and Alexander[[/heading]] [[double line across page from which accounting column rules descend]] 799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To Cash in full as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |24||£172|12| 1[[the money amount is underscored with a wavy line]] [[double line across most of page]] Next tried the heating effects; Put small wire of platina in the circuit of the the flat coil, No 2 wire heated to redneſs [[line across most of page]] [[underlined]] Intensity converted into quantity!![[/underline]] Small shaker battery put in connection with long helix No 1. Shocks produced. Next, flat coil No 2 put on this needle, [[strikethrough]]coil[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]helix[[/^]] connecting the extremities, the short helix which produces no magnetism with the long helix. The enclosed needle tolerably strongly magnetic. direction of the current [[image on right edge]] direct [[sideways in left margin]] good [[underlined]] experiment [[/underlined]] Repeated this important exp with the same result. Tried with the same arrangement to decompose very feeble effect, no shock but magnetism strong, also [[underline]] [[either spark? or sharp?]] [[/underline]] Intensity converted into quantity, the reverse of the experiments ever made before [[underline]] Oct 24[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]][[/underline]] 1838 Made another experiment relative to the conversion of intensity into quantity, or rather to the production of a quantity current by means of an intensity one - attached to the ends of the flat ribbon coil No 2, which surrounded the long helix No 1, the wires of a small[[end page]] [[start page]] [[header]] M[[superscript]]c[[/superscript]]Gregor C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]][[/header]] [[double line across page from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 April -- By tobacco as pr Waste Book......|12|168|13| 5 [[new line]] By Interest on their a/c . . . |34|[[underscore]] 3||18| 8[[underscore]] [[new line]] £172|12| 1 [[double line across most of page]] Soft iron electro magnet, of which the wire was of the thickneſs of common bell wire, and about 6 or 8 feet long. The magnet became excited by the induced current from the ribbon coil - When the same horseshoe was placed in connection with battery wires, or formed part of the circuit of the battery current, no magnetism could be perceived. This [[strikethrough]] last [[/strikethrough]] experiment appears conclusive in reference to the fact of the quantity quality of the current; or that the action is directly the inverse of that which takes place when a current of low intensity. The battery used was the litle shaker [[guess?]] one - [[In left margin beside para above:]] Exp 1 [[end margin note]] It is probable the same effect might be produced by common electricity, were it possible to perfectly insulate the several spires of a long helix through which the [[primative?]] current should be paſsed - Attached the same magnet to the ends of the flat [[strikethrough]] [[spiral?]][[/strikethrough]] [[^]]coil[[/^]] for the production of the [[strikethrough]] secondary [[/strikethrough]] tertiary currents, attraction took place of the same jarring kind, as in the case of the [[?]] magneto-electric machine - But when the long helix was employed to receive the induction for the tertiary current, no magnetism was produced, [[end page]]
[[begin page]] [[double underscore]]29[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Barent. G [[double line across page, from which descend rules for accounting columns]] 1799 July 15 To Cash, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |10|| 40| 0|~ [[new line]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 22 To Furrs " . " . . |14||222|10|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[superscript]] 17 To Gin " . " . . |28|| 55|10|~ [[new line]] 1800 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 20 To Sundris " . " . . |~||[[underscore]] ~|~|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £318| 0|~ [[wavy underscoring under the latter money amount]] [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . .|42||113| 5| 8 [[double line across most of page]] 1801 July 2 To Flour as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . .|55||226| 4|~ [[new line]] Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 1 To Cash " " . .|56|| 20| 6|~ [[new line]] Octob[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 28 To Sundris " " . .|57||[[underscore]]287|19|10[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £534| 3|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1802 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] ~ To Cash in full, . . . |~|| 23| 6|11 [[double line across most of page]] 1804 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 To my note, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |87||200| 0|~ [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 7 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |87||[[underscore]] 40|15| 4[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 240|15| 4 [[double line across most of page]] [[double line across most of page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Barent [[double line across most of page]] 1805 March 22 To my note lent him payable at the} Bank of Albany, for $400 . .}|~||160| 0|~ although violent shocks could be given, also made magnet by the 2[[superscript]]nd[[/superscript]] current. [[margin note]]Exp 3[[end margin note]] Arranged the two ribbons No 3&4 in one strand and then wound them into a flat spiral, when the ends of one of these was placed in contact with the battery, and the ends of the other separated from each other, the spark was loud and brilliant, but when the two ends of the second were placed in contact, the spark was feeble [[^]] the [[sparks?]] did not entirely cease [[/^]] This arrangement which is the same as one [[here "by Mr" is overwritten "of --"]] Mr Faraday, indicates the [[recipro?]] [[word at edge of page at beginning of the last line of the page is torn away, along with perhaps "cal" and another short word]] of the two currents on each other [[end page]] [[begin page]] Staats & C[[superscript]]o[[/superscript]] C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 15 By Goods as pr. Waste Book, . . |12||234| 2| 6 [[new line]] " 30 By ditto " Invoice Book A . . |14|| 4|12|~ [[new line]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 17 By ditto " Waste Book, . . |28|| 46| 2| 6 [[new line]] " 19 By ditto " ditto . . |~|| 12| 8|~ [[new line]] " 25 By ditto " ditto . . |29|| 8| 0|~ [[new line]] 1800 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 20 By ditto " ditto . . |..||[[underscore]] 12|15|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £318| 0|~ [[double line across most of page]] June 24 By Goods as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book, page 2 . . |~||113| 5| 8 [[double line across most of page]] By Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |55||476|13| 3 [[new line]] By Ballace, . . . |..||[[underscore]] 57|10| 7[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £534| 3|10 [[double line across most of page]] 1802 May 1 By Merchandize, . . |66|| 23| 6|11 [[double line across most of page]] 1803 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 By goods, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Bill, . . .|83|| 40|15| 4 [[new line]] By note givn up . . . |..||[[underscore]]200| 0|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 240|15| 4 [[double line across most of page]] [[double line across part of page]] G. Staats C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across most of page]] 1805 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 30 By Cash on Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] $40 . . |..|| 16| 0|~ [[new line]] Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 19 By ditto ditto, $50 . |..|| 20| 0|~ [[complicated image with spirals and wires]] The following arrangement was next made the two ends of the [[second?]] coil [[strikeout]]was[[/strikeout]] [[^]]were[[/^]] attached to the ends of coil No 2, and helix No [[underscore]]One[[/underscore]] put into the needle of the latter in this way, the current which was before disguised, and which produced no [[strikeout]] effect[[/strikeout]] perceptible effect, was rendered manifest by producing intense tertiary currents - The secondary current in this arrangement was quite intense, and it would appear from this experiment, that to [[form?]] the most powerful [[end page]]
[[double underscore]] 30 [[/double underscore]] [[Ledger header across both pages]] [[left page]]D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Hallet [[double underscore across page; vertical scores create seven columns beneath]] [[begin Ledger entry]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 29 | To Cash in full as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book... | 24 || £48 | 13 | - [[double underscore across columns 3 & 5-7; underscore across column 4]] [[end Ledger entry]] [[begin Journal entry]] Compound coil for shocks &c, then plan would be to mingle large wires with small [[strikethrough]]one[[/strikethrough]] in the same helix, the former to convey the battery current, and the latter for the shocks, or with the same apparatus quantity could be produced from the induction of intensity -; with the arrangement of the last sparkes were produced betwen the ends of the tertiary wires - [[end Journal entry]] [[begin Ledger header - continues on opposite page]] [[double underscore across columns 3 & 4]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] M[[superscript]]c[[/superscript]] Crackan & [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] [[begin Ledger entries]] 1807 Jun | 18 | To Cash on Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]], as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book... | 103 || 50 | 8 | - Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 11 | To ditto...ditto,... [[ditto for: on acct, as per Waste Book]] | 114 || 84 | 0 | - [[columns 1-2 blank]] To Ball. due this day, $[[4?]]72 69/100 = ... | .. || 470 | 5 | 8 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 604 | 13 | 8 [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] 1808 July | 20 | To a Draft, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book... | 119 || 150 | 18 | ~ Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 8 | To advance on ditto. ditto... [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | ~ || 7 | 10 | 10 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 23 | To Cash. on ditto. "... [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 120 || 60 | 0 | - [[end Ledger entries]] [[begin left page Journal entry]] [[left marginal note]]Exp 4[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[end margin note]] Tried the effect of distance of the [[underlined]] tertiary [[/underlined]] coil from [[strikethrough]]its[[/strikethrough]] secondary, with the arrangemt. of the last experiment, shocks were felt [[strikethrough]]at the[[strikethrough]] when the coils were 20 inches apart Plate of copper interposed no effect when thin [[strikethrough]]plate[[/strikethrough]] [[^]]sheet[[/^]] of tin foil was substituted, then the action was quite as intense as without the presence of metal [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Ledger header continues from opposite page]] Bowne & Co. C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double underscore across page; vertical scores create 7 columns beneath]] [[begin Ledger entry]] 1799 April | | By Goods as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book... | 12 | £48 | 13 | - [[double underscore across columns 3 & 5-7; underscore across column 4]] [[blank space]] [[begin Ledger header - continued from opposite page]] [[underscore across column 3]] Williams C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] [[begin Ledger entries]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 24[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] | By Merchandize as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book... | 41 & 42 || 109 | 8 | 11 1807 June | 20 | By ditto,...ditto,... [[ditto for: Merchandize as per Invoice Book]] 63 || 493 | 6 | ~ Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] | 11 | By Int[[superscript]]s[[/superscript]] & Error in Invoice... | ~ | 1 | 16 | 9 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-3 blank]] 604 | 13 | 8 [[column 1 blank]] " [[double underscore across columns 3-7]] [[column 1 blank]] " | By My Note for $1172 67/100=... | ~ || 470 | 5 | 8 [[end Ledger entries]] Oct 27[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] [[underlined]] 1838 [[/underlined]] Exp on screening [[image - oval shape inside rough square shape with two short horizontal lines extending from right side center and right side lower corner]] put zinc plate on top of [[image - oval shape with two short horizontal lines extending from right end]] the long helix - no shock - withdraw plate, intense shock, plate larger than the coil or helix - [[image in left margin - one circle centered inside another drawn as if on horizontal plane; tall U-shape extends vertically on diagonal from center circle. U-lines have one small circle on each upper end. Below this image is a second image - a coiled line on a single horizontal plane.]] Another variation of the same expr offers a striking exhibition of the neutralizing action - suspend the unactive coil from a string, then introduce below the two coiles a [[word circled]] circle [[/word circled]] of [[word circled]] nickel [[/word circled]], the action is almost [[intensely?]] neutralized [[end page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct 24[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] 1838 (Wednesday) [[image - pen doodle of circular shaped swirl]] Arranged the two ribbons 4 an 5 so that they formed but one strand sent the battery charge through one the other being open a bright spark and loud snap were produced — when the 2nd was closed the spark did not entirely disappear but was much more feeble. The spark however did not entirely disappear. In order to produce the greatest induction action it would from these experiments that a coil should be mad with thick wires interspersed [[image - 2 swirls/coils side by side with slight separation. 2 lines extend from left side of left coil; coils connected at tops and bottoms by 2 horizontal lines. 2 parallel horizontal lines extend to right from center circle of right-coil. Each line had a circle at its right-most end (as like a terminus, perhaps)]] [[image label]] Compound helix, coil No 2 helix No 1 [[/image label]] Sparks by this arrangement from the [[strikethrough]] secon [[/strikethrough]] tertiary current [[image - two swirls/coils connected by lines as in image 1 above (i.e. side by side and connected by lines) but with a third coil (or circle) above right-hand coil...lines with terminals extend rightward from this circle.]] Tried the secondary coil in reference to distance separated - the two to the distance of 20 inches still slight shock perceived. When plate of copper interposed no effect. When plate of tin foil substituted effect full as strong.
[[insertion]] copy from here [[/insertion]] The power increases [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] very rapidly as the coils are brought nearer each other and the effect might have been anticipated given the opposite sides of the spiral [[receive?]] from the coil opposite inductions so that the distance will be greater at which the shocks are produced with a [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] circles of larger diameter but then again the numbers of spirals are diminished in the ratio of the increased diams Attached to the end of the secondary coil a small soft iron magnet with [[were = wire?]] of 16 or 18 turns magnet exceded while the [[strikethrough]] file [[/strikethrough]] end was drawn along the surface of the [[rast?]] with large magnet no action Also mad[[e]] magnet by means of the tertiary current and the flat coils [[end page]] [[start page]] with the long helix on the flat coil no effet in the magnetising way although the shocks were very intense with the same arrangement Another experiment in reference to conversion of [[strikethrough]] qu [[/strikethrough]] intensity into quality atached to the flat ribbon which surrounded the long helix [[by?]] a small horse shoe magnet around the legs of which about 6 feet of copper wire was wrapped [[strikethrough]] will when [[/strikethrough]] the magnet became excited and the [[keeper?]] adhered but when the same magnet was introduced into the battery current no magnetism was produced — The battery used was the little shaker one. Same experiment might probably be performed with ordinary electricity wire if not for the difficulty of perfectly [[marking?]] the several spirals of the wire The direction of the ^ [[insertion]] secondary [[/insertion]] current was taken with the long helix and again found [[underlined]] direct'n [[/underlined]] with the intensity battery
[[underlined]] 31 [[/underlined]] [[begin Ledger entry header - continues across both pages]] Dr [[r is underlined and superscript]] Robert & John [[double score across both pages; vertical scores divide each page into seven columns with a double vertical score between columns 4 & 5]] [[begin Ledger entry]] 799 Novr [[r is underlined and superscript]] | 29 | To Cash in full as per Waste Book... | 24 || £109 | 6 | 10 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; single score across column 4]] [[end Ledger entry]] [[blank space]] [[begin Ledger entry header - continues across both pages]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[r is underlined and superscript]] John [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[begin Ledger entries]] 1807 June | 9 | To Cash paid him on acct.... | 102 || 8 | 0 | ~ " [[ditto for: June]] | 18 | To ditto [[for: Cash]] in full...."... | 107 || 8 | 7 | ~ [[columns 1-4 blank]][[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 16 | 7 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] Decr [[r underlined & superscript]] | 26 | To Cash as per Receipt... | .. || 8 | 1 | 1 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1808 Jun | 28 | To Cash in full... | .. | 8 | 16 | 9 [[end Ledger entries]] [[image]] box with line out of both sides half way down [[/image]] Oct 29th Surrounded the large coil of wire which I have borrowed of Dr Galey and which contains 5 miles of copper bill wire with coil No 1; received the shock through one finger, exceedingly intense so as to affect. my arm up to my body and to give me, a slight [[hum?]] in the head -- The Magnetizing effect of this arrangement was exceedingly feeble ^[[ No magnet with small horseshoe]] This Large coil is one half of the wire which has been prepared for the experiments on the electrical telegraph NB One box of the large magnet was used for these expr. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[begin Ledger entry header - continues from opposite page]] Sharp Cr [[r is underlined & superscript]] [[double score across page; with scores for columns as noted prior]] [[begin Ledger entry]] 1799 April | [[blank]] | By Goods as per Waste Book.... | 12 || £109 | 6 | 10 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; single score across column 4]] [[end Ledger entry]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] [[begin Ledger entry header - continued from opposite page]] Shaw & Son Cr [[r underlined & superscript]] 1806 | [[blank]] | [[double score across columns 3-7 - end Ledger header]] [[begin Ledger entries]] Decr [[r underlined & superscript]] | 6 | By Rope as per Invoice Books... | 43 || 16 | 7 | ~ [[2-3 line space; double diagonal score begins partway into column 3, lower portion up to double score divider between columns 4 & 5; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1807 Augt | 6 | By Cordage as per Invoice... | 67 | 8 | 1 | 1 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] Decr [[r underlined & superscript]] | 26 | By Cordage as per Invoice Book... | 80 | 8 | 16 | 9 [[end Ledger entries]] [[margin]] 1 [[/margin]][[middle of paragraph]] [[image]] Wire between 2 nodes, L on Left C on Right s and a below [[image]] Oct 30th made today a small galvanometer of about 150 turns, put this [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] in the [[strikethrough]] apparatus [[/strikethrough]] ^[[arrangement]] of [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] Faraday, 10th [[series?]] to determine the direction of the 100 ft current at [[underline]] a [[/underline]], but the result was not very satisfactory. Need [[solution?]] this with [[the down ?]] [[barn?]][[attic?]] [[margin]] 2[[/margin]] Put in the galvanometer in the circuit of the Secondary current needle deflected to the side [[under?]] along a current + The effect was much increased by introducing into the same circuit a decomposing apparatus to retard the current [[margin]] 3 [[/margin]] Again put the same apparatus into the circuit of the tertiary current, and There
[[double underscore]] 32 [[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Charles T [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 5 To Cash in full by Cap[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] M [[Trottes?]] . .|14||£157|16| 8½ [[double line across most of page]] the motion of the needle indicated a - [[negative sign]] current or one in an opposite direction to that of the battery [[score across page - section break]] Oct 31[[superscript]]st[[/superscript]] 1838 Made to day a new galvanometer of 600 turns of very fine wire of copper covered with silver This gave indications of a current from a continued stream of ordinary Electricity - with sparkes the effect very little [[image - coil of wire]] When one end of the coil was put into a plate of acid, dilute end, the wire [[overwriting]] would [[/overwriting]] of a [[zinc? ]] wire attached to the other extremity, touched the same and the needle whirled around. [[image - three circles in a row connected by short arced lines connected by another arced line to the top of a fourth circle with a circle and negative sign inside it. The fourth circle is connected by a line from its bottom to the bottom of the first circle.]] Three plates in a row with dilute acid, the needle made nearly a revolution when the same zinc point touched the further plate The electricity of the thermo pile would not paſs through -- [[short underscore - section break]] With the above apparatus, I tested anew the direction of the tertiary current and found it as before - minus [[score across page - section break]] [[image to left - shape resembles an Erlenmeyer flask, with letters a, b, c, and "hy" and "ox"]] a hydrogen oxygen [[image to right - shape with letters C, Z, H and O and a - and + with an arrow beneath]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Vogal & C[[superscript]]o[[/superscript]] C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 22 By Goods as pr Waste Book . . |11|£157|16| 8½ [[double line across most of page]] [[underscore]] May 13[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] 1839 [[/underscore]] Another long interregnum in my experiments - In the meantime I have published my paper 3[[superscript]]rd[[/superscript]] [[Sences?]] Electio dynamic Induction, given a course of Lectures in New York, but have been chiefly prevented from experimenting by a series of changes going on in the Arrangement of the Philosophiccal hall and the room below, and there I have been superintending -- I have lately received Dr Faradays 14th [[Scences?]], and find that he has crossed the track of my last paper, but in reference to the screening influence, draws an intirely opposite conclusion. There is however no doubt but that he is in error in the enunciation of the proposition, since my results are on such a scale, as to leave no doubt as to the nature. Commenced to day some experiments to determine the cause of Dr F's not getting the same results - [[line across page]] [[underscore]] Exp 1 [[/underscore]] - Arranged the electrometer by Clark [[image in left margin, complicated but reflects what Henry describes here]] - Sent charge of galvanism through coil No 2, helix No one connected with the galvanometer, lowered helix on coil, current in one direction, raised helix, current in the other, but plate of [[strikeout]] cop [[/strikeout]] [[^]] [[sheet? or tuch?]][[/^]] lead between, no diffiffence, plate at rest, still no difference - plate in motion with the helix no difference
[[Header]] 33 Dr James [[/header]] 799 April 26 to cash as for waste book ...... 10 |4|0|[[in]] May 29 To '' ditto ''.... 25 |77|8|4 [[totals column:]][[pound sign]]81|8|4 Ex 2nd [[image]] hand drawing of magnet [[/image]] Put a current [[circut?]] of long thin were around the armature of the compound magnet, and over this wire put another. Then connected the ends of the 2nd wire with the galvanometer, the sloped motion of the [keeper?] caused motion in the needle. Next joined the ends of the inner wire not the least difference [[in]][[smudge] the action was perceived, the needle still obeyed the slightest motion of the [keeper?] - I before [[strikethrough]]expected[[/strikethrough]] in an experiment, made last summer, put a band ^[[of copper]] around the armature [[drawn picture of experiment]] of two straight magnets and found no effect as it regards interference [See July 21st 1839] In the above expt with the compound magnet [[clarks?]] galvanometer was used -- Exp 3rd [[Attempted?]] with the arrangement of the coil and helix, as described in Exp. 1, to detect the electrotonic state. A continued current was passed through the coil while the helix was placed on it, and the ends suddenly joined, but no action was perceived at the galvanometer -- May 14th Repeated the 1st Exp of yesterday with small galvanometer plate between, action the same as when air intervened also the motion of the plate with the coil made not difference. Attempted same exp with the interrupted current, with a file, but the current was so strong as to change the polarity of the needle of the galvanometer Try the same exp with the needles [[verined (smudged writing?]] magnetic From these exp it appears that that there is a difference in action of ^[[induction?]] [[x below this word]]of the continued current and the interrupted one Exp 2nd When the same arrangement was made as before the induction took place through a
[[beginning of left page]] 34 Dr. Leonard 799 Nov. 30 To Cash in [[?]] as for Waste Book . . . 26 38 0 - 1800 March 29 To Cash in full, . . . " . . . 30 47 8 3 ---- £85 8 3 Nov. 18 To Sundries as for Waste Book . . . [[?]] £ 50 3 3 1800 Aug 16 To Cash as for Waste Book . . . 56 48 0 - Dec - 8 To Cash " " . . . 60 57 7 2 ---- £ 105 7 2 Except perhaps in the case of a solution of some salt in water, as in the experiments of the [[Book?]], or perhaps the [[?]] of the structure might have had some effect on the exp. This exp has some bearing apparently on the exp of [[?]] Faraday, with tourmalines and a [[galvanized?]] current. ---------------------- X When the [[tail?]] of one of Prince Ruperts drops was placed between the tourmalines depolar [[ization?]] was at once manifest. I also thought that when [[nitric acid?]] was made to act on mercury in a tube on the sides of which tourmalines were placed, that the bubbles of nitrous gas depolarized the light; when however all the light was excluded by closing the tube on all sides by tin foil, no effect of the kind was perceptible. [[sketch of a tube with a round object on either side]] Tourmalines stuck on by bees wax ---------------------- Sept 3rd A brilliant aurora appeared tonight - Jesse saw it about 1/2 past 8 o'clock well formed corona steady and perfect for 1/2 an hour - light crimson and greenish - M Alexandra determined the fixation of the corona - I made a [[series]] of experiments relative to the fact of polarization with two tourmalines, also with a [[Nicols?]] [[?]] [[end of left page]] [[beginning of right page]] Kipp Jun 6th 1797 July 22 By Goods as for Waste Book . . . £ 85 8 3 " " 1800 April 1 By Goods as for Invoice Book A page 18 . . . £ 50 3 3 1801 May 14 By Merchandise as for Invoice Book A page 26 £ 105 7 2 and a [[piece?]] of mica, but although the light of the aurora was sufficiently intense to be seen through these, no polarization could be observed, also the polar scope of [[?]]was used which is a very delicate instrument but with the same result --I am therefore inclined to think that the auroral light is not from a reflected surface. Sept [[2?]] Fitted up today the long wire of [[spool?]] of Mr Morse with 4 miles of wire (the other mile is on the larger wheel) for the purpose of producing shocks from the magnetism of the earth, but no effect could be observed. [[Th..?]] were perhaps were not properly [[arranged?]] Sept 5 Put in [[action?]] of the [[strikeout]]large[[/strikeout]] boxes of the large battery -- found it leaked, [[poured?]] in [[cement?]] first, burned some [[?]] in the box, to dry it and heat the pitch. The pitch caught fire, and in the wetted state [[?]] into the cracks and [[stopped?]] the leaks. [[Jacoby?]] states in a paper in the Am Philosophical magazine, that there is no magnetic development on the outside of a circuit, and that in all cases the iron must be on the same side as the axes of the coil to become magnetic. To try this, one of the coils [[?]]
[[begin page]] [[double underscore]]35[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript\]] White. [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 15 To Furr, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book ........... 10||£ 68|10|~ [[a wavy underscore below that money amount]] [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 18 To Cash in full,............|102|| 52|15|- Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 To Cash for my Note taken up,...|~|| 9|19| 4 [[double line across most of page]] was attached to the battery, and a piece of hollow iron placed within [[image, spiral with "a" inside, "O b" below]] say at [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]], it of course became strongly magnetic. The same piece was then removed to the position [[underscore]]b[[/underscore]] without the circuit, the magnetism in the last case was not quiet as strong as before, but still very decided. This Exp. conclusively shows that the statement of M Jacoby is not correct He experimented probably with so small a battery, that the effect was not perceptible -- [[line across page]] [[note in left margin]]Exp 2[[end margin note]] Placed a smal ring of iron, or rather a short cylinder, 2 inches diameter, one inch in hight within the coil, no magnetism appeared on the inside, but strong on the outside [[line across page]] [[margin note]]Exp[[/margin note]] Made a small cylindrical coil about one inch, internal diameter 1½ inch long, lined this inside with tin foil - put in iron filings, sent charge through from one division of large battery (same as used last expr - The filings formed into strings, reaching from one end of the cylinder parallel to the axis - very little attraction [[^]] [[strikeout]]but at[[/strikeout]][[/^]] attraction [[^]]but[[/^]] at the ends [[strikethrough]] but[[/strikethrough]] appeared loose, at the middle, because the whole formed one magnetic [[bar?]] attraction at [[end page]] [[start page]] Brothers & C[[superscript]]o[[/superscript]] C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 May By Goods, as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |12|| 61| 6|.. Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By their a/c " " . . .|25||[[underscore]]£7| 4|~[[/underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 22 By my note to pay in Six months |~|| 52|15| [[double line across most of page]] 1807 June 20 By my note for $24. 92/100 . . |~|| 9|19| 4 [[double line across most of page]] the end - [probably in a long cylinder attraction acts the same as in a hollow piece of iron [[line across page]] Sept 5[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] continued Made the following arrangmt in reference to the penetration of mercury through lead - [[image to left, complicated, with letters and + and - marks, matching the description Henry wrote here]] [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]] [[underscore]]b[[/underscore]] are two [[strikeout]]leads[[/strikeout]] syphons of lead [[underscore]]c[[/underscore]] [[underscore]]d[[/underscore]] two cups of mercury f [[strikeout]]the[[/strikeout]] large battery very weakly charged - The circuit of the galvanic current is indicated by the arrows The apparatus was put away at about 5 oclock -- ----- Sept 7[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] Examined the above arrangement found in the cup at the bottom of the siphon [[underscore]]a[[/underscore]], globule of mercury about the size of a pea, but mercury in the cup at the bottom of [[underscore]]b[[/underscore]]. The battery apparently had ceased to act, except very feebly. Put some fresh acid to the battery, and let the arrangement act for 2 some days longer - [[pencil note:]] June 22-'94 morning - [[end pencil note]] [[end page]]
[[begin page]] [[double underscore]]36[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Bayard & [[double line across page from which descent rules for accounting columns]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 16 To Cash in full as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|24||£ 8|18|-- [[double line across most of page]] 1800 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . .|41||£ 12| 7| 6 [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Adams C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 22 By Goods as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] day Book, . . .|11||£ 8|18|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1800 April 1 By Drugs as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book A page 17 . |£ 12| 7| 6 [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]]
[[START PAGE]] 37 Dr. Charale,s R. V. ======================================================= ?799 October 23 To Cash, as per Waste Book 16 12 0 -- Dec. 19 To Sundries " ditto, 28 8 9 -- 1800 March 11 To Cash. " " 30 7 9 -- ========= L27 18 -- ======================================================= ======================================================= Dr.. Messrs.. Websters ======================================================= 1807 Febry To Cash as per Receipt. -- 3 0 -- ======================================================= 1808 Sept 20 To Cash in full. -- 5 1 - ======================================================= [[END PAGE]] [[START PAGE]] George Webster [[?Cr. or Sr.?]] ============================================================ 1799 May By Goods as per Waste Book. 12 16 10 -- Octbr. 3 By this [[?a/c?]] " " 14 11 8 -- 1800 March 11 By ' " " -- -- -- -- ------------ L27 18 -- ============================================================ ============================================================= V. Skinner [[?Cr. or Sr.?]] ============================================================= 1806 July 12 By Bookes as per day Books, 77 3 0 -- ============================================================= 1807 May 29 By Sundries as per Invoice Book. 50 5 1 -- ============================================================= [[END PAGE]]
[[double underscore]]38[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Clark & [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 29[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] To Sundris as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |12|| 33|13| 7 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 22 To Cash ............... |14|| 24| 0|~ Oct[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 3 To J. & W. Andersons a/c " ..... |15||287| 9| 9 14 To Sundris...... |11|| 88| 8| 3 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 5 To Sundris ......... |16||[[underscore]] 66|15|10½[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £500| 7| 5½ [[double line across most of page]] [[brief blank space]] [[double line across most of page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Thomas [[double line across most of page]] 1800 May 22 TO Sundris as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste-Book . .|33||309|11| 7½ July 24 To Shoes " " . .|36|| 20|10| 6 To a Note " " . .|..||127|16| 3 Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 TO an acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]]" " . .|38|| 2|14|-- Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 18 To Cash Rec[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]], " " . .|41|| 38| 3| 6 1801 March 31 To Cash Rec[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]], " " . .|48||170| 9| 6 May 4 To Sundris " " . .|49|| 23|13|.. Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 24 To H & J [[Monrous?]] acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] " . .|57||102|19| 6 To Ballence of A. Douglaſs a/c Rec[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] . .|~||[[underscore]] 1| 2|~[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 796|19|10½ [[double line across most of page]] 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 1 To Ballence due this day, . .| ||142| 8| 4 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 18 To an Error as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|65|| 6|14| 5¼ March 1 To Peas, " " . | "|| -| 2|~ Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 To Notes " " . .|74|| 99| 1|~ 1803 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 15 To ditto " " . .|75|| 10| 0|~ 1805 April 22 To Sundris " " . .|91|| 8| 4|~ July 3 To Sundris " " . .|92|| 92|14| 6 22 To Cash " " . . |93|| 20| 0|~ Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 13 To Sundris " " . . |93|| 78|13| 6 Octber 10 To Order paid " " . .|94||[[underscore]] 21|12| 2¾[[/underscore]] [[new line]] [[double underscore]]479|10|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1806 March 10 To Thom[[superscript]]s[[/superscript]] Wilsons note as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book |95|| 10| 1|10 1807 March 17 To Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|99|| 30| 1| 2 [[end page]] [[begin page]] Street C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July [[19 or 29?]][[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] By Cash as pr Waste Book, . . |12|| 40| 0|~ Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By their Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] Ren[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] " . . |16|| 53| 7|~ Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 4 By Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . |26||287| 0| 1 23 By Cash, " ditto, . .|29|| 2| 0|~ [[1800?]] May 24 By Ball. " ditto, . .|33||[[underscore]]118| 0| 4½[[/underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] [[brief space]] [[double line across most of page]] Clark C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across most of page]] 1800 June 24 By Cash, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |34|| 1| 4|~ July 24 By ditto . " . .|36|| 4| 0|~ Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 23 By ditto, " . .|38|| 49|18| 8 By a Note Returnd " . .|38||127|16| 3 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] By Cash, on a/c " . . |41|| 87|10| 7½ 1801 Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 18 By Cash, " . . .|48|| 48| 0|~ March 31 By Cash, . " . . |48||200| 0|~ July 28 By Cash . " . . |55|| 40| 0|~ Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] By Leather " . . |56|| 40|10|~ " By Ditto, " . . |57|| 15|12|~ Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 By Cash, " . . .|59|| 40| 0|~ 1802 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 1 By Ballence due A Alexander this day . .|~||[[underscore]]142| 8| 4[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 796|19|10½ [[double line across most of page]] Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 18 By Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |65|| 84| 0|~ 1803 May 12 By ditto . ditto . .|79|| 40| 0|~ Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 27 By ditto . " . . |81|| 28|14| 4 1804 March 24 By ditto . " . . |85|| ~| 4| 0 1805 March 13 By ditto, . " . . |90|| 56| 0|~ July 22 By Flour, " " . .|93||240|| 0|~ By a deduction of 3 p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Cent. on the goods [[Serv[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]]?]] the 3[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] Ins[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]]|~|| 2|10| 6 1806 March 10 By Sundris, " . . |95||[[underscore]] 28| 1| 2[[/underscore]] [[new line]] 479|10|~ [[double line across most of page]] 1807 July 13 By Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |106|| 30| 1| 2 [[end page]]
[[double underlined]] 39 [[double underline]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] John [[double line across page]] 1799 July | 29 | To merchandize as pr. Waste Book.........|13 || 869| 5 | 6 " [[ditto for: 29]] To Sundris..."... 11 || 1706 | 5 | 4 To a [[Montage?]] of [[musherts?]]..."... 28 || 71 | 11 | 8 1800 April 14 To Sundris..."... 31 || 30 | 17 | 3 To Sundris..."... 37 || 60 | 16 | - [[double underline indicating sum]] [[pound symbol]] || 2708 | 5 | 9 [[double line across page]] Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] | 11 | To Ballance due this day..."... | 36 || 40 | 147 [[double line across page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] M Gregor C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across page]] 1799 Octb[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] | 29 | By a payment as pr. Waste Book...16 || 438 | 6 | 9 1/2 Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] | 6 | By an Abatement..."..."...17 || 20 | 5 | 2 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 6 By Sundris ..."..."...28 || 1706 | 5 | 4 1800 March 29 By ditto [[ditto for: Sundris]] ..."..."... 30 || 15 | 9 | 9 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]] By ditto [ditto for: Sundris]] ..."..."... 36 || 527 | 18 | 8 1/2 [[double line indicating addition]] [[pound symbol]] || 2708 | 5 | 9 [[double line across page]] By amount of Balances brought over, to Ball - || 40 | 147 [[double line across page]]
[[begin page]] [[double underscore]]40[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] James [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 29 To Tobacco as pr. Waste Book, . . .|12|| 48| 4|~ [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]] [[begin page]] Maclan C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1800 May 14 By, Sundris as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .|32|| 48| 4|~ [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]]
[[begin page]] [[double underscore]]41[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Aandrew [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 To Cash in full as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |25||£324|11|10 [[double line across most of page]] [[large space]] [[double line across part of page]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Woodhull & [[double line across much of page]] 1801 May 20[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] To Tobacco, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .|51|| 80| 7|- Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 To Cash to Ballince, . . . |59||[[underscore]] 59| 8| 3[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £137|15| 3 [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]] [[new page]] Brown & C[[superscript]]o[[/superscript]] C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page, from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 July 20 By Rum as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|13||297|11| 6 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 10 By ditto, " " . .|14|| 24|15|- Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 29 By Interest, " . " . . |25||[[underscore]] 2| 5} 4[[/underscore]] [[new line]] £324|11|10 [[double line across most of page]] [[large space]] [[double line across part of page]] Smith, C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across much of page]] 1801 May 16[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] By Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . . |50||[[double underscore]]£137|15| 3[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] [[end page]]
[[double underlined]] 42 [[/double underlined]] [[begin Ledger Header & entries]] Dr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] John [[double underscore across page; vertical scores divide page into seven columns with double vertical score between columns 4 & 5]] 1779 July | 29 | To Sundries as per Waste Book... | 12 || £458 | 12 | ~ 1800 | [[blank]] | [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] April | 14 | To Sundries as per Waste Book... | 31 || 199 | 0 | 10 July | 22 | To Interest, " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]]... | 55 || 6 | 8 | 2 [[columns 1-4 blank]] [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 205 | 9 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[end Ledger entries]] [[blank space]] [[begin Ledger header & entries]] [[double score across column 3 - section break]] Dr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] Woodhull [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1801 Decr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] | 2 | To Ginsang, as per Waste Book... | 59 || [[columns 5-7 blank]] 1802 April | 19 | to Cash on acct. ditto " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]]... | 65 | 16 | 0 | - 1801 July | 7 | To Cash " [[ditto for: on acct.]] ditto " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]]... | 68 || 28 | 0 | ~ [[July 7 appears to apply to next line entry as well]] | To Cash " [[ditto for: on acct.]] ditto " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]]... | 69 || 60 | 0 | ~ Novr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] | 15 | To Sundries " .. ditto " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 72 || 19 | 4 | 2 [[columns 1-4 blank]] [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 123 | 4 | 2 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[end Ledger entries]] [[blank space]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[begin Ledger Header & entries]] Dodemead Cr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] [[double underscore across page; vertical scores divide page into seven columns with double vertical score between columns 4 & 5]] 1799 Octr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] | 29 | By Goods as per Waste Book... | 16 || 438 | 6 | 9 1/2 Novr [[r is underlined & superscripted]] | 6 | By an abatement for [[wantage]] an liquor... | 17 || 20 | 5 | 2 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 458 | 12 | ~ 1800 | [[blank]] | [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] Augt. | 11 | By Sundries as per Waste Book... | 36 || 100 | 8 | ~ July | 22 | By Cash, " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]] | 55 || 22 | 7 | ~ 1802 Sepr [[r is underlined & superscript]] | 22 | By Sundries " " [[ditto for: as per Waste Book]]... | 57 || 83 | 14 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 205 | 9 | [[blank]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[end Ledger entries]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] [[begin Ledger header & entry]] & Kipp Cr [[r is underlined & superscript]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1801 Decr [[r is underlined & superscript]] | 2 | By Merchandize as per Waste Book A page 33 | ~ || £ 123 | 4 | 2 [[double diagonal score across columns 3 & 4 from lower left to upper right; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[end Ledger entries]] [[blank space]]
[[double underlined]] 43 [[/double underlined]] Dr. Abram [[text is entered into preprinted table]] 1799 July | 12 | To Cash as pr. Waste Book... | 10 || £ 23 | 10 | ~ [[double line under columns 5-7]] [[double line across page [[end page]] [[start page]] Ten Eyck &Co. Cr 1798 Decr | 28 | By Glass as per Invoice Book . Page 3... | ~ || £ 23 | 10 | ~ [[double line across columns 5-7]] [[double line across page]]
[[double underlined]] 44 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Robert [[double line across page; vertical lines create 7 columns on each page, with double score between columns 4 & 5, each page.]] 1799 July | 29 | To Sundries as pr Waste Book... | 13 || £ 1090 | 8 | ~ [[double line across columns 3-7]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Innis & [[double line across column 3; line across columns 4-6]] 1800 April | 14 | To Sundries as pr. Waste Book... | 31 || 142 | 18 | 4 October | 4 | To. ditto [[ditto for: Sundries]] . . ditto [[ditto for: as pr. Waste Book]]... | 40 || 170 | 9 | 6 [[line across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 313 | 7 | 10 [[double line across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Innes &C[[superscript]] o [[/superscript]] C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [double lines across page]] 799 Dec[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] | 6 | By Sundries. as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book.... | 28 || £ 1090 | 8 | ~ Grant C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across column 3; line across columns 4-7]] 1800 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]]. | 11 | By Goods as per Waste Book...| 36 || 142 | 18 | 4 1801 March | 31 | By Cash in full... | 48 || 70 | 9 | 6 [[line across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 313 | 7 | 10 [[double line across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. this page - only Ledger entries]] [[Ledger header across both pages]] [[left page]]Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Messrs James [[right page]] [[O ?]] Ryley &Co. Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across both pages; vertical scores create 7 columns on each page, with double score between columns 4 & 5, each page.]] [[left page]] 1799 | th | [[columns 3-7 blank]] May | 8 | To Sundries as per Waste-Book. from Page 17 including | 24 || 2807 | 16 | 4 [[blank]] | " [[for: 8]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]], . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]]. . . | 26 || 7 | 0 | ~ Decr. | 6 | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]] . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]],. . . | ~ || 19 | 4 | ~ [[blank]] | " [[for: 6]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]] . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]],. . . | 27 || 58 | 19 | 8 [[blank]] | " [[for: 6]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]] . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]],. . . | ~ || 277 | 10 | 2 [[blank]] | " [[for: 6]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]] . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]],. . . | ~ || 14 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | " [[for: 6]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]] . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]],. . . | 28 || 185 | 0 | ~ 1800 March | 13 | To " Cash. . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]] | 30 || 2 | 8 | ~ June | 9 | To " ditto [[for: Cash]]. . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]] | 34 || - | 8 | - Augt. | 11 | To " Sundries. . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]] | 36 || 429 | 3 | 2 Septr | [[9 ?]] | To " ditto [[for: Sundries]]. . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste-Book]] | 37 || 119 | 4 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 3920 | 9 | 5 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] " [[for: Septr]] | 11 | To Ballance as per acct. interest this day... | 37 || 1396 | 4 | 10 1/2 [[blank]] | 15 | To Interest, as per ditto [[for: per acct. interest this day]]... | 37 || 14 | 0 | - [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 3920 | 9 | 5 [[diagonal double score across lower left column 3 to upper right column 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4 - section break]] [[end left page]] [[right page]] 799 | th | [[columns 3-7 blank]] June | 18 | By Sundries as per Waste Book... | 26 || 662 | 2 | 3 [[blank]] | " | By " [[for: Sundries]] ditto . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | " [[for: 26]] || [[17?]] | 13 | 2 1/2 Decr | 6 | By " [[for: Sundries]] ditto . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | 27 || 1276 | 13 | 9 1800 May | 16 | By " [[for: Sundries]] ditto . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | 33 || 12 | 0 | ~ June | 9 | By " [[for: Sundries]] ditto . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | 34 || 163 | 8 | ~ Augt. | 11 | By " [[for: Sundries]] ditto . . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | 36 || 376 | 15 | 4 [[blank]] | 14 | By " Bonus . . ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]]... | 36 || 115 | 12 | ~ Septr. | 11 | By Ball. due [[A. A. ?]] us per acct. endorsed... | " [[for: 36]] | 1296 | 4 | 10 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 3920 | 9 | 5 [[diagonal double score across lower left column 3 to upper right column 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[blank]] | 11 | By an Error, as per Waste Book... | 37 || 15 | 11 | 7 [[blank]] | 11 | By Sundries. " ditto [[for: as per Waste Book]], ... | 37 || 7 | 16 | - [[blank]] | By a Saddle + Bridle + [[leash?]]... | 37 || 83 | 10 | - [[blank]] | 27 | By Sundries. to Ballance... | 39 || 1184 | 7 | 3 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 1310 | 4 | 10 1/2 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4 - section break]] [[end right page]]
[[begin left page]] [[double underscore]]46[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] John [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1800 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 20 To Cash a p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . .|40||200| 0|- Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 12 To ditto, p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Cap[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] Jon [[Watton?]] " . |40|| 50| 0|- Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 8 To Com[[superscript]]s[[/superscript]] Henreys Note at [[4?]] Months, . .|41||250| 0|.. 1801 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]] 9 To Cash by John Thomson . . .|47|| 61| 1| 2 May 16 To Sundris " . . .|50||[[underscore]] 55|10|11[[/underscore]] £616|12| 1 [[double line across most of page]] Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] 16 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, . . |56|| 50| 0|- Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 25 To Cash in full to Ballence, . . |58||[[underscore]]151| 1| 6[[/underscore]] £201| 1| 6 [[double line across most of page]] 1802 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] To Cash for my Note . . |~|| 12| 0|~ 1803 June 8 To Sundris as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|79||160| 6| 5 1804 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 7 To ditto . " . " . .|87||[[underscore]] 39|13| 7[[/underscore]] [[double underscore]]212| 0|~[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1804 May 22 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Rec[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] by Smith [[?]], $1762.- | ||704|16|~ 1805 May 15 To ditto . ditto, . $2005 10/100| ||802| 0|10 To ditto . ditto in full, . |98||[[underscore]]493| 3| 2[[/underscore]] [[double underscore]]2000| 0|~ [[double line across much of page]] 1807 June 18 To Cash On Acc[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]] as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book |103|| 16| 0|- Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 To ditto . ditto . |114|| 38| 0|- ~ To Ball. due on my Note, |~||[[underscore]]109| 1| 6[[/underscore]] 163| 1| 6 [[double line across most of page]] 1809 June 13 To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |120|| 20| 0|~ [[end page]] [[begin right page]] Taylor C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double line across page from which rules for accounting columns descend]] 1799 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 26 By my Bond as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . |29||566| 0|~ 1801 May 16 By Interest due on his a/c . |~||[[underscore]] 50|12| 1[[/underscore]] £616|12| 1 "[[double line across most of page]] May 16 By Sundris, as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . . |50||[[double underscore]]£201| 1| 6[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1801 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 By my Note as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book . .|59|| 12| 0|~ 1803 June 8 By Hause-Rent as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book |79||160| 0|~ 1804 Octb[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 2 By ditto . " . " . .|87||[[underscore]] 40| 0|~[[/underscore]] [[double underscore]]212| 0|~[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] By my Bond & mortgage given him the 12[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] July 1803|--||[[double underscore]]2000| 0|~[[/double underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] 1806 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 21 By Merchandize as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book |35||158|11| 6 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] 11 By Interest due this day , . . |..||[[underscore]] 4|10|-[[/underscore]] [[double line across most of page]] " By Ball. due on my Note . |..||109| 1| 6 [[end page]]
[[double underscore]]47[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Richard [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 April|14|To Sundries as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book,... |31|| 72|19|10 June |28|To ditto " . . . |34|| 46|19| 6 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £119|19| 4 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4]] Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]|18|To Muslin as Pr. Waste Book, . . |46|| 8|16|~ [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Donovan C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]]|11|By Cash as p[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book .... |36|| 72|19|10 Nov[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]|18|By Cash ~ . " . . . |41|| 38| 3| 6 Dec[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]|18|By Muslins ~ . " . . . |46|| 8|16|~ [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £119|19| 4 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4]] [[columns 1 & 2 blank]] By Muslins Returnd by James Ryley... |~|| 8|16|~ [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end right page]]
[[double underscore]]48[[/double underscore]] D[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] William [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Aug[[superscript]]t[[/superscript]]|18|To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book, ... |37|| 40| 0|~ Sept[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]]| 4| To Cash " ditto . . ditto . . |37|| 20| 0|~ [[blank]]|17|To Cash " . ditto . . ditto . .|38|| 20| 0|~ [[blank]]|25|To Cash " . ditto . . ditto . .|39|| 9|10|11 [[score across columns 5-6]] [[columns 1-4 blank]]£ 89|10|11 [[double underscore across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4 - section break]] 1807 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]]|27|To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[superscript]] Waste Book...|98|| 20|16|~ March|14|To ditto . . " . .|99|| 20| 0|- May |29|To ditto . . " . .|101||[[double underscore]] 20| 2| 4[[/double underscore]] [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 80|18| 4 [[double score across columns 3-6 - section break]] 1808 Jan[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]]|13|To Cash as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Waste Book .. |116|| 20| 0|- Feb[[superscript]]y[[/superscript]]|19|To ditto . . ditto . . .|116||[[underscore]] 6|19|~[[/underscore]] [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 26|19|~ [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end left page]] [[start right page]] Coldwell C[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5]] 1800 April|15[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]]|By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book Page 20 .. |~||[[double underscore]]£ 89|10|11 [[upward (left-to-right) diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 connecting to the above double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4]] 1801 July|12|By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Bill, . . |97||[[double underscore]] 80|18| 4[[/double underscore]] [[upward (left-to-right) diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 connecting to the above double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 June | 1|By Goods as P[[superscript]]r[[/superscript]] Invoice Book, . . |50|| 15|14|~ July|13|By ditto, . " . . .|64||[[double underscore]] 11| 5|-[[/double underscore]] [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 26|19|~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end right page]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 49 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Henry & John [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 May | 14 | To Sundries as per Waste Book... | 33 || £ 102 | 19 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Warran Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Sepr | 24 | By the amt. [[changed? or charged?]] to [[?]] Thomas Clark | 57 || £ 102 | 19 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 50 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Henry [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 May | 18 | To Sundries, as per Waste Book. . . | 33 || 258 | 7 | 9 Decr. 8 | To . ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 41 || 3 | 14 | ~ 1801 Feby | 4 | To Interest on acct. tendered. . . . | 48 || 6 | 14 | 6 May | 4 | To Sundries, as per Waste Book. . . | 49 || 71 | 13 | - [[blank]] | 28 | To . ditto. . . . " . . . " . . . | 51 || 245 | 12 | 10 Septr. | 19 | To Cash . . . " . . . " . . . | 56 || 7 | 16 | - Decr. | 2 | To Sundries . " . . . " . . . | 59 || 104 | 6 | 11 1802 Jany | 4 | To Interest . " . . . " . . . | 64 || 13 | 9 | 7 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 712 | 4 | 7 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[columns 1 & 2 blank]] to Ballance due the 1st Jany. 1802... | [[blank]] || 278 | 4 | 7 May | 1 | To Sundries as per Waste Book... | 66 || 221 | 11 | - Augst | 7 | To Interest. " . . . ditto . . . " . . . | 68 || 10 | 17 | - [[columns 1 & 2 blank]] | To [[cust.?]] paid . . . ditto . . . " . . . | [[" ?]] || 3 | 12 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 514 | 4 | 7 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-6 - section break]] Septr | 1 | To Rum as per Waste Book. . . | 69 || 93 | 2 | 3 Novr | 24 | To, Sundris. . . ditto . . . | 71 || - | 11 | 6 1803 July | 25 | To . Ditto, . . . ditto , . . . | 76 || 18 | 18 | 8 March | 5 | To, Sundris, . . . ditto , . . . | 77 || 31 | 10 | 5 [[blank]] | 21 | To, ditto . . . ditto , . . . | 77 || 45 | 12 | ~ [[blank]] | 24 | To, ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 77 || 77 | 0 | ~ April | 11 | to Cash, . . . ditto , . . . | 78 || 8 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 274 | 16 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] May | 14 | To Cash as per Waste Book. . . | 79 || 1 | 4 | ~ Augt. | 27 | To Tickets . " . . . " . . . | 81 || 16 | 18 | ~ Novr | 14 | To Cash per Jo.[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] Walton, " . . . | 83 || 3 | 4 | ~ [[columns 1 & 2 blank]] To Ballance due H. Chapin . . . | ~ || - | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 21 | 10 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Chapins Cr [[abbrev. fr credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Decr. | 8 | By Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 41 || 95 | 12 | ~ 1801 May | 4 | By Goods for his Draft on I.[[?]] . . . | 49 || 40 | 0 | - Sepr | 19 | By Beaver. . . " . . . " . . . | 56 || 19 | 3 | 9 Decr. | 2 | By T[[?]] . . . " . . . " . . . | 59 || 278 | 19 | 9 1802 Jany | 1 | By Ballance due. " . . . " . . . " . . . | ~ || 278 | 9 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 712 | 4 | 7 [[upward (left-to-right) diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 connecting to a double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 July | 7 | By Inv. as per Waste Book . . . | 68 || 144 | 9 | 3 Augt. | 7 | By Sundris. . " . ditto . . . | | " || 369 | 15 | 4 [[heavy score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 514 | 4 | 7 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 Nov | 24 | By [[pounds?]] of Ginseng as per Waste Book. . . | 71 || 24 | 7 | 6 1803 Feby | 11 | By Cash . . . ditto . . . | 75 || 80 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 25 | By ditto . . . ditto . . . | 76 || 20 | 0 | ~ March | 21 | By on Draft . . . ditto . . . | 77 || 84 | 0 | - [[blank]] | 24 | By Furs . . . ditto . . . | 77 || 66 | 9 | ~ May | 14 | By Ballance . . . ditto . . . | 79 || - | 1 | 8 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1803 Augt. | 27 | By Furs as per Waste Book . . . | 81 | 21 | 10 | ~ [[upward (left-to-right) diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 connecting to a double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 51 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Shelden [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 May | 1 | To Sundries as per Waste Book . . . | 32 || 63 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Salt . . " . . ditto, . . . | 46 || 2 | 0 | - 1801 April | 3 | To Tobacco . . " . . ditto . . . | 49 || 122 | 0 | - July | 28 | To Sundris . . " . . " . . . | 55 || 24 | 0 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 211 | 1 | 1 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Logan Esq. Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 May | 1 | By Sundris, as per Waste Book . . . | 32 || 23 | 0 | ~ June | 30 | By an Order, as per . ditto . . . | 35 || 7 | 4 | ~ Octbr. | 7 | By Cash on a/c . . " . . . " . . . | 40 || 20 | 0 | - 1801 March | 14 | By Cash on a/c . " . . . " . . . | 48 || 8 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Sundris . " . . . " . . . | 52 || 3 | 3 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By . ditto . . . " . . . " . . . | 52 || 1 | 16 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Ballance due . . " . . . . . . . | 70 || 147 | 18 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 211 | 1 | 1 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 52 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Alexander [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 May | 14 | To Tobacco as per Waste Book . . . | 33 || 18 | 8 | [[blank]] June | 28 | To Tea as. per . . ditto . . . | 35 || 38 | 18 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 57 | 6 | - [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Dougless Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1800 May | 16 | By Furs as for Waste Book . . . | 33 || 56 | 4 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Ball Charg.d Thomas Clarke . . . | [[blank]] || 1 | 2 | - [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 57 | 6 | [[blank]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underscore]] 53 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Cap.[[superscript]]n[[/superscript]] James [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 June | 28 | To Sundris, as per Waste Book . . . | 35 || 86 | 1 | ~ 1804 Sepr | 15 | To Interest, to this day, . . . | 90 || 25 | 7 | 6 [[score across columns 5-7]] | | | || 111| 8| 6 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4 - section break]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] John [[double score across column 3; score across columns 4-6 - section break]] 1807 Sepr | 10 | To Cash in full for my note & acct. | 1111 || 119 | 13 | 5 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Richerdson Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1804 Septr. | 15 | By his note as per Waste Book . . . | 90 || [[squiggly underline]] 111 | 8 | 6 [[/squiggly underline]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4 - section break]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Brunson Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across column 3; score across columns 4-7]] 1807 April | 9 | By Sundry Goods as per Invoice Book . . . | 45 || 113 | 12 | 9 May | 11 | By Cotton, . . . ditto [[ditto for: as per Invoice Book]]. . . | 46 || 6 | 0 | 8 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 119 | 13 | 5 [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underlined]] 54 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Joshua [[double line across page; vertical lines create 7 columns, with double line between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 June | 28 | To. Sundries as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Waste Book . . .| 35 || £ 82 | 14 | ~ [[upward diagonal left-to-right double line across column 3; column 4 blank; double line across columns 5-7]] [[double line across columns 3-7]] 1802 Feb[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] | 18 | To Sundries as per Waste Book . . . | 65 || £ | 57 | 9 | 11 [[upward diagonal left-to-right double line across columns 3 & 4; double line across columns 5-7]] [[double line across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Fairbanks C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across page; vertical lines create 7 columns, with double lined between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Jan[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] | 13 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 64 || 80 | 0 | - [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By ditto. " " [[dittos for: Cash as per Waste Book . . . . | 64 || 2 | 16 | ~ [[line across columns 5-7 indicating addition]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 82 | 16 | ~ [[double line across columns 3-7]] 1802 Feb[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] | 18 | By Cash on acct. as p[[superscript]] r [/superscript]] Waste Book . . . | 65 || 40 | 0 | ~ Nov[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. | 2 | By ditto . . " . . ditto [[dittos for: By Cash on acct. as p[[superscript]] r [/superscript]] Waste Book][ . | 70 || 17 | 9 | 11 [[line across columns 5-7 indicating addition]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 57 | 9 | 11 [[double line across columns 3-7]]
[[double underlined]] 55 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Loring [[double line across page; vertical lines create 7 columns, with double line between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 July | 30 | To. House Acct, as per Waste Book . . . | 35 || 40 | 0 | ~ 1802 May | 1 | To ditto [[ditto for: To. House Acct, as per Waste Book]] . " . . " . | 70 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[line across columns 5 - 7 to show adding a sum]] | | | | || £ 80 | 0 | ~ [[double line across columns 3-7]] [[double line across column 3]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Smith Weed [[double line across column 3; line across columns 4-6]] 1807 Octb[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. | - | To Cash in full for this acct. . . . | - || 19 | 4 | ~ [[double line across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Andreus C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] [[double line across page; vertical lines create 7 columns, with double line between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 June | 30 | By Sundries as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. Waste Book . . . | 35 || 40 | 0 | ~ 1802 - | ~ | By Ditto . . ditto [[dittos for:Sundries as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. Waste Book]] .. " .. | 70 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 80 | 0 | ~ [[double line across column 3]] & Son. C[[superscript]] r[[/superscript]] [[double line across column 3; line across columns 4-7]] 1807 Aug[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]]. | 14 | By 1 Hh[[superscript]] d [[/superscript]]. Rum. as p[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] Invoice Book . . . | 67 || 19 | 4 | ~ [[double line across columns 3-7]]
[[double underscore]] 56 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] James [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 June | 16 | To Cash in full, as per Waste Book . . . | 55 || 419 | 4 | ~ [[double score across columns 3; score across columns 4-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Center & [[double score across columns 3-6]] 1807 Octbr. | - | To Cash in full . . . . | - || 20 | 15 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Daly Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Decr. | 8 | By Tobacco as per Invoice Book, page 23, . . . | ~ || 419 | 4 | ~ [[double score across column 3; score across columns 4-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Davis Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 July | 20 | By Sundris as per Invoice Book . . . | 65 || 20 | 15 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underscore]] 57 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Bonds [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To a Bond. as per Waste Book . . . | 46 || 500 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Ballance in favor of A. A. this year | ~ || 5414 | 0 | 7 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 5914 | 0 | 7 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Amt. of Bonds due, . . . | ~ || £ 3508 | 7 | 9 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Recievable Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Decr. | 18 | By, Bonds, as per Waste Book, pass'd to a/c of A. Alex., | 44 || 5098 | 7 | 4 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By, ditto, . . " . . . " . . . " . . . | 46 || 815 | 13 | 3 [[score across columns 4-7]] || £ 5914 | 0 | 7 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 Jany | 1 | By Bonds as per Waste Book . . . | 62 || £ 3508 | 17 | 9 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underscore]] 58 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Notes [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Jany | 1. | To amount of notes due A. A. this year . . . | ~ || £ 1214 | 16 | 2 [[upward diagonal left-to-right double score across columns 3 & 4; score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To amount of notes due . . . | ~ || £ 1163 | 6 | 1 [[double score across columns 5-6]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Recievable Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Decr. | 18 | By notes, as per Waste Book . . . | 45 || 1165 | 12 | 5 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By, ditto, . . [[?]] . . . | 46 || 61 | 10 | 6 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By, ditto, . . [[?]] in A. A.s a/c . . . | 47 || 87 | 13 | 3 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 1214 | 16 | 2 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 Jany | 1 | By notes as per Waste Book . . . | 63 || £ 1163 | 6 | 1 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 59 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Lands [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Jany | 1 | To amount of Lands this year . . . | ~ || £ 9332 | 10 | ~ [[upward diagonal left-to-right double score across columns 3 & 4; score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 Decr. | 4 | To amount of sales, as per Waste Book . . . | 72 || £ 7063 | 2 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Ballance to Close . . . | ~ || 2301 | 7 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 9364 | 9 | [[blank]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] &c [[etc.]] Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1800 Decr. | 18 | By Lands as per Waste Book . . . | 42 & 43 || 8912 | 10 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By, ditto, . . [[?]] . " . . . | 45 || 260 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By, ditto, . . [[?]] . " . . . | 46 || 160 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 9332 | 10 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1802 Jany | 1 | By Lands as per Waste Book . . . | 62 || £ 9364 | 9 | ~ [[upward diagonal left-to-right double score across columns 3 & 4; score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underlined]] 60 [[/double underlined]] D[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] James [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Feb[[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] | 19 | To Tobacco as per Waste Book . . . | 48 || 38 | 12 | ~ [[double line across page columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Duey C[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]] 1801 Novr | 2 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 58 || 38 | 12 | ~ [[double line across page columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 61 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess[[superscript & underline]]rs[[[[/superscript & underline]] Stephen [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Feby | 12 | To their Bond with Interest . . . | 48 || 368 | 7 | 4 1803 April | 23 | To Interest, as per Waste Book . . . | 78 || 36 | 5 | 5 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 404 | 12 | 9 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To his note on file for $458. 50/100= . . . | ~ || 183 | 8 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[upward diagonal left-to-right score across column 3; column 4 blank]] £ [[squiggly underline]] 183 | 8 | [[blank]] [[double score across column 3; score across columns 4-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Bates & Co. Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1802 July | 10 | By Cash, as per Waste Book . . . | 68 || 160 | 0 | ~ 1803 April | 23 | By Sundris, . . ditto . . . | 78 || 244 | [[overwritten]]10[[/overwritten]] 12 | [[overwritten]]4[[/overwritten]] 9 | £ || 404 | 12 | 0 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1805 April | 12 | By a payment Indors'd on their note. . $.40.- . . . | ~ | 16 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 20 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 94 || 38 | 0 | ~ 1806 March | 24 | By Cash & note to Ballance . . . | ~ || 129 | 8 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 183 | 8 | ~ [[double score across column 3; score across columns 4-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[double underscore]] 62 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] George [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Decr | 8 | To Winslow Glass as per Waste Book . . . | 60 || 13 | 10 | ~ 1802 April | 22 | To Cash on a/c . . . " . . . | 66 || 16 | 0 | ~ July | 7 | To Cash " . . ditto . . " . . . | 67 || 16 | 0 | ~ Augt | 30 | To Cash " . . ditto . . " . . . | 69 || 12 | 0 | ~ Novr. | 3 | To Cash " . . ditto . . " . . . | 71 || 12 | 0 | ~ 1803 Jany | 10 | To Cash " . . ditto . . " . . . | 75 || 11 | 16 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 81 | 6 | ~ [[double score across columns 3, 5 & 6; score across column 4]] 1805 Decr. | 23 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 94 || 12 | 0 | 4 [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Pierson Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Septr | 24 | By Glass as per Invoice Book . . . | 30 || 43 | 2 | ~ 1802 Feby | 11 | By . . ditto . . . " . . . | 65 || 3 | 4 | ~ [[blank]] | 26 | By . . ditto . . . " . . . | 68 || 22 | 10 | 0 Augt. | [[blank]] | By . . ditto . . . " . . . | 69 || 12 | 10 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 81 | 6 | ~ [[upward diagonal left-to-right double score across columns 3 & 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1805 June | 29 | By Tobacco, as per Waste Book . . . | 93 || 12 | 0 | 4 [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 63 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Isaac [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1801 Novr. | 14 | To Cash as per Waste Book, 6 . . . | 58 || 120 | 0 | ~ 1803 Feby | 6 | To . ditto . . " . . . ditto " . . . | 64 || 10 | 0 | ~ June | 1 | To . ditto . . " . . . ditto " . . . | 66 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 19 | To . ditto . . " . . . ditto " . . . | 67 || 60 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 3 | To . ditto . . " . . . ditto " . . . | 69 || 20 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To a payment by C. Wright " . . . | 73 || 19 | 1 | 7 1803 June | 8 | To my 1/8 share of the Old House in [[Athens ?]] . . . | 80 || 45 | 8 | ~ July | 8 | To Cash. . . " . . . ditto . . . | 80 || 120 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 15 | To . ditto . . . " . . . ditto . . . | 82 || 28 | 5 | 3 May | 14 | To . ditto . . . " . . . ditto . . . | 85 || 120 | 0 | ~ Novr. | 22 | To Sundris . " . . . ditto . . . | 89 || 34 | 19 | 3 " | " | To. Int.s Acct. . . . ditto . . . | 89 | 52 | 4 | 9 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Balince due this day . . " . . . | 91 || 2 | 6 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 672 | 4 | 10 [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1806 Jany | 16 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 95 || 13 | 0 | - July | 18 | To Sundris, ___ . . ___ dt.o . . . | 97 || 37 | 0 | ~ Decr. | 15 | To paid him as per day Book . . . | 98 || 8 | 0 | ~ 1807 Septr. | 8 | To . . ditto . . . ditto . . . | 110 || 16 | 0 | ~ Decr. | [[blank]] | To. . ditto, . . . ditto . . . | 115 || 15 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 89 | 0 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Northrop Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1801 Decr | 23 | By his Demand as per Waste Book . . . | 74 || 562 | 10 | ~ 1803 [[Jun ?]] | 8 | By my note . . . ditto . . . " . . . | 80 || 10 | 0 | ~ May | 14 | By Rent, due, . . ditto . . . | 85 || 13 | 0 | ~ Novr | 22 | By. House-Rent, . . ditto . . . | 89 || 13 | 0 | ~ " | " | By Interest a/c . . ditto . . . | 89 || 73 | 14 | 10 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 672 | 4 | 10 [[left-to-right upward diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 (several lines deep); double score across 5-7]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | ------------- amount brought down . . . | ~ || [[squiggly lines above and below]] 672 | 4 | 10 [[/squiggly lines above and below]] [[double score across columns 3-7 - section break]] 1805 April | 12 | By my note as per Waste Book . . . | 91 || 24 | 0 | ~ Novembr | 1 | By House-Rent, due . . . | 95 || 13 | 0 | ~ 1806 July | 18 | By . . ditto, . . " . . . | 97 || 13 | 0 | ~ Novr | 1 | By Rent due " . . . | 98 || 13 | 0 | ~ 1807 May | 1 | By . . ditto, . . ditto, . . . | 110 || 13 | 0 | ~ Novr | 1 | By . . ditto, . . ditto, . . . | 100 | 13 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 89 | 0 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 64 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs Dudley [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 June | 5 | To George Archers Noto. . . . | 66 || 50 | 0 | - Augt | 3 | To Cash to Ballence . " . . . | 68 || 35 | 17 | - [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 85 | 17 | ~ [[double underline across page]] 1803 Septr | 31 | To amount. of their acct. per theirs as per Waste Book | 82 || 65 | 03 | 11 [[double underline across page]] 1807 Septr | 25 | To P. Ashes as per Waste Book . . . | 110 || 94 | 2 | 4 Octbr | 8 | To John Housmans Note, . . ditto , . . | 110 | 53 | 11 | 4 Novbr | 5 | To M. Trotters . ditto , ditto , . . | 113 | 80 | 0 | - 1808 April | 14 | To my Note. at 60 days . . . | 117 | 620 | 0 | - 1809 Jany | 1 | To Ballence due. this day . . . ~ | 337 | 12 | 3 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 1203 | 13 | 9 [[left-to-right upward diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 (several lines deep); double score across 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Walsh & Co Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 May | 1 | By Merchandize . . . | 66 || £ 85 | 17 | ~ [[left-to-right upward diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 (several lines deep); double score across 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3 & 4; score across columns 5-7]] 1803 June | 8 | By Gand[[?]] as per. Invoice, . . . | 80 || 65 | 3 | 11 [[double underline across page]] 1807 May | 11 | By Sundris as per. Invoice Book page 47,. . . | 47 || 240 | 14 | ~ [[blank]] | 16 | By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 48 || 56 | 4 | 1 [[blank]] | 29 | By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 49 || 302 | 18 | ~ July 14 By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 64 || 26 | 5 | ~ - By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 50 || 32 | 0 | ~ 20 By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 65 || 38 | 19 | 1 Octbr 7 By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 75 || 329 | 0 | ~ 15 By Sugar. . " . . . ditto . . . | 76 || 80 | 6 | 7 Novbr 10 By Sundris. . " . . . ditto . . . | 79 || 87 | 1 | 11 13 By ditto. . " . . . ditto . . . | 79 || 28 | 2 | ~ 1809 Jany | 1 | By Int.s acct. Residual . . . ditto . . . | [[blank]] || 32 | 3 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] [[double underline]] 1203 | 13 | 9 [[double underline]] [[double underline across page]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Ballece due this day, . . . | [[blank]] || 337 | 12 | 3
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 65 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs James & [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Octbr. | 27 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 70 || 20 | 0 | ~ Novr | 3 | To ditto . . . ditto . . . | 71 || 7 | 11 | 4 [[underscore across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 27 | 11 | 4 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1804 June | 30 | By 11th Hh'd. Rum, as per Waste Book . . . | 86 || 39 | 19 | 6 Decr. | 13 | By Cash as per " . . . " . . . | 88 || 35 | 17 | 1 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 75 | 16 | 7 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs James [[double score across columns 3-6]] 1805 Decr. | 23 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 94 || 40 | 0 | ~ 1806 June | 18 | To . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 96 || 20 | 0 | ~ 1807 Septr | 4 | To . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 109 || 20 | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 80 | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-6]] 1808 Octbr | 8 | To Goods Returned as per Waste Book . . . | 113 || 8 | 12 | 8 April | 11 | To Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 117 || 893 | 0 | ~ [[end page]] [[start page]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] Mc Cabe Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1802 Septr. | 1 | By Rum as per Waste Book . . . | 69 || £ 27 | 11 | 4 [[left-to-right upward diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 (several lines deep); double score across 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1803 Decr. | 2 | By Goods as per Bill . . . | 83 || 75 | 16 | 7 [[left-to-right upward diagonal double score across columns 3 & 4 (several lines deep); double score across 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] & Hack Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1805 June | 29 | By goods as per Invoice . . . | 93 || 52 | 4 | 7 1806 | . | By Cash Returned, . . . | ~ || 7 | 15 | 5 July | 12 | By Goods, as per Bill, . . . | 97 || 20 | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 80 | 4 | ~ [[double columns across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 Septr | 24 | By Sundris as per Invoice . . . | 71 | 479 | 16 | 4 [[blank]] | 29 | By . . ditto . . . ditto . . . | 73 || 63 | 18 | 3 Octbr. | 7 | By . . ditto . . . ditto . . . | 74 || 77 | 0 | 8 Novr | 6 | By . . ditto . . . ditto . . . | 78 || 300 | 16 | 10
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 66 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Oliver [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Septr. | 13 | To Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 70 || 51 | 10 | 9 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[?]]Phelps Esq.r Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[no entries - end page]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 67 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Store at [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Novr 24th To To Sundirs as per Waste Book,......71 1459 6 81/2 Decr 4 To ditto,,...ditto,.,.....72 63 18 7 1803 Jany 14 To Cash for my Bill of expense,".....75 4 16 3- 25 to Sundris as per Bill, ditto" .... 75 4 16 ~ March 5 To A Hh'd Rum...."......76 49 19 ~ June 8 To Sundris...."....79 104 14 11 Novr 2 To Cash. adv. C Wright ""....82 27 4 ~ " To Sundris....".."....83 64 0 ~ Decr 2 To. ditto.....".."....83 166 15 11 1804 Jany 11 To Mittons...".."....84 3 13 ~ March 24 To notes....".."....84 400 0 ~ May 14 To Sundris....".."....85 3 6 6 June 9 To Cartage,...".."....85 ~ 9 ~ 29 To Charges on Rum..".."...85 1 0 ~ July 3 To an order returned.".."....86 132 0 ~ Augt 6 To Notes as per Waste Book "...86 39 10 ~ Octbr 2 To Interest a/c. " " " .... 86 [[underlined]] 11 7 7 [[underlined]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] [[double underline]] 2529 15 111/2[[double underline]] [[double underline across page]] Novmbr 19 To Sundris as per Waste Book ..".... 88 [[double underline]] 1692 3 2 [[double underline]] [[double underline diagonal and straight across page]] " To Ballence due at Sattlment,....... 88 154 12 ~ To Sundris. " " ".......89 82 10 3 1805 April 12 To ditto..."....".....91 37 1 9 " To ditto....".......".91 5 4 ~ 1807 March 14 To Ballen included in Sattlment this day ~ [[underlined ]] 115 0 2[[/underlined]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 394 8 2 [[double underlined diagonal and straight across the page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Alexandrer's Ville Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double underline across page]] 1803 Jany 14 By Sundirs as per Waste Book, 75 8 10 2 March 5 By Brandy..."..."..... 77 42 16 ~ June 8 By Cash......"..."..... 79 12 0 ~ July 15 By Sundris ".."..... 80 7 17 ~ Septr 19 By Cash... ".."..... 81 22 10 5 31 By Sundris.."...".... 82 33 13 3 Novr 2 By Cash....."...."..... 83 18 11 3 1804 Jany 11 By Sundris...."....".. 84 34 6 3 July 6 By Cash..".."... 84 40 0 ~ March 24 By. Cash. .."...".. 84 8 0 ~ May 14 By Sundris...".."... 85 280 0 ~ June 9 By ditto....."...".. 85 155 13 ~ 29 By Rum,..."...".. 85 64 1 ~ July 3 By Cash...."..."... 86 63 12 ~ 11 By Sundris..."..."... 86 4 5 ~ Augt 6 By Cash..."...".... 86 54 0 ~ Octbr 2 By. ditto...."...."... 87 26 10 ~ By Ballence due A. Alexandre"..........[[underlined]] 1633 10 7 1/2[[underlined]] [[double underlined]] 2529 15 11 1/2[[double underlined]] [[double underline across page]] Novr 19 By Sundris as per Waste Book....88 1537 11 2 By Ballence due A. Alexandre..... [[underlined]] 154 12 ~[[underlined]] [[double underlined]] 1692 3 2 [[double underlined]] [[double underline across page]] 1805 Jany 11 By Sundris as per Waste Book.......89 48 19 9 18 By Cash, ditto...ditto.... 90 42 0 ~ Feby 1 By. ditto.."....".......90 12 0 ~ 26 By ditto. " ..".......90 13 12 ~ March 30 By ditto,, "...."......91 110 0 ~ May 10 By ditto,, "...."......92 84 9 2 20 By ditto..."......"....92 48 0 ~ July 11 By Ball. on James Sands note.92 [[underlined]] 35 8 3 [[underlined]] 394 8 2 [[double underline across page]] [[end page]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 68 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs Blackwell & [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1803 July | 12 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 80 | 32 | 0 | 9 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-6]] 1807 June | 13 | To Cash in full . . . | 102 || 85 | 7 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-6]] Decr | 10 | To Cash on Acct. as per Waste Book . . . | 114 || 40 | 0 | ~ 1808 Jany | 25 | To Acct. as per Waste Book | 116 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[end page]] [[start page]] McFarlin Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Novr | 13 | By Iron as per Invoice . . . | 72 || 32 | 0 | 9 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1806 Novr | 24 | By Sundris as per Invoice Book . . . | 40 || 85 | 7 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 June | 18 | By Iron as per Invoice Book . . . | 55 || 112 | 14 | 10
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 69 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs Elias [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1803 June | 8 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 79 | 400 | 0 | ~ July | 13 | To . ditto . . . ditto, . . . | 80 || 36 | 11 | 4 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 436 | 11 | 4 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 Novr | 5 | To Cash for my acct. in full . . . | 113 || 185 | 18 | 2 [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Kane &Co. Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Novr | 11th | By Liquor as per Bill . . . | 72 || 428 | 11 | 4 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Interest. a/c. . . . | 80 || 8 | 0 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 436 | 11 | 4 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 June | 20 | By Teas as per Invoice Book . . . | 63 || 185 | 18 | 2 [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 70 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] John [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1804 Novr. | 7 | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 87 | 125 | 10 | 10 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 June | 18 | To Cash on acct. . . . | 103 || 40 | 0 | ~ Decr. | 11 | To . ditto. . . . " . . . . | 114 || 40 | 6 | 5 [[blank]] | " | To Ball. now due $512 72/100= . . . . | ~ || 205 | 1 | 9 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 285 | 8 | 2 [[double score across columns 3-6]] 1808 Novr | 23 | To Cash On my Note, $200 . . . | 120 || 80 | 0 | - 1809 June | 13 | To . ditto . . . ditto . . . | ~ || 40 | 0 | - [[end page]] [[start page]] Mowatt Ju.r Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Novr | 12 | By Sundris as per Bill . . . | 72 || 135 | 10 | 10 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1806 Novr. | 22 | By Merchandize as per Invoice Book . . . | 38 || 129 | 7 | 9 1807 June | 19 | By . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 59 || 152 | 1 | 9 Decr | 10 | By Int.r due as per Acct. . . . | - || 3 | 18 | 8 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 285 | 8 | 2 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1808 Decr. | [[blank]] | By Ball. due for which I gave my note | ~ || 205 | 1 | 9
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 71 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Matthew [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Decr. | 14th | To Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 74 | 18 | 0 | ~ 1803 Jany. | 10 | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 75 | 20 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 25 | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 75 | 44 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | " | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 75 | 14 | 8 | 6 March | 21 | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 77 | 1 | 16 | ~ May | 24 | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 79 | 22 | 0 | ~ June | 8 | To P. ashes . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 79 | 149 | 1 | 9 [[blank]] | 20 | To Cash . " . ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 80 | 80 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 19 | To H H Bogents note. . . . ditto . . . | 81 | 265 | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 614 | 10 | 3 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1803 | " | To Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 82 || 51 | 14 | 5 Novr | 14 | To Flour, . " . ditto, . " . . . | 83 || 92 | 0 | ~ 1804 Septr. | 8 | To P. Ashes . " . . " . . " . . . | 86 || 13 | 17 | 9 March | 30 | To Sundris . " . . " . . " . . . | 91 || 86 | 0 | ~ 1806 Jany | 28 | To ditto . . " . . " . . " . . . | 95 || 1190 | 17 | 5 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 1434 | 9 | 7 [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[blank]] | " | To Ballence due this day . . . | ~ || 73 | 15 | 3 April | 29 | To Cash, as per Waste Book, . . . | 95 || 64 | 0 | - May | 28 | To Cash, . . " . . " ditto, . . . | 96 || 80 | 0 | - Septr | ~ | To Cash.___ " ___ ditto, . . . | 97 || 124 | 0 | - Octbr. | 14 | To . Cash ___ " ___ ditto, . . . | 97 || 231 | 4 | - [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 572 | 19 | 3 [[roughly C shaped double score underlining total above, traversing right-to-left on downward diagonal across column 4 and part of column 3, several lines deep]] [[heavy score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 572 | 19 | 3 [[double score across columns 3-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Trotter Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Decr | 8 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 74 || 33 | 4 | ~ 1803 Jany | 25 | By ditto, . . ditto, . " . . . | 75 || 42 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | " | By his acct tendered; ditto . . . | 75 || 13 | 14 | ~ Feby | 28 | By 2 Hh.d Rum, . . ditto, . . . | 76 | 97 | 4 | ~ April | 6 | By Cash per my Draft, ditto, . . . | 78 || 126 | 0 | ~ May | 24 | By Sundris, as per Waste Book . . . | 79 || 20 | 0 | ~ June | 8 | By Interest, . . ditto . . " . . . | 79 || 1 | 9 | 3 [[blank]] | 20 | By Cash . . . ditto . " . . . | 80 || 80 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 19 | By Sundris . . ditto . " . . . | 81 || 200 | 19 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] £ 614 | 10 | 3 [[double score across columns 3-7]] " Septr. | 22 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 82 || 14 | 0 | ~ Octbr. | 14 | By my Order in favor of A. Craig . . . | 82 || 40 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 18 | By a paym.t made of discount, on my note . . . | 82 || 3 | 5 | ~ [[blank]] | 22 | By my order in favor of D. Tomlinson . . . | 82 | 60 | 0 | ~ 1804 Septr | 8 | By Cash for discount on my note . . . | 86 | 1 | 5 | 9 1805 March | 30 | By Sundris, . . . " . . . " . . . | 91 || 81 | 9 | ~ 1806 Jany | 28 | By ditto. . " . . . " . . . " . . . | 95 || 1160 | 14 | 7 [[blank]] | " | By Ballence.due A. A, . . . | " || 73 | 15 | 3 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 1434 | 9 | 7 [[double score across columns 3-7]] Feby | 28 | By Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 95 || 18 | 0 | ~ March | 7 | By Cash, . " . . . " . . . | " || 45 | 8 | 4 April | 29 | By ditto, . " . . . " . . . | " || 65 | 0 | ~ May | 28 | By my Order to Jo.h Shurtteff, . . . | 96 || 80 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | " | By 2 [[Pbl. ?]] Pork as per Waste Book . . . | " || 14 | 8 | ~ Augt | 21 | By ditto . . . | 97 || 48 | 10 | ~ Septr | " | By ditto, --- d.o, ------ | 97 || 134 | 0 | ~ Octbr | 14 | By ditto, - - d.o. ------ | " || 44 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By ditto, - - - ditto, ----- | 98 || 39 | 4 | 4 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 572 | 19 | 3 [[double score across 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 72 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] George [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Decr. | 11 | To Sundris as per Waste Book, . . . | 74 || 113 | 0 | 8- 1803 March | 24 | To 1 [[q.r]] Cash [[caine ?]], . . " . . . | 77 || 12 | 11 | 7 1/2 July | 15 | To Interest due on Acct. [[?]] [[Residence]] . . . | 80 || 3 | 1 | 2 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 128 | 13 | 6 [[blank]] | " | [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | " | To Ballence due . . . | ~ || 118 | 13 | 6 [[upward diagonal score begins halfway across column 3 through column 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Young Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1803 June | 27 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 80 || 10 | 0 | ~ July | 15 | By Ballence due as per a/c Tendered . . . | " || 118 | 13 | 6 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 128 | 13 | 6 [[upward diagonal double score left-to-right across columns 3 & 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] Augt. | 12 | By Blankets as per Waste Book . . . | 81 || 1 | 12 | ~ Sept. | 16 | By Sundris . . ditto . . . " . . . | 81 || 117 | 1 | 6 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 118 | 13 | 6 [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 73 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Harmaunes [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1802 Decr | 20 | To Sundris as per Waste Book, . . . | 74 || 8 | 14 | - [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Frances 1865 Decr | 23 | To Cash as per Waste Book, . . | 94 || 40 | 0 | - 1806 June | 18 | To ditto, - " - ", . - - - - | 96 || 20 | 0 | - 1807 July | 20 | To ditto, - " - - " - - - - - - | 107 || 44 | 12 | - [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 104 | 12 | - [[double score across 3-6]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Vedder ?]] Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1803 March | 4 | By Blankets returned, as per Waste Book . . . | 76 || 8 | 14 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] M Cabe Cr [[abrrev. for credit]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1805 June | 29 | By Goods, as per Waste Book . . . | 93 || 104 | 12 | ~ [[upward diagonal double score left-to-right across columns 3 & 4, several lines deep; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 74 [[/double underscore]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Mess.rs Peter & 1803 Feby | 11th | To 2 Hh.d Rum as per Waste Book . . . | 75 || 53 | 2 | ~ April | 7 | To Combs . . ditto, . . . | 78 || 1 | 3 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]]|| 54 | 5 | ~ [[upward diagonal double score left-to-right across columns 3 & 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] Augt | 4 | To Combs, as per Waste Book . . . | 81 || ~ | 8 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] John [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 July | 13 | To Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 106 || 45 | 10 | 10 [[blank]] | 17 | To ditto . . . ditto . . . | " || 23 | 18 | 8 [[blank]] | 25 | To ditto . . . ditto . . . | 108 || 20 | 9 | 4 Augt | 29 | To Rum, . . . ditto, . . . | 109 || 11 | 5 | - Octbr | 27 | To Sundris . . . ditto, . . . | 113 || 27 | 8 | 8 Decr | 30 | To ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 115 || 2 | 16 | 3 1808 Feby | 24 | To ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 116 || 15 | 11 | 9 May | 2 | To Int.s. . . . ditto, . . . | 117 || 1 | 14 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 148 | 14 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Simon Mabee Cr. 1803 April | 7 | By Cash as per Waste Book . . . | 78 || 15 | 13 | 3 [[blank]] | 12 | By Ham, . . ditto, . . . | 78 || 9 | 12 | ~ May | 3 | By Cash . . . ditto . . . | 78 || 16 | 16 | ~ June | 18 | By ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 80 || 12 | 3 | 9 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 54 | 5 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1805 Jany | 26 | By Cash as per Waste Book, . . . | 90 || ~ | 8 | ~ [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank space]] [[double score across column 3]] Swart. Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 July | 26 | By an abatement as per Waste Book . . . | 108 || - | 9 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By ditto,. . . . ditto, . . . | " || 3 | 4 | 2 Octbr | 27 | By Cash. . . . ditto, . . . | 113 || 24 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By an Error in his Bill of the 25th July . . . | 108 || 1 | 0 | ~ 1808 May | 2 | By Sundris on acct. . . . | 117 || 19 | 4 | 2 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By his note to Ballence $252 8/100= . . . | ~ || 100 | 16 | 8 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 148 | 14 | ~ [[double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 75 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Matthew [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1803 March | 4th | To Sundris as per Waste Book, . . . | 76 || 365 | 8 | ~ [[blank]] | 15 | To ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 77 || 98 | 4 | ~ [[blank]] | 29 | To ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 78 || 35 | 16 | 4 1/2 [[blank]] | 15 | To Interest, . . . " . . . " . . . | 83 || 17 | 19 | 7 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 517 | 7 | 11 1/2 [[blank]] | " | [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | " | To Ballence due as per Amt. tendered . . . | ~ || 250 | 1 | 3 1/2 [[double score across columns 5-7]] 1804 Jany | 4 | To Cash per Above, . . " . . . | 84 || 24 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | 15 | To Combs, . . . " . . . " . . . | 84 || - | 14 | 6 April | 2 | To Cash. " . . . " . . . " . . . | 85 || 26 | 0 | 6 June | 16 | To Interest, . . . " . . . " . . . | 85 || 4 | 1 | 10 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To his note of the 2[[overwritten 6, 7 or 8 ?]]th Decr. for 490 doll.rs= . . . | ~ || 196 | 0 | ~ April | 18 | To Cash, . . . " . . . | 91 || 85 | 12 | ~ [[[blank]] | 22 | To ditto, . . . " . . . | 92 || 14 | 0 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Ballence due R. B. . . . | 92 || 22 | 15 | 8 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 373| 4 | 6 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Beasley Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] 1803 March | 4th | By Cash as per Waste Book, . . . | 76 || 22 | 0 | ~ June | 8 | By proceeds of P. ashes, . . . | 79 || 149 | 1 | 9 Octbr | 22 | By ditto of Flour, . . " . . . | 82 || 92 | 0 | ~ Novr. | 1 | By Sundris . . " . . . " . . . | 83 || 254 | 6 | 2 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 517 | 7 | 11 1/2 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | 28 | By Sundris as per Waste Book . . . | 83 || 250 | 1 | 3 1/2 [[double score across columns 5-7]] 1804 Jany | 4 | By Cash, . . . " . . . " . . . | 84 || 40 | 0 | ~ Feby | 8 | By ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 84 || 40 | 0 | ~ April | 2 | By ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 85 || 66 | 0 | 6 June | 29 | By ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 85 || 40 | 0 | ~ Augt. | 22 | By ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 86 || 20 | 0 | ~ Septr. | 8 | By ditto, . . . " . . . " . . . | 86 || 24 | 0 | ~ Feby | 26 | By Corn, . . . " . . . " . . . | 90 || 120 | 0 | ~ April | 25 | By Corn [[amitted ?]], . . . " . . . | 92 || 23 | 4 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 373| 4 | 6 [[double score across columns 3 & 5-7; score across column 4]]
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double underscore]] 76 [[/double underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Archibald [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1805 Feby | 26 | To Sundris as per Waste Book, . . . | 90 || 123 | 2 | 6 March | 30 | To ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 90 || 5 | 4 | ~ April | 22 | To ditto, . . . ditto, . . . | 92 || 16 | 8 | ~ June | 19 | To Cash, . . . ditto, . . . | 92 || 2 | 0 | ~ July | 22 | To Sundris, . . . ditto, . . . | 93 || 61 | 15 | 6 Septr | 2 | To ditto, " . . ditto, . . . | 94 || 45 | 9 | 5 " | " | To Flour " . . ditto, . . . | 94 || 8 | 0 | ~ [[end page]] [[start page]] Fairfield Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1805 March | 30th | By Sundris as per Waste Book, . . . | 90 || 58 | 0 | ~ July | 22 | By Sundris, . . . ditto, . . . | 93 || 112 | 16 | 6 1807 Augt | 7 | By Cash . . . ditto, . . . | 108 || 7 | 12 | 4
[[no Journal entries by J.H. - only Ledger entries]] [[double squiggly underscore]] 77 [[/double squiggly underscore]] Dr [[abbrev. for debit]] Hugh [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1806 [[columns 2-7 blank]] July | 14 | To Sundris as per Waste--Book--| 76 || 226 | 18 | 11 1/2 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To freight of Goods to aswago, -- | 77 || 3 | 13 | ~ 1807 [[columns 2-7]] April | 4 | To Int.s . . . " . . . " . . . | 99 || 8 | 2 | 6 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 238 | 14 | 5 1/4 [[upward diagonal double score left-to-right across most of column 3 & 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Ballence due as per amt. tendered. . . . | ~ || 201 | 9 | 5 1/4 July | [[blank]] | To an abatement on his Bills. . . . | 108 || 2 | 16 | ~ Augt | 27 | To Sundris. . . . " . . . | 109 || 66 | 0 | 11 Octbr. | 6 | To Bolting Cloths. . . " . . . | 110 || 17 | 10 | ~ [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 287 | 16 | 4 1/2 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1808 Jany | 6 | To Ball due £ 147.17.10 1/2 with 3 mo. Int.s £ 2.11.8= | ~ || 150 | 9 | 6 1/2 July | 6 | To 6 mo. added | ~ | 5 | 5 | 4 1/2 [[blank]] | [[blank]] | To Ballence due, A. Alexandre. . . . | ~ || 2 | 13 | 11 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 158 | 8 | 10 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1809 Jany | 30 | To Cash paid David Alexander as per Rent. | [[blank]] || 2 | 13 | 11 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Alexander Cr [[abbrev. for credit]] [[double score across page; vertical scores create 7 columns, with double score between columns 4 & 5.]] 1806 [[columns 2-7 blank]] July | 14 | By Cash as per Waste Book. --| 77 || 32 | 0 | ~ 1807 [[columns 2-7 blank]] Jany | 27 | By ditto, --- ditto, . . . | 98 || 3 | 8 | ~ April | 4 | By Int.s . . " . . . | 99 || 1 | 17 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By Ball as per amt. ten.d this day . . . | ~ || 201 | 9 | 5 1/4 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 238 | 14 | 5 1/4 [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1807 [[columns 2-7 blank]] July ~ | 25 | By Bills as per Waste Book . . . | 108 || 139 | 18 | 6 Octbr | 6 | By Ball due this day . . . | 147 | 17 | 10 1/2 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 287 | 16 | 4 1/2 [[upward diagonal double score left-to-right across most of column 3 & 4; double score across columns 5-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] 1808 July | 7 | By Drafts on amt. as per Waste Book . . . | 118 || 150 | 18 | ~ [[blank]] | [[blank]] | By advance on ditto at 5 per Ct. . . . | ~ || 7 | 10 | 10 [[score across columns 5-7]] [[columns 1-4 blank]] 158 | 8 | 10 [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank line space]] [[double score across columns 3-7]] [[blank]] | " | By Ballence due H. Alexander . . . | ~ || 2 | 13 |11 [[double score across columns 3-7]]
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[[blank page]] [[start page]] 1 1834 Exp______ [[in left margin]]Aug 15th Exp on the spark from long & short wires with circular battery. Exp 1st Battery feebly excited with piece of bell wire 5 inches long [[underlined]] no [[/underlined]] spark. 2nd With same sized wire 20 feet long, feeble spark. 3 With larger wire 1/10 inch, spark rather brighter 4 With coil about 40 feet long wire dense as 1st & 2nd bright spark with snap. 5 With coil of copper ribbon 60 feet long, 1 inch wide, thin as paper, loud snap more intense than with the coil of small wire. 6 With the copper ribbon of same length as last, but coming about 1/10th [[matter ?]]no spark when straight, when coiled a bright spark. When straightened again, no spark. Spark then same from coiled wire: 7 Exp 6 repeated with the same result. 8 The [[tallenes ?]] were both used and arranged for intensity; when the poles were united by two copper ribbons, each about 2 feet long, the spark given was then feeble [[strikethrough]]wh[[/strikethrough]] but there appeared to be a slight deflagration of the copper, where the two wires rubbed together___ 9 Instead of the ribbons in the last exp, two coils of ribbons, one 60 feet & the other 30, were used, the result was a brilliant spark and vivid deflagration of the metals [[end page]]
2 Continued exp on sparks Exp 10 When the batteries were arranged for quantity, all else [[strikethrough]] [[remaining?]] [[/strikethrough]] as before, the spark was about the same & the same difference as before, with the short ribbons. Ex 11 Gold leaf between the coils, on the surface of mercury no increased effect over the short ribbons, or at least the difference was not very perceptible 12 Long thin wire used, 300 feet in a coil, very feeble spark. 13 Small wire between the poles of the large coils; action on iron filings about the same when passed through whole length or merely through the wire, which was about 5 inches long. 14 With the square battery, when the action is somewhat intense, a short ribbon will deflagrate the mercury, when a long coil of copper ribbon only causes a succession of snaps Sept 18th Observed to day that when the copper and zinc of two different pairs of elements of the large battery are connected by a long ribbon of copper, a spark is produced at the moment of separation. I have not tried if the same effect will be produced if the elements be perfectly insulated. [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 Aug 19th 1834 1 Exp [[image]] Suspended needle in a large coil of ribbon conductor, noted the effect when the current was [[closed ?]] & transmitted sudden start of the needle, [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] the magnetism always in the same direction. 2 Exp. Tried several experiments of a coil of 30 feet inch ribbon internal diameter 3 1/2 or 4 inches. When iron put in became strongly magnetized always tended to the side of the coil except where a little without at either side. [[image - horizontal coil with vertical line above (labeled a) and vertical line below (labeled b) - verticals appear to be passing through center of coil]] In the position a or b the point of equilibrium was in the centre of the ring. 3 Exp with the same ring a needle floated by a cork was used in this way this exp. was more satisfactory in every case there appeared to be a repulsion between the [[insertion]]edge of the [[/insertion]] ring and the end of the magnet when the magnet or needle was without the plane of the ring. 4 Exp. A glass tube with water was introduced into a hollow tube [[insertion]] held perpendicular to the [[horseshoe ?]] [[/insertion]] of iron and this into the coil of the last exp. The needle when thrown into the water immediately jumped out so that [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] its [[insertion]] lower [[/insertion]] extremity [[strikethrough]] of the [[/strikethrough]] was on the upper edge of the tube. 5 Exp. When a coil was introduced; (of thick wire) into the interior of an iron tube, no magnetism was produced. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 4 Aug 19 1834 6th [[image - cylinder with wire coiled around center]] Placed a piece of cylindrical soft iron in a coil of copper ribbon. Introduced a bar of round iron. When the round iron projected, it was magnetic, but within the tube showed no sign of magnetism. It was tested by small pieces of soft iron. Thinking that the single coile with its [[spire?]] in the same plane might have some effect in the exh., the next was instituted. 7th The cylinder of iron inserted in the last was wound with a ribbon of copper & then submitted to the galvanic action and in order to test the magnetism of the interior, a small piece of soft iron was fastened to a fibre of silk, from the cocoon; the bit of iron being suspended in the middle of the axis of the tube was not in the least affected by transmitting the current. When however [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] it was gradually drawn up to the end of the tube, it was suddenly thrown out and adhered to the out side. This curious phenomenon was produced when a shingle nail was thrown in to the top of the tube[[:?]] The lower end came up last, as if the inner part of the tube was differently magnetized, thus This effect is the same as that of No. 4. 8 A [[plane?]] coil (i e one with the [[sh.. ?]] in the same [[plane?]]) was placed around a cylindrical piece of thick brass; this magnetic effect within the cylinder the same as with in the coil alone. [[end page]] [[start page]] 5 9th [[image in left margin - vertical cylinder with wire coil around middle and wire going into center of cylinder]] To render the results more certain, the [[plane?]] coil was placed around the [[underlined]] middle [[/underlined]] of the tube, and a piece of iron let down into the tube opposite the coil. When transmitting the galvanic current, the bit of iron was not affected until drawn up to the edge of the tube, when it instantly adhered. __________ 10 Exp In order to determine the thickness of the magnetic stratum, a hollow cylinder of [[tuned?]] iron was placed in [[strikethrough]] the middle [[/strikethrough]] the [[plane?]] coil, as in the last exp., this tube under these same circumstances as [[in?]] the last expt showed magnetism throughout on the inside. 12th Exp [[image in left margin - a tube inserted into a cylinder]] An interesting method of showing the jumping up of the needle is [[shown?]] by means of a glass tube with water in which a needle is floated. When the [[insertion]] glass [[/insertion]] tube is forced down into the iron tube, the needle always stops at the [[insertion]] upper [[/insertion]] edge of the iron tube, or When the needle is forcibly thrown into the water, it returns and stops with its lower end at the upper edge of the iron tube. Aug 13-20th Placed a spiral of thick wire within a tube of common tuned iron. The tube showed polarity without and of an opposite kind from that of the helix which was left projecting at one end. The polarity [[end page]]
6 was tested with a compass needle. 14 When a quantity of iron filings were put into the mouths of the tube, an the whole gently tapped with the finger, while the current was passing through the coil, the filings flew out of the mouth of the tube and arrayed themselves around the edge _ This exp. was made with the iron tube and the coil on the outside. Aug. 22nd Exp 15 Arranged 4 flat magnets in the form of a hollow parallel [[?]] but a small cylinder of soft iron within. This tendency to fly out appeared the same as in the experiments with the tubes, but the attraction within was the same as with a common magnet. When repeated the tendency to fly out was more [[?]] Exp 16 Repeated the exp ^[[No 6 & 7]] with a wire of soft iron suspended to a silk thread. At first, there appeared to be some attraction but this was found to be owing to the magnetism of the iron wire itself. Another piece was taken, which showed no magnetism, when dipped into iron filings. In this case, not the least sign of magnetism could be observed, until the wire was drawn up to near the surface of the circular and of the ring, where it as usual, instantly sprang out. [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 Exp. 17 A quantity of filings were put into the tube, and a cylinder of iron run in [[strikethough]] wher [[/strikethrough]] so as to project a little beyond the tube. The end within attracted filings, & the intensity became stronger the farther the tube was drawn out. When [[strikethrough]] filings were [[/strikethrough]] the cylinder was pushed in so far that the end was within the tube, it exhibited scarcely any signs of magnetism a slight effect was produced when the connection of the coil with the battery was broken. the filings [[in left margin]] [[large + sign]] appeared to start a little, this was probably owing to the induction from without Exp 18 A [[strikethrough]] cylinder [[/strikethrough]] ^[[bar 1 inch wide 12 long]] of hardened steel was put into the tube, so that its end was even with the end of the tube. when the latter was excited the steel did not become [[?]] magnetized 19 The same bar of steel was put into the tube in part, or so that one half of it projected. The tube was then magnetized, and the bar in this case was found to be magnetized. The [[strikethrough]] [[?]]end [[/strikethrough]] which projected was the stronger, care was taken to interrupt the current before the bar was withdrawn, as otherwise the bar would have been magnetized by contact, or by the influence of the external part of the tube. [[blank space]] x 17 The same effect was produced when a short cylinder of iron was used at each each solution, and connection of the coil with the battery, the filings were removed
8 18 a small compass needle was put in the hole, and exhibited a slight magnetic action 19 A bundle of magnets being put into [[strikethrough illegible word]] the iron tube used in the other axle, the tube showed polarity without, and of the same kind as that of the magnets, or in other words, the appearance was as if the magnetism acted directly through the tube. [[underline]]The polarity [[/underline]] was changed by change the posterior of the anterior magnets Perhaps the affect was produced by magnetizing the tube in putting the magnets in. 20 The last suggestion was proved not to be correct by putting a rod of iron within the tube and magnetizing it by means of a coil around it after it was put in; the same polarity appeared on the outside as in the iron within, as was shown by testing the magnetism of the rod. When the current was reversed the polarity was also changed - the exterior magnetism was however very feeble when compaired with the magnetism of the bar without the iron tube, acting as a [[??]] or case [[line across pages]] [[drawing in the left margin, circle and line]] N B [[or 13]] If a plate of iron be interposed between a magnet and a needle, will not the needle be affected? does not a row of particles become magnetic directly through the plates or tube 9 21 The thin tin case was tried again with the coil inside the reverse polarity was produced by the coil [[large wiggly bracket running down the left side of this section]] Is not the difference of effect produced by the coil, and the iron due to the superior action of the iron on magnet, on or in other words, does not the coil produce a contrary magnetism by inducts while the iron magnet acts directly through the side of the tube [[scribbly line]] [[shorter wiggly bracket on left of this section]] If this be the case it would favor the hypothesis of Ampere in reference to the constitution of magnets the current on the inside [[drawing of ring of circles]]of the tube will [[^insert]] not circulate in the same direction as those on the outside, have different states of polarity [[strikethrough partial word]] in the helix and the external part of the tube. [[within a drawn box on the right side of the page]] I have found this really to be the case see 24th April 1840 [[/end box contents]] Aug 23 22 Placed a small compass needle within the tube, which and applied a magnetic bar [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] along the out side; the influence of the bar passed apparently through the side of the tube, and affected the needle in the same manner as if the tube did not intervene except that the action was very feeble 23 Placed the tube within the coil inserted a small needle [[strikethrough]] which instudy [[/strikethrough]] which entered with the north end foremost by after being put in a about 2 inches, turned around and pointed in the opposite direction The iron tube was then withdrawn from the [[end page]]
10 the coil [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] which remained in the same connection with the battery. The needle was then gently [[strikethrough]]put into [[/strikethrough]] passed along the axis of the coil, but did not turn around as before [[left margin]]24[[/left margin]] When the same exp was [[circled]] [[repeated ?]] [[/circled]] with a thin tube, the effect was the same as with the coil alone. [[blank space]] [[left margin]] Aug [[/left margin]] Exp with a compass needle to determine more accurately if there is a difference of intensity within a hollow bar of iron, under the same circumstances, when a piece of iron rod is put in the hollow or when the same is empty For the purpose, the hollow tube mentioned in the former exp was used & inorder to [[obviate ?]] the action of the exterior magnetism, an iron stopper was put into each end of the tube [[image - drawing of a tube]] The compass was placed at about 2 feet distance, and int such a position that the direction of the tube was about a tangent to the circumference of the compass, and when the magnetic action was suspended. the needle stood at right angles to the same direction. The iron plug being in the ends of the tube, & a piece of round iron in the hollow the needle was deflected [[chart follows - four parts written horizontally]] 1st set { In 22° } {The iron Out 21/1/2 } { In 22 } 2nd set Iron out 20 1/2 } " in 18 1/2 } out 17 1/2 } 3rd out 16 1/2 } in 17 } out 17 } 4th In 17 } out 17 1/2 } in 16 1/2 } The iron was next-drawn out in part from the farther end of the tube, the needle remaining as in the last exp, ie at 16 1/2, when 1/2 out needle stood 19°, when [[end page]] [[start page]] 11 entirely out but the ends touching needle stood at 20° ------------------ Series 2nd a [[strikethrough]] fresh [[/strikethrough]] quantity of fresh acid [[word circled]] being [[/word circled]] thrown into the battery, a new [[sines ?]] was connected similar to the 1st [[sines ?]] -- [[chart follows]] 1st set 2nd Set 3rd Iron in 34} Iron out 30 1/1} Iron -- out 32} -- in 30 } ----------- -- in 30} -- out 29 1/2} To determine the effect of the iron stopper, the following was made stopper in 38 ------- out 38 ------- in 36 1/2 [[separating line]] stopper out 33 in 35° out 33 in 34 out 32 1/2 in 33 1/2
12 Exp. with the large battery Sept 25, 26th Battery charged with a mixture of sulphuric & nitric acids, 4 pints o [[left margin]] Exp 1 - [[/left margin]] 15 inches of platinum wire 1/50 inch diameter heated to white heat - suddenly cooled by lifting up one of the connectors - this exp was performed with battery as a calorometer [[line pointing to comment "Batter as Deflagrator" above]] f the former & one of the latter, to a barrel of water - [[left margin]] Battery as a Deflagrator [[/left margin]] [[left margin]] Exp 2 [[/left margin]] The wires by which the contacts were fastened to the poles burned. [[line]] [[left margin]] Exp 3 [[/left margin]] The points of two steel knitting needles burned with intense light [[line]] [[line]] [[left margin]] Exp 4 [[/left margin]] { Two copper ponts burned with greenish light - very beautiful [[line]] [[left margin]] Exp 5 [[/left margin]] mercury deflagrated very brillians. [[line]] [[left margin]] Exp 6 [[/left margin]] A piece of charcoal from the forge was placed on the metallic cup attached to one pole, for the purpose of deflagrating mercury and a small quantity of mercury thrown into the desk and pressed down so as to be surrounded by the fluid metal. When the other hole, a thick copper wire was brought near the coil, a most vivid and intense ignition took place. This is by far the best method of deflagrating charcoal, which I have ever known. The mercury gives a good metallic contact and coal can be [[strikethrough]] fused [[/strikethrough]] ignited with a smaller number of plates than by any other process The battery ignits the coal when arranged so as to form but 8 plates of zinc & 8 copper. [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 exp 7 The battery was changed to a calorometer of 8 pairs of plates ---------- The ^[[sc]][[smudged]]intillations from the wires was more in quantity, not as brilliant as when the instrument acted as a deflagrator [[dividing line]] exp 8 Deflagrator of mercury not as brilliant as before [[dividing line]] exp 9 The heating power of the battery much measured as shown by the platinum wire. [[dividing line]] exp 10 A very beautiful effect was produced when one pole was connected with [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] ^[[the end of]] coil copper ribbon, and the other end of the coil drawn along the edge or back of one of the copper connections, a series of loud and rapid explosions or snaps was produced with a vivid scintillation of the ^[[end of the]] copper ribbon [[dividing line across page]] exp 11 Fine brass wire placed between the holes instantaneously melted -- [[dividing line across page]] exp 12 Platinum wire placed between the poles becomes white hot - lift up on the connection rods, & the heat suddenly falls; put down the connector, the heat again rises. [[dividing line across page]] exp 13 A wire happened to be on a [[button ?]] on a curved part between the holes, both ends dipping into the mercury cups. As soon as the acid was applied to the plates, the wire commenced vibrating with a series of brilliant deflagrations - - This exp might be shown on a large scale by posing a wire thus [[image - two cups or containers connected by a horizontal wire appearing to be balanced on a fulcrum. Both containers are underlined, the right one possibly three times.]] {Made a machine to move by this action} {see exp april 1840 }
[[Upper margin page notation: 14]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Upper margin page notation: 15]] Sept 30 Exp to determine the increase of power by a change of position in the copper [[end page]]
16 [[Header]] [[underlined]] Notes [[/underlined]] of [[underlined]] levers [[/underlined]] of [[underlined]] large [[/underlined] magnet [[/Header]] [[vertical squiggly line or brace? beside this entry]] Short bar 21 1/2 lbs 3 divisions to the end [[short dividing line]] Long bar 44 lb, The distance from the first fulcrum to the centre of magnet 13 1/2 inches - from the first fulcrum to the centre of gravity of first lever and the clevis 24 1/2 inches therefore weight of the lever itself 38 1/2 lbs. distance from fulcrum of second lever to its centre of gravity 3 feet 6 inches [[?]][[overwritten characters]]/8th -- distance from the fulcrum to the point of [[bearing ?]] of the clevis on the long lever 13 1/2 inches the pressure on the clevis will therefore be 138 1/2 lbs- [[image - diagram of lever:]] [[diagram shows horseshoe magnet suspended, open-ends down, by a ring around a horizontal beam supported by two vertical uprights. Below the magnet is a bar or pipe -centered-; the bar's left end is attached by a small vertical ring of wire to a second bar's right end. The upper bar is labeled 21 1/2 at its left end (outside the vertical support and 13 1/2 at it right end (inside the vertical support) and 38 1/2 beneath -centered-. The upper bar is connected to the ends of the magnet by a short vertical line connecting to a horizontal line between the magnet's ends. The lower bar is labeled 44 lb under its left end. centered beneath the lower bar is the following 138 3 -------- 414 38 1/2 -------- 452 1/2 [[/image]] [[end page]] [start page] Exp to determine the force of the magnets [[left margin]] 1 [[/left margin]] Two boxes as one, 8 inches dipped Torsion 117° [[?]] 100° [[short dividing line]] 4 Boxes arranged as one, Torsion 124° 8 Boxes arranged as 4-8 inches dip torsion 180 [[short dividing line]] Do Do [[for: ditto ?]] [[strikethrough]] [[pull? or full?]] [[/strikethrough]] like 9 1/2 inches torsion 190° [[short dividing line]] 8 Boxes as 8 plates, dip [[overwritten character - illegible]]0 inches, torsion [[2nd and 3rd digits of number overwritten]] [[best guess]] 155° [[/best guess]] Sept. 7th 1834 [[short dividing line]] Exp to determine the force of different batteries, on the magnet. The plates of the battery have been standing for 5 days, so near they are now covered with an oxide which prevents the full action --- Exp [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] ^[[st]] with the compass needle instead of the torsion, [[?]] which is found rather inconvenient Battery arranged as 8 [[smudged]] plates [[/smudged]] of plates plates dipped to the [[underlined]] stop [[/underlined]] angle 47° Exp 2 Battery arranged as 8 elements united into 4, or a double battery, each member of 4 elements - angle 61° Exp 3rd The battery was arranged as a single battery of 4 elements angle 62°
18 When one of the wires was lifted from the mercury cup in the last experiment, (the communitcation was formed by means of two thick wires 4 feet long) the needle moved about a degree, showing that a little more electricity was transmitted with the thicker conduction - [[short dividing line]] [[left margin]] Exp 4 [[/left margin]] Whole Battery arranged as two elements [[underlined]] angle 67°[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] Exp 5 [[/left margin]] Whole battery arranged as one element - angle 64° Repeated the above Angle 62° [[short dividing line]] [[left margin]] Exp 6 [[/left margin]] Battery arranged as 4 batteries each as single element operating together, angle 67 1/2 [[underlined]] Exp 7th [[/underlined]] Batteries seperated into [[overwritten character]] 8 [[/overwritten character]] 4 parts, 1st part alone angle 50° -- 2nd 42° 2nd part angle 52 1/2° -- 2nd 52[[?]] 1/2 3rd part angle 40° 4th part angle 45° [[short dividing line]] Exp 8th After standing 1 1/2 hours, 2nd part of battery as above angle 64° 1 pt angle 64° [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 3 pt angle [[6?]]7° [[short dividing line]] 4th pt angle 58° [[short dividing line]] [[indented]] Exp 7 & 8 show the influence of time on the plates possibly they have been somewhat more soaked by standing which may have influence the result. Exp 9 With 2 parts 3 & 4th angle 61° With 3 parts 2nd, 3rd & 4th angle 65° With the whole battery angle 65° Exp 10 All the parts attached angle 65° 1st part thrown off - angle 64° 2nd part thrown off angle 60 3rd part thrown [[wiped away?]] angle [[/wiped away]] angle 55° [[short dividing line]] Exp 11 Battery arranged as 2 elements angle 67° Exp 12 Batter arranged as 2 batteries each of the two elements angle 70° arranged as 4 plates 67°
20 Sept 8th, 1834 Exp 1 After standing overnight, the same arrangement ([[is ?]] as 4 Elements) gave Angle 70° When the plates were 8 [[without?]] [[defect?]], Angle 71° NB The compass needle stood precisely at zero [[strikethrough]] it had been arranged at first [[/strikethrough]] before the [[dep ?]] but afterwards stood at about 10°; it however gradually returns to the zero point showing that time is required to discharge the magnetism [[short dividing line]] [[note after brace]] {N. B. The effect was [[?]] [[?]] [[word circled]] [[?]] [[/word circled]] to the current from the wooden wedges between the [[word circled]] ends [[/word circled]] [[dividing line below braced note above]] Exp 2 Battery arranged half as a battery of 4 elements other half as a battery of a single element When the single element was connected Angle 65 When the pair of 4 elements Angle 66 1/2 The magnet after this exp, secured to retain a greater magnetic power than [[?]], as after the acid was withdrawn, the needle hovered to about 30°. This effect was found to be produced by the current which is generated from the moistened wood between the copper & zinc When the one element part of the battery was connected and out of the acid, the angle 11° When the equal surface of 4 elements was connected angle 1° When all the parts were together as one element angle 30° under same arrangement [[end page]] [[start page]] 21 From the foregoing ^[[experiment]] it would appear that the battery is more powerful than is necessary to charge the magnet and that for this purpose, two boxes are merely sufficient, although a greater effect is produced by way the whole battery as 4 elements -- Or in other words, although an increase of [[time? or zinc?]] surfaces after two boxes does not increase the effect, yet by increasing the intensity of the current, a greater effect is produced. [[short dividing line]] Exp 3 To observe if any increased effect be produced by a sudden change of polarity, the magnet was galvanized, the needle stood at angle 59° The [[strikethrough]] [[second ?]] [[/strikethrough]] poles were reversed and re reversed angle 58° about From this, it appears that no [[increased ?]] effect is produced by changing the poles -- [[short dividing line]] The exp was repeated with smaller dip, angle 45 Poles reversed + - angle 42 [[short dividing line]] Exp 4 Miscellaneous Placed a piece of iron [[rod ?]] [[?]] in a coil, transmitted the current, the rod was still powerfully magnetic -- [[short dividing line]] Placed a cup of mercury in a coil with one end of the coil in the mercury, the other attached to the battery, also a wire was placed between the mercury & the battery, a rapid [[rotation ?]] took place around each pole - [[image - diagram of a length of wire coming in from the left, forming a coil and it's right end placed in a cup in the coil's center. A second wire has a terminus in the cup and goes off to the left - presumably to a battery as described above in Exp 5]]
22 Sept 9th 1834 Exp to determin the modulus of conduction. For this purpose a wire of an inch of copper was coiled into a galvanometer of one spine [[image]] in the form of a rectangle, six inches of wire formed the rectangle, and five inch were left projecting from each end. By the side of this was placed another rectangle consisting of two turns of wire. [[strikethrough]] one end [[/strikethrough]] The ends were placed in an opposite direction & one of the was 5 inches; the other was left [[?]] long. Exp 1st a plate from the battery was placed in well water after having been dipped into a solution of acid, a slight galvanic action was thus produced. The action of this through the short galvonometer turned the needle to the right through the double to the left. When both acted together [[strikethrough]] one was [[/strikethrough]] so as to produce an equalibrium of the needle, the length of wire attached to the double galvonometer, was 24 inches + the length of the coil; the other was only the length of the coil. Exp 2 Acid was added 1/64th Length of wire 17 inches + coil other as before Remarkable result Exp 3 When two plates were used , so as to form a compound battery, the lengths were about the same. This effects are different from what I expected. The greater the intensity the greater should be the unit of conduction. Sept 11th [[smudged]]On reflection it occured to me that this effect so different from what I had expected might be produced by using the same battery. [[end page]] [[start page]] 23 for both currents. In order to test this two different plates were used. Exp 4 When two plates were used in order to equalize the action of each a differential galvonometer was used. Consisting of two equal wires about 15 inches long, were bent into a rectangle & applied in contrary directions to each other with a needle within. This [[?]]turned was proved before being used, by being placed on the same cup, the ends were then cut off until the needle [[?]] at rest. [[image]] When two ([[?]] plates) were use, and the action equalized by pouring acid into one or the other until the equalizing galvonometer showed an equal action. In this expe the plates were dipped about 8 inches in weak acid the [[underlined]] Modulus [[underlined]] was 94 feet !!! Molulus in another exp 86 feet ! Exp 5 [[strikeout]] Four plates were now used and arranged so as to form two batteres of two elements, the modulus in this case was much increased.
When two very long coils were [[connected?]] so as to transmit current through both, the spark [[image - two coils]] was very intense. This was even found with a [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] the spark from two short thick wires The difference was very perceptable This was fully developed in this Exp of 1838 - Dec 31st 1834 [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] Exp 1 One of the small circular battery was charged [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] with dilute sulphuric acid, the connection was formed by a wire of 4 inches long, no spark on breaking contact - with a thick wire 1/10 of an inch in diameter coiled into a spiral, spark on breaking contact - Iron cylinder inserted, not increase effect Exp 2nd Copper ribbon formed of thin copper plate 1 1/2 inches diameter, 60 feet long rolled around a short cylinder of iron, spark on breaking contact - Iron withdrawn spark on breaking contact. Iron inserted, spark on breaking contact, the difference in the two cases not perceptable - The wire was then suddenly unrolled from the coil, in this case no spark from the broken contact [[sidebar]] No form of the spiral not favourable to the production of mag effects [[/sidebar]][[endpage]] [[startpage]] Jany. 1st 1835 Exp 1 - Two ribbons of copper plate well covered with [[silk?]] through the length, each 28 1/2 long, 13/16 of on inch wide, amalgamated at the ends, and having from the other sheet of copper were every way [[?]] [[strikethrough]] they were first made straight then [[/strikethough]] were used to form the [[strikethrough]] contact [[/strikethrough]] connection in [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikthrough]] the holes of the battery of a single element (one of the cylindrical battery) They each gave a faint spark when not coild and the intensity of the spark in both was the same, no spark was produced by a [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]]ribbon of the same 7 1/2 inches long. [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] Exp. 2nd The two strands of ribbons above mentioned were coiled into two separate spirals, with all the [[spans?]] in the same plane, one however was first doubled so that the electricity in each [[span?]] should be moving in an opposite direction to that in the one contiguous in this case [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] the single coil gave a spark which could be heard in an adjoining room with the door closed, while the other under the same circumstances gave no spark. This established the effects of coiling. ------ Exp 3 A cylinder of soft iron was introduced with the center of the coil the effect was not sensibly increased although the exp was repeated many times with extra coil -----
26 Exp 4 The double coil was unwound and laid at length. In this case there was no spark visible. While a brilliant deflagration of the mercury took place with the other strand in the form of a coil. Exp 5th With a ribbon 25 feet long 1½ inches wide, rolled obliquely around a cylinder of iron, spark appeared more brilliant when the cylinder was in the axes of the coil than when out. Exp 6 Several coils were wired of the same length but of different quantities of metal then appeared to be a thickness of ribbon beyond which the effects are not increased or [[?]] decreased with a moderate length of wire. The maximum was attained in this experiment by the coil mentioned before 28½ feet long Exp 7 The battery appeared to produce the greatest spark when the action was feeble and constant. A rapid evolution of hydrogen is unfavourable to the effect the greatest effect was produced from a small plate by a solution of about ⅓ more acid in water [Doubtful] Exp 8 A larger trough of mercury was placed in the current between two coils had no increased effect. Three coils were then connected by cups of mercury into our circuit. A spark was produced at only one of the junctions but was not apparently more intense with all the coils than with the one of 80 feet. [[end page]] [[start page]] May 6th 1835 To determine the difference in effecting a change in the quantity of the wire or ribbon 9 A long wire was arranged with loops to dip into the mercury in the cup, of one of the cylindrical battery. A length of [[?]] feet gave no spark, 15 feet very feeble spark, 30 fet 45 feet and so on up to 120 feet, after this, the effect did not appear to be increased, and a wire of 300 feet appeared to produce rather smaller spark. 10 The coil 28½ feet long was then applied — vivid spark. Also coil of 60 feet, spark more intense. [Coiling 4 as much copper] 11 Coil with 95 feet, containing nearly 10 ^ten times the quantity of copper, spark about the same as the last. 12 Small coil 28 feet compound with electro-magnet, which will support 700 lbs, spark much brighter + louder from coil. Small coil compared with larger electro-magnet. Scarcely any spark from magnet, vivid one from coil. 13 It appears that the difference in the effects of different coils is greater the lower the intensity of the battery NB The loudest sparks appear on the side of the thimble. To compare this intensity they should be drawn from the middle of the surface of mercury in the cup
[[single, ragged page, upper left and right corners torn. small piece missing along bottom edge at right]] [[list of names and page numbers]] [[indented]] Page [[missing]]lass [[missing]] [[La]]wrence ......3 [[missing]]iece Elinde.......9 [[missig]][[diamiad?]], John..... 42. Donovan, Richard,.........47 Douglass, Alexander,......52. Daly, James...............56 Dwy. James................60. [[/end list of names and page numbers]] May 25th 1838 Mr. I Lock Stales Sillermans Journal April 1838 that he produces magneto elect currents , by putting one end of a magnetic bar on one end of the galvonometer wire, [[image]] and the other end of the same wire, around the middle of the bar by [[whorling ?]] the magnet around as on two pivots the galvanometer is affected. This if true appears to be an important experiment same wire motion in this manner shouldnot increase or diminish the intensity of action When one current is suddenly approximated to another the effect appears to be the same as if a new current were suddenly created or a current suddenly commenced but as such effect is produced in the above [[short dividing line]] Exp. 1 The currents in the magnet will revolve parallel to [[strikethrough]] the one in [[/strikethrough]] the wire or will cut the long part of the wire at right angles but in the last case no current should be produced. Exp - [[strikeout]] one coil perpendicular to the plain of another no shocks when slightly inclined, shocks commenced to in [[both ?]] [[short dividing line]] Exp 2 I received from Dr. Godden[[?]] while in Philadelphia a hank of very fine wire. which he informed me would not produce schocks, tried about 1500 feet shock feeble in the 2nd ribbon coil. The [[?]] effect could not be produced with [[missing]]
[[double vertical line in center of page, extending from near top of page to approx. 3/5 of the way down]] [[names listed one-by-one (or perhaps two) in column on LHS, leading by '...' to adjoining page number on LHS of said vertical center line]] Page [[written above and to left of said center line]] [[top LHS of page missing]] nhoff Abram. [[?]] ... 24 [[?]] + Adames [[good guess?]] ... 36. [[?]] Andrew, ... 41. [[?]]ds, Ri[[?]]ble, 57. [[?]] Stephen [[good guess?]] + Co [[?]] ... 61. Blackwell [[?]] + McFadin [[good guess?]] ... 68 Beasley Robert, ... 75 Brinkerhoff.[[good guess? same as partially missing first name at top]]Peter [[Petir?]] + [[?]] Abram. [[?]] . 19 Burnson [[?]] John, ... 53 [[following note scrawled across center of page, disregarding center line]] Amer. Phil. Society [[?]] Stated Meeting, Nov. 2. 1838 Read by its title, + referred to Pres. Bache, Dr. Patterson, [[followed by large '}' encompassing all three names: preceding name, this name, and following name; leading to '+ Committee']] } + Committee Dr. Hare [[bottom half of page empty]]
[[italics]] Singular Effects of Lightning [[/italics]]. - We have already mentioned that the house of Ald. Tucker, in Broadway near the cor. of 10th st. was struck with lightning during the heavy shower of Tuesday evening. Two young gentlemen were sitting at the time in a room at the cor of 9th st. and Broadway with their windows open and a sperm candle burning on the table. This candle, which was eight or ten inches long, - was completely melted by the shock, - and the wick, having nothing to support it fell down and directly "went out." At the same time the young men experienced an extraordinary sensation of heat, which soon covered their faces with sweat. The distance of their room from Mr. Tucker's house is perhaps 300 feet. These facts are stated to us by one of the young gentlemen alluded to. The explanation of the phenomenon we leave to others. - [[italics]] Jour. of Com. [[\italics]]
[[newspaper clipping - incomplete on all sides - slight cross-shaped hole occurs in upper-right quadrant]] estate of said Decedent to bring [[?]] [[?]] [[off page]] mands or claims against the same, within, one [[off page]] from this day, April 24, 1838, by setting up a [[?]][[off page]] of this order in five of the most public places [[off page]] county of Essex for two months - and also [[b ?]][[off page]] vertising the same in one of the newspapers pri[[off page]] this state, and which circulates most genera[[off page]] the neighborhood where said decedent liv[off page]] the same space of time: and if any creditor [[off page]] neglect to exhibit his or her debt, demand or [[off page]] within the said period of one year, public not [[off page]] ing given as aforesaid, such creditor shall be [[off page]] barred of his or her action therefor against th [[off page]] Administrator. By the Court. A30-2m JACOB O. DRAKE, Surro [[off page]] ------------------------------- ESSEX ORPHANS' COURT. Term of April, 1838. John Clark, Administrator&c. of George W. [[off page]] deceased-Order to limit Creditors on a re[[?]][[off page]] tion of Insolvency. The said Administrator having repres[[off page]] the Orphans' Court of the county [[off page]] [[?]] that the personal and [[two partial words]] [[off page]]
[[single page, torn with pieces missing along all borders, primarily along length of right edge]] could not the lateral discharge rather lateral currents be obta-- common electricity by suspendi-- from the two lighting rods of the two ne-- insulated by silk strings and to drawn up on the plane of the ends of the wire brought old college - May 27 For an extraordinary effect secondary current see [[hours?]] or Newark daily for Saturday 2[[9? or 6?]]th 1838 Send charge of battery throug-- check wire around file the doubtfull before on account of attenuations of the currents -- [end page]
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[[left facing single page with pieces missing at upper right corner and lower right margin]] [[Header]] March 1836[[/header]] Exp to be tried. Put a drop of mercu [[missing]] capsule and with it a piece of zinc [[missing]] motion will be observed if there met[[missing]] covered with nitric acid but if the [[missing]] to nitrate of mercury be poured on, the mercu[[missing]] rises and falls until the same [[?]]erely disappears [[strikethrough]] other [[/strikethrough]] metals produce no motion, even iron is inefficient, although it produces action in mercury covered with nitric acid. [[?]] 1831 [[?]]16 p 22 [[blank space]] Exp 2 Send current through coil from single battery the coil having a cylinder of soft iron in its centre through which the current also must pass will not this arrangement increase the intensity March 19th 1836 It does 1838 Exp 3 Send current generated by the battery and coil through magnet. Note if intensity is increased no 1838 Exp 4 Place soft iron cylinder in axis of coil make the current pass through the iron see if intensity is increased - no 1838 Exp 5 Surround cylinder of iron with broad short coil, transmit current from thinner electric pile - note the effect current transm[[missing]] through iron. Exp 6 Coulomb asserts that iron may be made to retain its magnetism by twisting it. Try this and if so, note the effect with electro-magnets
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1834 - 1838
Alexander, [[Alexanedine?]].. [[?]] Agnew, John . . . 2 Andersons, James & William 10. Andrews, Amasa & Cluathan 14. [[Agron?]], Henry . . . 26. Andrews Lowing . . . 55. Alexander, Hugh . . . 77.
28 January 7th 1835 [[margin]] 13 [[/margin]] It occurred to me this morning before rising from bed, that if I would solder two copper handles to the coils used in the forgoing experiments, a shock might be obtained - Accordingly two thick pieces of copper plate were soldered one to each end of the coil [[image - diagram of coil]] When these were grasped in the hand, & the current formed a shock, given with the small cylindrical battery, which may be felt to the shoulders - [Good experiment] [[double line]] [[margin]] 14- [[/margin]] The effect was then tried with one of the plates of the large battery. This gave a very vivid shock, but the shock did not appear to be more intense than in the former exp. The shocks however in this exp. fired at two different times the hydrogen which was evolved from the [[?tsom]] of the [[?]] on the zinc plate [[line]] [[margin]] 15 [[/margin]] The contact was broken in a vessel containing a mixture of oxygen & hydrogen. A explosion of the gas was produced - [[line across page]] [[underline]] N.B. [[/underline]] after operating with the battery this evening, noticed that my hands very very moist - probably produced by reaction of the acid. After a short time they became dry and [[sores?]] form - this circumstance uncomfortable [[end page]] [[start page]] [[insertion]] 29 x [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] (To determine the direction of the collateral current which produces the [[underline]] shock [[/underline]]) [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Jany 26th 1835 [[/underline]] A pair of [[circled]] Cruickshank [[/circled]] troughs were charged with diluted acid, a mixture of sul. and [[circled]] mureatic [[/circled]], with a quantity of common salt. The effect of the coil appeared to be little or nothing, there was a deflagration of the mercury when the contact was formed [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] but no [[such?]] when broken.. With the coil, there was a shock when the contact was formed, and also a slighter one when broken. The effect was greater with the coil than with out it [[strikethrough]] yet [[/strikethrough]]. There is a current apparently in an adverse direction when the contact is broken in a battery of a hundred pairs. In this exp, the coil was placed at the [[insertion]] [[outer?]] [[/insertion]] extremities of the two troughs, and the hands at the other. A shock was felt when the contact was made and broken. The same effect was produced with a short wire. The battery therefore produces in itself an effect similar to the coil. The coil appeared in some cases to increase the effect, in others not to produce the effect. the subject requires further investigation - make exp. on the same point with the larger battery. Apparent result of this exp 1st battery gives a shock when [[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] current is broken with or without a coil - 2nd Electricity of high intensity appears not to be affected by the coil 3
30 {Try the effect of heating the coil on spiral conductor - {Try to charge a Leyden jar by means of the coil - } {See copy of galvanism for notes on experiments to be made {Experiment on the alternation current on large animal Is the intensity of electromagnets as great as that of steel [[underline]] No [[/underline]] Will a steel magnet be carged in polarity as quickly when brought near an electromagnet as when near a steel one of the same strength. [[line]] Exp on this point Also the relative lifting power of one or two poles. [[line]] Magnetize chiltons magnet then ward it with ribbon, magnetize it in contrary direction; Try effect Borrow strong steel magnet from [[strikethrough]] [[circled]] [[Luthers?]] [[/circled]] [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] May not the experience of amber be correct, which is given in [[circled]] [[Druonfere?]] [[/circled]] relative to the current in a ring of copper - May there not be a current in the direction of the coil, and another in the opposite direction for an instant [[line]] [[line]] Is the induction action of magnets ^[[insertion]] on currents [[/insertion]] greater or less than the induction of currents on currents. Try - It should be less, since a current produces a greater effect on a magnet, than than on another current [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 March 19th 1835 Transmitted a current through a thick wire from the small circular battery lifted small quantity of filings. Transmitted same current through the wire, quantity much greater - does not this priniciple operate in electromagnetic magnets - may we not in some cases have to many wires?
32 May 9 1835 Exp in Philadelphia with [[the?]] large magnet of Mr Peal. [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 May 10 1853 Princeton Exp 1 wound 60 feet of copper wire [[strikethrough]] covered [[/strikethrough]] covered with cotton thread around one leg of a horseshoe magnet Then connected the ends with a galvanometer - a current was formed through the galvanometer by merely putting or drawing off the [[keeper?]] [[image - drawn picture of experiment]] magnet of small power [[line across page]] May 11 exp 1 [[image - drawn picture of exp 1]] Two batteries arranged as one this coil with 60 feet copper ribbon inch & 1/2 wide gave great shock. When hands were plain to current the extremities of coil, no shock When iron wire was [[brought?]] to the side of the copper of the battery & connected with the end of the coil, brilliant [[scintillations?]] [[line]] [[image - drawn diagram of experiment]] Exp 2 The current [[passed?]] through a galvanic magnet, no increased effect [[perceived?]] in the shock - current passed in the opposite direction no increased effect [[line]] Exp 3 Passed the current through the larger magnet, and afterwards around it, so as to magnetize the iron at the [[strikethrough]] [[same?]] [[/strikethrough]] instant of making the contact, or demagnetize it at the instant of breaking the circuit. Small shock Experiment not satisfactory, must be tried again
34 [[Header]] May 12th 1835 [[/header]] [[left margin]] mistake [[/left margin]] Exp 1 [[image - diagram of parallel ribbons]] Passed currents of about the same intensity through parallel ribbons - a continued current accelerated [[strikethrough]] [[so?]][[/strikethrough]] an instantaneous current - When the current was was passed through one, a shock was produced by the other when in the same direction. Good exp. [[line]] Exp 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] [[image - drawn diagram of experiment]] [[left margin]] [[underlined]] NB [[/underlined]] [[/left margin]] A current from a small battery (Shaker) passed through coil, parallel with currents from single circular battery; the currents from single pair appeared in every case to be decreased in intensity by the passage of the other in either direction Try this on larger scale [[line]] [[image - drawn diagram of experiment]] Exp 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] Passed the current through a hollow electromagnet filled with mercury - observed no increase of intensity. [[line]] Ex 4 The two wires from the large magnet [[image - drawn diagram of experiment]] were connected with the galvanometer and the [[keeper?]] suddenly separated the needle made a complete revolution [[line]] [[underlined]] Exp 5 [[/underlined]] Repeated Exp 1st, but with [[insertion]] ^ a [[/insertion]] very different result. The intensity was lessened & no increase action could be obtained - Repeat this on a larger scale tomorrow [[end page]] [[start page]] 35 [[Header]] May 13 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] [[/header]] Charged one of the [[troughs?]] [[left marging]] Ex 1 [[/left margin]] of the large battery with mixture of nitric & sul. acid. 1st arranged deflagrator 11 elements spark spark with coil 60 feet - with this same as [[coloriment?]] of one element The spark about the same, a little more obtained [[line]] Exp 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] Charged a second box with [[pure?]] water, transferred the battery from the strong acid to the water, some acid remained on the plates. The shock was as vivid as when in the strong acid [[underline]] ie [[/underline]] with arrangement of one plate [[Whe?]] the battery was converted into a [[deflagrator?]] [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] of 11 plates, then the shock was scarcely perceptible. From this Exp it is clear that to produce the greatest effect with a coil, it is only necessary to use a battery of large dimensions charged with water, or very weak acid One plate of the battery gave a feeble shock, hence [[accurately?]] and low intensity is required. [[line]] [[left margin]] [[vertically]] In these exp. battery No 11 was used [[/vertically]] [[/left margin]] Exp 3 The battery was put into the acid, & the coil [[prepared?]] for shocking by soldering two copper cylinders, one on each end, by a small wire, the shock was felt in the arms as high [[ink blot]] the elbow in the muscles of the
36 of the fore arm. On Dr - White the effect was to act on the [[underlined]] pronator [[/underlined]] [[bones?]] or twisting muscles of the arm. The most severe shock was experienced when the end of the coil was drawn along the necks of the cups forming the communication a continued series of shocks was thus obtained. The sensation on myself was a peculiar & thrilling in both arms - When one cylinder was put into the mouth a shock was felt in the other arm and in the teeth When Dr. W. put one cylinder into the mouth, the other being held in the hand, a shock was only [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] felt in the arm grasping the cylinder now in the mouths and the only muscles apparently affected was in [[strikethrough]] all [[/strikethrough]] both cases the same as mentioned above. When a cylinder was grasped by each hand, the sensation was similar to that experienced when the [[ulnar?]] nerve is struck, or the sensation vulgarly called a limb [[cistech?]]. [[line]] Exp. [[overwritten]] 5 [[/overwritten]] 4 After the plates had remained about 25 minutes in the water, the shock appeared not quite as vivid. This may have happened by the acid being dissolved off the plates, or in other words, The concentrated acid solution became diluted through the whole mass of water. [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 [[header]] May 13th 1835 Continued [[/header]] When the ends of the cylinders were rubbed together sparks were produced between them. [[line]] Exp 5 When the plates are in the acid and arranged as a deflagrator [[note paper obscuring text]] [[note]] Large [[?]] Small hilex Large [[?]] Elect 10 [[degree symbol]] current + Elect 10 cur + block pick helium the two coils the current o Heat [[shire?]] Snall mag hilex Large gen Elec 10 current * minus black between Elec 10 current - same with comp helix (mag) Elec 7 current - same with single helium (mag) Elec 7 current - smallest induction helix on flat spiral Elec 6 small mag current - Elect 8 large mag current - Elect 12 " " [[Ditto for: large mag]] current [[line]] Compound induction hilex Elect 10 large magn) current + [[/note]] kind is produced by a [[insertion]] straight [[/insertion]] copper ribbon 2 feet long. The battery appeared to be more active after remaining in the [[zinc?]] about 2 1/2 hours.
of the form [[?]] On Dr White the effect was to act on the [[underlined]]pronator[[/underlined]] teres. or twisting muscle of the arm. The most severe shock was experienced when the end of the coil was drawn along the necks of the cups forming the communication, a continued series of shocks was thus obtained. The sensation on myself was a peculiar thrilling in both arms. When our [[or 'one'?]] cylender was put into the mouth, a shock was felt in the other arm and in the teeth. When Dr. W. put one cylender into the mouth the other being held in the hand, a shock was only felt in the arm [[grasping?]] the cylender now in the mouth and the only muscle apparently affected was in both cases the same as mentioned about Which a cylinder was [[grasped?]] by each hand the sensation was similar to that experienced when the ulnar nerve is struck, or the sensation vulgarly called a limb asleep. Exp. 4 After the plates had remained about 25 minutes in the water the spark appeared not quite as vivid. This may have happened by the acid being dissolved off the plates or in other words, the concentrated acid solution became dissolved through the whole mass [[?]] of water. [[end page]] [[start page]] May 13th 1835 continued When the ends of the cylinders were rubbed together sparks were produced between them. Exp 5 When the plates are in the acid[[good guess?]] and arranged as a deflagrator the shock is full as intense as with the arrangement of a single pain. Exp 6 Tried the shock with the use of the [[underline]]Swipes[[?]][[/underline]] or Basule - The effect was greater with the basule than with the simple breaking of contact but not as great as when the end of the coil was rubbed along the necks of the cups. Exp 7 Screwed a nail into the [[?]] of a small view [[?]] with the end of the copper ribbon. When the point of this was drawn over the copper conductor a brilliant [[?]] of the metal was produced, although the plates were in pure water, or water containing only the acid which adhered to the plates. The conductor is coated with sealing wax, which appears to increase the effect. When two boxes of plates are used and connected by a coil, the effect appears but little increased. In these exp no effect of the kind is produced by a copper ribbon 2 feet long. The battery appeared to have more action after remaining in the [[zinc?]] about 2 1/2 hours.
Large helix Small hilex Large gen magnet Elect 10° current + Elect 10 curr + block put between the two coils the current 0 Flat spiral Small mag hilex Large gen Elect 10 current - minus block between Elect 10 current - same with comp helix (mag) Elect 7 current - same with single helix (mag) Elect 7 current - [[line]] Smallest induction helix on flat spiral Elect 6 small mag current - Elect 8 large mag current - Elect 12 " " [[Dittos for: large mag]] current - [[line]] Compound induction hilex Elect 10 large magnt current +
compound hilen small mags hilen Elect [[underlined]] 30 current [[/underlined]] + largest single hilen larger mag Elect 20 - current - doubtfull Elect 30 current strong + [[underlined]] Elect 20 current fully [[/underlined]] strong + [[strikethrough]] Elect [[/strikethrough]] with second hilen large { Elect 20 current strong - mag { Elect 20 cur [[ver]] str - small Elect 20 curr feeb - mag [[strikethrough]] Coil [[/strikethrough]] helix same merely inverted [[in fold across both pages]] so that the wire on lower side might be [[/in fold...]] Large mag Elect 20 current strong + " " current feeb + saved same hilen block under Elect [[20? or 30]] current pretty strong Large mag [[end page]] [[start page]] (aivery block or inverted the helix current strong & + [[short dividing line]] Put on a flat spiral of bill were 30 or 40 feet long Elect 15 cur strong -- Elec 10 cur strong -- inverted current the same [[short dividing line]] flat spiral put on current[[image?]] -- inverted current -- It appears from these that inversion only affects the thick and long helices
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[[list heading]] compound helix [[/list heading]] attractor current + Elect 30 current + High charge current + [[image - dividing line]] [[list heading]] Small new helix [[/list heading]] Elect 40 current + Elect 30 current 0 Elect 70 --current - [[doubtful?]] Small coil large jar Elect 10° current +
Found that a small charge gives magnetism when a large one does not -
34 [[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 May 13th continued The above exp (5 6 7) when attached with a short wire, and the plates in acid completely failed - Pure water gives shock and deflagrations with the coil, when the same plates in acid and a short ribbon was used, gave no spark with the nail [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] NB in these exp. Either the coil of 60 or the one before described of 90 feet was used. The one of 95 feet in all cases for the shock [[line]] [[underline]] Soldered two wires to two zinc cylinders [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[image: two blocks attached by wires]] [[/left margin]] Exp 9 When the two zinc cylinders were united to the two boxes arranged as a calorimeter of two pairs, slight burning[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] was produced on the surface of the zinc when the two were rubbed together. When the two boxes were united by one of the coils, zinc to copper & the [[strikethrough]] effec [[/strikethrough]] extremities connected temporarily by the wires from the zinc cylinder & when one of these was grasped by each hand, & the edge of one rubbed against the side of the other, a singular thrilling sensation was experienced accompanied by a vivid light between the cylinders. This is a new way to get the shock. [[line]] When a short connecting wire was put into the same place, a slight deflagration of the metal took place, but were inferior to that from the coil - The battery was arranged in this exp. as two pairs of plates
40 [[header]] May 14th [[underline]] 1835 [[/underline]] [[/header]] Commenced making a wide coil of thin copper 45 1/2 feet long 3 1/4 wide and of the thin[[insertion]] ^ n [[/insertion]]est sheathing copper. [[image - dividing line]] [[bracket]] The current does not appear to be much increased in intensity by passing through a succession of currents, introduced into different parts of the galvanic circuit. Is this not caused by the first coil accelerating the current and the next becomes inactive in the same way that the current is not affected by coil when it is produced by a trough. [[underline]] Exp. on this point [[/underline]] [[/bracket]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 41 [[header]] May 14 [[underlined]] [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]] - May 15 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] 1835 [[/header]] The plates used in the last experiments after standing 24 hours in the open air, gave the shock when immersed into the water water used yesterday - [[line]] Exp 1 [[underline]] [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] [[/underline]] Charged shaker battery, tried to produce a spark with tin foil ribbon, did not succeed. next with long wire around [[image - diagram of wire wrapped around bend in magnet]] armature of 2nd magnet. The effect not increased - next used the very long wire around the magnet, and also in a coil [[image - diagram of experiment with magnet, coil, and battery labelled 'm', 'a', 'b', respectively]] [[underline]] m [[/underline]] magnet, [[underline]] a [[/underline]] coil [[underline]] b [[/underline]] battery with this arrangement the shock was quite vivid. The effect due either to the action of the magnet or the long wire. [[line]] Exp 2 [[underlined]] [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]] The same trough used in the last was charged, it gave a spark with the long copper wire 210 feet arround the armature, also a slight spark with small ribbon, 60 feet long, but none with large ribbon of the same length. The spark was the same with the coin. Whether the armature was applied to the magnet, or otherwise &c. when the keeper was reversed on the magnet. It would appear from this Exp. that an increased effect may be produced from a battery by using a very long wire coiled into a helix or [[fleck?]] spiral [[line]] [[crossed through equals symbol]] [[horizontal dividing line]] Make a long helix of small wire try the effect with the Mercer [[circled in pencil]] Mercer [[/circled]] battery. [[line]] This was done see April 1838
42 [[in margin beside paragraph]] 1 [[/in margin]] July 1838 Mr. Bullions made for me a coil of fine wire (bottle wire) 1640 feet long (2 wires interspersed of about 70 each) {coil no 1 long N.B This {coil was destroyed by a discharge from {a Leyden jar [[in margin beside paragraph]] 2 [[/in margin]] [[strikethrough]] [[Smooth ?]] [[/strikethrough]] ^[[2nd ?]] coil of copper ribbon about one inch wide 60 feet long. [[in margin beside paragraph]] 3 [[/in margin]] coil of cotton wire varnished is about 1400 feet long (coil No 2 long) [[end page]] [[start page]] May 15th 1835 43 Invented this afternoon a method of making coils of fine wire without silk covering. [[image]] Fig, A, spool of wood with [[strikethrough]] two [[/strikethrough]] ^[[a]] pair[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]] of thick sheet lead [[two characters overwritten]]nailed on each end for the sides of the spool; a coating of silk was first put on the wood, after this a layer of fine wire, the several [[spines ?]] of which did not touch but were about 1/30 or 1/40 of an inch apart. They were evenly and rapidly wound on by means of [[overwritten character]]the crank and [[strikethrough]] [[supporting ?]] [[/strikethrough]] causing the wire to pass on the spool through a loop of thick paper or paste board, this causes all the [[spires? or shires? or spines? or shines?]] to be at the same distance from each other. But the most important part of the method consists in brushing over the wires a coating of hot electrical cement, which almost immediately hardens, and thus fixes the [[spires? or shires? or spines? or shines?]] within places and simulates them at the same time. When the spool is filled with [[wire ?]]. the ends may be [[overwritten character]]knocked off [[overwritten character]] the wood [[word circled]] [[board? or bored?]] [[/word circled]] out. The from for holding the spool is made of two pieces of upright boards with a cross piece at the bottom.
44 [[page blank]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 March 18 [[Strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] Finished long coil described on May 15th. With the little shaker battery with 25 plates, the coil magnetized strongly a cylinder of soft iron. The same battery had no effect on the little red magnet -- With one of the circular batteries the magnetic effect with the small coil was very little
46 March 16th, 1836 Since the last date, I have made no experiments except some in Philadelphia; the building of a new college edifice for the Phil Department, and other circumstances have prevented. This day repeated the experiments on some of those made by Nobel. The poles of one of the [[underlined]] [[mercen? or mercur?]] [[/underlined]] troughs were tipped with platina wire, and then placed on a plate of silver over which a solution of the acetate of lead was poured, just sufficient to cover the surface; one of the poles (the + pole) was placed at about the 1/20 of an inch from the plate. When the current was transmitted, the rings [[documented? or described?]] by Nobel were formed - various other metals were used and different solutions. -- The only singular circumstance noticed was that when the pole (+) was placed near a plate of copper the other pole resting on it, and a solution of the [[ ?nate ]] of iron poured over the plate, the rings [[ ? ]] formed but at the same time a deflagration took place at the point which was not visible when any other [[strikethrough]] plate [[/strikethrough]] solution was used [[strikethrough]] [[on any ?]]. Exp 2. The experiment of the [[rings ?]] was attempted with mercury; when the + pole was plunged in the mercury, and the negative pole placed a little above, the rings were formed on the surface, as on the copper, but when the + pole was with[[drawn?]] and the negative pole plunged in, the rings disappeared and the oxide or coating of the mercury was instantly transmitted to the other side and the metal made perfectly clean. (The + pole (not withdrawn from the acid) This effect appears to me to be produced by the circumstance of the - pole, when the other is [[withdrawn?]] being at the farther extremity of the mercury. Thus [[image]] when the - pole is in the acid at [[strikethrough]] d [[/strikethrough]] then the wire forms the pole, when [[strikethrough]] not the [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 47 in the mercury, then the pole may be considered as at [[underlined]] c [[/underlined]] on the opposite side of the mercury nearest the + pole [[image - U shaped tube, standing upright, with a wire traveling through it; the wires ends extend horizontally left and right out of the tube's open ends. Under the wire's ends appear these: + symbol on left; - symbol on right]] If mercury be placed in a bent tube, into which the wires of a trough dip, and if a quantity of acid solution be poured on the negative side, it will pass through between the glass and the mercury - is this not the same phenomenon as the preceding [[note in margin in lighter ink beside paragraph above]] [[In?]] my 1-p March 19 [[/note in margin]] March 22nd Ex 1 Placed a piece of amalgamated zinc at the bottom of a cylindrical jar, and on this poured strong solution of sul. acid no action was observed in the zinc as described [[?]] Sturgeon [[image]] over the amalgamated zinc, a plate of copper was placed, the under side of which was covered with cement and a piece of glass passed through the center. into this a piece of thick copper wire was placed and bait so that one end touched the zinc and the other the copper plate. With this arrangement, bubbles of hydrogen gas were given off in abundance -- from the perpendicular pans of the wire and also a few small bubbles appeared on the upper part of the plate. The plate was cemented to the sides of the jar, but possibly some liquid communication was formed between the upper and the lower side. Exp 2 [[image - cylindrical container half-full of liquid; second, smaller cylindrical container sitting in bottom of first.]] A copper bucket was placed in the jar with the acid touching the amalgamated zinc. The bucket was partially filled with acid, and in this arrangement there was no liquid communication between the outside & inside of the copper, and then no bubbles were seen to rise from the interior of the copper
48 March 19[[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] 1836 [[image - cross]] This afternoon made a few expmts on the magnetization of steel by electricity. Exp 1[[superscript]] [[underlined]] st [[/underlined]] [[/superscript]] Needle placed in coil described May 18[[overwritten]] [[?]] [[overwritten]] 35), containing about 500 feet fine wire discharge from largest bar - no signs of magnetism. Needle placed on outside of coil, no effect except that part of the cement of the side of the coil was thrown off. [[double underlined]] Exp 2. [[/double underlined]] Flat sash 7 inches long 1/2 an inch wide 1/8 thick placed in same coil, no effect [[underlined]] Exp [[/underlined]] 3 Same sash placed in coil formed of copper ribbon 31 feet long 1/2 inch wide, very thin - discharge from same jar considerable magnetism produced. Needles placed in same coil, also became magnetic. Exp When the same discharge was passed through spiral [[insertion]] ^ formed [[/insertion]] of copper wire about 18 feet long, 1/10 of an inch in diameter, the [[spans?]] being about an inch in diameter, the sash surrounded with silk, much greater degree of magnetism was produced than by any other process. From [[underlined]] these experiments, it would appear that to develope magnetism in steel, a short passage is required through a good conductor. [[/underlined]] A phenomenon was observed relative to the lateral action in these experiments which may lead to some knowledge of the law of action of currents on currents. It was observed that a spark passed from the end of the magnet to one of the spires of the spiral. It was concluded that this was produced by the inductive action of the electric current, and this was proved by placing a glass tube in the axis of the spiral and a copper wire in this, where the discharge was made a vivid spark passed from the end of the wire [[strikethrough]] and [[struck?]] [[strikethrough]] to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ a piece of [[/insertion]] tin foil which [[end page]] [[start page]] 49 formed the connection with the outside of the jar. This effect was produced when a small jar was used. The arrangement was thus [[image]] The experiments on the magnetism of steel with ordinary electricity were made with a a jar 13.4 inches high, and 2 feet 2.5 in diameter that is then coiled part about 2 1/4 square feet [[left margin]] March 20th [[/left margin]] Mr Mason of Phil[[superscript]] a. [[/superscript]] informed me that on [[strikethrough]] disching [[/strikethrough]] discharging a gen by means of a rod with a glass handle, there appeared a remarkable attraction of the ball of the rod in connection with the [[strikethrough]] lower [[/strikethrough]] outer coating. In attempting to repeat this exp., this morning, holding the rod by the glass handle, and accidentally touching to table with my right side, the discharge suddenly took place along the moist handle through my right side, and right hand and arm. This was the [[strikethrough]] most intense [[/strikethrough]] largest discharge which has ever passed through any part of my body, the large jars just described being the one employed. It produced an involuntary shout - the fingers of the right hand which grasped the glass were violently cramped, and for the span of half an hour, felt as if they were im[[insertion]] ^ m [[/insertion]]ersed in cold water. A sensation of fainting came over me, the blood left my face, and the pulse sank [[insertion]] on the side through which the charge passed [[/insertion]] to 38. My arm and fingers now feel [[insertion]] ^ an hour after [[/insertion]] as if they had been put through [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] lifting a heavy article. The discharge was thus produced by my accidentally touching a brass rod which in turned touched a pair of the coils connected with the outside of the jar the glass handle at the same time happening to be wet and charge very intense. On examining my leg at the place where the discharge passed out to the wire, I found it marked with two lines as if produced by a hot iron; considerable pain was felt at the spot for some time after (several hours).
50 May 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] 1836 Exp on the comparative action of common and electromagnetic magnets - [[left margin]] Exp 1 [[/left margin]] It has been asserted in the Phil. mag for Dec 1835, that there is a difference in the action of electro.magnetic magnets and common magnets, in the following particular viz. when a bar of iron is placed in contact with an electro magnet at the north pole - then the bar becomes throughout a north pole - - This was tested by placing a bar in contact with the north pole of a magnet - at first sight it appeared as if the whole bar was of the same kind of magnetism; as the pole in contact, but when the same exp was tried with a steel magnet the same result was produced - In this respect there is no difference in the action of common or electro-magnets. [[left margin]] Exp 2 [[/left margin]] [[image - curved item representing experiment]] When a piece of soft iron was placed in contact with the hole of a [[galvanor?]] magnet, and then filings sprinkled over the iron, magnetic curves were formed. When the same arrangement was made with the steel magnet, the same arrangement of curves was produced in both - no difference of action is therefore observable between the action of common and electro-magnets. [[left margin]] [[underlined]] May 5th [[/underlined]] Ex3 A [[image: upside down horseshoe shape]] horseshoe galvanic magnet was prepared of precisely the same form and size as that of a steel magnet. A phem[[superscript]] n [[/superscript]] posed of two plate horseshoes - The lifting power was probably about 50 lbs as it readily took up the largely tin weighing 27 lbs. The lifting power of the steel magnet was about 6 lbs Two steel bars were rubbed on these, according to the method of double touch Each received 20 strokes on each side - The magnetism of the two bars appeared to be about equal [[end page]] [[start page]] 51 May [[underlined]] 5th [[/underlined]] Magnetized the electro magnet to the same strength of the steel magnet, the lifting power of each being 6 lbs as determined by the spring weighing apparatus the electro magnet was fastened in a vice and a bar of steel, an old file with the [[trowl?]] and stem broken off was then rubbed across the poles 20 times on each flat side; after an interval of a few minutes, each side was again rubbed from end to end 20 times, the steel magnet was next substituted for the electro magnet and an other piece of steel of the same dimention and [[temper?]] was rubbed the same number of times. When the magnetism of these bars was tested, the one rubbed on the steel magnet was found to [[strikethrough]] have [[/strikethrough]] be much stronger magnetized than the other : the relative intensities [[overwritten]] was [[/overwritten are determined by vibrating before each a magnetic needle before the [[strikethrough]] steel [[/strikethrough]] bar magnetized by the steel magnet, the needle made 10 vibs in 14 1/2" seconds before the other bar, 10 vibrations in 18 3/4" seconds : by the magnetism of the earth alone the needle made 10 vibs in 22 1/2 seconds From this exp it is evident that the power to develope magnetism in steel is not as great with the same intensity or lifting power in the electromagnetic magnet, as in the present [[line]] May 6 [[underlined]] [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]]
[[upper left hand corner]] 52 [[underline]] Lateral discharge [[/underline]] May 6th 1836 Exp on the lateral action of currents of common electricity [[line]] Exp 1 A thick copper wire was attached to one end of an insulated conductor, which was placed at a fixed distance from the prime conductor. When a discharge was passed through, [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] a spark was perceived between the wire and a key at any point of the former between the negative and positive side of a jar, connected with the prime conductor. To determine the kind of electricity thus given off, a small Leyden phial was held with its knob within about an 8th of an inch of the wire, and when the discharge [[insertion]] ^ was [[/insertion]] made, the spark from the wire communicated a feeble charge to the phial which w[[insertion]] h [[/insertion]]en tested by an electrometer and sealing wax probed to be + electricity [[dividing line]] [[note written vertically in left margin beside paragraphs above]] [[Erman ?]] observed the effect of a spark on long wire. See archives des [[decouvertes ?]] 1830 p 167 Exp 2nd To determine whether intensity or quantity of electricity was most powerful in producing the lateral discharge; the conductor was placed at a fixed distan from the knob of the prime conductor, and first the discharge from a small jar which required only 17 turns of the machine to produce an explosion, the [[strikethrough or underlined]] quantity of [[/strikethrough or underlined]] electricity produced by the lateral action was received as before by the knob of a Leyden jar, and its quantity tested by the divergency of a silver leaf electrometer The discharge was next sent through the same wire, and at the same striking distance from a jar which required 100 turns of the cylinder to produce a discharge. The electricity from the lateral discharge being measured as before, was found to be the same in quantity as with the small jar. It would appear from this experiment, that intensity and not quantity, was necessary to produce the lateral action The intensity in these two cases was the same since the jars spontaneously discharged [[themselves ?]] through the same [[note in left, written verticaly, in margin beside paragraphs above]] When a strong discharge is passed through a thin wire the electricity is given off abundantly at any angular points of the wire. [[underlined]] Illustration [[/underlined]] charge the large jar, and charge through fine copper wire in which [[image - jar with wishbone oshaped wire extending to right; open ends of 'wishbone' attached to top and bottom of canister. Closed end of 'wishbone' formed by a couple of twists of the wire. This end of the wire is labeled "(a)".]] twists at (a) are made at intervals. The[[strikethrough]]l[[/strikethrough]] electricity will be given off at the ends of these, when the discharge is not sufficient to dissipate the effect. [[end page]] [[start page]] 53 [[underlined]] Lateral discharge [[/underlined]] thickness of [[ain?]] Exp 3 Two wires of very different diameters were next used to determine if the action was due to the thimness of the wire which might cause it to act as a partial conductor, no difference however could be observed in the effect. When either the small or the large jar was used -- [This exp however should be repeated with two long wires of different diameters; the difference in action in this [[doodle in margin: right hand with index finger extended pointing rightward]] case if any would be more perceptible] Exp 3 A long [[insertion]] ^ copper [[/insertion]] wire was attached [[insertion]] ^ at one end [[/insertion]] to the insulated conductor, and the other passed into a deep well which always yields an abundant supply of water for the use of a large refrectory -- thus indicating a communication with a large reservoir of water. The end of the insulated conductor was placed about 2 inches from a [[strikethrough]] [[bath?]] [[/strikethrough]] large globe covered with tin foil, and in connection with the prime conductor. The use of this globe was to increase the intensity of the charge. When sparks were passed between the globe and the insulated conductor, [[image in left margin]] the electricity was conveyed to the water in the well along the thick wire; [in order to make the contact more perfect with the water of the well, [[about?]] the wire was immersed to the depth of about 12 feet] Although the connection with the earth was as perfect as possible, yet the lateral action of the large wire was such as to fire a mixture of hydrogen and atmospheric air in a voltaic pistol at all points between the well and the [[machine ?]] In order to render the conduction off [[insertion]] ^ still [[/insertion]] more perfect, a wire was connected with the wire leading to the well, and also to the rubber of the machine - The sparks were as vivid as before and [[note in left margin, written vertically, beside paragraphs above]] The same exp may be shown by [[placing?]] a bladder of hydrogen in contact withe the rod, an explosion will take place
54 [[underlined]] Lateral Discharge [[/underlined]] on the lateral action see Desprelse p 436 [[Msr ?]] [[Peclet ?]] p 58 vol 2nd a small Leyden jar was charged so as to give a disagreeable shock. This exp [[strikethrough [[Ifr?]] [[/strikethrough]] if I be not [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[decceived ?]] has an important bearing on the erection of thunder rods, particularly as connected with with power houses -- Exp 4 a very fine copper wire was next used, the cork wire of commerce in place of the thick copper wire of the last exp. the intensity [[insertion]] ^ or quant. [[/insertion]] of the spark from the machine, being the same the spark from the latteral action of the wire was about the same as that from the other wire. This would seem to indicate that the cause of the phenominon was not the obstruction to the discharge through the wire, as in this supposition the smaller wire should give much the larger spark, since the obstruction from partial conduction would be greater -- another circumstance was noticed, namely that the spark appeared larger near the end of the wire, or as the distance of about 40 feet from the machine, then within 2 feet of the same. The distance of the end of the wire was too great from the machine to [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] suppose that the induction action of the spark through the air, or or the sudden change in the state of the [[insertion]] large [[/insertion]] conduction could have any influence [[note in margin beside paragraphs above]] I found that this phenominon of the long wire [[luminescence ?]] was observed by [[Mr.?]] Emmet Phil [[Mg?]] & [[auu?]] vol 5 p 170 [[/note in margin]] May 7th Exp 5 [[image]] When a spark was passed through a spiral enclosing a glass tube through which was passed a thick iron wire, a spark was given off at each end of the wire, the kind of elect was determined by the electrometer and found to be the same at each end, namely positive, so that the spark in this case is not as I was led to suppose, a current induced by the current in the helix, but merely the [[dindlement?]] action similar to that which [[strikethrough]] causes the [[insertion]] spark [[/insertion]] current [[?]] given of [[?]] the [[?]] [[/strikehthrough]] causes a spark to be given off from the outside of a jar when a spark is given to the inside. [[note in margin beside paragraphs above]] There is besides this, a current which I [[underlined]] [[deleded?]] in May 1838 [[end page]] [[start page]] 55 [[underlined]] Magnetism by [[gal.?]] Exp. [[in?]] Elect. [[/underlined]] May 7th 1836 Bad day for common electricity, rainy [[line]] Exp 1st Covered a large file with copper ribbon, about 30 feet long; connected ends with small battery. The file became magnetic, while the current was passing through the ribbon, but almost intirely disappeared when the current was interrupted - when the current was passed through the ribbon for some minutes it became permanently magnetic [[line]] The current in the first place was not sufficiently powerful to overcome the [[cocrsive?]] force of this steel. The steel took on as it were a forced magnetic state [[line across page]] May 9th -- In the last no. of [[Silmans?]] journal, or the last but one, an article appeared stating that if a hole be made in the bottom of a vessel containing water, the [[insertion]] ^ spouting [[/insertion]] fluid [[smudged]] will [[/smudged]] assume a spiral form and that the twist will always be in a direction contrary to the motion of the sun. The explanation given of the phenominon is ridiculous, and by no means sufficient to account for it if it were a true fact. As the article has been copied into many of the public papers I was induced this morning to try it, although in no principle of Physiques could I hope for success; the result was in accordance with the anticipation, as the whorling of the stream was as often in one direction as in the other -- Articles of this kind do much injury to the scientific reputation of the country. [[short dividing line]] This morning also made a number of experiments with I. M. of the senior class, in order to determine the cause of a peculiar action observed by him in the motion of the dancing images. When the two plates used in this exp. are connected one with the inside & the other with the outside of an insulated Leyden jar, the dancing [[insertion]] ^ [[line]] of [[con?? [[/insertion]] will continue [[smudged]]for[[/smudged]] some time without
56 [[underline]] Exp in Elect [[/underline]] the use of the [[machn?]]. If while the dancing is going on, the upper plate be touched so as to draw off the extra particle, the image will move from the centre of the plates towards the circumference, and if the touch be renwed, it will fly from the plate. If however when the plate is near the edge, the under plate be touched, the image returns to the centre of the plate and shows no indications of jumping off. By touching one and then the other, the image may be made to dance from the centre to the circumference and back again many times in succession. To explain this phenomenon, it first determined that it depended alone on the circumstance of the [[underline]] upper [[/underline]] plate being touched, and not on its being + or - electrified. The explanation suggested by myself is as follows. The two plates being in contact with the two sides of the jar, become alternately neutral and positive, that is the upper one, and the lower negative and neutral, and in this state, the dancing is produced in a very regular manner; but when the upper plate is touched, if it be connected with the + side of the jar, it becomes neutral, and the image is thrown up from the lower plate by repulsion, which acts in every direction from the centre of the plate, or would thus act if the plate was [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] a part of the surface of a great sphere, as it is however a plate the action is from near the middle outwards, -- When the under plate is touched, the image is drawn up by attraction, and the acion will be towards the centre of the plate, or in the opposite direction to that of the repulsion from the lower plate. The action in this arrangement of the experiment is different from that where the lower plate is put in contact with the ground, for then the lower plate is always neutral, but never negative, [[strikethrough]] in reference to the image for the lower end of the image [[/strikethrough]] but in the arrangement above described, the lower plate is absolutely negative as much as the upper [[end page]] [[start page]] 57 is positive, so that it will give a spark when touched when is not the case with the common arrangement -- This on the whole is a very pretty modification of an old exp. May 10th 1836 [[I?]] made this day a double helix of tin foil [[left margin]] Ex [[/21?]] [[/left margin]] by pasting on the outside, and directly opposite on the outside, a slip of tin foil about 20 feet long and 1/4 of an inch wide. When a discharge was sent through, the inside helix [[insert]] from the prime conductor [[/insert]], a slight shock was felt by touching either end of the outside coil. When the discharge was passed from a Leyden jar, the effect was the same. The kind of electricity given off as [[strikethrough]] [[milks?]] [[/strikethrough]] tested by the small jar, and the electrometer suspended on the [[strikethrough]] knob of [[/strikethrough]] side of the jar, the common indicator was last made with -- when one end of the helix was put in communication with the outside of the jar, and the other end made to touch the knob communicating with the inside, the other helix gave off + electricity. When the negative side was last touched, the same helix gave off negative electricity. {Afterwards made use of this apparatus in 1838 and determined by it the induced currents from [[??]] electricity.} Exp 2 [[written vertically in the margin]] Important [[/written vertically in the margin]] Took the electrical machine to the new [[bracket]] College into the second story, attached the insulated conductor to the lightning rod. Worked the machine so that a spark of about one 1/2 inch passed between the prime conductor furnished with a large ball and the insulated conductor. The electricity instead of being silently discharged into the earth by the lightning rod, gave sparks to a near object sufficiently [[/bracket]] large to fire the voltaic pistol. (Describe the lightning rod.) The lightning rod descends perpendicularly into the earth about 4 feet, then passes off horizontally and at right angles to the building to the distance of 12 feete, then descends perpendicularly into the earth 3 1/2 all the part of the rod under ground is surrounded with charcoal The machin was placed about 15 feet from the surface of the ground [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] The connection of the
58 [[underline]] Lateral action [[/underline]] Several parts of the rod was as intimate as possible, being screwed together - the sparkes were not always of the same intensity, but appeared to vary on some account very much in intensity. The same rod gave sparkes from the upper part as far as the eaves of the building which was reached from the 4th story by means of a rod. NB This exp would be more striking if oxygen and hydrogen could be fired, also if the sparkes were produced by the prime conductor alone and a ball attached to the lightning rod. The action was more intense in the wire which connected the insulated conductor with the rod than in the rod itself, this may have been produced by the rods, giving off above and below, and the wire being a better conductor. I am informed by Dr Cannahan that when he was a student in college, the Lightening passed down the rod, and that the person in the room nearest, observed the whole rod apparently luminous. A friend informes me that the lightening has been several times seen by him passing for a mile or more along the rail way like a running fire ( in [[ ?]] now of New Haven) The rail way by its great length would [[strikethrough]] bould [[/strikethrough]] become powerfully negative by a cloud positevely charged, which [[strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] over the mile of the length of the road, each end would become highly positive Accident in NY 1838. House struck, person struck, and candle melted in house 200 yards distance [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underline]] Lateral action [[/underline]] 59 [[Note in margin]] May 14th 1836 [[/note]] Exp 1 Charged the large jar discharged it through ball wire, ^[[an electrometer]] [[strikethrough]] [[waspa ?]] was placed near [[strikethrough]] [[illegible words]] [[/strikethrough]] a bend in the wire. When the ball of the electrometer was within about a 1/20 of an inch from the wire, the leaves were made to surge with + electricity as tested by cealing wax Ex 2nd The electrometer was now removed to a little greater distance, the same intensity of charge sent through again, but no disturbance of the electrometer was noticed. A smaller jar the 1/2 gallon was sustituted. When this was discharged alone, no effect was observed on the electrometer the distance remains the same as in the last exp. The prime conductor of the machine was then connected, with the larger conductor, [[strikethrough]] over the [[/strikethrough]] suspended from the ceiling when the discharge was passed the electrometer was powerfully affected. Exp 3 The large jar was charged with 80 turns of the machine - the discharge produced no effect on the electrometer. The small jar was then charged with 40 turns, and connected with the long conductor, the electricity was powerfully affected. Exp 4 The small jar was charged fully, the discharge in connection with the long conductor powerfully affected the electrometer. The same charge was then given the small jar, and afterwards the charge distributed between the large jar and the small one, in this care the discharge was feeble and did not effect the electrometer.
60 [[underlined]] Lateral action [[/underlined]] Exp 5 with a very fine platina wire and the large jar, the effect was greater than with a larger wire copper bell wire — In this exp the long conductor was not used Exp 6 The lateral action is most intense when there are points along the wire. When a discharge was sent through a fine platina wire, sparks were seen at places, [[new ?]] there were the knots in the wire or kinks — The sparks were seen with and without the long conductor. [[image - two V shapes]] Exp 7 Fine platina wire dipped at a flex [[?]] into a jar of water [[insertion]] ^ + [[/insertion]] finger put in jar when the discharge from small jar passed through, no commotion felt. When the globe was added to the prime conductor, so as to increase the quantity of free electricity the discharge produced a shock on the finger through the water.— --When the long conductor was used, the shock was much greater. Exp 8 A large coppe (bell) wire was substituted for the thin platina wire in the next exp, the commotion was about the same. When the globe [[strikethrough]] [[and?]] [[/strikethrough]] or the large conductor was used, so that with this arrangement and a small jar, the lateral action is about the same with a large or small wire Exp 9 Large jar used with thick wire in water without long conductor no commotion, with long conductor, commotion With small wire, finger in water, large jar, effect less than with large wire, the long conductor connected — without the long conductor, no effect Ex 10 With a battery of 8 jars, the small wire gave a slight commotion to the water without the long conductor. With a large copper wire no commotion whatever. [[end page]] [[start page]] 61 [[undrlined]] Lateral action [[/underlined]] The charge from the battery .8 jars was again passed through the copper wire in the water with the long conductor added. [The charge in these experiments does not pass through the long conductor, but the latter only serves to extend the [[curving? or coating?]] of the inner surface of the jar]. With this, the commotion very intense was given to the jar. The small wire was substituted for the large one, the arrangement of the long conductor as before. The lateral action about the same, the wire became red hot. Exp 11 When the discharge from a battery or the smaller jar is is sent through the spiral conductor around the jar, the whole becomes luminous. Try this exp in the dark_ Exp 12 Attached iron wire to the insulated conductor in the back room of Phil Hall, carried the same out of the front window, and then across the campus to the library. The wire unfortunately touched one of the trees, still the effect of a spark near the farther end was very intense, was taken [[withe?]] the knuckle, it was felt in the heel. Ether was readily fired; is not the intensity of the spark in this case due in some degree to the principle of the spiral conductor? The effect is not due intirely to distribution in a long wire for when the electricity was communicated directly from the prime conductor of the machine to the long wire, the spark was very feeble on account of the imperfect conduction of so long a wire. 1 Send charge through small copper wire in water add one conductor, 2 conductors, 3 con &c send charge thr
62 The experiment of the [[?]] card the hole being nearer the negative end will probably have some connection with the same phenominon, as the divergence from a long wire -- 1 Try the effect of the divergence in a vaccuum with the large jars -- 2 send a charge over the [[gilt ?]] paper in an also in vaccuum - also with bottle charged and with conductor -- 3 --- Also with small ball on + side & large ball on other, and the reverse 4 Send charge along fine wire through a vacuum -- 5 Try Nobile's exp [[Darcy ?]] Brit. p. 583. cover a metallic wire with silk; form it into a close flat spiral of not more than twenty four revolutions [[underline]] with the different [[/underline]] coils in contact. [[written in margin]] This has been found to be owing to the electricity passing from one span to another [[/written in margin]] Where a considerable charge is passed through 2 feet surface, a vivid light originating in the centre will be seen even in daylight - 5th When a shock is flelt by a galvanic instrument, the effect is increased by alternating the current, would not the effect also be increased by terminating the poles with cylinders of zinc and then breaking this circuit by rubbing then together, Try the ex[[?]] Jun 8th 1836 did this Aug 31st 1836 1 Stretched a copper wire no 22 from the window of the back room of the Phil. Hall to Prof Dod's fence opposite his house. Then threw sparkes from the long conductors on one end by means of the short conductor. The sparks were very pungent at the other end of the wire, and much more so in propotion to the quantity of electricity than from the conductor in the room with the machine 2 The wire throughout its whole length became luminous, giving off rays on all sides 3 The farther end of the wire [[erased]] is [[/erased]] placed in contact within the lightning rod. a loud snap was given at each discharge of the machine; although the wire was in contact with the rod no shocks were felt by the [[end page]] [[start page]] 63 from the wire, or sparks could be drawn from the rod similar to those which were produced by the lateral discharge in some of the preceding experiments 4 When several persons took hold of the wire at different distances from the [[strikethrough]] wire [[/strikethrough]] end of the wire, the person at the end alone felt the shock or felt it very slightly- [[short dividing line]] see some remarkes on the fine powder by long wire. Phil mag p 344, 345 [[short dividing line]] [Since last entry, visited Europe] [[underlined]] Nov 24 1837[[/underlined]] My attention was directed this day to a phenominon which takes place when a plate of copper is pierced with a small hole, and this attempted to be enlarged by a [[faded]] reamer [[/faded]] If the [[faded]] reamer [[/faded]] be fore sided and slightly tapering, the hole will become a perfect pentagon . If the reamer be a three cornered file, the hole becomes square a perfectly flat reamer tends to form a triangular hole, but this is not as well defined as the other two - on a little reflection, the following rationally suggested itself to me. The ^[[square]] reamer tends by its circular motion to produce a round hole, but by the pressure given it to make it cut, and because it is slightly tapering, it tends by this pressure to form a square hole, as it is evident that a hole of this form [[strikethrough]] will [[strikethrough]] would be produced were the instrument thrust into the plate without a rotatory motion. The hole which results is therefore intermediate to the circle, and the square a pentagon is this figure - again, when the the three cornered reamer is used, the pressure tends to form a triangle and the circular motion transforms this into a square
[[top margin]]64[[center]]Nov 1837[[/center]][[/top margin]] a figure which approximates the circle more than the triangle-On the same principle a flat scewer should form a triangular hole. [[strikethrough]]Feby[[/strikethrough]][[underline]]Nov 24th[[/underline]] Poured a small quantity of alcohol on the surface of spirits of turpentine - singular serpentine action took place over the whole surface. This after about 2 or three minutes, ceased, - the alcohol then slowly collected into drops, and these seperated around the whole basin from the sides, as if they were repelled, then coalesced and sank to the bottom - In another experiment, on the surface of a small glas jar (2 inches in diameter) the alcohol collected all into one large drop, which occupied the middle of the glass, always returned when blown to the side as if repelled from the Edges - [Try the Effect if the glass is piled or filled above its coil with the liquid -] -on spark see some curious experiments described in Phil magazine vol ILVI p 176. [[line]] Exp on red hot iron in large coil - make magnet of coil of iron wire, round a cylinder of wood or glass magnetize this by the coil - note the effect[[line]] [[line]] Make a very long coil, or rather coil of long wire, re[[? - no idea]] this in the meridian, or on an axis perpendicular to the meridian, see if a spark can be obtained - [[right]]Have done so, got current similar to those by Dr Faraday.[[/right]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top margin]][[center]]April 1838[[/center]][[right]]65[[/right]] Dec 29th 1837[[/top margin]] Tried to repeat the exp. of Peltiers[[?smudge through the word - this is my guess]] of the production of cold by the thermoelectric pile, and a current of galvanism. The result was an increase of temperature. The arrangement was note however well made, the conducting wires may have influenced the result. [[line]] Try exps on the conduction of magnetic bars for heat and electricity [[line]] [[left margin]][[line]][[/left margin]][[center]]Electricity from freezing water. Try Electricity from melting sulphur do[[? short for sulphur dioxide?]][[/center]] [[line]] repeat the experiments for determining if the magnitude of a body changes by magnetizing, Enclose soft iron bar in glass tube. [[line]] view this evening Feby 12th, the bright lines in this spectrum from the electric spark - This needs no narrow slip - the lines are very distinct, also the dark spot in the middle of the spark [[dividing line]] April 6th 1838 Put tourmaline at one end of an ^[[iron]] tube and another at the other, magnetized the tube suddenly with a coil, noted the effect on the polarized [[?]] could perceive no action - also made the same arrangement with a ribbon coil, - no effect. - The tourmalines were so turned, as to appear nearly opaque. Try the same with the long coil so as to produce tension. [[dividing line across page]] Exp 2 Heated small bar of soft iron presented it to compass needle, attraction took place when bar arrived near a black heat in the day light -- When large magnet was presented, attraction was evident at a higher temperature - also the force did not appear to be developed suddenly, but by degrees [[end page]]
66 April 1838 Exp 3d The same piece of iron was heated to whiteness and then presented to the large compound magnet, attraction took place as soon as the iron became cherry red. It appears from this exp in connection with the last, that a stronger magnet indicates attraction sooner than a weak one - [[short dividing line]] Exp 4 Put electro magnet in [[underlined]] gas [[/underlined]] pipe No 1. slight indications of magnetism [[underlined]] on the outside [[/underlined]] [[short dividing line]] Exp 5 Put helix of long wire wrapped around a glass rod into long gas pipe, which was magnetized - no shock from the helix from within April 6th [[image - horizontal tube with a wire coiled around it and a 2nd wire passing through the tube with the ends brought nearly together below the tube. Terminal circles drawn on the ends of the 2nd wire. Coiled wire ends also brought near each other below the tube.]] [[dividing line]] Exp 6 [[note in margin beside next paragraph]] galvanometer not sensible[[/note]] [[image (beside paragraph next)]] Put round iron electro magnetic magnet into a hollow iron cylinder No 2 - then helix No 3 on the outside contact with the battery at [[underlined]] a [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]] magnetized the magnet within ^[[very]] slight ^[[if any]] action on the needle of the galvanometer - the hollow cylinder was next withdrawn, the magnet again magnetized - the current now appeared through the helix and galvanometer in the same direction - contrary to my supposition [Try this again with other magnet] [[dividing line across page]] Ex 7 Placed the smame helix mentioned Exp 6th [[image]] in a helix of ribbon then strong shocks - [[dividing line across page]] [[note in margin]] Probably produced by a deposition of reduced copper on the wood which seperates the [[metal ?]] of the battery [[/note]] [[underlined]] NB [[/underlined]] While engaged in the above experiments observed a singular interruption of the current as tested by the sparks sometimes they would be quite loud at other times almost entirely cease - Prob produced by battery. [[end page]] [[start page]] 67 [[underlined]] Remark [[/underlined]] It appears from Exp 6 and 7, that iron screens the magnetic electrical inductive action -- Will the same screening influence be exerted on the attraction and repulsion discovered by Ampere? Try the Exp. [[dividing line across page]] April 7 1838 It is stated in the archive of Science page 72 vol for 1828 that magnetized iron is a bad conductor of electricity -- To test this fact I placed a rasp in an electrical circuit excited by a thermo electrical battery exposed to a constant temperature after the needle had taken a fixed position the rasp was magnetized by a powerful horseshoe magnet but no effect could be observed [[short dividing line]] Again the rasp was replaced by a cylinder of soft iron & when the needle was stationary the cylinder was magnetize by a coil of copper ribbon but no effect was produced -- It would appear from these experiments that the assertion is not well founded [also stated in Phil Mag vol 1[[?]]5 p 266] [[dividing line across page]] April 9th 183 [[short dividing line]] Exp with two coiles long ^[[No 1]] one and the ribbon coil No 2 arranged so that [[image]] the break might take place in the outer and inner coil at the same time no effect no shock
68 April 1838 [[margin]][[underlined]]Exp 2nd[[/underlined]][[/margin]] The same arrangement was next made as in the last, with the exception of the ends of the reel and coil were separated by a piece of insulating substance, and the two bound together so that the breaking of contact would be simultaneous [[drawing in margin of a spiral]] with this arrangement; a shock was given, but not more intense than in the case of the arrangements without colasng the current. [[diving line hand drawn on page]] [[margin]]April 10th[[/margin]] Exp 1 attached to the inner ^[[long]] coil ([[s]]piral containing needle) a magnetizing spiral sent current through outer - no - magnetism in needle repeated, repeated the exp several times, always with the same result [[dividing line across page]] Exp 2 Repeated the above experiment with the exception of substituting for the long coil, a short ribbon coil. The needle was rendered magnetic in the [[strikethrough]] [[current ?]] [[/strikethrough]] direction of the current of the outer coil several times repeated [[dividing line across page]] Exp 3 Placed the needle in the centre of the concentric coil, slightly magnetized in the direction of the outer current, the battery current [[dividing line across page]] Exp 4 Sent small charge ^[[from jar]] through the spiral for magnetizing needles. (Exp 1) a needle was magnetized in the proper direction as [[with? or in the?]] [[coted]] by the electromagnetic model - [[image]] [[dividing line across page]] Exp 4 Placed coil No 2 (Ribbon) horizontally on the table, and within this long helix No 2 (1500 feet) and within this again long helix No 1 (1640) shock from Helix No 2 rather more intense than from helix No 1. Probably [[end page]] [[start page]] 69 April [[smudged]] 1838 [[/smudged]] [[Note in margin]] Exp of [[Jarceng ?]] [[/note]] Because helix No 2 is larger and therefore is everywhere [[?]] the outside coil & consequently is more acted on. But the most important result from this experiment is the fat that when the ends of the middle helix and seperately then the inner helix produces the shock without any dimmunition of intensity, but when the ends of the middle helix are closed, no shock can be produced from the inner coil. The closing of the ends of the inner coil has no effect on the shock from the outer coil [[dividing line across page]] 5 Exp Used the 2nd & 1st long helix with the the small shaker battery of 25 plates, shocks from this and the second coil about at intense as from the 1st helix with the copper ribbon [See exp July 18th] [[short dividing line]] 6 Exp [[Note in margin]] Important [[/note]] Placed [[strikethrough]] coil N [[/strikethrough]] long helix No 1 within No 2 produced the inductive shock by sending current from small crookshank battery through [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] helix No 2 action nearly as great as induction from ribbon coil with battery of single element. In these experiments shock was only felt at breaking contact not on making The intensity of the induced current is so great that 3 persons grasping hands felt the shock [[dividing line across page]] Note to exp 4 When the handles from both coils were grasped at the same time by two different persons then each receved a shock -- The interposition of the hands partially retarded the action of the middle coil so as to let the action extend in part to the inner coil. Important
70 April 11th 1838 Passed a current from small crook shank battery through long helix no. 2 At the same time, current through ribbon coil No 2 on the outside of the helix, no shock could be produced while the current was passing. This perhaps was caused by the current passing through the acid instead of the body, no difference in the result when the current was reversed. [[short dividing line]] April 12 [[in margin beside paragraph]] 1 [[/in margin]] Sent current through ribbon coil, then suddenly thrust into the centre of the same; the long helix No 2 which was connected with the galvonometer, slight indication of a current at [[underlined]] making + breaking [[/underlined]] contact [[dividing line]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 2 [[/in margin]] substituted for the helix above mentioned, the [[strikeout]] long [[/strikeout]] ribbon cylindrical coil; the effect with this was considerably greater & the kinection of the current was the same as that of the outer coil when the cylinder was drawn out [[short dividing line]] [[note in margin]] Thermo battery shock [[/note]] Placed long helix No 2 within ribbon No 2 sent current from Thermo battery through outer received slight shock from inner by placing one handle above the tongue the other beneath. same exp repeated with a rasp in the one cup of mercury and the end of the coil drawn along this the shock was now much more intense and could be felt to the wrists nearly; the spark is also much better shown in this way -- By screwing the rasp to the wire, so as to make a better metallic contact & putting the battery into iced salt a much more powerful and disagreeable shock is produced, [[end page]] [[start page]] 71 April 1838 shock may be felt to nearly the elbows; this effect however was only produced when the iron was quite hot, and the other side of the battery immersed in a freezing mixture [[dividing line across page]] April 13th 1838 [[in margin beside paragraph]] 1 [[/in margin]] [[image]] Placed large ribbon coil ^[[No 1]] on the table, sent current through it from two batteries small cylindrical, also placed long helix No 2 on the out side shock perceptable when [[strikeout]] sp [[/strikeout]] helix 4 inches without the circle. Next the helix was held over the circle in the direction if its axis, centre of helix more than a foot from centre of circle. the effect still perceptible, a motion of an inch or two upwards , rendered the action imperceptible [[short dividing line]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 2 [[/in margin]] With one battery, the effect was greater than with both arranged as in the above experiment , in which the two formed a compound battery with one the distance above, at which the shock was felt was about 16 inches [[short dividing line]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 3 [[/in margin]] Tried long helix No 1 to produce shock made of large coil, found no effect; No 2 placed in the same position gave powerful shocks. can account for this on no other principle, than that of having destroyed the insulation of No 1 by passing through it a shock from a small jar highly charged - I had placed this coil in contact with prime conductor & then sent sparks through it. they at first were quite pungent, but after the shock had been sent through the coil, the effect appeared to cease. [[dividing line across page]] N B the cause of the distruction of the helix is now more apparent. It appears to depend on the screwing influence of the part of the coil cut off by the electricity passing through.
72 April 1838 [[in margin beside paragraph]] 4th [[image]] [[/in margin]] Attempted to generate a current in one coil and accelerate it by passing it through another. The ribbon coil No 2 was placed inside of No 1, & the ends of the former connected with the long helix No 2 placed without but no shock could be obtained - perhaps the intensity was not sufficiently great. [[short dividing line]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 5th [[image]] [[/in margin]] The same arrangement with the difference of pulling the long helix No 1 inside, & the other long helix out side; the helix No 1, although injured gave a shock but not a very intense one with a small circle. It appeared that no effect was produced with a single snap, but when the file was used to give a series of explosions, then the effect was increased [[in margin beside paragraph]] 6th [[/in margin]] Placed ribbon coil No 2 within coil No 1 observed spark from No 1, when No 2 was open & shut [[underlined]] ie [[/underlined]] when the ends were joined and open - no difference apparently in the result [[dividing line]] April 14th [[in margin beside paragraph]] 1 [[image]] [[/in margin]] Placed the ribbon coil No 2 inside of No 1, & then placed the long helix No 2 inside of this when the ends of No ^[[ribbon]] 2 were joined no shock could be felt from No 2 long helix. The snap at the same time was quite [[strikeout]] vivid and [[/strikeout]] loud. When the long helix was placed on the outside then the shock was produced --- [[dividing line across page]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 2 [[/in margin]] small helix placed within No 2 which remained as in the last exp, and its ends fastened so that the current in No 2 would circulate through the small helix a needle placed in this became magnetic showing that although [[end page]] [[start page]] 73 April 1838 the current in the 2nd coil would not produce a [[overwritten]] current [[/overwritten]] [[circuit ?]] in the long helix and appears to [[sinean ?]] it from the action of the long ribbon without still it produces magnetism in a needle. This effect is as yet quite inexplicable to me. [[short dividing line]] 3 Placed one coil of thin wire around [[image]] a glass tube within an other tube and through the outer spiral on coil a discharge from the large jar was sent; a needle within becane of cours - magnetic - The two ends of the inner spiral were next joined together, so as to make an arrangement like that in the previous experiment, to test the principle of screening in common electricity. The needle in the inner spiral was magnetic as before but now appeared a little more intensely magnetized. [[dividing line]] 4 [[image - two connected devices labeled a and b]] The last experiment gave indications of an inductive action, although none of screenings. To test this action a second [[strikeout]] exp [[/strikeout]] or rather 3rd spiral was placed on the outside as at [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]] The discharge from a large jar sent through outer spiral [[underlined]] a [[/underlined]] and a needle placed in [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]], became highly magnetic. The direction of the current was the same as that from the jar. Good Experiment [[dividing line]] 5 As the above experiment developes an important principle, it is highly important to be assured that the effect is produced by induction and not by a current passing around for this
74 April 1838 [[image]] purpose, the jar which I had formerly coated inside and out [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] with slips of tin foil, was suspended horizontally from a silk ribbon and great care taken that the effect should be produced soley by the action of the induced current. The experiment was then several times repeated, and always with the same result. 6 The apparatus was arranged as in the last experiment, with the exception of introducing between the charged jar and the jar with a spiral around it, an other magnetizing spiral needles of the same size, being put into each of the helices; after the discharge, they were both found magnetic but the one in the spiral of the induced current much the stronger - This was tried several times in succession with the same result. As some difference might possibly exist in the power of the two helices, they were made to change places but the result was still the same. The needle in the induced or secondary current was still the stronger. This effect was produced when the induced current was on the out side. April Monday 16th 1 Adjusted the glass cylinder or jar with the tinfoil coil with a tube in it so that there could be no possibility of contact at any point. Sent the discharge through [[end page]] [[start page]] 75 April 1838 The needle in the magnetizing helix was affected as usual - the magnetism being stronger in the helix of the induced current, than in the one connected with the direct discharge. This was repeated several times and always with the same result - from this it would appear that the [[strikethrough]] magnetism of the [[/strikethrough]] induced current does not move as rapidly as the primary current. It is possible that the great magnetic effects produced with the large jar, and described by years and more since are in part referable to some action of this kind. [[strikethrough]] April Tuesday [[/strikethrough]] 2 Next arranged the apparatus so that the induced current should pass around [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] a tube and thus give place to a current in a helix placed in this tube, and then pass around another tube in which a needle was placed. [[image]] Thus a secondary current would be detected, if any were produced, the result was as anticipated; the needle became magnetic. The direction was in the same way as in the original current Tuesday April 17th Placed 2nd ribbon coil on the outside [[image]] of a glass jar and the long helix to 2 in the inside. Then sent a charge through the outer coil, got a strong shock from the inner coil by induction, in precisely the same manner as in the galvanic arrangement. The shock appeared very similar to that from the coil when charged by the battery.
76 April 1838 No 2 [[image]] arranged the apparatus as in the last experiment, sent through the outer coil change from the small jar (pint) instead of the large jar, no shock - again with the large jar, a shock. It is probable that in experiment that the insulation of the speres of the [[strikethrough]] several [[/strikethrough]] outer coil was not perfect + that some of the electricity cut across - electricity of [[small?]] jar more intense than large one [[horizontal line]] 3 Made the same arran as before with the exception of the addition of a magnetizing spiral. sent shock from large jar, no magenetism. Again sent shock which was so intense as to be felt by the finger which held the spiral, yet no signs of [[strikethrough]] elect [[/strikethrough]] magnetism could be perceived - This [[strikethrough]] ex [[/strikethrough]] result is precisely analogous to that obtained by galvanism - [[horizontal line]] 4 With a ribbon coil on the outside, the spirals of which were placed at the distance of ^[[a]] tenth of an inch, the shock was less intense - with the apparatus of the spiral tinfoil, no shock properly so called, could be felt; the sensation appeared to be produced by common lateral discharge. [[boxed text]] N. M. Goodrich, my assistant, left me so that I now cannot get on as fast as before[[/boxed text]] [[horizontal line]] Wednesday 18th April 1 Put the large globe in contact with the prime conductor of the machine with the tin foil coil arranged and connected with a magnetic helix. Passed shank, needle became slightly magnetic in same direction as the primary current, the lateral discharge was in this case quite sharp on the fingers which held the helix containing the needle. This fact in connection with the comparatively small magnetism of the needle, would show that the magnetism does not depend on the free electricity. Put up long conductor [[end page]] [[start page]] 77 April 1838 [[image]] Placed one helix with needle within an other, the ends at first apart - then with the projecting ends of the inner one in contact the magnetism of the latter arrangement was much stronger than with the former [[underlined]] This [[/underlined]] would suggest a method of making strong magnets by an electrical discharge - place several coils one within an other, send the current through the outer, close the inner. [[underlined]] Try this [[/underlined]] [[horizontal line]] Repeated an exp of [[Lavaness?]] put needle into magnetising helix first however inserted it into an ^[[extra]] glass tube, noted the magnetism, which was quite intense, next placed the needle into a piece of copper tube, and this again into a piece of lead tube, when the same intensity of discharge was passed, no magnetism Try if a thick metal tube will [[screen?]] action of current [[horizontal line]] Thursd - 19th - [[in margin: 1]]Placed the long helix No 2 with a thin brass kettle and this again within the long ribbon with No 1 thus arranged, a slight shock was just perceptible with the kettle out, the shock was quite intense - again kettle in shock scarce perceptible out, intense - If the kettle had been a little thicker the result would have been more decisive. [[in margin: 2]] Put a ^[[hollow]] cylinder of copper or rather bronze into the ribbon coil No 2 and within the
78 April 1838 [[this?]] a piece of round iron, then transmitted the current; the iron became magnetic as if the hollow cylinder of bronze was not present. Hence the cylinder does not screen the magnetic property of the galvanic current [[horizontal line]] 3[[rd?]] Placed cylinder of soft iron within ribbon no 1 and within this cylinder the long helix. No shock could be obtained and this was scarcely to be expected, since when the broad spiral is put in, as long as the ends were not in contact, the action passed through the copper, hence we may infer that the effect is not due to any screening influence of the metal, but to the circumstance of its producing or rather in having currents produced in it.. That there are currents produced in it is shown by passing this through a spiral and magnetizing needles in one of the former experiments. The iron in the above experiment was about 1/36 of an inch thick. [[horizonal line]] 4th [[image]] Placed long ribbon coil horizontally, then held long helix over it - interposed plate of glass, shock quite intense. Next iron, no shock. Next large plate of zinc, no effect. Again glass, shock as before. [[horizonal line]] 5 Repeated the exp ^[[of shock]] with the thermo-pile, ground the end of the [[rasp?]] to make contact with mercury a little more intimate - sparks very brilliant with coil N2 - battery [[put]] on plate with salt and [[strikethrough]] now [[/strikethrough]] pounded ice - action [[end page]] [[start page]] 79 April 1838 greatest at first, light beautiful green light on the [[rasp?]] which can be seen over the whole room. Shock a thrilling censation This exp. was repeated to exhibit the action of the thermopile to my friend Mr Saxton, who has come on from Phil[[superscript]]d[[/superscript]] according to previous agreement, to make some experiments with me. He was much gratified by the action of the thermo-pile. [[horizontal line]] Same evening used Mr Saxton's revolving mirror to separate the brush into seperate sparks of electricity. Effect striking and beautiful - brush formed by a blunt wire put into the end of the conductor. [[horizontal line]] Friday April 20 [[remark in margin: (Some mistake in this wk)]] 1 Spent the morning with Mr S in experiments on light [[here?]]. Afternoon made 2 flat ribbon coils, one 50 feet and the other 60 long. Placed one on piece of glass, the other on it with glass interposed. Sent change from large jar through the under coil, intense shock was take from the upper. A magnet was also formed by the current from the upper. The experiment was tried several times, and the direction was always contrary to that of the original current [[horizontal line]] [[remark in margin: No mistake current changed by [[?]]]] [[horizontal line]] 2 At night used [[strikethrough]] re [[/strikethrough]] Mr. Saxton's revolving mirror for an attempt to seperate the pulsations of galvanism, when the points of charcoal are intensely ignited by the agent. The effect was negative the light appeared like a continued ribbon, perhaps with a greater motion the result sought might have been obtained. The mirror however revolved ^[[with]] sufficient [[strikethrough]] ly [[/strikethrough]] rapidity to separate the sparks of the elect brush.
80 April 1838 We have also concluded to make the experiment with burning hydrogen when it gives the musical sounds [[dividing line]] Saw with a small opera glass the difference between the light from a planet and a fixed star - In order to show this adjust well the focus then give a circular motion to the glass so as to make the object describe a circle or a line in the heavens; in the case of the fixed star, the light is not perfectly continuous but is so in that of the planet. [[dividing line across page]] Saturday 21st [[in margin beside paragraph]] 1 [[/in margin]] Repeated or attempted to repeat the exp of Peltier of producing elect [[overwritten]] from [[/overwritten]] by [[?]]ing a piece of copper with an other piece of the same metal. [[image]] No effect was produced. Mr. S. thinks the results of Peltier were obtained by the heat from the friction giving rise to electrical currents. [[line to end of page]] [[short dividing line]] [[in margin beside paragraph]] 2 [[/in margin]] Repeated the exp. of Dr. Page for producing musical sounds from a magnet. Best method of operating is to put the ^[[two fore]] fingers into the ears and suspend from these by strings the magnet which is made to straddle a flat spiral when the contact is broken a ringing noise is produced. The effect is probably owing to the attraction of the spiral for each end of the magnet and attempts to draw them together. This produces a slight agitation [[end page]] [[start page]] 81 April 1838 [[in margin beside paragraph]] 3 [[/in margin]] While the battery was in operation last night for the exp on the charcoal points, repeated the exp. with the long and short coil, also with the shock on breaking contact - The short coil did not increase the effect, with the long helix the effect was very intense both in burning and the [[underlined]] shock [[/underlined]]. The [[strikethrough]] battery also [[/strikethrough]] shock on breaking contact was also quite perceptible and was thought to be produced by the action of the fluid in [[the ?]] battery on itself as well as the fluid in the body - It was found to increase by increasing the length of the circuit. [[dividing line across page]] 4 [[image]] Placed one of the narrow spiral coils on the small stool with hole in the bottom, put large plate of glass over this, and the other narrow coil on the glass. When shock was sent through lower coil intense shock felt from the upper, but no signs of magnetism could be obtained. this was repeated several [[strikethrough]] al [[/strikethrough]] times and always with the same result - Which was different from that obtained yesterday when under apparently the same circumstances the needle was always magnetized in a direction contrary to that of the original current I know not at present how to account for the result obtained yesterday. [[dividing line across page]] 5 The same arrangement remaining, the shock from the ^[[galvanic]] battery was sent through the lower coil then a needle was made strongly magnetic (but no shock) [[horizontal line drawn indicating end of section]] [[left margin]] 6 [[/margin]] The long helix was next substituted for the narrow ribbon spiral, and now no magnetism could be obtained but a
82 shock too powerful to be taken through the body was sent through the [[strikethrough]] arms[[/strikethrough]] [[one?]] hand. It would appear from these exp, that the action of the glalvanic current and of the electrical one, is almost identical, they differ somewhat in intensity; the snap of the long coil is nearly as intense as the electrical discharge, and produces on a long wire an intensity much greater. The shock from the jar however is more intense, for it gives a short or comparitively short wire, the power by induction of [[group or growing?]]shocks - It is important to remark that the power of giving shocks in both cases is unaccompanied by that of making magnets, the analogy in this respect is complete. ^[[left margin]] [[excercise?]] this expermt again Dec 1838 [[/left margin]]^ [[horizontal line drawn indicating end of section]] 6 Next tried the effect of interposing plates of metal. When thin plate of copper was interposed, the effect of the shock was much less, but not entirely obliterated. When a second sheet of copper was interposed, no [[underlined]] shock [[/underlined]] could be obtained. When the copper was withdrawn, and its place supplied by a plate of glass of the same thickness, the shock was very intense. There can be no doubt therefore of the screening influence of the conductors placed between the coils. [[horizontal line drawn indicating end of section]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 83 7 Mr S suggested to me a simple method of making a helix by cutting a piece of copper plate into a spiral form, then slighly expanding the [[speres?]], covering them with silk forming an other, covering it in the same manner, and then soldering the several [[speres?]] together. [[double horizontal lines drawn indicating end of section]] 8 Commenced this afternoon to set up the apparatus for attempting to get the [[?]] from the magnetism of the earth, for this purpose we (Mr S and myself) procured a piece of ground iron 1 inch in diameter and four feet long, this was mounted on a wooden [[image]] axle, and made to revolve with a crank. Around each end was rolled one of the narrow ribbon coils, the ends joined at the middle so as to form one continuous coil around the whole length of the bar, but a greater accumulation of the ribbon was made at each end. The other two ends of this long coil were brought out at one of the axes and insulated from each other and furnished with points, and a mercury cup for breaking contact. [[blank space]]
84 [[underlined]] May [[overwritten]] 3 [[/overwritten]] 4 rd 1838 [[/underlined]] Cleaning Hall & cold weather has prevented my doing any there since the last date except to have made 3 coils. [[end page]] [[start page]] 85 Exp 1 [[image: sketch of experiment]] Coils on flat boards one over the other with space for plates of different substances to be interposed. The distance of the two coils was 8 inches - when a plate of [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] copper [[strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] about 1/30 of an inch that the screening was perfect, at this distance, was nearly perfect, with in them [[?]] of copper, the screening was not as perfect, with a still thicker piece or two [[?]] each 1/30 of an inch, the shock could not be felt [[long dividing line]] [[underline]] Exp 2nd [[underline]] The metal was next waved in position ie lowered and raised between the two coils, but no apparent change [[strikeout]]is[[strikeout]]produced in the screening effect Exp 3rd Different metals were placed between the coils to determine if any difference exists in the power of [[?]]- The [[?]] effect of lead and mercury appeared to be much less then, then that of copper and zinc* a measure of the [[?]] effect of different metals approximately was obtained by gradually increasing the distance of the coils and then nothing when the shock became imperceptible with the different substances of equal thickness interposed. All the metals transmitted the principle when the upper coil was sufficiently near the lower one. a rather singular result shows in the extreme case that the action was not perfect. A thin plate of iron acted about as well as copper. [[long dividing line]] *This effect was found to be due to the greater superficial extent of the zinc and copper plates (April 1840)
86 Exp 4 A tub of quicksilver was then placed between the coils, first the [[creaming ?]] influence was not as great as that of copper or zinc. Next a tub of water was introduced, this appeared to have no effect scarcely beyond the mere effect of distance. Exp 5 A flat spiral was introduced, first with the ends separate, then with the ends in contact. The effect most striking when the ends were separate the shock was quite severe when connected, not the least effect even when the coils were all placed almost in contact, the effect was very feeble and what effect was produced, perhaps came from the circumstances that the galvanic coil, or the one through which the original current was passed, was a little larger than the other [[short dividing line]] Exp Placed the compound helices on the long coil and connected with this Faraday decomposing apparatus. Decomposition readily produced, but not magnetism- The best method of applying the paper is to put all things in their places, then moisten with water, the decomposition is best seen on the opposite side. With the same arrangement except that [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] ^[[one of the]] narrow coiles of 60 feet was substituted for the long compound helix, and now magnetism was produced. [[dividing line across page]] [[blank space]] Screening takes place when the plate is not between the two, but held on the upper side [[end page]] [[start page]] 87 [[strikethrough]] April [[/strikethrough]] May 5th Saturday Exp 1 Placed the compound helix on the coil No 1, formed into a plane not a hoop, and the coil No 2 around it on the out side, so that the lower spiral [[image]] was under the compound helix. The screening took place when the ends of the lower coil were joined. Shock in this can weak some mistakes. Exp 2 Two flat coils were placed one on the other, and the compound helix on there , shock felt as before scarcely any diminution, although sound was probably produced. Placed the flat [[strikethrough]] spiral [[/strikethrough]] coil under compound spiral and coil N2 around this. The effect was not destroyed, but somewhat weakened when the ends of the outer one were joined. Repeated Exp 1, but not with the same effect when the battery was well charged. With one of these exp the shock at making contact was very perceptible but [[?]] less than in breaking contact. While the shock at breaking contact agitated the whole from that at making was scarcely perceptible. If a plate of metal be placed under the coil the effect on the helix above will be diminished. [[long dividing line]] Exp 3 Placed flat coil between two other flat coils, closed the ends of the outer one. Spark from current not quite as bright as when the ends were open. Still the effect not intensely anihilated - as in the case of the two spirals wound together. [[short dividing line]] [[note in margin beside paragraph]] Important Result [[/note]] Exp 4 [[image]] Placed coil No 2 (hoop) horizontally within this long helix No 1, connected this with helix No 2 and with in this placed the flat spiral with the handle attached with this arrangement a shock was felt, but when this small spiral was taken from [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]] and put within [[underlined]] [[b ?]] no
88 effect could be perceived. This is a very singular effect and perfectly analogous to that obtained with common electricity. When both the outside spirals were placed within, then a slight effect was produced. This screening phenomenon is a very puzzling one. a current is produced in the screening and yet this in presence of the outer current produces no effect, but when removed from the influence of the other, its effect is sensible. This looks something like an [[interference ?]] [[short dividing line]] Exp 5 [[image in margin]] [[strikethrough]] The [[/strikethrough]] ^[[one of the]] flat coils was placed within hoop coil No 2 and the ends of this connected with the 2nd helix, as in the last experiment, but no shock could be perceived. The current passed apparently through as if there were no action on if of the [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] helix. The electricity produced by this arrangement was of course very low, and not increased by passing through the long wire. But when the compound spiral [[smudged]] was put [[smudged]] on a second flat [[strikethrough]] spir [[/strikethrough]] coil which then represented the 2nd helix in the last exp, then shocks were obtained [[strikethrough]] about [[/strikethrough]] of about the same intensity as in the case of the helix used under the same connection. It would appear that the resistan of the long wire produces the same effect in this experiment as that of opening the current, but when the short thick coil is used the electricity passes freely. N B This experiment suggests the method of producing the greatest effect possible with the coil (perhaps) Make a coil of two strands, wound together, then send this through another coil [[end page]] [[start page]] 89 Exp 6th [[image]] Made an arrangement for the production of tertiary currents [[strikeout]] long helix on 2nd coil b [[/strikeout]] flat [[strikethrough]] spir [[/strikethrough]] coil in [[underlined]] a [[/underlined]] long helix on [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]], helix no 2 around helix no 3 - shock perceptible by the [[tangic ?]] action appears due in same [[?]] to the action of the spires, not however in the way of reaction on itself, but merely on account of the multiple action of the current The large coil 90 feet placed under the 2nd helix did not produce as great effect as the smaller one [[dividing line]] Exp 7 Attempted to produce decomposition by the [[strikeout]] tertiary [[/strikeout]] 4th current, but could not although the shock was disagreeable the shocks to the elbow. [[short dividing line]] Exp 8 Magnetized a needle by the tertiary current found the direction the same as in the case of ordinary electricity [[strikeout]] the [[/strikeout]] namely in the direction of the battery current. Magnetism being marked but not intense. This a mistake when the large battery was used, needle more powerfully mag. direct opposite, see July 19th [[dividing line]] [[strikethrough]] April [[/strikethrough]] May 7th Monday Exp 1 [[image]] Helix No 1 in coil no. 2 and connected with coil No 5 on the outside and with the helix No 2 no shock could be produced the action of the induced current unless passing through a second coil, produced no effect Hence the second . any current acts on itself -- no 1 [[strikeout]] [[note in margin next to paragraph above]] May 7 [[/note]] [[dividing line across page]] Exp 2 To determine when the the screening effect existed between secondary current when a conducting substance was interposed. [[image]] 2nd coil surround first helix induced a current in 2nd helix induced a current in 3rd helix shock produced , plate of zinc interposed. no shock [[?]] secondary currents of the same kind are susceptible of being screened
90 Also currents from coil to helix [[underlined]] ie [[/underlined]] deduced by coil on helix, screened in the same way as was shown by substituting for the 2nd & helix, two ribbon coils - the effect was the same [[dividing line across page]] [[left margin]] Exp 3rd [[diagram of experiment]] [[/left margin]] The hilex No 2 was placed in a jar over the plate of an air pump and the coil No 2 placed around it, then the effect was determined with the battery charged with sulphate of copper, to produce a constant action. The air was next exhausted, and the effect noted, the result appeared to be that the action was greater when the air was in, than when without. The effect was small but appeared to be in favor of the air within. Could this fact be well established it would have an important bearing on the theories of electricity, since it would tend to show that electricity fills all space and is probably identical with the luminiferous eather - This exp is doubtful since the secondary effect of water is very small [[dividing line across page]] [[underlined]] Exp 4 [[/underlined]] In reference to distance - [[picture of experiment]] placed large coil (No 1) on top of board between to lamp supports sent through charge from small battery, shock perceptible from the 2nd helix, when the distance of the two coils was 28 inches - afterwards, coil no 2 was put within No 1 making one long coil of 150 feet, Exterior diameter of which was about 20 inches, with this - the effect did not [End Page] [Start Page] 91 appear to be sensibly increased above than of the single coil, when a single battery was used, but when the two small batteries were arranged so as to make one with two elements, then the effect was greater- [next sei if there is any change of distance] with the compound hilex, felt the shock 30 inches. Common electricity shock from large jar [[left margin]] Exp 5 [[/left margin]] [[diagram of experiment]] Put helix No 1 on glass stand, helix No 2 [[strikethrough]] under this [[/strikethrough]] within this and one of the small flat coils within, sent charge through ^[[under coil with]] compound, no effect. -- Sent charge through under coil with hilex No 2 shock - sent [[strikethrough]] coil [/strikethrough]] shock through coil with helex No 1, shock a little greater than the last - with compound again, no effect. - Inverted the inner coil and now a shock was produced - [[individually underlined]] very surprising result The result explained. [[/individually underlined]] The coil was placed within the outer one in the wrong direction ^[[at first]] as was shown by the galvanic battery. I have been using these two coiles in the experiments on distance in this way by mistake and hense [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] only differences of action - now intend to repeat and shall probably get more intense results,- but still there is something inexplicable in the action of the coil with common electricity. Sometimes a shock is given and sometimes not. [[left margin]] Exp 6 [[/left margin]] Sent very small shock through the lower coil, made needle strongly magnetic, when with same arrangement a strong shock produced no magnetism -
92 The last fact is an important one since I can now determine the direction of the current without the perplexity of results before obtained. The effect may have been produced by the intensity of the discharge being too great to produce magnetism, or by the electricity cutting across in the lower coil, when a very heavy charge was sent through. May 8th 1838 [[left margin]] ex 1 [[/left margin]] This morning united the large jar and the battery of 8 jars - gave small charge elect to about 18°, needles in helix always magnet, but in the reverse direction to that of the current from the jar tried this [[repietedly?]]. Also gradually increased the distance between the two coils which were the same as those used last evening - Magnetism still in the same direction when coils were separated to the [[underlined]] distance of 6 [[/underlined]] inches. [[left margin]] Exp 2[[/left margin]] Substituted for the lower flat coil in the above experiments this short ribbon coil no 2, placed the induction coil within this sent charge, magnet still in the contrary direction. While the apparatus remained the same sent shock from the battery copper pole corresponding to the + poles of the jar, now the result was the same as the battery currents - A remarkable [[underlined]]fact[[underlined]] which must be worked out (this was worked out). [[end page]] [[start page]] Exp 3rd Placed large [[hook?]] coil on cable with this the flat coil no 3 needle still magnetic in the contrary direction to that of the current from the battery. Next placed the [[strikeout]]needle[[strikeout]] spiral coil near oue side and interposed a screen of copper [[image]] so as partially to screen the wire coil needle still magnetized in the contrary direction. [[line across the page]] Exp 4 Sent small discharge through [[image]] two parallel wires every where about 1/2 an inch distant, needle magnetic showing current opposite to that of the jar, again placed the same wires at the distance of 1 1/2 inches, the same polarity as before - again at the distance of two inches, the current was as before again at 4 inches the current continued in the same direction as the last Tried with a smaller jar the original experiment [[^]] with the original apparatus April 14th [[^]] found there the charge was in the same direction with that of the jar as was originally determined [[line partly across page]] Exp 5 Stretched two slips of tin foil parallel to each other with mica interposed. The current was in the direction of that of the jar. The slips of tin foil were about 1/50 of an inch apart. Again placed the slips at the distance of about the 1/8th of an inch, the direction was now reversed from that of the current. With a small charge the direction was reversed. With a larger charge it was the same as the last. At the distance of 1/4 of an inch the current was in the [[srikethrough]]the[[strikethrough]] ^[[a different]]^ direction of
94 the primative current [[underlined]] May 9th, 1838 [[/underlined]] Exp 1st Put coil No 2 within coil No 1, and within the former, flat coil No.4 [[strikethrough]] [[scrat ?]] [[/strikethrough]] The ends apart of the intermediate spiral. Sent discharge through - needle magnetized in a direction the same as that of the current of the jar. This result is intensely different from all those obtained yesterday. May it not be caused by the magnetizing helix used which in this instance was the long [[inserted]] or thick [[/inserted]] one. [[each word underlined]] Used the smaller [[/underlined]] magnetizing helix [[each word underlined]] and the result was the contrary [[/underlined]] Placed another ^[[insert]] magnetizing[[/insert]] helix precisely similar in length and size between the outer coil and the jar, the magnetization of the two was reversed. Repeated the exp. with the [[strikethrough]] lon [[/strikethrough]] thick helix, but not with the same result. probably I was mistaken in the first result given above. It is however highly necessary to determine if such a result ^[[insert]] the thickness of the tube & -[[/insert]] may not affect the apparent direction of the current. Repeated the exp with the thick helix. the result the same as with the thin one, the direction of the current adverse to that of the battery -- [[short dividing line]] Exp 2nd Joined the ends of the intermedial coil to observe the screening influence - no magnetism opened the current [[underlined]] ie [[/underlined]] seperated the ends - needle magnetic - Determined by another discharge the direction of the [[strikethrough]]magn [[/strikethrough]] current in the intermediate coil, found it contrary to that of the jar. [[each word underlined]] This would readily account for the screening influence in common electricity, but not in galvanism [[/underlined]] [[bottom right margin]] Afterwards found precisely the same result in the 2nd current or galvanism [[end page]] [[start page]] 95 [[left margin]] Exp 3 On the [[underscore]] charge [[/underscore]] of the magnetizing helix, 1st with small single helix,[[strikethrough]] ch [[/strikethrough]] magnetism always in the same direction with that of the current from the jar gradually increasing from 2 turns of the machine. [[note in margin]] gallon jar [[/note]] ^[[insert]] up to 80[[/insert]] 2nd, with thick or compound helix, magnetism gradually increasing with the electricity of the jar from 2 turns up to 18, then no signes of magnetism after this, magnetism began to appear and gradually increased up to 8[[0 ?]] turns - [[each word underlined]] The jar used was the gallon one [[/underlined]] [[short dividing line]] [[note in margin beside paragraph]] Pint Jar [[/note]] With the pint jar the results were somewhat different - the magnetism was always in the same direction, but with 40 turns it was very small, the maximum was about 30 turns, with 60 70 & 80, the magnet was scarcely perceptible, but still in the same direction as the current from the jar. With same jar and single magnetizing helix the magnetism constantly increased from 3 turns up to 90, very slowly at the last magnetism always in the same direction as the jar [[note in margin beside paragraph]] Large Jar [[/note]] With the large jar, magnetism continually increased with the number of turns, but very slowly, always in the same direction with the current of the jar, These were made with the single helix With the double helix large jar, from one up to 40 turns [[strikethrough]] stron [[/strikethrough]] ^[[gradually increasing]] and in the same direction as the jar which may be called & with 40 turns + strong 60 turns + slightly 70 turns + slightly 80 [[strikethrough]] tolerably [[/strikethrough]] turns + tolerably strong 100 + strong 150 + not as strong 200 + slightly
96 Exp 4th Attempted to decompose by the induced current from common electricity with long [[strikethrough]] coil [[/strikethrough]] helix not successful - The screen with galvanic battery decomposition current as indicated by the deposition of iodine, in the same direction as the battery current. - attempted with same current to produce magnetism did not succeed. [[short dividing line]] Exp 5 [[image]] placed flat coil on glass table and long compound helix on this, made following observations compound helix in plate, small jar [[end page]] [[start page]] 97 May 10th Exp 1 Placed two copper ribbons (flat coils no 3 & 4) on the floor and bound this together with silk between. Thus - put magnetizing [[image]] helix between the ends of the one, and battery between those of the other needle magnetized in the [[?]] of a current from the battery Could not magnetize the needle with the long mag hilex, but powerfully with the smallest ones. While the [[strikethrough]] needle rem [[/strikethrough]] ribbons remained in the same situation a shock from the large jar was sent through but now the magnetize indicated a current of opposite to that of the jar - Bound a thick and thin wire log then in contact, sent charge through thick wire current in the other in opposite direction , this effect probably due to the direct passage of a part of the discharge through the ends of the smaller wire. The magnetizing was very slight.
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