Joseph Henry Notebook, Sound, Ear Trumpets, Light Houses, 1866

ID: SIA2013-06853 to SIA2013-06897

Creator: Henry, Joseph 1797-1878

Form/Genre: Paper

Date: 1866

Citation: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 13A, Folder: 17

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This pocket notebook contains Joseph Henry's notes on sound, ear trumpets, engines, and light houses. It also contains diagrams and measurements pertinent to these fields of study. Many of Henry's notes relate to Partridge Island, Canada, and the light house, buoys, and fog signals there. On the last page and back cover, upside-down, are measurements for classifying wind gusts, in relation to velocity.


Historic Images of the Smithsonian


  • Joseph Henry was the first Secretary of the Smithsonian, and he served in this position from 1846 to 1878.
  • For more notebooks with similar material, see SIA2013-06694 to SIA2013-06739; SIA2013-06738 to SIA2013-06817; SIA2013-06685 to SIA2013-06693; SIA2013-06818 to SIA2013-06852; SIA2013-06898 to SIA2013-07093.

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Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 13A, Folder: 17

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Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,



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ID Number

SIA2013-06853 to SIA2013-06897

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Number of Images: 45; Color: Color; Size: 3.4w x 5h; Type of Image: Document; Medium: Paper

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1866 Partridge Island, Canada
for a Report on the meteorology of [[mine?]] the Report of the main Board of Agriculture for 1865. [[in pencil]] Does sound travel faster in a wind [[/in pencil]] [[overwritten in ink]] Is the velocity of sound greater in a wind in the same direction than in a calm or in a wind in an opposite direction? This has not yet been determined [[/overwritten in ink]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 1 Electrical light by the Board of Trade. was introduced 1858 at South Foreland - was transferred to Dungeness June 1862 since then until (1866) now it has been used The old apparatus is always kept ready in case of accident and with good cause Between June 63 and Dec 64 the light failed for an agregate period of 119 one hundred and nineteen 1/2 hours. The light part is the least liable to fail want of steam of water neglect are cause of failure
on the whole the opinion of the Elder Bretheren is not favourable to this light. They however intend to give it more time. The latest novelty in the way of illumination is the Electromagnetic apparatus of the [[wilds?]] of Manchester an account of this has been given to the Royal society [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 3 [[image - hand-drawn in ink]] The length of time the tube is shut depends on the side pieces [[image - hand-drawn in ink - a speaking trumpet]] The effects of the speaking trumpet is said not to be due to reflections by [[cause?]] the flaring part produces a marked effect which it could not do on principle of reflection [[image - hand-drawn in ink - long cylindrical tube with a flared end]] a cylindrical tube with a flare produces same effect The material paper or tin
line thick with cloth The sound is not inforced merely in the Direction of the axis but in all directions within furnished or not with a flare Try this by Echo The flare produces the same effect on a trumpet the effect is not well understood [[image - hand-drawn in ink - three ear trumpet shapes]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 5 [[erased or faded notes underneath of this, not legible]] [[Buy?]] Lightfoot ordains that petroleum is a solvent for lard oil. [[line]] The name of the director of the Manhatten oil company is Mr [[Mollby?]] [[line]] Sept 14th 1866 paid Dr [[Buist?]] for trumpets $33 50/100 charges to Board (I never got my money for this Sept 25 1874)
Mr Foster's return on Roper's Engine etc Is opposed to the whole trumpet system The trumpet he thinks gives more sound [[near?]] by but cannot be heard as far It affects the ear when near but can be heard at a less distance in foggy weather - not so penetrating Thinks the engine may be improved so as not to be so liable to get out of order under the change of ordinary [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 7 Roper thinks it will break down with ordinary usage Packing of leather requires frequent renewall unless constantly oiled It requires four times as much oil [[insertion]] as [[/insertion]] any [[strikethrough]] other [[/strikethrough]] engine driven by steam The faster an engine goes in any of its parts the greater the quantity of oil required The valves are liable to be burned out by a little over heating great care required on this account Valves very difficult to replace A Fog signal like in
after being started must suffer no interruption There should be furnished duplicate parts which can readily be substituted for any that may give out After all he thinks Roper's Engine better than Erickson's - Both in his opinion are going ^[[insertion]] out [[/insertion]] of use in Boston and in Portland - Not on account of the fuel used but the expense of repairs and renewall of parts. They do not do as much work ordinarily as they are rated to do. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 9 The arrangement for opening the valves of the trumpet is defective [[strikethrough]] It must move a [[/strikethrough]] The ratchet wheel must move with so much friction on its axis to enable it to hold its own that it impedes the engine and is liable to be broken as it was in this case Mr Foster thinks an ordinary steam engine with boilers with large steam space and little water surface would be surely managed not liable to get out of order No difficulty in regard to
water for the boiler at this place there is an unfailing or spring near from which water can be conducted. The same may be said of other places were fog signals are required on this coast The proposition has been made to catch water for the boiler in tanks but this must be doubtful and will depend on [the?]] amount of rain. The experiment of boiling down a quantity should be made [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 11 The opening on the 3 sides of the steel towers according to Mr Ropers measurment, is about 1/32 of an inch average and 6 inches long while on the six inch steam whistle it is 18 inches long and at least 1/32 of an inch in width if not more Hence under the same pressure the power to blow the whistle will be three times as great but the whistle was not heard as far with nearly double the pressure
I have directed Mr Case to work this house as long as it continues in order every foggy day The object being not to satisfy the steam boat owners that the trumpet is sufficient for this place but the Board as to the operation of the Roper Engine as to continuance in good order [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 13 Mr. Ropers informs me that he will construct to one house engines for 10.00 dollars each all properly equipped Sept - 25th 1866 Left East Port in the Steamer New England. Capt Field Recieved us very politely the Capt has heard the trumpets at Quoddy for 4 or 5 minutes which at this rate of sailing 12 miles an hour would give about a mile. The pilot of the New England Capt. Long as he is called says he has heard
the gun at Quoddy head 5 miles wide favourable conditions with a strong wind a head not more than 2 1/2 miles - Can hear the bell with a fair wind 3 1/2 miles when rung by hand. Has [[?]] sound of Trumpet at distance of one and a half miles says the horn on Thatchers Island can be heard a distance of 2 miles [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 15 under favourable circumstances Could hear the steam apparatus on Partridge Island near St John 8 miles could as first hear it 12 miles It is now not in as good condition as at first. It has been in operation about 7 years blows about once in a minute was constructed by Messrs Hemming
and Humbert of St John. Before the steam apparatus was put up a Gong of large size four feet in diameter was beaten but this though giving a very disagreeable sound near by was not sufficiently powerful at a distance There is no difficulty in regard to the conforming of the steam apparatus with the whistle of [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 17 the locomotive the distinction can be made evident by the regularity of the blowing at stated intervals Off Partridge Island passed a floating hull Gong which has been in service about 10 years except where laid up for a year or two. The Light House as this place is now lighted with paraphine was for some years lighted by coal gas.
For an accurate account of the occurrence of the Fogs at this station see table given me by G.W.Smith of the custom [[?]] the Bay of [[Fundee?]] The Fog comes in with a wind directly from the south. According to Mr Edwards of the Light House service from Portland to Mount [[Desert?]] the fog comes in from the south round to the east According to Mr Foster from S.S.W to E.N.E that is from 2 points W of South to 2 points [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 19 [[strikethrough]] W of South E of 2 [[/strikethrough]] N of E Beyond there to the North or west the wind blows off the Fog A breeze from this land always takes off the fog Between the above mentioned points we always look for clear weather Mr Edwards has seen the fog stopped
by Grand Manan Island according to Mr Foster the further we go south along our coast the wider is the arch of the Eastern horizon [[underlined]] from [[/underlined]] which this fog comes Capt Tarr of Glouster states that from all he had learned there was little or no Fog in the Islands in the mouth of St [[strikethrough]] La[[/strikethrough]] Lauerence. There is scarcely a single [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 21 foggy day in a year on Prince Edwards Island though there is much cloudy weather That there should be little or no foggy weather on this Island is not surprising when we reflect upon its position relative to the gulf stream and Nova Scotia The same gentleman informs me that there is more cloudy days and less rainy
ones on this Island than on an equal surface in the United States. The sound of the breakers is a great obstruction to the sound of the bell or the trumpet at Quoddy Head. Besides this the fog arrives at this place almost always with a strong adverse wind not so at [[Bannistail?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 23 Sept 26th Called at the works of Hemming and Humbert casters the makers of the Fog apparatus at Partridge Island was improved there Robert Fondis an old Scotchman was the inventor Mr Hemming's son said he thought a patent had been taken for it but the inventor was dead and had been buried at the public expence. The machine can be run by an ordinary fire man. It is proposed to put up an other on an improved
plan The boiler to be an upright one This would double the fire surface and enable the steam to be sooner got up This would be on the [[plan?]] of the fire engine which is ready for operation in 15 minutes. The pressure apparatus was put up in Nov 1859 and up to this time has been continually at work without intermission. For 3 years no repairs what ever were [[made?]] since then there the whole amount of charge for repairs has been 38 dollars. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 25 There has been been some difficulty in obtaining the proper suppy of water on the Island The Light House on Partridge Island was for several years illuminated by coal gas but this has been abandoned on account of the trouble and expense. The material now used is paraphene now which costs $2.60 per gallon Formerly seal oil was used in summer and porpoise oil in winter
the latter resists much better the freezing. The NB In the new currency of Newbrunswick 4 dollars. We went to St John in the steamer New England Capt Pike who was very attentive Returned from St John in the steamer New York Capt Chisholm who was not very attentive [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 27 The Light Houses of the Bay of Fundee are supported by a tonage duty of 3 percent except on vessels of 100 tons and under which pay annually from 12 to 35 shillings The amount thus collected has been more than sufficient for the purpose. The Light Houses of this Bay are under the direction of six commissioners four of whom reside in St John Seal oil was used in the Summer porpoise in winter were used now
paraphine and before that coal gas. The annual cost of gas was £484 with oil 360 ---- Diff [[image -hand-drawn in ink - sketch of a bell buoy]] Off Partridge Island is a bell buoy A bell on top of a boat struck by hammers moved by the motion of the boat due to the waves [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 29 according to Mr G.W. Smith of the Custom House the number of hours annually for the last 5 years has been 890 hours taking winter and summer [see table] A full account has been given of this matter to the office at Washington Report of Mr Edwards on the apparatus at Partridge Island I was not able on account of illness to go one quarter of a cord of wood is burned in 8 hours or a cord in 38 hours
the wood is hard Commes to blow with 50 lbs of steam then gradually increases up to 90 or a little over Evaporates about 360 gallons of water in 8 hours or a box [[insertion]] nearly [[/insertion]] full which measures as follows [[reg?]] 2 1/2 x 5 x 4 = 50 feet deduct from this about four feet the box being not full by about four inches this water is pumped into the box by hand and is from the surface [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 31 In July 1861 the water failed on account of so much being used by the emigrants that salt water was used for two months which injured the boiler by incrusting it It now requires 45 minutes to get up the seam although previous to the incrustation but 20 minutes were required for the purpose The safty valve is gaged to 105 lbs to attend the signal and
Light House three men are employed although it is thought two men might suffice The Boiler is an ordinary locomotion one four feet 8 inches long two feet four inches in diameter making furnace one foot 6 inches 2 feet long 2 feet high Boiler traversed by 32 - 2 inch tubes [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 33 Boiler 4 feet 8 inch long f 2"4 diameter Inside of furnis f 1.15' 2 ft long 2 ft high 32 - 2 inch tubes pass through the boiler [[image- pencil drawing of layout of boiler]]
[[image - pencil drawing of a steam whistle]] [[image - pencil drawing of interior workings of steam whistle marked with the words 'toothed wheel']] 2feet 5in in diameter [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 35 The working of the pump by the shape affects the sound of the whistle the engineer thinks an injector would be better The diameter of the [[whistle?]] is 5 inches The height of the bell is 9 inches The width of opening 11/10 of an inch but not concentric but upright The whistle ought to be opened and shut more suddenly
when in operation the apparatus requires constant attendance and two watches are kept of 6 hours each A watch is also continually kept in clear weather for the approach of a fog which can be seen 10 miles off. A vessel ought not to be endangered from a fog for half an hour after it is formed during that the change of [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 37 [[/page number]] position if well determined cannot be so great as to endanger it. The steamers comeing from St John know their position and and are not troubled on account of the Fog - Cylinder of engine 5 inches 8 inch stroke Sept 28 Pilot of steamer N Y can hear steam apparatus under favourable air circumstances or could 14 miles
we passed Partridge Island round NNW. usually in Sept the wind westerly but has not be so this season. according to the Pilot the wind was a six mile [[breeze?]] and making an angle of [[space left for insertion value]] with the course Heard the whistle very faintly 40 [[minute?]] eight miles 7 hrs This was by attentive listening under part of the vessel [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] knowing when the sound was to come by the escape of steam. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 39 [[/page number]] Fog signal is much wanted at Quoddy Head next at Matinicus and also at Cape Elizabeth both near Portland A whistle could easily be placed at the latter The bell is of no use at Matinicus cannot trust to it A blunderbuss is found at Point Le Preaux and to increase the sound it is fired into a headless flour barrell The firing of a pistol into a larger speaking trumpet
has been proposed as a signal Fog sometimes accompanies on a westerly wind The sailors make a distinction between fog and vapour The latter is that which occurs in the coldest weather usually with the wind from NW [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 41 produced when the water is warmer than the air It sometimes continues several days worse in some respects than a fog for if cast away in it the sailor is frozen to death. Richies compass used and much approved for steam boats The gun is sometimes heard 4 miles and again 3/4 of a mile
Mr Foster would prefer to remain in the first district Can send his assistant There is much to be done in the 1st district Wishes to make an experiment with the float lamp and can put it up in the 1st district [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 43 Mr Ropers Report of the [[ma?iction? malfunction?]] of the Partridge Island signal The boiler is one of the ordinary low motion kind - shell 5 feet long 2f"8 in diameter. Fire box 36 inches long - tubes 30 in No 5 feet long 2 inch diam Fuel hard wood 1/4 of
a cord in 8 hours evaporating 300 (360) gallons per 8 hours Steam power 90 to 100 lbs Time to get up steam to 60 lbs when sound begins 45 minutes Difficulty in getting any steam on account of foaming on the sudden relieving of [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 45 of the pressure by taking off so large a quanty of steam a large chamber required The engine is one of 4 1/2 inch cylinder and 9 each stroke 60 strokes a minute used for pumping and working the valves. Whistle common one 5 inch diam. 8 inch ball
water must be be soft. If limy will encrust and injure the boiler cannot be scaled off too small to get in. water should be blown off the boiler after use and the metal kept dry to prevent rusting, Mr Roper could not hear the whistle 3/5 of a mile and found the interval 1 1/4 minutes [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 47 Mr Roper proposes that we increase the air chamber of the engine 4 times. also to increase the interval and thus to increase the capacity of the horn. It is understood that the engine now at Portland intended for Boon Island is to be sent to [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Mr Ropers [[/insertion]]and supplied with
an additional air chamber in increasing its capacity to 4 times Then two mouth pieces to be made one with a single and another with a double read The quantity of water used was nearly 48 cubic feet per 8 hours or 6 feet per hour equal to a six horse power engine. The blowing taking place [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 49 In the use of the Steam Boiler a supply of pure water must be had otherwise the apparatus will soon get out of order [[line]] once in a minute instead of 3 times gives 18 times the power of the steam required to blow the whistle more than the trumpet
Mr [[Winn?]] of Portland a man of reputation thinks the [[arm? arc?]] engines will go out of use on account of difficulty in keeping them in repair they will not be used were steam power can be obtained This agrees with the statement of Mr Foster [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 51 The relative power required to blow the two signals may be obtained as follows [[line]] The whistle has steam at 90 lbs per inch - The trumpet air at 15 -- The whistle blows once in a minute the whistle 3 times a minute - Hence 3 x 15 = 45: power for trumpet 1 x 90 = 90: " [[ditto for: power]] for whistle [[strikethrough]] but 45/3 = one blow of trump 15 : 90 = 6 [[/strikethrough]]
The whistle requires [[overwritten]] 3 [[/overwritten]] 6 times the pressure and blows 1/3 as often hence the ratio of the power is 18 to one. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 53 [[page number]] Professor Caswell informs me that on his return from Europe The ship was unable to procure a pilot because its position could not be ascertained by the firing of the cannon or The sound of the steam whistle though they were heard The difficulty of determining the direction of sound is shown by the convergence
on the subject of fogs consult the coast pilot. Bells of cast iron mixed with a little tine have been made at Dun[[insertion]] ^ dy [[/insertion]]van iron works near Glasgow The fog in the May sometimes assumes a horizontal stratum of about 20 feet thick [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 55 [[/page number]] The cyclone are produced by the the gulf stream the extreme heat of which disturbes the equilibrium of the air Last year and the year before Capt Macy thinks that there has been but little fog Hot and dry Little fog in winter fog with wind from SE to SW
[[underlined]] Oct 6th 1866 [[/underlined]] visited Bevertail with I B Weaver assistant in the custom House Silas G Shaw Light Keeper. Third order light Tower leaks Inside wants painting to prevent falling of mortar from between bricks The near funnel wanting throws a beam to the opposite ferry [18 1/2 Feet capacity of air chamber nearly] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 57 [[/page number]] Engine put up in June 1865 No repair up to this time but an addition of a fan blower to the draft - The engine is not well in line The keeper quite handy. The air chamber is 4 feet long 2ft 5 1/2 inches (nearly 30 inches) in diameter Piston 10 inches diam. 8 1/2 inches stroke The kindling for this should be hard wood split fine see several pages over
Capt. Moses Tarr of Gloster Has heard the Trumpet on Thatcher island Cape Ann for a year or two and have always heard it when it was blown at a distance of six miles at Glouster He has also heard the bell which is about 3 miles distant The Trumpet is about East - the bell is about S.S.W. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 55 Capt Tarr thinks that the trumpet is heard best with the wind at right angles to the direction of the sound Can get 50 persons to testify Rain does not clear off a Fog If rain occurs during fog although the air may be a little clearer at the time it becomes thicker afterward
A bushel and a peck is 5 pecks hard coal (read ask) runs this engine 12 hours A book should be furnished to record the time of working the engine. Fog sometimes 2 days at Point Judith before coming to Bevertail [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 61 [[entries Jan-June bracketed with the number 66]] Jany (6st) [[note]] 24*5=120 [[note]] 8 Feby (25/2)>2-60-26-35 March 5-2-21-3[[superscript]]5[[/superscript]]-6-3-4-9-3 9 April 3-60-28-108 May 12-18-12-84-3 June 17-40-9 [[/brackets]] [[entries Jul-Dec bracketed with the number 65]] July 6-7-3-7-10-2 August 92 1/2 Sept 4 1/2-46 82-5-22 Oct - 9 Nov 2-2- Dec 2-2-2-2-2-2-72 [[/brackets]] [[pencil calculations]] 8 221 24 24 24 3 --- 72 72 8 --- 80 12 --- 5 >24 17 -- 46
[[in pencil]] 66 5-120 72 120 72 [[in brackets]] June 110-3-60-48-108 July 42-16-4 b or 6 Aug 3-6-6 1/2 Sept 78 1/2 - 100-60 [[/in brackets]] [[/in pencil]] Time required to fire up before blowing [[slightest?]] [[bea??]] 45 minutes Interval of blowing 16 1/2 - 18 - 16 - 17 - 17 - 17= The mean of which is 17 6 strokes to bring the air to the density of blowing 9 strokes to supply air in interval [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 63 [[image - hand-drawn in ink to show soldering process]] Form of bottom of mouthpiece soft solder run in to form dark part in the sketch Thinks the sound today could be heard about six miles The wind is now nearly W.S.W. or six points from south Trumpet can be heard farthest when the sound goes directly with the wind. With a wind SW the vessels heard this signal
The pressure at Bevertail was not more than 10 lbs to the inch [[pencil writing overwritten by ink account:]] G. Washington Street St John, NB [[/pencil]] When a strong wind blew from the north thinks there is more power can start the engine quicker The steam trumpet at Bevertail had a number of reads which could be substituted one for another [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 65 Engine was not at first properly put up it waisted a large amount of air. Has run the engine continuously for six days. An attempt was made some years ago to blow a wistle by steam. An upright boiler 8 1/2 feet high standing on an ash [[prop? pipe?]] 18 inches high filled with 105 tubes 8 feet long & about 2 inches in diameter was used Took about 3/4 of an hour to get up steam The project came to nought on account of the want of water
The pumping and operation the values were performed by a small scillating engine. An Artezean well was bored which at first yielded 26 an hour then declined and after a while gave none After standing it gave water again but this was only the superficial water which ran in gradually 36 gallons per hour are required for the boiler The ordinary well gives out in very dry weather have then to go an 1/8 of a mile for water [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 67 Thinks the well would furnish enough water for a boiler by constructing an underground tank or reservoir to be filled from this well by means of a windmill pum The well daily would furnish watter for 9 months in the year Proposition to put up sheds to catch the water The artezean well is 85 feet deep the other well is 26 feet
Whitewashed rocks are used as beacons in the bay near New Port I am informed by Capt Macy that the natives of the Marquesas Islands catch porpoise by going out beyond the breakers and striking stones together underwater for this purpose they jump overboard The steam whistles in the streets of New York are a nuisance, the trumpet ought to be used with it. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 65 Mr Kinsman informs me that the sound of the breakers at Quoddy Head drowns that of the fog signal. Will the whistle give the same sound when placed vertically as one placed horizontally [[image - hand-drawn in ink - a trumpet for a whistle]] The flaring part of the trumpet was may vibrate [[latterly?]] when made of thin metal
[[image - hand-drawn in ink]] The rocker can I think be improved by placing it on a sounding cavity Dr Torry made a rocker by placing a vessel of copper two feet high (a cylinder 8 inches high) on the flat top of a stove. I think it was fild with water Left Boston on Friday night on 12th stormy passage on the sound compared with Capt Simmons of the Metropolis [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 71 The colza oil sent from the west is not good Mr Congden & Mr Goodwin both complain of its burning quality Monday 15th [[insertion]] Oct 66 [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] The Staten Island [[/underlined]] Capt Simmons said he preferred a bell for Point Judith but would call an old pilot who had been 30 years in the service This pilot being asked what signal
said above all a trumpet to this the capt made no reply The objection made by the capt to the trumpet was the difficulty in locating the sound. There may be something in this on account of the varying intensity in deviating from the axis of the instrument make exp Professor Caswells experience on board the English steamer [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 73 Though the whistle was continually sounded the ship could not be found by the pilots. The whistles on the Locomotives are a great nuisance in the upper part of the city of New York The trumpet could be substituted. [[image - hand-drawn in ink - a curved trumpet]] Ear trumpet in the pilot houses The mixture of kerosene and common oil separates when freezing
Oct 15th 1866 Started with Helen for Staten Island in the 10 oclock boat to investigate the burning of the mixed oils See an other book for the result of these experients. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 75 [[blank page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 77
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 79
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 81 For remarks on publications of scientific communications in transactions proceedings as by Prof Forbes of Edinburgh Published in the Edinburgh journal of three or 4 years ago.
Mr Foster reports that oil on the southern coast of [[Banker?]] and carpenters after two years Mr McGuyer called to ask about oil Professor Mann informs me That thunder storms sometimes come at Providence from the eastern quarters of the heavens [[Note: the above is written over similar words in pencil: Professor Mann informs me that thunder showers sometimes come from the easterly quarters of the heavens]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number in pencil]] 83 with what wind does snow come at different places in the US [[last sentence written over the following in pencil: with what wind does snow come in different parts of the U.S.]] [[in pencil]] Prof. Chase informs me from The Whalers that Spearwater is here & from the Indian Ocean [[/in pencil]] The largest bell in the U S is at Pittsburgh [[written upside down in pencil: The largest bell in the US weighs 9200 is in Pittsburgh]]
[[page is written upside down]] velocity of wind miles feet per sec 1. --- 1.47 [[bracket]] Light air 2 - 2.93 3 4.40 [[/bracket]] [[bracket]] Breeze 4 5.87 5 7.33 [[/bracket]] 6 7 8 9 [[bracket]] Brisk gale 10 14.67 15 - 22.0 [[/bracket]] [[bracket]] Fresh gale 20 - 29.34 25 - - 36.67 [[/bracket]] [[bracket]] Strong gale 30 -- 44.01 35 - 51.34 [[/bracket]] [[bracket]] Hard gale 40 - 58.68 45 66 01 [[/bracket]] [[pencil notes on right side of page]] minute 175.80 264.00 352.2 439.8 880.2 [[/side notes]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 85 [[pencil calculations]] 3.1416 31.4 15 5x15.7 78.5 [78.5][*] 15 ---- 3725 780 ---- 11.575 9 24 9 -- 42 [[upside down]] Mr C. W. Wardleman Banker St Andrews New Brunswick [[underlined]]Send Report[[/underlined]] [[/upside down]]
[[back cover]] [[green label - upside down]] Henry Penny's Patent Improved Metallic Books Warranted if written on with his prepared pencils To be as plain & [[image - lion, unicorn & royal crest]] durable as ink They will be found of great advantage to Travellers and all persons who wish to preserve their Writing No 13