Joseph Henry Notebook, Sound, Weather, 1865-1866

ID: SIA2013-06818 to SIA2013-06852

Creator: Henry, Joseph 1797-1878

Form/Genre: Paper

Date: 1865-1866

Citation: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 13A, Folder: 16

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This pocket notebook of Joseph Henry's proceeds from front to middle for about half of the pages, and then proceeds from back to middle, upside-down, for about half of the pages. The notebook contains his notes about sound, ear trumpets, weather (particularly fog), lighthouses, and engines. At the beginning of the upside-down, back-to-middle section is recorded experimental materials (lists of instruments), measurements, and data, all regarding his experiments with sound. Experimental diagrams follow the data and measurements.


Historic Images of the Smithsonian


  • Joseph Henry was the first Secretary of the Smithsonian, and he served in this position from 1846 to 1878.
  • For more notebooks with similar material, see SIA2013-06853 to SIA2013-06897; SIA2013-06738 to SIA2013-06817; SIA2013-06685 to SIA2013-06693; SIA2013-06694 to SIA2013-06739; SIA2013-06898 to SIA2013-07093.

Contained within

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 13A, Folder: 16

Contact information

Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,



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  • Diaries
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  • Science
  • Acoustics
  • Lighthouses
  • Experiments
  • Engines
  • Physics
  • Weather
  • Scientific apparatus and instruments
  • Laboratory notebooks
  • Notebooks
  • Meteorology
  • Acoustical engineering
  • Science--Experiments
  • Physics--Experiments


  • Paper
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ID Number

SIA2013-06818 to SIA2013-06852

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Number of Images: 35; Color: Color; Size: 4w x 6h; Type of Image: Document; Medium: Paper

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[[Front cover]] [[Typed label]] 1865-66 [[/Typed label]] [[underlined]] Oct, 1865 [[/underlined]] Exp. at [[Smithsonian?]]
[[inside of front cover]] Undulatory Theory of Light by Airy Macmillan + Co The Elements an investigation of the Forces which determine the position and movements of the ocean and atmosphere by Will[[superscript]][[m ?]] L Jordan 2 vols [[image and calculations upside down]] [[image consists of a 'V' in center of page left-to-right extending open-end upwards out of an elbow-shaped pipe bent to the right and a line extending down vertically from the bottom of the bend. Calculations appear on either side of the image.]] [[left side calculation; numbers may be misaligned due to missing decimals]] 13.5 6.5 ---------- 675 810 ---------- 87 .75 120 ---------- 175560 8775 ---------- 105.3000 [[center label above image]] 13.5 [[right side calculation; numbers may be misaligned due to missing decimals]] 6 5 6,5 ------ 325 390 ------ 42.25 13,5 ------ 5 [[image: small can from which extends to the right a narrow trumpet as of a phonograph or megaphone]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (1 Oct 10th 1865 arrived at the Light House near New Haven Eleven AM. Ordered in New Haven an article for estimating sound by means of an arteficeal ear. I have enquired as to the value of a bell; learn that is of great importance to vessels passing near the shoar in all cases except when a violent wind with snow is blowing- Then nothing will serve except perhaps a heavy cannon But in such weather vessels are out at sea or in a harbour.
[[start page]] On our arrival find the original bell worked by a small caloric engine in places The new fog trumpet by Daboll with the erickson engine - and the steam gong with Roper's caloric engine Also a steel bell with a movable reflector behind it. Another large bell is at New Haven 1 Roper's the inventor of the new caloric engine 2 Fitts inventor of gong 3 Trip late light House keeper and nurturer and [[active?]] group for gong. 4 Capt [[Raeny?]] of the light tender Sunbeam. [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct. 11th went out from the light house in the sunbeam [[appears to be ink over pencil]] I am informed that NE storms occur in the spring at Boston not usually in the Autumn. The equinoxial storms are with wind from the SE and generally soar over [[in ink]] over [[in pencil]] [[rest of page in pencil]] Charles Edwards' Light House office, Portland, Maine. [[end page]]
[[faint writing on this page which could be what was written on other side showing through]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct 12th Sent out the Naraganset against on the line of the axis of the trumpet Wind blowing almost a gale. The trumpet was heard much farther than any other instrument The wind was at right angles to the axis of the trumpet {see the diagram} The vessel then [[when?]] to the windward of the Light House where the sounds were all lost.
[[start page]] The difference in the distance to which the sound can be heard with and against the sound is a remarkable phenomenon While the difference of distance due to the velocity of this added to and substracted from the velocities in a calm is but 1/30 of the whole the actual difference is much greater [[end page]] [[start page]] Whistle The whistle on the Roper Engine is 6 inches in diameter 9 inches in height 1/30 of an inch opening and worked by a pressure of from 30 to 35 lbs. Blows one in a minute for 45 seconds for about 4 seconds The gong consists of two whistles mouth to mouth with a hollow cylinder disk shaped between them diameter of whistles 12 inches hight of upper 20 inches of lower 14 inches The sound of the lower is a 5th to that of the upper. [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[ink handwriting over pencilled handwriting]] They give together a musical sound Mowers Fog Whistle consists of an ordinary steam whistle worked by hand Sound produced by means of a piston in a cylinder which gives a blast when the handle is moved up or down The sound from this aggitated the sand on the jar at about 1/7 of the distance from that on the engines; hence the sounds are as 1:49 [[as per lighter writing]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The Errickson Engine was of two horse power Prof Wurlock thinks that the Roper Engine of one horse power costs 600 [[dolls ?]] He found that 5 lbs of coal gave one horse power in this engine per hour Annother engine shows gave a horse power for 2 1/2 lbs of coal per hour Ericksons required 14 lbs to a horse power per hour [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[written in pencil]] Comparison of steel Bells 187 Smal bell 264 Large bell [[the above two lines are bracketed on the right]] [[pencil line separating above text from rest of page]] [[the remaining copy is written in ink]] Comparison of steel and common bells Small com bell 187 [[yd ?]] Large steel bell 264 [[end page]] [[start page]] Visited with Commodore Powell a manufactory in the Village of Olneyville 3 miles from Providence to hear the sounding of one of [[strikethrough]] Fritzs [[/strikethrough]] Fitts steam gongs The factory was one for the manufactory of woolen fabrics The gong is used for waking up in the morning the operators [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] who sleep in the neighborhood This gong consists of two steam whistles mouth to mouth with a hollow cylender between through which the air issues whistle
[[start page]] produces the vibration. The upper of these whistles is 20 inches in axis and 12 inches in diameter the other or lower whistle is of the same diameter but fourteen inches in length The shorter sounds a fifth to [[strikethrough]] uper [[/strikethrough]] the note of the upper The sound produced by this instrument when operated by the steam in the engine of the factory [[strikethrough]] This [[/strikethrough]] is very loud [[end page]] [[start page]] The opening through which the steam isued was in each whistle 3.14lb feet or 37.7 inches ie thus 75.4 inches together in length which multiplied by 1/32 of an inch the width - gives 2 1/3 square inches for the area. To supply this with a continued stream of steam at a pressure of 60 lbs will
[[start page]] require for a continuous stream say a 30 horse steam boiler or for one third of the time a ten horse boiler. But on this point accurate experiments should be made and the simplest plan for this purpose is that suggested by Mr Roper namely to estimate or measure accurately the quantity of water evaporated. The whole steam in this case should be used alone for sounding the gong or whistle The fire should be drawn immediately after the experiment and the [[logs? or loss?]] of water [[end page]] [[start page]] 15 [[ascertained ?]]. A boiler should be chosen of different capacity to give sound during the continuum of the experiment. [[strikethrough]] The [[/strikethrough]] A question to be settled is whether steam or air gives the best effect. Mr Roper thinks that with an equal pressure air gives the loudest sound and the best effect This opinion is founded on the fact that a large portion of the steam is condensed which is shown in the visibility of the vapors as it issues from the gong or whistle [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]]
this condensation of the steam must lessen the pressure and is probably interfering with the transmission of the sound wave as fog is known to do. [[interlinear note]] Fog does not materially interfere with the transmission of sound [[/interlinear note]] The power of the two engines was taken by Mr [[Lederle ?]] and myself by means of a strap over the fly wheel weighted at one end and attached to the floor by a steam engine at the other. [[image - drawing of fly wheel]] The Erickson gave 40 revolutions in one minute - The Roper gave 110 in same time. [[end page]] [[start page]] The weight on Erickson was 9 1/2 lbs The weight on the Roper 17 lbs The pull on Erick 60 3/4 The pull on the Roper 56 lbs The effective pull of the Erickson - 50 1/2 The effective pull of the Roper was - 39 lbs The diameter of the Erickson wheel was -- 5 feet That of the Roper 4f 10 in The relative power one & 2 horse The Erickson gave in foot pounds 32.342 The Roper 63.099
The trumpet was blown every 22" and [[continued?]] 5" to sound - the time of sounding was therefore 5/22 part of the whole time or this reduced to a decemal gave 0.227 part of the whole time. The whistle on the Roper blew once in 50 seconds and [[continued?]] to blow 3 seconds The time of blowing was therefore 3/50 of the whole time which reduced to a decemal gives 0.060 The ratio then is as 60:227 But the power of the engines were as one to two therefore [[end page]] [[start page]] The power expended on the whistle was to that expended on the trumpet as 30:227 or as 1:7 1/2. This work was [[however?]] in addition to the working of the exhaust [[gong?]] and also the work lost in the [[beging?]] of the condensation of the air in the blowing cylender. The trumpet may be improved by making the mouth eliptecal so as to utilize the sound which would ascend to the sky [[drawing here showing an ellipse]] The horizontal part of the lips of the mouth of the trumpet should be made horizontal while the sides or corners of the mouth should be flaring [[drawing here showing trumpet mouth with straight sides]] verticle section [[drawing here showing trumpet mouth with flared sides]] horizontal
Allowing the gong to sound once in 100 seconds [[strikeout]] then [[/strikeout]] and to continue to sound 3 se[[superscript & underline]] o [[/superscript & underline -- abbreviation for seconds ?]] we shall have the sound 3/100 of the whole time or half of that of the whistle. This will give the ratio of the [[strikeout]] sound of [[/strikeout]] power necessary to sound. The gong and the trumpet as one to 15 ie 1:15 [[partial line written above]] Capt [[Ronny ?]] informs us that when he was a lad his grandmother would say ^[[in the mornings]] there would a change in the weather the wind bring from the west at the time[[note in margin]] 1814 [[/note]] From hearing the sound from the opposite direction. The captain has since noticed the same always without fail. Many times on Long Island sound 21 Capt Jones of the ^[[one of]] steamers of the neptune line informs me that a bell on Bever-tail and a trumpet on Point Judith would exactly suit the case In the trumpet there is difficulty in determining the direction of the sound but then is in ascertaining the distance of the sounding instruments. The trumpet would be best on Point Judith because this is a point nearest [[]] from a long distance in nearly all directions Same on Gul Island which [[?]] a rocky shore and [[is ?]] available [[Sunday's]]
according to Capt Jones The bell on Execution rock is insufficient It should be a trumpet The following points in the opinion of the capt should have fog trumpets namely -- Point Judith Gul Island Execution Rocks [[left margin note:]] all have [[1874?]] [[/margin note]] Fog signals are of great importance on our coast The steamers in a dense fog are obliged to come to anchor when they cannot hear the bell from Execution Rock. [[end page]] [[start page]] 23 The densest of all fog are in the Spring and are produced by the condensation of the [[strikeout]] warmer water [[/strikeout]] vapours from the warmer water or Earth by the cooler air They are usually without wind. The other fogs are those which are brought in apparently by the southerly wind. In the spring a southerly wind scarcely ever fails to produce [[strikeout]]a wind[[/strikeout]] a fog.
Capt [[Nye?]] of one of the steamers of the Neptune line has been on the sound 30 years. The fogs occur with a wind from the southerly quarter Two kind of fogs one which apparently comes from the land and an other from the sea The land fog the most [[?]] it appears to come directly from the water surrounded by land [[end page]] [[start page]] Capt [[large space left perhaps for name?]] of the Elm city which plies between New Haven and New York informs me that fogs on the Sound are most frequently those without wind In winter if a South Easterly wind turns to the west and becomes a southerly wind [[underlined]] nine [[/underlined]] times out of [[underlined]] ten [[/underlined]] there will be fog If the Easterly wind viers to the east and so round through the North no fog will follow.
[[start page]] 26 [[pagination in top left corner]] 1866 Sept 17th Left New York in the Newport Capt Brown who was much pleased to learn than an appropriation had been made for a fog trumpet on Point Judith. Capt. Cornstalk informs me that the months of fogs on the sound are May June + July; the greatest is June. At this time the sun crosses the equator and comes north most [[rapidly]] and hence the greatest changes of temperature. [[end page]] [[start page]] 27 [[pagination in top right corner]] Fog sometimes springs up at once and obscures the horizon. If the surface of the water and air are of the same temperature and a cool wind or strata of air moves gently over the surface the vapour will be condensed. Or if a gentle wind from the south or SW or S.E. flows over a surface of cool water a fog will be produced
[[start page]] Mr [[Bachelor]] informs me that sound in [[Cottere ?]] [[hiss ?]] [[gives]] converse at a distance shall [[whisper ?]] [[hissing ?]] sound [[line across page]] [[Pinlock ? Isenlock?]] wishes me to have a anemometer made if it can be done for about 100 dolls Corliss engine is said to be a very efficient one [[end page]] [[start page]] 24 Sept 18th arrived in Boston with Helen - Mr Good win says that the Roper engine gives plenty of power to blow the trumpet Engine cost $1200 + 580 + housing 400 - The men who built at St John the steam apparatus offered to make one for 1000 dolls. to keep in order for 20 dolls for 10 years. [[line across page]] Prof. Cook informs me that [[image - bell]] a bell put in hydrogen gives an elevation of pitch [[end page]]
[[start page]] Mr Foster the Lampist thinks well of the [[in ink: Finck?]] [[in pencil: Mr. Fink's ?]] lamp It is especially well adapted to the third order - would recommend that it be tried at White-Head Light [[blank space]] [[bottom of page upside down]] 35 [[pagination in top right corner]] The number of discharges is about six times this number exausts a keg of powder valued at about 8 dollars. The company gives the keeper nothing for this labour which is considerable and not unattended with danger [[end page]] [[start page]] 34) [[pagination in top left corner]] It is touched off with a piece of charcoal on a stick. The powder is made up in carterages and kept in a [[chest?]] in the wood house. The [[firing ?]] is only on Fogy days when the steam boat is comeing in, but not when going out In comeing in the steamers have been out of sight of land for some time and desire to know their true position The [[firing ?]] is continued while the whistle of the steamer is heard; as she is approaching the light station and as the wind is blowing from the south the whistle is heard at least 5 or 6 miles The [[firing ?]] is as rapid as the gun can be loaded until the steamer answers by three puffs of her whistle [[end page]]
The win was fresh and in the direction of the sound That of the whistle or I should say trumpet--this result agrees with the observation made by Mr. Edwards and Wm. Pope The bell even when rung by hand gives less sound than the trumpet. This Light House has an assistant keeper who was nominated by the principal keeper all therefore is harmonious The hammers which strike the bell have been so rusted away that they weigh at least a quarter lighter than when [[smudged]] [[strikethrough]] put [[/strikethrough]] ^[[first?]] up The loss should be ascertained by by weighing also the time determined by reference to the records of the office. [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 [[pagination in top right corner]] In the forgoing experiment with the whistle or trumpet I should say the pressure went up to 20 lbs per inch and fell about 5 lbs during the blast Mr Roper thinks no louder at 20 than at 15-- The fog signal at this place has never been powerful enough and to supply the deficiency the steam boat company from St. Johns to Boston have furnished a cannon and powder to supply the deficiency and aid the safety of approach in fog weather The cannon is a short-gun perhaps a carronaid 5 feet long and with a [[bower? borer?]] of 5 1/4 inches, charged with [[?]] is char[[g]]ed with four pounds of blasting powder
The sound is most wanted at this station to the south by vessels coming in from the south - vessels going out do not require the signals very often. As to lard oil Mr Case thinks it is not as good in winter as sperm. I have directed him to keep stirring while freezing also after to mix the different kinds The oil not as good as that of last year It requires that the lamp should be trimmed at midnight The direction is to trim when the light declines to 3/4 [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 [[pagination in top right corner]] Mr Case thinks it best to trim at midnight if the lamp will burn so long Experimented with the small horn and the two sounding instruments the steam trumpet and the steel bell The comparison was made with the small horn the distance to which the horn was taken was over very broken ground and covered with small trees and brush wood. The membrane was aggitated at the distance of 400 yards at an angle of [[image: two lines forming a V with an acute apex]] about 20° [[East? or West?]] of the axis of the trumpet. The bell also at the same distance gave an aggitation but far less than
of fogs by consulting the returns from the keepers along the coast It appears from the statements I have received that the fog is produced by different winds at different places along the coast more easterly as we go south At Portland the fog comes with the wind more easterly than at this place according to the statement of Capt Dearing and this light keeper. Mr Case has run the Roper Engine 5 hours has run in all three days in all before getting out of order - can run it so long long as it will keep in order thinks it will easily out of order [[end page]] [[start page]] 29 according to Mr Foster the bell weighs 1700 pounds Mr Case was informed by those that brought it that it weighed 1500 It is of [[steel ?]] and wrung by clock work will run four hours if the weight is suffered to run down to the ground Mr Chase generally winds it up every two hours when he winds the apparatus of the lantern To wind up the weight sufficient for two hours requires about 10 minutes The bell gives a louder sound when it is sounded by hand than when rung by the machinery Mr [[strikethrough]] chas [[/strikethrough]] Case can get up the motion in the Roper Engine in 15 or 20 minutes
I am advised to speak to the British Minister relative to a steam whistle on Cape Race. Capt Dearing states that a fog signal is much wanted at Boston old Light. [[end page]] [[start page]] Monday Sept 24th 1866, arrived at West Quoddy head at about 9 o'clock from Lubeck this keeper is George A Case the assistant is Loring [[Levitt? Levatt?]] Mr Case has been keeper 5 years is a good man keeps all in good order. He informs me that fogs sometimes occur in winter for a day and a night when the bell is kept in motion for 24 hours. In this case as in all others the wind is from the due south and during a thaw the fog comes in almost immediately after the [[commencement?]] of the wind. In summer the fog occurs in [[underlined]]June [[/underlined]] [[underlined]]July [[/underlined]] and August perhaps most in August but the maximum varies I can obtain full information as to the occurance
Capt Charles Dearing of the city of Richmond informs me that a good fog signal is wanted at White Head Point entrance to Penobscott Bay The bell now at that point does not give sufficient sound It cannot be heard more than 1 1/2 miles when the wind blows There is no place on the coast requires a signal more than this - another wanted on Monhegan No difficulty as to want of water can catch plenty in tanks Is this so. There is no well at this place Water can be had from spring [[end page]] [[start page]] The Cape has seen very thick weather with strong wind [[Here, earlier notes have not been overwritten with ink - No difficulty about [[strikethrough]] about [[/strikethrough]] water would make tanks]] The fog is produced along this coast when the wind is between east and southwest These winds do not always produce fog - July Aug & Sept some in May but not very dense or of long continuance
Arrived at Portland on Friday, [[Sep]] 21st 1866 at about 1/2 past 12 Went immediately to the Steamer city of Richmond Capt Dearing - Met Mr. Edwards the assistant Engineer of the District who had made arrangements for our reception at the Light House Quodyhead. Spoke on board the steamer with an old coaster. Fog most prevalent in the months of July [[end page]] [[start page]] and august always with a wind from the southard and eastward. [[image - drawing in pencil of wavy line with four upright parallel lines and concentric horizontal curved lines above it]]
Engine of the light House Board relative to apparatus which was once attempted to be used to produce sound with carbonic acid [[end page]] [[start page]] Mr [[Ryan]] suggests that the position of the [[House]] and make of the trumpet at Quoddy Head [[image - two side by side pencil diagrams]]
different supplies this is made by elevating a little the reservoir the quantity of oil burned ought in all cases to be measured. The dripping should be measured. The oil in a Franklin lamp. [[line drawn across page]] Boon Island apparatus is ready to be put up. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - drawing of apparatus]] One difficulty in regard to the Roper Engine is the burning out of the exhaust valve. [[image - drawing of apparatus]] [[end page]]
[[line drawn across page]] Mr Foster Lampist reports that Banker and carpenters oil this lot which Mr Goodwin and myself inspected in May 1864 burned admirably at Jupiter Inlet coast of Florida in June 1866 In a first order moderation Lamp burned at least 14 hours without trimming [[end page]] [[start page]] Mr. Foster has observed that on the coast of Maine oil which has been frozen does not burn as will in the spring Probably improved by stiring. [[A bracket encloses the following sentence]] Experiment on this point Mr Goodwin will attend to this - the object is to ascertain the effect of freezing as to deterioration. [[/bracket]] Mr Foster think that the different oils require
Horn 4 [[underlined superscript]] 26 [[/underlined superscript]] [[four stacked horizontal dashes]] 27 3/4 4 [[large space after 4]] 31 7/8 IIII 33 1/2 Whistle 4: 28 1/2 IIIII [[large space after IIIII]] 30 3/4 4.35 1/2 IIII [[large space after IIII]] 38 Big Rocker 4 [[underlined superscript]] 40 [[/underlined superscript]] [[line drawn across page]] Comparison by artificial ear Distance of small Rocker 44 ft " " [[dittos for: Distance of]] Large " [[ditto for: Rocker]] 66 ft Roper Whistle 344 [[line drawn across page]] Dimentions of cylenders of the condensers Ropers 6 1/2 by 13 1/2 strokes 120 per minute pressure 30 lbs 25 by 35 Ericksons 10 by 8 3/4 pressure from 17 to 18 strokes 45 on Monday [[end page]] [[start page]] Dimentions of whistles &c on Large Rocker 6 in by 7 Small " [[ditto for: Rocker]] 3 in by 4 in Pump ----- 2 in by 6 on Ropers engine 6 in by 9 The gong consists of two whistles mouth to mouth - upper 12 by 20 under 12 by 14 inches The pitch of the lower is a fifth to the upper 13 5 = 13.5 ° 8.75 6 1/2 6.5 X 10 ---- ° ------- 675 87.50 810 45 ----- --------- 87.75 43750 120 35000 ------- -------- 175500 3937.50 8775 ------------ 10.530,00
[[Horn and Whis entries are in faded or lighter ink. Entries with "=" symbol and or preceded by "4]" are in darker ink.]] Horn 327 1/2 Whis 330 27 7/8 38 1/2 4] 1.5=.31 28 4] 295=.69 31 28 1/2 31 3/4 28 3/4 32 1/4 Horn 3"33 "33 1/2 Whis 3"36 1/4 4] 1.87=4.7 "34 36 7/8 "34 3/8 4] 37 1/2 "34 7/8 2.25 38 .56 "38 1/2 Horn 3"40 1/8 "40 5/8 41 Whis 3 44 1 7/8=1.87 41 1/2 4] 44 1/2 = 47 42 2.25= 45 __ .56 855 3/4 Horn 3 48 46 1/4 48 1/4 Whis 3 51 3/4 1.5=.38 48 3/4 4] 52 1/2 49 1/8 2.75= 53 49 1/2 .69 53 5/8 54 1/2 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[upper right corner]] 13 Horn 3 56 Whis 3_59 56 1/2 " 59 7/8 4] 56 7/8 4] 4 - 60 1/4 1.75=.44 57 1/4 2.75= 01 1/8 57 3/4 .69 01 3/4 Horn 4"03 [Whistler ?]] 407 4] "03 1/2 7 1/2 2.00=.5 "04 1/4 4] 8 "04 1/2 20=.50 8 1/2 "05 9 Horn 4"11 Whis 4 14 4] 11 1/8 14 1/2 1.5=.39 11 3/4 4] 15 1/4 12 2.25 15 3/4 12 1/2 .56 16 1/4 Horn 4.18 Whis 4.21 1/2 4] 18 1/2 22 20=.5 18 7/8 4] 22 3/4 19 1/2 2.50= 23 1/4 20 .62 24
Horn 2. 46 4) 2 46 1/4 1 1.5=.37 2 46 3/16 47 1/4 Whistle 2.49 [[underline]]47 1/2 1/8[[underline]] 2 49 3/4 [[circled]]4) 2.25=.56 [[circled]] 50 1/4 50 3/4 51 1/4 Horn 2 52 1/4 52 1/2 53 4)1.75=.44 53 1/2 54 Whis 55 55 3/4 56 1/2 4) 57 2.50=62 1/2 57 1/2 [[end page]] [[start page]] 2 59 5/8 " 59 Horn " 59 1/2 Whist 3-1 7/8 " 59 5/8 4) 3 2 1/2 .38 " 60 1/4 3.37=.84 3. 3 3/4 3.4 5/8 3 5 1/4 [[forward slash through these last two figures]] Horn 3- 6 1/8 " 6 5/8 Whis 3 9 1/2 4) " 7 3-10 7 1/2 4)2.5=.64 10 [[1.75? a 1 worked over a 2?]] 11 [[underline]]7 5/8[[underline]] 12 Horn 3 13 13 1/2 Whis 3 16 1/8 +) 14 " 16 7/8 200 .50 14 1/2 " 17 1/2 15 4)3 3/8 "18 3.37=.86 19 1/2 Horn 3 21 [[the 2 is worked over a 4]] 21 3/4 Whis - 3 24 22 4) 24 3/4 .50 22 1/2 2.5=.62 25 1/4 23 25 5/8 26 1/2
Large Bell - 2 11/[[4?]] Small Bell - 2 15 1/2 Large Bell [[vertical dividing line]] broke [[spring?]] 2-17 Small Bell 2 19 Large Bell - 2 20 1/2 Small Bell 2-22 Large Bell - [[diagonal line going from this line to the next line's number?]] 2.23 1/2 Small Bell - 2.2[[57?]] Lost Large [[?]] 2 2 [[?]]1/2[[?]] Whistle 30 3/4 [[ink splotch over writing, transferred from the opposite page]]33 1/4[[/ink splotch over writing, transferred from the opposite page]] 32 [[ink splotch, transferred from the opposite page]]32 1/2 33 1/8 [[end page]] [[start page]] 9 Horn 2-3.4 3.4 1/4 [[?]][[written in pencil, then written over in pen]]1.75 = .44[[/written in pencil, then written over in pen]] 3.5 3.5 1/4 [[Broke?]] 35 3/4 Whistle - 2 3.7 3.7 1/2 3.8 4/2.0 = [[written in pencil, then written over in pen]].50[[/written in pencil, then written over in pen]] 3.8 1/2 [[?]]9 2 4.6 4.6 1/2 [[?]]Whistle 2.43 [[?]] 4[[1?]] 1/4 2.43 1/2 4[[?]] 1/2 [[ink splotch?]][[in ink]]2.0 = .5[[/in ink]] 2.4 4 1/4 4 2 2.4 1/2 2.45 4/20 [[written in pencil, then written over in pen]].5[[/written in pencil, then written over in pen]] .5
[[note in margin]] [[Interval ?]] of [[horn ?]] [[/note]] [[Hand drawn bracket encompassing four written lines]] 4 [[2i° or Zi° ?]] - 5 ^[[strikethrough]]][[2i or Zi ?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[su---?]] 4 [[2i° or Zi° ?]] [[duration?]] of horn Interval 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 26 26 27 27 5 6 5 5-1/2 [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 [[note in margin]] Cap Smiths [[tr--?]] 3 11 Horn ~ 11 12 15 Whistle Rope ~ 12.19 Big Bell ~ 12 23 ~ small Bell _ 12 27 - Large Rocker 12 30 Small Rocker 12.34 Pump ~ 12.376 Small Rocker 2 1/2 Pump 2..2 Large Rocker 2..4 Small Rocker 2 - 5-1/2 Pump --- 2 7-1/2 Large Rocker 2 _ 8-1/2 [[short dividing line]] Bell small 2 - 9-1/2 Large Bell 2 - 11 [[short dividing line]] small 2 - 12-1/2 Large 2 13-1/2
Pump 11th Oct 66 Small Rocker Large Rocker Small Bell Large Bell [[line across page]] one [[dip ?]] pump Two " Little Rocker 3 " Large Rocker 4 " small bell [[short dividing line]] [[strikethrough]] [[Cover ?]] [[/strikethrough]] ^[[Commenced ?]] [[9.37 ?]] Pump 10.8 Lost flag [[down?]] 10 10 small rocker lost 10 11 Large Rocker [[end page]] [[start page]] 5 air [[clear? down?]] wind NNW a 4 not breeze 10.12-1/2 tack ship [[wind?]] increases 10.14 Large Rocker lost 10.15 small [[vessel?]] covered 10 27 Big bell begun 10 34 vessel wind round 10_55 down flag stop bell 10 57 Exhaust begun 11 - Whistle Roper 52" 54 [[strikethrough?]] [[40?]] 30u 24
[[underline]]Capt Smith [[Hudson?]] Way [[/underline]] 2-5 [[long horizontal dash]] Bell commenced ^[[to]] ring 2 -8°rocker - same with [[big one?]] up board 2-15 Bell silent 3 [[minutes?]] at 2-20 all going [[2?]] Trumpet 3 times per [[not ?]] Exhaus one in 50 secd at 2-28 flag could not be seen 2-30 vessel resumed direction [[strikethrough]] 1 3/4 [[/strikethrough]] at 2-30 larger rocker stopped [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 Whistle one a minute & [[with ?]] less 50" about pressure 35lb to an inch 2^[[n?]].53 all going excep rockers 3-.00 down board 3-1 bell stopped to help up board 3-6 up board [[strikethrough]] stoped [[/strikethrough]] 3-13 ^[[whistle to?]] stopped to cool 3-15 down board exhaust begun - engines going faster having cooled 3-22 up board engine looking well 3.28 Rockers commenced
N A [[Bogrun? or Bogdin? or Boydin?]] No 81 Washington Street Boston [[image: circle with arcs outside (looking like handles?) at top and bottom of circle.]] [[Possible mathematical notation in circle drawn above - very faint]] [[22? or 2.2?]] [[score under preceding indicating division?]] 3.3? [[other notations too faint to make out]] [[/notation]] [[Image: large vertical rectangle; almost the height of the page; width=a little less than equal to half the page]] [[Notation written sideways inside rectangle]] thick 1/8 + 1/32 = 5/32 thin 1/16 + 1/ 32 = 3/32 [[/notation]] [[written in blue pencil]] [[Pisco ?]] latest [[Recording ?]] apparatus latest [[version?]] [[Lehrback ?]] [[for ?]] experimental Phys [[?]] by [[?]] [[Locke ?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (1 Began about 10 m to 2 o clock Instruments 2 Rockers Exhaust Steam Whistle Trumpet Bell Bell Commenced 5 before 2 o clock Flag lowered at [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] ^[[h]] [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] ^[[1]] before 2 oclock Large Rocker two near to work it Bell 2 oclock Down [[Good? or board?]] 2-5
[[Back cover]] [[boxed]] [[8?]] [[/boxed]] [[Exp? Eqp?]] [[on?]] [[New Haven?]] visit to [[Quoddy?]] [[Head?]] [[Flags?]] on [[coast?]]