Mary Henry Diary, 1858-1863

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Diary of Mary Henry, daughter of the first Smithsonian Secretary Joseph Henry. This diary spans the years of 1858-1863 and covers life in the Washington, D.C. Mary lived with her family in the Smithsonian Institution Building, or Castle, where she was the at the center of D.C. events. Her entries include details of visitors to the Castle, her father's work with the Smithsonian, and the beginning years of the Civil War.


  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)
  • Smithsonian Institution General History
  • Smithsonian Institution Building Early History


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Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7001, Box 51, Folder: 3

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Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,


  • 1858-1863
  • Civil War, 1861-1865

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United States

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SIA2013-02704 through SIA2013-02816

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Number of Images: 131; Color: Color Document; Size: 7.9w x 10.2h; Type of Image: Document; Medium: Paper

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Diary of Mary Henry 1858-1863
[[start page]] 4.25 [calendar] [miscellaneous calculations] [[end page]] [[start page]] Nov 22 1858 Father has been looking over one of his old books tonight in which are recorded [[ insert]]some of [[insert]]the experiments he made while at Princeton. The review has made him somewhat sad. He spoke of one experiment upon the effect of electricity encircling a ray of polarized light. It failed for want of sufficiently strong galvanic battery. Five years later Faraday made the same experiment, succeeded & gained the plaudits of the scientific world. I do not exactly understand this experiment shall ask for an explanation. 23rd. Had a visit from young Lieutenant Warren this evening. He has been employed lately as an engineer in the West. [[strikethrough]] He was formerly engaged under Gen Harvey in punishing the aggression of the Indians. [[/strikethrough]] He gave us an interesting acct. of a conflict with the [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]]Indians in which he had had been engaged [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] under Gen Harvey. He is now busy preparing a [partial?] report of his last [[strikethrough]] engineering [[/strikethrough]] expedition to [Reed Research??]. We have had a pleasant evening. Will's presence adding to our enjoyment. Dec 18th. How long it is since I have written any thing in my journal. I must be more regular now that we are once more in order. Chaos has come out of confusion once more & home seems like home again since last writing we [[end page]]
have had a visit from Prof Hall the geologist: Dr Lowrey and [[strikethrough]]my [[/strikethrough]] Uncle. Dr Lowrey greatly troubled with his affairs at the mint. Uncle left us this morning, he has been lecturing at Richmond Norfolk & Petersburg. [[strikethrough]]?? [/strikethrough]]flattering notice was taken of his lecture. one repeated a remark of Prof Pierce of Camb[[ridge]] that if Kepler had never lived, Alexander would have been the K of our day. Yesterday we enjoyed having uncle with us greatly. Dr Gurley preached for us in the morning upon the [[underlined]] pursuit of happiness [[/underlined]] choosing for his [["Thus remained??]] a rest for the people of [[Gd.?]] his evening discourse was an exposition upon the first six verses of the second chapter of Matthew. [[These?]] words [[strikeout above text]] [[plainly????]] [[/strikeout]] spoken in sincerity from out the [[fullness?]] of a good mans heart. How powerful are they. simple wisdom they may be but how often do they sink down deep in our heart to remain there when the effects of soul stirring changes of [[??]] may have faded away. plain every day words to help us on with our every day duty. It has been raining hard all day. I have not felt very well & have been very idle I am afraid. Learned of the death of Mr. I. Cox feel deeply for his daughter. [[Rev.?Gentian]][[??]] was delighted had a visit in the morning from Mr. [[?]] seems like old times at [[??]] to see him again. [[end page]] Dec 14th [[underline]]Prof. J. Henry[[/underline]] [[underline]]1857[[/underline]] Jan 24. [[Medal?]] of an Eng. Naturalist Feb 19th. Strykers Mag Vol. 6 (by Author) Mar 17th Burns Naval French Dict.y April 6th "Popes Homer" (daughter) R. June 24 May 16th. La Place Voyage Vol. 3. June 15th. Jour. of [[Perrys?]] Voyage to Wellington Channel (4651) 14th Mother & myself went this morning to Mr. Cox's funeral poor old man there were few there who cared [[strikethrough]]for his daughter's tears were the only one that fell for his loss in [[/strikethrough]] [[son??]] was the only [[strikethrough]] one to weep for him [[/strikethrough]]. Money was his god but it could not buy him friends & he was carried to the grave with none to weep for him but his lonely daughter. He was buried in [[the]] Rock Creek Church grave yard The last time I had been there was in the Spring when the grass was green & the trees bright with foliage to day the bare branches [[?]] ground and the [[?]][[mist?]] [[strikethrough]] [[??]][[underneath?]] the shadow of the [[grave?]] [[?]] and next [[end page]]
[[vertical writing over earlier horizontal entry which probably requires special equipment and the actual diary page to transcribe further]] [[new page]] [[vertical]] The population of China was 960,000,000 -- [[^on its[?] see note]] many of the inhabitants found it more economical to live upon the water when the land & the shore were sometimes entire concealed by the multitude of small boats each containing it's respective family. He said it was quite amusing to see the little children with life preservers in the shape of large gourds tied around the neck to keep them from sinking should they fall overboard, the Heaven the earth & the [[?]] the ladies as the [[?]] also [[these?]] [[?]] make an [[?]] for the purpose [[?]] around [[?]] equinox [[end page]] [[new page]] [[vertical]] The successful candidate finds his service [[??] for the better. He may now try for the second degree and should he again succeed become [[disciple?]] to an office [[under?]] government. A third & fourth degree offers further independent for [[??]] & [[strikethrough]] good conduct. [[strikethrough]] The He told us he had lived on a snow [[?]]
[[vertical writing over earlier horizontal entry renders this page for the most part illegible]] [[horizontal text]] fort in months until the thermometers were above zero I wonder seriously [[?]] believe his description of the hardships of a soldier's life [[we??]] It's [[??]] [[any that they may c????????? from]] trying it. Went to the Dentist with [[Nel?]] read the life of [[?]] [[?????]] [[Gave]][[???? ????]] [[Had a visit from]] [[Mr ???????]] he is quite a [[???????]] as ever but much [[improved]] [[????? of ?????? thee]] [[???? ???????]] Yellow hair [[???? about all the ???????]] [[??]] have been makeing [[???? ?????]] this morning For Earle & his wife were just at home [[???th]] - [[Mr Hoerne]] & his lady. The [[???????]] [[??]] Mrs [[Nesbit]] [[\strikethrough]] [[??????????]] [[????]] as we are getting ready to go with [[Mr]] [[???? came ?????????????]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[centered and underscored]] Secretary's Office, S.I. 1857 May 21st Observatorio Meteorologico Lisbon " " Notas Explanativas 1856 June 3rd Trans. Ed. Phil. Soc. Vol XV He would like to accompany Dr. [[H?]] when he goes to [[look?]] for the open sea he is so sure of discovering. The Scientific club is meeting here to night. [[strikethough]] [[Dr. Hayden?]][strikethrough]] [[?]] has been calibrating some electric experiment. Dr. Hayden had been kind enough to show us his [[??]] & also the same [[drawn?]] in pencil [[?]] with india ink. They are most exquisite[[??]] I think I never saw finer [[??]] done by Mr. _______ of Albany. Friday 23rd I have been sitting up to so late an hour every night this week that I have not been able to write any entries in my journal. On Tuesday we heard Dr. Gurley twice [[I have?]] [[end of page]]
[[start page]] the pleasure of walking to church with father. We amused ourselves with reading the sign board [[from?]]the store doors and came to the conclusion that this is a good [[dea?]] in a [[?]] notwithstanding what its [[?]][[person?]] says to the contrary. for instance who would like to hear the name of [[Chentem?]] or [[B?]] they must have been originally [[been?]][[bestowed?]] upon some [[dishonest?]] old fellows which [[?]] something & been [[given?]] for [[some?]] personal [[?]] [[Lord?]] [[Napier?]] may [[go?]] [[forward?]] of his [[for?]] [[many?]] for [[many?]] a [[time?]] it [[?]] [[strikethrough]] of [[strikethrough]] [[?]] been [[said?]] of some one of his [[ancesters?]] he [[?]][[Napier?]]. In return a [[?]] we [[never?]] [[joined?]] [[any?]] Judge [[B?]] had a [[very]][[??]] & [[low?]] from Dr. [[R?]] [[?]][[he passed us?]] [[Gen Cass?]] was in church keeping [[??]] [[seating?]] [[?]] to Dr. [[?]] his [[p?]] having [[said?]] & [[show?]] [[of?]] [[the?]] [[the?]] [[President?]] [[was?]] also [[?]] with him which [[?]] Judge Campbell's [[??]] & [[from?]] [[had?]] captivated me I wish I could take his [[picture?]] On Monday we had a lecture from Mr. [[Saxe?]] the poet. It rained hard all day but the clouds disappeared soon after sunset & a [[l?]] and [[?]] [[end page]] [[new page]] collected to hear the poet. Through some mistake he did not arrive until some time after the hour appointed for the lecture. Tuesday 21st Called on [[the?]] Mr. [[Saxe?]] & his wife. The poet on closer aquaintance we found very agreeable he is tall with florid complexion has a slight impediment in his speech his manners are frank & genial. He said he was always perfectly contented if he pleased the very young & the very old people of his audience he knew the sentiments must be delicate & [[pure?]] that could win the admiration of young fresh hearts. while on his [strikethrough]][[other?]] [[hand?]][[strikethrough]] ideas could not be extravagant or absurd if approved by the old & experienced. In speaking of death he said [[then?]] [[Dr.?]] [[Wooley?]] one gloomy thought considered with the subject He could not bear to think he might be separated from those he loved for ever [[strikethrough]] I [[trust?]] [[said?]] he [[?]] my own [[safety?]] in one greater than [[?]] [[strikethrough]] He could trust in the [[?]] for his own individual [[safety?]] but it was terrible to think that those he loved so dearly [[?]] [[might?]] never meet him in [[heaven?]] or even if they did meet him their [[relations?]] might be changed it was a very [[disagreeable?]] [[thought?]] he said ^[[?]] at [[?]] wife the [[?]] that his chosen [[w?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] of theirs would should be no more to him [[than any]] [[?]]. His wife is a charming modest little woman & answers well to his description of a model wife "[[So?]] full of women's duties & delights She has no time to think of womans rights Dr. [[Easter's?]] wife & babe came to us in the evening [[* in margin]] Wednesday 22nd. Went out with Dr E. & wife in the morning Dr [[Roby?]] dined with us. Every thing went off [[?]] Mother looked well & did the [[?]] [[harmony?]] gracefully Father pleased. Dr [[R?]] full of life & spirits We young people teasing him about his old [[?]] condition he returning our jokes with interest. His lecture was almost a repetition of his [[former?]] with an addition acount of the [[f?]] of the Hudsons' Bay Company. He appeared in an [[Artic?]] dress after the [[lecture?]] which became him exceedingly. Mr. Melling was in the park when we returned from the lecture with Mr. & Mrs. [[He?]] Thursday 23 Made calls in the morning passed very quietly. look over some of [[Rol??]] [[underling]]& Niles [[drawings?]] with Mrs. Easter. [[?]] [[underlining]] X Miss Dix came unexpectedly spent the evening reading some [[experiments?]] of Dr. [[H?]] father. [[end page]] [[start page]] Miss Dix [[was?]] in conversation with Dr. [[Antisel?]] at the other end of the room discussing some of [[Fuller's?]] experiments as far as I could hear for I could only catch a [[word?]] [[X in the margin]] here and there. I heard father say that the happiest hours of his life were found in [[?]] making his experiments and [[?]] their results [[?]] every other meeting of the Philosophical society at Philadelphia. Friday 24 Will read Dicken's Christmas carol to us in the evening we could not have spent our Christmas eve more profitably. Saturday 25th Christmas day passed [[finely?]] We went with our Mission School of 16 [[?]] to the Young Men's Christian association [[rooms?]] to [[?]] the presentation of candies [[?]]. How our hearts warm to see so many happy faces I could have [[ch?]] with the little fellows when they [[threw?]] [[off?]] their caps & shouted for my [[?]]. Passed the evening at Miss [[Bradley?]] [[?]] [[December]]26 [[Christmas?]] as usual [[?]] Miss Cox in the afternoon. Monday 27th In the evening had a lecture by Prof. [[Grimes?]] It was carefully prepared & full of [[interesting?]] subject a life of the [[??]] He followed the artist from his [[??]] as a [[??]] grow through his years [[He?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] spent with his beloved sister in the study of art & [[?]] thought the years passed in [[?]] until his [[death?]] & the account of his last hours was touching [[?]] the knowledge of his [[???]]& from his [[power?]] for fear of troubling him.[[?]] for the [[??]] refrained from [[telling?]]him of his approaching end [[?]] [[?]][[notions?]] but [[ministered?]] relief. [[??]] makes [[?]] as his monument. If the [[??]] he will [[??]] the [[worst?]] will surely [[?]] Mr. Green. The lecturer's description of [[?]] was [[interesting??]][[strikethrough]] just what I should [[imagine?]] from his [[bust?]][[strikethrough]] He say the bust we have is a [[good likeness?]] genial, gentle & earnest he moved among his [[pupils?]] [[??]] the [[?]] & everything to [[future?]] effort. Tuesday 28th [[???]] a [[French?]] letter from Father. Went with [[Ca??]] to [[Madam??]] to [[?]] about [[French?]] lessons. Wednesday 29th Went on with [[translations?]] [[?]] all day. Modeled [[?'s]] [[?]] in the [[?]] of bust. Thursday 30th He and Father with us all this evening. Moddeled his [[profile?]] in clay while he read [[Th??]] to us. His seemed [[?]] be a [[little? nervous?]] & [[? unil?]] first part of the evening but then [[?]] of the poet [[??????]] [[?]] of all [[???]] that [[? Much??]] of all [[????]] [[end page]] [[start page]] William J. Rhees 1857 Jan. 27th Bryants Poems 2nd Ed.. 1847 R. Feb. 20 " " " Bullions Greek Gram. 38 R Feb 21th Dred by Mrs Stowe. R Mch 2 " " Ida Norman by Mrs Phelps. R " Mch 9th Psalms of Life. " 17th Lingards England (Brown) R Mch 30 " " Ernest Linwood R " 18 " 21st The Hiden Path (Brown) R " 31 " 28th Napoleon at St. Helena (Brown) R " Ap'l 11 Ap'l 4th Anthons Roman Antiquities } (Brown) " " " Grecian " " 8th School Amusements R " A 20 " 11th Planters Northern Bride (Brown) R " 21 " 22nd Bullions Latin Gram. (Brown) May 5th Willis' Poems (Brown) R May 12 that look. I can not write the [[???]] [[year?]] is nearly gone [[??? year?]] [[??]] though the one that is the [[?]] though it's [[?]] it's [[??]], it's [[?]] [[?]] me to [[?]] the better [[??]] to [[?]] the better. & [[???]] of the [[?]] that [[is?]] past. [[end page]]
[[start page]] Jan 4th Had more calls than are expected on New Years day Was sorry I did not see Dr Craig. Enjoyed Baron [[Osten?]] [[Sacken's?]] call. Nell was [[sick?]][[since?]] [[morning?]] so I staid with her but went to church in the evening. Stopped at Mrs Bells on our way home to wait for [[Laliner?]] who had [[gone?]] to [[the?]] [[Chief?]] [[Justice?]] x [[Tawney's?]]. Yesterday Prof Dana came to us he is a small slender man with [[sober?]] [[countenance?]] light hair and eyes. he has a very [[pleasant?]] smile. x In the morning had a visit from Mr Tyler. [[Father?]] enjoys his conversation [[as/so?]] much I [[[?]] his [[w?]] son [[co?]] I could not [[hear?]] much of their conversation [[but?]] [[heard?]] to [[?]] [[say?]] in [[s?]] of [[the?]] [[?]] of [[?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1860 Tuesday [[/strikethrough]] Nov 6th Election day. It seemed strange to see the streets so quiet when the rest of the country was so excited. 7th Lincoln elected. Mr [[blank]] came in for a few moments after tea he had just returned from a Western survey. Told us about the Digger Indians. He said they the dregs of the neighboring tribes. They live chiefly upon rats. The country they inhabit is exceedingly barren. Rabbits the largest game. Their children are frequently stolen by the neighboring Indian & sold as slaves to the Mexicans. " 7th Mr. Williams a missionary from China gave us some very interesting information. He said the population of Cina was 360,000,000. On the seaside many of the inhabitants found it more economical to live on the water than on the land & the shore was sometimes entirely concealed by the quantity of small boats, each containing it's respective family. He said it was quite amusing to see the little children, with life preservers in the shape of large gourds tied about them to prevent their sinking should they fall overboard. Heaven, Earth & the Emperor form the Trinity with the Chinese. The latter is worshiped as the vicegerent of the two former & as such
renders them homage twice a year, at the vernal & autumnal Equanox, His place of worship being two large mounds in the vicinity of Peking. He is held responsible for good weather, good crops, & the general prosperity of the Empire. He is supposed to delegate his power over the elements to his officers & [[strikethrough]] it [[/strikethrough]] not infrequently the latter petition for a suspension of their salaries after a heavy drought -- as a proof of penitence for their maladministration. Woe to the unfortunate who has incurred the hatred of the populace, the first unfavorable rain may deprive him of his office if not of his head. Any person may rise from the lowest grade of society to the highest office in China. Every year, in each province an examination is held of competitors for a degree, conferred upon 70 or more persons, according to the size of the province. The successful candidate finds his social position much altered for the better. He may now try for the second degree. Should he again succeed he is eligible to an office under government. A third & fourth degree offer further inducements to energy & good conduct. The examinations for these four degrees are conducted with great care [[end page]] [[start page]] the dress of the competitor is searched so that no book or paper may be concealed about them They are then placed in separate stalls & questions in writing given them. There are 4 classes of society in China 1st the literary aristocracy, 2nd farmers, 3rd mechanics, 4th merchants. Mr. Williams then proceeded to give us a brief account of the insurrection. He said [[blank]] is the name of the most powerful God of the Chinese. The Emperor alone worships him, to address prayers to him is to raise the standard of revolt. This name is used by the missionaries to represent the true God. The leader of the rebellion was an enthusiastic young man, a disappointed competitor for one of the degrees. As he was leaving from the examination, a translation of a portion of the scriptures was handed to him by one of the emissarys of Christianity. Attracted by the name [[blank]] he read it with avidity. He soon formed a party of adherents. The number of his followers increased daily, & finally obtained possession of a fort in the province of Hwangsi where they were ineffectually beseigded. This I think was in 1851. They afterwards proceeded up the country [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] as far as Peking but were driven [[end page]]
[[start page]] back to Nankin which is now in their possession where ever they went they destroyed the idols instituted the observance of the Sabbath. Taught that [[blank]] was the true God -- that he had sent his son into the world to die for man & other Bible doctrine but possessed very little of the spirit of Christianity. Brutally murdering all who opposed them, sparing neither woman nor children. Bread he said was never made in China wheat although made into flour, was eaten in the form of pastry. He said he had seen the great Wall. It was commenced about 400 years before Christ; by an Emperor, who destroyed all records of his predecessors, in order that he might be considered the first reigning monarch. The wall near the sea side is as much as 40 feet in height. April 26th The Seventh Regiment arrived yesterday. They were greeted with enthusiastic shouts as they marched up the avenue. May 5th [[end page]] [[start page]] [[end page]]
[start page] [end page] [start page] Journal for 1861. Jan. 1st The sun is shining clear & bring. We could not have had a more beautiful New Year’s Day. Would that our political horizon was as free from clouds as the blue sky that bends above us but the storm which has been gathering darkly for months, seems nearly now to break upon us: Even the stoutest hearts are beginning to tremble. God alone knows what is before us may He preserve us from the horrors of civil war. The speech of Mr. Benjamen on Monday was very impressive; The papers give a very poor idea of its merit. The excitement in the galleries was very great particularly at its close when shouts of applause resounded from one side to the other. In clear musical tones he addressed his brother Senators, telling them they must leave those halls, e’er many weeks had passed, to meet no more under one common government. it was too late now to settle the difficulties between the North & South. Too late – too late – that time must come for all things it had come for the preservation of the tie which had so long united us. Our only hope now was in parting peaceably but if that were impossible he was ready to defend his [[fireside?]] with his life’s blood [end page]
[start page] appealing to the All powerful God for Assistance or aid. 10 A.M. We had more calls than we expected Miss Dix came in about noon & spent the remainder of the day with us. Gentle as she is strong she seems indeed, A noble women nobly planned To cheer, to comfort or command, And yet a spirit still as bright With something of an angle’s light. Jan. 2nd Judge Campbell’s daughters spent the evening with us. Jan 3rd Mr. Baker spoke in the Senate " 4th A day of fasting and prayer. All the churches were open at 11 O’clock or at 2 h. a very impressive address was delivered in the House of Representatives by the chaplain Mr. Stockton. The room up stairs or down, was thronged with eager listeners & many a strong man’s eyes were filled with tears at the simple earnestness of the old man. It was grand to hear so many voices united in one common hymn of praise. A telegram to night announced that an armed vessel had sailed for Fort Sumter from Norfolk. Father has just returned from a visit to Senators Douglas & Hunter. The former seemed to think [end page] [start page] the pride of [[seniors?]] in the Republican party would prevent their making concessions to the South. Mr. Hunter thought our prospects very dark. His state of Virginia would adhere to the Union as long as possible. 5th went to Miss Craig’s reception. It was well attended. Gen. Cass was there, Scientific club in the evening. Spanish with Jack. 10th On Monday & Wednesday, lectures by Prof Fairman Rodgers on roads & Bridges. The Inteligencer announces to day the resignation of Hon. Jacob Thompson, Secretary of the Interior. He did not agree with the President as regard to the abstract right of secession, but had consented to remain in the Cabinet “on the faith” that the practical policy of the Government would not be hostile to the South. Mr. Secretary Holt having however sent reinforcement to Major Anderson in Fort Sumter in spite of Mr. Thompson’s remonstrances, he immediately gave us his commission. Went to the Capitol this morning heard Mr. Davis spoke. He discussed the old question of the right of a state to secede. He there addressed the Republican party, telling them that now as the last moment, it was in their power to avoid civil war. He was willing for the few [end page]
days he remained with them, to aid in the restoration of peace. He would leave the question in their hands. Mr. Trumbull, that is had been very hard for himself & he had no doubt for his Republican friends to hear the constant misrepresentations of his Party. If civil war came it was from the other side of the chamber. It was the Democratic party who were pullng down the pillars of the Union. It was they who were making war & calling upon the Republicans to submit. After a warm debate the senate adjourned. 11th Mr [[Shaud?]] & Germain occupied the morning. Prof. Rodgers drives with us. Measures have been adopted to prevent all vessels of an offensive character from entering the harbor of Charleston. Yesterday the, Star of the West, a government-vessel was fired upon by sloops stationed on Morris Island, about three quarters of a mile from the Battery. Major Anderson addressed a letter to the Governor of S.C. asking whether the hostile act was committed in obedeince to his instructions & having received an affermative reply from Gov. Pickens Lieutenant Talbot was sent with dispatches to the General Government. Lecture in the evening by Prof Rodgers. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[torn section]] had a frolic in the evening with Miss [[smudged]] Jan 14th Rain all day. In the evening Father brought in the works of Cahoun. Ive read his [[xxxxxxx]] disquisition on Government. Father was greatly delighted with it. He said Mr. Cahoun had always greatly interested him. He was a true mans as well as a clear logical thinker. When Father first knew him the great man did not-quite understand the objects of the Smithsonian and was opposed to it. One day he came to Father & told him. There was [[situation?]] in a Southern college he was very anxious he should accept. He thought he never could make anything of the Institution and wished him to leave it. Father told him it might be greatly to his own personal advantage to give up the Smithsonian and his honour now was pledged he must carry out his plans. Calhoun took him warmly by the hand as he said "Prof. you are a man after my own heart. I might have been President of the United States if I had chosen to give up my [[principals?]]". Father saw him only a few days before his death. He was perfectly aware of his condition. He said he was approaching the great-change which awaits all mankind. He was some to stand in the presence of [[end page]]
[[start page]] the Deity. He trusted in the mercy of God. Jan 15th Read Seward's speech, delivered on Saturday last. It seems very concilatory in it's tones but pleases neither the North or South. Spent the evening with Judge Scarborough. He is a warm admirer & supporter of Calhoun. " 16th The ordinance of secession was signed at Tallahassee ^[[Florida]] Jan. 12th There are three states out of the Union now, Florida Mississippi & South Carolina. 17th We heard today Judge Campbell has resigned. 18th President Barnard [[blank]] with his wife are with us. He lectured to night upon polarized light, Father told us when he was in [[strikethrough]]London [[/strikethrough]] Edinburough he was one day in a Lapidary shop. A feeble old man came in, to whom [[strikethrough]]he [[/strikethrough]] Father was introduced, as a gentleman from America. What exclaimed Father on hearing his name Nichol is this Nichol who invented the polerizing eye [[piece?]] glass. The old man was so pleased to think any one from such a distance should know about his polerizing [[strikethough]] glass [[/strikethrough]] instrument, that he treated him with the greatest kindness, invited him to his house & presented him with a very valuable chrystal of [[Iceland sperm??]] 21 Lecture by Mr. Barnard. Mr. Welling called in the evening. He did not seem to fear [[end page]] [[start page]] civil war. It was delightful to meet with at least one hopeful person. 22 Yesterday the Senators & members of the returning states gave their valedictory addresses. Every one is particularly gloomy to day in consequence, realizing more fully that we are no longer the United States. 23 Father saw a number of his friends at the Senate this morning, all very desponding. Mr. Pierce thought Virginia would join the cesessionists not that such would be the wish of her people but she is so sparsely inhabited, that - were the politicians to bring matters quickly to a crisis, only those in the neighborhood of the poles would have probably an opportunity of voting & the cesession movement might thus be easily carried over the heads of her peace loving citizens. The Mississippi river has been blockaded & all vessel are required to stop & give an account of themselves. Went to the reception at the Navy Yard. Feb 4 Monday, Mr. Benjamin made his farewell speech His audience was affected to tears. He was one of the clearest thinkers in the Senate & a most agreeable speaker. The echo of his dear silvery tones soon died away in these halls but they must linger long in the memory of those who heard him [[end page]]
[[start page]] Tuesday Feb. 12th We had a very pleasant dinner. Mr Lord the historian who is lecturing before the Institution, The Rev. Dr. Bullock Mr. Williams a retired merchant from New York Mr. Varnon & Mr. Alexander were present. Mr. Alexander was my neighbor & entertained me so pleasantly I heard but little of the conversation of the other members of the party. He told several very amusing stories one [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] is worthy of repetition. In the times of James the Sixth of Scotland first of England there lived a certain Dean whos congregation greatly annoyed him by sleeping [[strikethrough]] while he was [[/strikethrough]] during his sermons. The annoyance having become insuportable he preached a violent [[strikethrough]] sermon [[/strikethrough]] discourse under the text. "Awake thou that Sleepeth. His people were most effectually aroused & complained of him to to the King who commanded him to appear in his presence. His Majesty was [[strikethrough]] so [[/strikethrough]] much pleased with the Dean's ready wit [[strikethrough]] that he [[/strikethrough]] and greatly puzzled what to do with him [[strikethrough]] I cannot [[/strikethrough]] [[while yet]] [[handled?]] [[?]] [[her?]] [[of?]] [[d?]][[h?]] do [pl?]] [[?]] [[sleep?]] [[?]] you In the meanwhile the Dean [[pre?]] for [[?]] [[Turning?]] his eye steadily upon the King [[xx]] the Dean [[preached for??[[strikethrough]]Fixing his eye steadily upon the King ^the Dean [[strikeout]] he [[\strikeout]] announced his text "James 1st" [[end page]] [[start page]] [[& 6th?]] ----- nothing wavering, for he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind & tossed. The King made him his chaplain & sent him back to take leave of his people. Breathern he said, some time ago I preached to you from the text. "Awake thou that sleepeth" The King has since removed me to a more influencial position. I [[strikethrough]] preach [[/strikethrough]] chose to day as taking leave of you the words "Sleep on now & take thy rest." Wednesday Feb. 13th To day the Electors votes were counted some trouble had been anticipated, armed forces were stationed at the various entrances of the Capitol & between the Houses of Congress to prevent ingress to the Hall of Representatives during the ceremony. The galleries were crowded but there was not the slightest demonstration of hostile feeling. " 14th Mr. Hunter spoke upon the tarif question. 15th Mr. Lord lectured to night upon Bacon & his times. His manner is very peculiar he has a queer way of contorting his body as if the delivery of his words was excessively painful. The Southern Congress in now fairly organized. The name of the new Government is the "confederate- states of America" Jefferson Davis had been appointed President. Alexander [[end page]]
[[start page]] H Stephens of Georgia Vice President. Mr Alexander seems quite confident that the convention will settle matters peacably. The North however seems still unwilling to make any concessions. 23rd Yesterday Washington-Birthday was observed with more than usual interest. The display of military was fine, besides the volunteer companies of the District, the Government forces amounted to 600 men. In the evening, Senator Foster called with his wife. also other friends. Later father brought in from the Institution Mr Douglas Mr Pierce of Maryland & Gen Totten. The latter was very melancholy in regard to the political troubles he seemed to think civil war inevitable. We [[dined?]] with Mrs Merrick. The President elect reached here this morning. March 4th The day has passed off quietly in spite of the predictions of the people. The display of military was fine. Mr. & Mrs. Bell are with us, hopes are entertained that the President may put him in his cabinet. April 13rd "It is a long time since I have written in journal." Nothing of any great importance occured for so long we began to hope the threatened war might be averted, it was a false hope, a lull before the storm. On Friday armed [[end page]] [[start page]] troops were sent, [[striketrhough]] to [[/striketrhough]] with sealed orders to Fort Sumter, or rather the vessels of war reached that fort on Friday. [[strikethrough]] The accounts to day informs us that Fort Sumter[[/strikethrough]] The accounts to night are very gloomy. When the last telegram was received Fort Sumter was in flames, the flag at half mast, the number of killed & wounded uncertain. April 15th The papers to day give a full account of the bombardment of Fort Sumter. The demand to surrender was sent to Major Anderson on the Eleventh. He replied his duty to his Government prevented his compliance adding "I will await the first shot & if you do not batter us to pieces we will be starved out in a few days." Gen. Beauregard then proposed to Major Anderson to state the length of time the provisions of the fort would last & promise not to use his guns against the batteries unless he was attacked, under which conditions the bombardment would be postponed. Major A. of course declined this offer, as it would have obliged him to remain silent should any attempt be made to aid him so long as Fort Sumter itself was not fired upon. On Friday morning at 4 o'clock the firing commenced from Fort Moultrie & was answered at long intervals from Major Anderson's guns. Hostilities were discontinued during the night but recommenced early the next morning. Fort Sumter was soon in [[end page]]
[[start page]] flames & Major Anderson was obliged to run up the white flag withdrawing the Stars & Stripes. On Sunday Major A. embarked on board the Isabella for New York. before leaving the Fort he was allowed to fire a salute to his flag when four of his men were killed by the bursting of two of his guns; Most strange to relate these were the only lives lost, during the engagement. The nation is yet guiltless of the horrible sin of [[fratericide/paternicide?]]. There has been considerable excitement in the streets to day. The President has issued a proclamation, calling forth [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] seventy five thousand militia for the preservation of the Union, or rather for the vain attempt to restore to its pristine glory the temple whose columns lie prostrate. Miss Dix was with us yesterday. was very sad indeed about the state of affairs. Said the South was determined to fight. Said she had never shed so many tears in one year before, with the earliest lessons of her childhood her prayers to God was instilled the love of her country. That country she feared was soon to be desolated by a war too fearful to imagine. War preparations are rapidly proceeding in New York. Gov. Sprague of Providence R. I. has offered 1,000 men for the protection of the Capitol. Penn. supports the president. N.J. may join the cecessionsionists, Gov. Andrews ^(Boston) is said to have left for W. on Sunday. [[end page]] [[start page]] The course of events has been so exceedingly rapid it is almost impossible to realize the truly war like we now occupy in regard to the South. Virginia the home of Washington is no longer in the Union. It was hoped she might maintain an armed neutrality & perhaps act the part of peace maker between her sisters states. We went up on the high tower of the Smithsonian on thursday morning & saw the secession flags waving in Alex. while every public building in Washington was surmounted by the Stars & Stripes. Thursday the arsenal at Harper's Ferry was burned by order of the Government to prevent the virginian troops from seizing the arms. They were within three miles of it & as the force [[strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] in the building was not sufficient to protect it, it was thought best to set it on fire. On Friday Miss Dix arrived, she came to offer her services to Mr. Lincoln in forming a hospital for wounded soldiers. She was an eye witness of the terrible assault made ^in Baltimore upon the Massachusetts troops on their way to the Capitol. As she drove rapidly through the streets one of the windows of her carriage was shattered by a paving stone but she received no personal injury. The excitement in Baltimore was very great on Saturday since troops [[end page]]
[[start page]] were expected from the North. The evening was a gloomy one for us all it was supposed an attack in the city might be made at any moment Sunday evening we were alarmed as we were going to church by the report of ten heavy guns. as we heard nothing more we proceeded on our way. but during the service the rumbling of what we supposed to be artillery further increased our disquietude. [[strikethrough]] Our alarm was [[increased?]] [[strikethrough]] the latter was caused by heavy wagons carrying flour to the capitol & other flour for the use of the troops. a small vessel had been seized at [[Georgetown?]] & robbed of it's contents. On Monday the excitement ^ in the city was considerably allayed the Seventh regiment from New York was hourly expected & then all fear of an attack from the upon the city was at an end for the present. This regiment has not yet made it's appearance however it is now supposed to be at Annapolis. Mayor Brown & Gov Hicks have refused to allow the passage of troops through Baltimore so their route must necessarily be circuitous. The Marylanders seem determined to oppose their passage through any part of the State. it is supposed that they may be awaiting the arrival of other troops so as to fight their way if necessary. The President has declared his sole object is bringing [[them?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] further is to defend the Capitol. We are now intirely cut off from all intercourse with the North. The bridges have been burned the rails [[strikeout]] taken up [[strikeout]] [[^injured?]] & telegraph wires destroyed between Baltimore & Philadelphia. The New York papers of Saturday were received yesterday by pony express. Our friends are of course very anxious about us but we have no means of letting them know of our safety. We cannot now leave the city & must face the danger whatever it may be. The rise in provisions was very great on Monday the price of flour from $6 per barrel rose to $15. it proved to be a panic however, they have now gone down again. To night we went to see Mrs. Captain Rodgers whose husband is at Richmond held as a hostage with Cap. [[blank]] for [[this?]] Southerners [[take?]] is at [[attempt?]] to destroy one of the Government vessels he was detailed on the unpleasant duty of destroying the Government property in Norfolk Harbor & was then taken prisoner. Mrs. Rodgers said she had heard indirectly from him; he was well treated. April 26th The Seventh Regiment arrived yesterday. They were greeted with enthusiastic applause as they marched up the avenue Their [[strikethrough]] [co?] [[strikethrough]] conduct on their march through Maryland was characterized by energy & good will. Wherever they were obliged [[end page]]
[[start page]] to break down fences or otherwise injure property. They paid for damage immediately. They are a fine looking set of men & seem mostly to be gentlemen. A part of Gov. Sprague's forces are also here, the rest are still at Annapolis. We are well guarded now all fear of an attack on the city at present is at an end. We received our first communication from the North this morning, a letter from Uncle written last saturday 6 days ago. Our friends have of course been very anxious about us. Miss Dix dined with us, she is industrious in her preparation for the care of those who may be sick or wounded. May 3rd Father saw the President for the first time officially He went to inform him that as President of the United States he was head of the Smithsonian Institution & was expected to see the Regents & Secretary on the first Tuesday in May. Father had to wait more than an hour before he was admitted. While in the ante room Capt Meigs came in he had just returned from his secret expedition & was about to report himself to the President. He said he thought it was not betraying confidence to inform Father where he had been. Fort Pickens was the destination of the fleet, ^sailing with [sealed?] orders^ in which he had sailed This had reinforced & could not possibly be taken now at least for the next [[few?]] months. [[Colonel?]] Ellsworth the commander the of the N.Y. Zouaves [[end page]] [[start page]] & colonel Butler also arrived while Father was waiting He was admitted finally. Mr. Lincoln [[strikeout]] was harassed [[\strikeout]] seemed care worn, he was [[withdrawn?]]& ill at ease. Mr. Seward was with him. May 7 Tuesday. Mr. Strong of Albany called last evening. He said one of the finest sights he had ever witnessed was the swearing in of the Seventh Regiment. Both Father & himself seemed to think a bloody battle inevitable. " 8th Yesterday we visited the camp of the Seventh Regiment. It is in a beautiful spot opposite Columbia College. The tents were arranged back to back in rows with wide streets between them, they seemed small & comfortless & we approached them but very picturesque in the distance. Some of the men seemed quite unfitted for the hard life of a soldier with their slender forms & delicate complexions. One of the engineer corps who was our chaperone [[strikethrough]]appeared [[strikethrough]] seemed to think they would not be called into active service, at least for some time. About 5 o clock the drill commenced the band playing delightfully about a half an hour before. The [[military evolutions/volunteers?]] were very fine & performed with great exactness. The salutes of their officers to the [[commander?]] in command was beautiful in the extreme. A grey headed officer reviewed the troops [[end page]]
[[start page]] Major Anderson was there & after the drill was presented to the Regiment each[[strikethrough]] [[regiment?]] [[srikethrough]] company saluting him in turn with three hearty cheers. I was surprised to find him so small a man, his manner dignified & courteous, his face both noble & gentle made a very pleasant imppression upon us. On our return home are found Mr. Smith of the N.J. Regiment He found a soldier's life very tiresome. He occupies a room with 130 other men & [[was?]] delighted to have one comfortable nights rest in a civilized bed room. Gov. Sprague's men are decided to be the finest here not excepting the proud N.Y. Seventh. He has clothed most of them himself. They are stationed in the Capitol. The streets are filled with soldiers & the sound of the drum is heard unceasingly from morning until night. A squad of men in very pretty grey suits with red trimming have just left the Institution. The N.Y. Zouaves have a very undesirable reputation. They have been quite disorderly since their arrival. June 1 We have visited the Seventh Camp since I last wrote. The regiment left us [[strikethhrough]] this [[strikethrough]] yesterday. They were sent into Virginia last Saturday. expected some hard fighting but were engaged in digging trenches in arlington picnic grounds. Most of the regiments are now encamped beyond the limits of the city. The Capitol is still occu- [[end page]] [[start page pied by troops. The fortification on the Virginia shore are said to be very fine we have not yet visited them. Continuous firing in that direction startled us this evening particularly as we had heard of the encounter at Fairfax Court House. [[Twenty?]] of the [[southerners?]] are said to have been killed ^ there & only two or three of the Northerners. Jef. Davis is said to be at Richmond. It is [[rumored?]] that Judge Douglass is dead he was not expected to live yesterday. Father went to the President's this morning with Prof Felton. Mr. Lincoln & already improved in manner & appearance. his son the "Prince of [[underscore]] Rails" [[underscore]] Father said was really a fine young man. The Seward the French Minister Mrs Montgomery Blair have given pleasant entertainments for the officers. The Garabaldi guards who arrived yesterday are said to be very fine men I do not like their dress. A German regiment has been drilling in front of our windows this morning. A week from last Thursday the bells were tolling for the decease of [[strikethrough]] [M?] [[strikethrough]] Colonel Ellsworth & on Saturday we witnessed his funeral procession. The muffled drums the [[forsed?]] guns the slow sad step of the soldiers was very impressive He was only twenty three years of age. Alexandria now lies under the Stars & Stripes. [[end page]]
[[start page]] Monday June 3rd We had Drs [[Hannday?]] & [[Wines?]] to preach for us yesterday They have just returned from the meeting of the general assembly & took a warm part in the discussions relative to the State of the country. It cannot be too much regretted that the political questions of the day [[strikethrough]]should [[strikethrough]] were agitated in that body. ^Judge [[Bates?]], the attorney general telegraphed to the clergymen in answer to a question of one of them, that he hoped all such subjects might be excluded from their deliberations. That the Old Schools Presbyterian General Assembly was the last collecting link between the North & the South he hoped earnestly it might not be broken. Dr. [[Hogdes?]] resolutions were defeated [[strikethrough]] however [[strikethrough]]. We have just returned from a visit to the fortifications on the other side of the river. We were stopped at the foot of the Long Bridge & obliged to show our pass to a very good natured looking officer We first visit the N.J. camp the men were busy at their embankments. After again showing our pass twice we entered Arlington grounds These are very beautiful carefully cultivated man has so skillfully concealed his share in the work it seems as if nature & [[d?]] the whole. The ^green sunny slopes & the [[hew?]] of shady [[?]] dotted with white tents & the soldiers gray dress was [[?]] wholly picturesque. Each [[turn?]] in the road added new charms to the picture. [[end page]] [[start page]] In one spot a number of men were lying upon the ground [[strikethrough]] with [[strikethrough]] by the side of their houses, [[bundles?]] in hand ready to start at a moments warning an attack is expected to night from a body of secession troops [[strikethrough]] said [[strikethrough]] about 14 000 strong said to be stationed near Fairfax county court House. The old House the home of the descendants of Wash. we found filled with soldiers, a sentinel was [[maintained?]] with measured step in the wide portico. The view from the grassy slope in front seemed never more beautiful the city lay before us in the rays of the setting sun each public building already & distinctly defined We saw how readily this latter might have been [[demolished?]] & the Southern [[succeeded?]] in securing the post & placed their [[batteries?]] there. Farther on opposite Georgetown are found the 49 N.Y. regiment camp. Here every preparation had been made for a speedy attack. numbers of trees & been felled & placed in front of the encampments across the road between some [[the?]] [[field?]] to intercept the expected cavelry. We crossed the river at this [[point?]] in a ferry boat. It was very sad to think how many of the fine young men we had seen [[might?]] be cut down [[strikethrough]] by [[?]] [[strikethrough]] [[before?]] [[??]] deserved. Prof. [[Felton?]] who has been with us since Thursday [[end page]]
[[start page]] saw Gen Scot this morning The old man seemed to think a bloody battle might be avoided He was moving his forces slowly but surely southward & he thought the people would yield without much loss of life. Mr. [[Cary?]] a young friend of Prof. [[Felton?]] was wounded at the slight affray at Fairfax. It is said quite a number of secessionists were killed in that engagement. The death of Judge Douglass, "the little giant" is no longer to be doubted. I pity his poor young wife. It is said that Gen [[Baldwin?]] has been taken prisoner. June 4th Went to Alexandria with Prof [[Felton?]] & Judge Loring's family. The old town seemed deserted by all peace loving citizens, the soldiers alone were to be seen. We visited the house where Col. Ellsworth was shot The bannisters, two of the stairs pieces of the windows & doors have already been carried off [[strikethrough]] to [[strikethrough]] as relics. we brought away a small piece of the flag staff. We were greatly interested in the fortifications. They are still incompleted. They command the three roads from Manassas Gap Richmond & Fairfax Court House the scene of a slight engagement with the secessionists. The Zouaves, the [[underline]] pet lambs [[underline]] as they are called are immediately in the rear of the fortifications Two other regiments are not far off. On our [[end page]] [[start page]] return we met in the omnibus the President of Columbia College who had just come from the South. He said Gen. Beauregard was at Manassas Gap & expected an attack from the Northern troops. Prof. Felton? informed Gen. [[Scot?]] of this in the evening. June 7th [[F.G?]] came to tell us she [[strikeout]] was ^intended [[strikethrough]] to be married on Sunday next. Visited the Twelfeth Regiment (N.Y.) Their [[parade?]] was very fine. We went to the officers quarters after it was over. saw Col Butterfield [[strikethrough]] & ? [[strikethrough]] Col Ward & others. The former is very handsome with regular features & dark eyes. The little shanties occupied by the men are not as picturesque as tents but are said to be more comfortable. " 8th Started to go to the Rhode Island Camp but were prevented by the rain. 9th The wedding passed off well. Mr Elderkin returns tomorrow to Alexandria. He expects to be ordered next week to Harper's Ferry. 11th The papers are filled with accounts of the engagement at Bethel in Virginia. For more than an hour the United States troops were [[through?]] some [[thunder?]] exposed to the fire of a body of their own men. It is not know exactly how many were killed. 12th Went to Mr Calvert's. His daughter is engaged [[end page]]
[[start page]] to Judge Campbell's son. He has joined the [[Union?]] army & she can here from him but very rarely- Poor child I pitied her she looked pale & sad. 19th Harpers Ferry has been evacuated. It was an easy place to hold & the Government anticipated hard fighting there. Father saw Gen. Scot in the evening he said the place was not of much importance to the Southerners. He did not wonder it was abandoned. The Gen. was amusing himself with Shakespeare after the cares of the day. Mr. [[Townsand?]] was with him who had been on the battle field in the engagement at Bethel Gen. Scott expressed his disapprobation of the blunder which had been made. He did not like the appointment of Civilians to post of such important command. ^The art of War [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] he said [[strikethrough]] was [[strikethrough]] is certainly [[strikethrough]] more [[strikethrough]] as difficult [[strikethrough]] than [[strikethrough]]] ^as the art of shoemaking & who even ^thought of practicing [[strikethrough]] made [[/strikethrough]] the latter without serving an apprenticeship? The Gen. thinks he might end the war in a year if [[strikethrough]] left to his [[/strikethrough]] ^permitted to carry out his own plans [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] but great complaints are made of his slow movements. Most of the troops have left the city now. We have [[strikethrough]] seen [[/strikethrough]] ^had a visit from the Rev. Mr. Green this week ^ who has just returned from the South He says the Southern troops are much inferior to those of the North. They are comprised in part of boys of 14 & 15 years of age. Pres. Davis is in very delicate health should he die the [[prospect?]] of the South will be dark. [[end page]] [[start page]] Gen. Peirce has been very much blamed for the disasterous affairs at Great & Little Bethel. But Gen. Butler his superior in command planed the attack & he alone if any one should be censured. Bethel is not far from Fortress Monroe where Gen. Butler is stationed. Sat. 15th Went with [[N___G___?]] to visit the camps of the 1st 2nd & 3rd Maine Regiments they are near together in the vacinity of Columbia College. A German regiment is not far off. We saw three parades at once from our carriage while the music of two seperate bands blended very sweetly together. M. 17th Another [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] regiment arrived from Mass. yesterday we saw them as they marched up the avenue dusty & travel stained. " 18 Prof. Lowe made some experiments with his baloon. He wishes to be of service to the Government in reconnoitering the forces & position of the enemy. He arose to the height of 200 feet carring with him light telegraph wires by means of which he found he could readily communicate with individuals on terra ferma. About sundown he moved ^majestically along through the air to the Presidents grounds the balloon drawn by a crowd of men & boys. We started for the same place by a shorter road but were soon [[end page]]
[[start page]] taken by the Prof. He seemed to be enjoying his ride greatly. [[strikethrough]] W. 19th [[strikethrough]] The affray at Viena has exited us greatly. It seems that on [[strikethrough]] Sunday [[/strikethrough]] number of troops were sent from Alexandria to take possession of the Alexandria & Loudon railroad. They were transported in a train of cars & dropped by companies at different places along the road until only three remained ^in the cars. These were stopped by a man in the vicinity of Viena who entreated them for Gods sake [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] not to proceed, but the officer in command did not heed the warning & as they turned a corner [[strikethrough]] [the?] [[/strikethrourgh]] a concealed battery opened its fire upon them. The soldiers were obliged to leave the cars & take shelter in the woods at the sides of the road. They retreated with a loss of seven men. I do not know how many were wounded. The men behaved galently but could do little under the fire of their concealed foe. W 19th The Attorney Gen. Mr Bates his wife & daughters [[took?]] tea with us. They are pleasant inteligent people but very simple & plain in dress & manner. A telegram announces an engagement at Boonville Missouri. T. 20th Father dined at Judge [[W?]] Com. [[??'s]] & other distinguished guests were present Colonel. Butterfield (N.Y.: 12th) was there for a short [time?] [[end page]] [[start page]] time but was suddenly called away. His regiment have been ordered to leave for Vir. to night. It is generally supposed that we are [on the?]] eve of a great battle Gen. Beauregarde is said to be advancing with a large force signal fires have been burning on the Vir shores we retire with a dread of the news the morning ^(m)ay bring. July 3rd There have been several small engagements with the secessionists since last I wrote, but the great anticipated conflict between the contending parties is still [[deferred?]] The two armies must soon meet for Beauregard has been concentrating his forces in Vir. & Gen [[Scot?]] has forwarded regiment after regiment so that now the Northerners & Southerners are almost within speaking distance. We obtained a photograph of Gen. B. a few days ago. He has a dark stern face determined & bold but little expressive of generosity or sensibility. Tomorrow (the entire session of) Congress opens. July 4th It is Independence Day, hallowed & dear to the hearts of the American people but the Birth Festival of our republic [[awakens?]] sad thoughts as well as patriotic feelings. There was a grand parade of the NY regiments early in the morning that state has already [[end page]]
[[start page]] sent 50 000 men to the aid of the Government & is ready to provide more if they are needed. At twelve o'clock [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] Congress opened we went up some time before in order to procure seats but found very few people in the Senate galleries The House was crowded.. [[one end of arrow]] In the evening we had a visit from Senator Pearce, He looked thin & pale. [[other end arrow here]] As we went into the Capitol we met Mr. Breckenridge He looked as if the troubles of the country weighed lightly upon him. He seemed pleased with Father's cordial invitation to ^visit the Smithsonian. The situation of the few Dem. here now is very disagreeable. It was very sad as the Senators took their seats -- to miss the old familiar faces, the tones that had [[strikethrough]] old [[/strikethrough]] ^only a few weeks before made those walls ring with heart stirring eloquence. Mr. Breckenridge introduces us to the Senator who takes the place of Douglass. He is very different in appearance from the Little Giant. Tall with heavy iron grey eyebrows dark [[piercing?]] eyes his [[head?]] is partly bald. Last evening a eulogy was delivered upon Douglass by his friend Col. Forney [[clerk?]] of the [[Senate?]] and for years editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer Mr. Forney spoke of the Senator's great generosity [[end page]] [[start page]] & [[magnamimosity?]] of disposition ^He said is was important for him to[[ban?]] [[malice?]] Father gave us one instance of this. He said that at a meeting of the Agricultural Society, Judge D. attacked the Institution Father was vexed & said [[strikethrough]] [[made?]] [[/strikethrough]] some severe remarks in reply. At the next meeting S.D. came to Father & said very [[politely?]] Prof. We had some hard words yesterday. I am going to make another speech to day & you must follow me. Father shook his proffered hand and they were the best of friends until the death of the noble senator. He was one of the Regents of the Institution & always took a warm interest in the affairs of the Inst. especially in Father's reports & addresses. July 5th. We are almost tired of camp visiting but concluded to pay one more visit to the Twelfth Regiment (N.Y.) We saw Col. Butterfield Col. Ward & other officers. One of the engineer corps invited us to take tea with them. The regiment is finely drilled but complain greatly because they are obliged to perform so many evolutions in the double quick. In the morning we had a visit from one the 71st regiment N.Y. They are at the Navy Yard but expect to be ordered off to day. They are considered second only to the Seventh. [[end page]]
[[start page]] July 6th We have at last succeeded in accomplishing our visit to the Rhode Island regiment. It is encamped in one of the most beautiful places near W. [[strikethrough]] There [[/strikethrough]] A light mist drapes the distant hills. An approaching thunder cloud some what obscured the setting sun but added new beauties to a landscape almost too exquisite to be real. The parade was very fine as there were two regiments, at its [[close?]] the troops formed into a solid square while the chaplain read a chapter in the Bible & stood with uncovered heads while he offered a prayer to the God of battles. It was a beautiful & touching scene. We did not see the Gov. Col. Burnside presided. He has a fine voice his clear tones were distinctly heard across the [[wide?]] parade ground. Monday July 15th An extra of the Star announced the defeat of a body of eight thousand secessionists under Gen Garnett command in the western part of Virginia at Laurel Hill. It is said 2,000 of the Southerners were taken prisoners. Gen. Garnett himself fell dead upon the field. We at first thought it was Muscoe Garnett the member of Congress but subsequently learned it was his cousin. Went in the evening to Major Hunter's to see Dr. & Mrs. Hodge. The [[city?]] was [[end page]] [[start page]] obstructed by camp equipment, canteens powder flasks ec. The Major was reclining upon the sofa as we entered the brightly lighted parlor. [[strikethrough]] They [[?]] [[\strikethrough]] He was ready with his young aid Sam [[Shelton?]] to start early tomorrow morning. The eyes of the latter were dancing with excitement & enthusiasm while his mother's rested fondly & tearfully upon him. At the head of the Major's sofa sat his adopted daughter, fair & gentle with a look of patient sadness upon her face. her husband is in the rebel army. She seemed too young to be the mother of the babe nestling in the Majors arms & pulling his mustache in infantile glee. It's little laughing face a contrast to the older careworn ones. Tuesday 16th We went up into the high tower to see the troops pass over into Virginia. 4 regiments crossed the long bridge while we were up there, every now & then they rent the air with their enthusiastic shouts but it was sad very sad to see them go I could not feel patriotic. I thought of the sad patient form we saw last night, of the many brothers who were pressing thus eagerly forward to shed the blood of brothers. [[Saw]] Fanny this evening she came from Alexandria this morning [[Edward?]] left her at 11 o'clock he is under Gen Franklin's command. She said that [[end page]]
[[start page]] army 50,000 strong was to be stationed eight miles from Alexandria on the road to Fairfax Court House as an attack was to be made upon the latter place at 6 o'clock tomorrow. It was expected that the Southerners would retreat to Richmond or rather to Manassas Junction. Father went to see Mr. [[Harten?]]. who said he was very very sorry to hear Mr Bell's [[change?]] not remained a unionist. Father also saw the editor of the principal paper in Nashville he said he was very sorry he was not in Nashville when Mr B. made the speech declaration of [[d?]] sentiments He should have suppressed it as it was probably made when Mr.B. was unduly excited. " 17th Dr & Mrs Hodge came home this morning Major H. & Sam left yesterday I suppose they were among the troops we saw pass over the bridge. Prof [[?]] & Mr Alexander of Balt. were also here the former looks somewhat like Col. Butterfield. Met Judge & Mrs. Merrick on the avenue this afternoon. The Judge said it was very probable the armys were fighting then. Mr [[Wechlife?]] had heard from Mr. Seward ^at the war department that [[morning?]] that Fairfax Court house was to be attacked between 8 & 9 A.M. Father has just come in from the observatory where he went with Dr. Hodge. Coming home he met Mr. [[blank]] who had just [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page torn away]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[page torn away]] [[end page]] [[start page]] returned from Fairfax Courthouse. The cesessionists had been warned early in the morning of the meditated attack upon the village, a milkman having conveyed a letter from someone in W. & the place was deserted, woman & children as well as the male population had fled. Some depridations had been committed by soldiery but the officers soon put an end to anything of that kind. T. 18th " The papers to day contain the account we received last night Fr. 19th. Another extra of the Star to day, account of an engagement at Bull Run. half way between Fairfax Court House & Manassas Junction. The Federal army in its march towards the latter station were stopped by the fire from a concealed battery, shortly another also concealed commenced [[cannonading?]] & then a third. the troops braved the storm of balls remarkably well with the exception of a regiment from Mass & also one from N.Y. It is very difficult to obtain authentic information in regard to the military movements. Gen. Scott is in constant communication with the army by telegraph but he keeps his own council. S 20th It is reported to night that the Batteries at Bull Run have been taken but Mr. Welling who has just left us says that is a mistake. [[end page]]
[[start page]] July 21st Sunday, 4 P.M. ^The Southerners [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[\strikethrough]] morning as I went into church Mr.----- told me that our troops were still fighting at Bull Run. Gen. Scott was in church he said he pitied our ladies who sat in front of him as their husbands were engaged in battle probably at that very time. I have come home with Fanny as she is troubled about Mr. Elderkin who is at Bull Run. Nelly has just come in to tell us our troops have been fighting since early in the morning. 10 P.M. Mrs Gurley drew me aside just before we came up stairs to tell me Col Heintzelman was wounded & the battery in which Mr. Elderkin ^is was supposed to be cut to [[pieces?]]. Fanny has fallen asleep tired of watching poor little one she little knows what cause she has for anxiety. 22 ^Still at Dr Gurleys This has been a very weary day. I am glad night has come at last so that I can forget its sad realities in sleep. Asleep would I were [[so now?]] would I might awake from what seems like a hideous dream. All last night ambulances were passing the house & we expected every moment one would stop at our door. As we were seated at the breakfast table this morning a violent [[pull?]] at the door bell made us all start to our feet. Two soldiers entered blood stained & dusty. Poor little Fanny threw herself on the floor at my feet covering her ears [[end page]] [[start page]] fearing to hear the terrible news they might bring. They were messengers of good tidings for her however E. was safe but a sad sad tale they had to tell. The Northern Army [[strikeout]] has [[\strikeout]] was ingloriously defeated driven back before the rebel forces. [[100 000?]] were said to have been engaged on one side & [[80 000?]] on the other The loss of life on both sides was very great but they could ^of course not tell us ^exactly how many were killed & wounded. Three times our narrator a strong man burst into tears & cried like a child. About 12 o'clock Mr. E arrived he had not tasted food for twenty four hours He said the batteries of the confederate forces were arranged in the form of a [[triangle - image]] one of them had been taken early in the day & [[strikethrough]] [[??]]for [[\strikethrough]] seemed to be in the hands of the [[strikethrough]] con [[strikethrough]]federate ^army until the [[strikethrough]] [[troo?]] [[\strikethrough]] confederates were reenforced by a body of troops from Manassas. [[strikethrough]] In my humble opinion [[\strikethrough]] I have been able to learn during the day however [[strikethrough]] it seemed [[\strikethrough]] I should think this battery had been yielded [[strikethrough] [[and?]] [[\strikethough]] in order to entrap the federal army in the [[inverted V - image] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] then by cutting off [?] [[retreat?]] [[shortly?]] an [[attack?] of [[every?]] ^it was evedently the plan for the [[?]] [[strikethrough]] in the rear. [[\strikethrough]] while an attack of [calvary?] in the rear [[strikethrough]] cut off [[\strikethrough]] prevented a retreat. The plan did not quite succeed however the calvary "The black Horsemen", were repulsed by Ellsworth's [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[??]]. A panic seized the troops about 4'o they fled precipitately. A number of Congressmen who had been exceedingly eager for the battle had [[xx gone down xx]] to witness what they were [[pleasured?] to [[??]] the Southern races, leading the retrograde movement. The Rhode Island Regiment was the only one that retreated in good order we saw them some into the city about 10 A.M. It was a pitiable sight. many of the men were without shoes in stocking [[??]] & [[unduly?]] dirty, some had [[??]] to exhaustion & men come upon the [[shoelessness?]] of others who seemed [[??[[ less weary than themselves they formed sad contrast. To the enthusiastic well dressed military looking men who left us [[on?]]. All day long bodies of [[struggling?]] troops have been coming into the city to the streets lined with men seated upon the side walks in the pelting rain their officers many of them killed, their company broken up they did not seem to know where to go. Our army had been completely routed could the Southern been [[??]] the city on Tuesday night it might [[??]] readily have been [[??]]. Neither [[??]] of the death of several of our friends but I am happy to learn Col. [[Hunter?]] & his young aid are safe. The former is gentle severely wounded but is in no danger [[??]] [[note of side of page]] My [[??]] on the [[west?]] was at Bull Run he had [[??]] of his [[??]] by a fall from his horse but has been as [[entertained?]] & [[??]] [[???????????????????]] [[end page]] [[start page]] It is terrible to think of the hearts bleeding to night of the thousands weeping for some husbands & brothers falling unknown & [[unnoted?]] except to swell the number [[??]] enforcement of the country's loss 23rd This is a beautiful day after yesterday's rain. It is a relief to see sunshine again but it does not bring happiness with it. A member of the N.J. 71st Regiment has just been here. He fought well & bravely but says he hopes he may never again see a battlefield. He [[shuddered?]] & put his hand over his eyes when he told us the horror of that terrible Sunday [[xxxxxx]] be forgotten or described. He said the cowardice & inefficiency of the volunteer officers was almost to great to be believed. One of their captains was about to leave when his men told him if he should they would shoot him down. The street are still crowed with soldiers, every few steps almost we encounter crowds collected around some of the Bull's Run adventeres listening with warmth & eyes wide open. 27th The excitement after the battle is intense. Gen. McDowell is very much blamed. Gen. Scott declares he washes his hands of the affair & before soon he may be allowed to carry out his plans without molestation. He is said to have declared to the President that he must [[end page]]
[[start page]] be [[underlined]] commander in chief [[underlined]] in reality as well as in name or he must resign. The members of congress who were so eager for the battle and went to see what they were pleased to call the Southern races are said to have caused the panic by their [[precipitous?]] flight. Reports are so contradicted it is impossible to know the number of the killed & wounded. 29th Yesterday a poor man came to Father to know if he could obtain permission to visit the battle field he wished to look for the body of his son. He [[heard?]] of [[him?]] through a companion by whose side he was shot down & who procured him medical assistance but the bullets were falling thick & fast the [[?]] left the poor wounded boy & his friend was obliged to flee for his life. The unhappy father was [[overcome?]] with grief we could hear his groans from one end of the house to the other. Father saw a son of Gen Meigs who gave him the best description of the battle he had yet received. He is a West Point Cadet at home for the holidays He came to his Father on ^the Saturday before the battle & told him that he could not remain quiet while so many brave men were fighting for their country perhaps he might not be of any use but he [[wished?]] to do what little good was in his power & requested permission to join the army in Virginia. He [[end page]] [[start page]] told his Mother of his intentions only an hour before he started. saying he thought it was his duty to go & she must not forbid him. He distinguished himself most nobly displaying the coolness [[intrepidity?]] & skill of an ^[[experienced?]] [[strikeout]] old [[\stikeout]] general. Once ^[[t?]] a while [[ha?]] to a [[shot?]] he rode forward alone to find out whether an advancing body of men belonged to the Federal or confederate forces with only a pistol in his belt. Once as an experienced officer was leading his men into the [[middle?]] of a [[force?]] [[?]] in order to get them [[his?]] [[s?]] [[spread?]] before them he waved his sword & [[called?]] out at the top of his voice [[strikethrough]] rode [[\strikethrough] "Men will you [[have?]] you [[hau?]] or [[your?]] lives & ordering a retreat [[saved?]] a gallant company. Gen. Scott is justly proud of his young country man. Much is said of the ferocity of the Southerners at the battle but the feeling of animosity seems to be equally deep on both sides. One of our friend who had been upon the field told us he saw two wounded men a federal & a unionist lying side by side attempt to bayonet each other too weak for such and effort they sank back exhausted & dying. Aug 17th The city has been very quiet for the last two weeks. Most of the soldiers are encamped beyond the limits of the city and are not allowed to leave their quarters Even the officers are arrested if they appear in the [[end page]]
[[start page]] streets without a pass. Gen McClellan the successor of McDowell seems determined to maintain the strictest discipline in his armies. The utmost secrecy is now preserved by the Government in regard to war movement, a necessary precaution since the Southerners have been kept constantly informed of every important measure of the Northern Army. When our forces reached Fairfax Court House, [[the?]] found in the quarters deserted by the rebel officers maps of fortifications &c. photographed from there made at the Coast Survey. copies of which had not yet been issued for the use of the Federal officers. Since I last wrote we have had a visit from Prince Napoleon. He was the guest of the French minister. Sec. Seward gave a ball in his honour the day before he went to Mount Vernon & as he did not return at the time appointed great fears were entertained that he had been taken prisoner. The Secretary was not [[dis?]] in his [[royal?]] guest however. It seems that the Prince & the distinguished gentleman with him had [[made?]] in an [[?]] [[however?]] an as the [[??]] this hour & exhausted & the party was [[obliged?]] to remain at a farm house until others could be obtained. They at last [[??]] the [[???]] of [[?]] however to [[their?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[carriage?]] instead of [[horses?]]. The Prince is very fine looking & strongly resembles his illustrious ancestor. He thinks the war will not last long since Government will not be able to support the expense $1000 000 per day was the lowest estimate. He thought France would take no part in the war She had too much to attend to at home. It is generally supposed that the Prince has other motives than those of men pleasure seeking in coming to this country at this [[important?]] era. The [[Northern?]] troops have met with reverses in Missouri The death of Gen. Lyon has caused great excitement. We expect to leave home next Tuesday. Sat 24th Our [[meditated?]] departure has been deferred by the illness of Dr [[Hase?]] one of Father's assistance. An attack is expected every day upon the city but there are so many troops here now we do not feel any anxiety. Regiment after regiment have been come in quietly almost every night. We have visited the new encampments twice with Mr.____. The street is strongly fortified & a little church that interfered with the range of the guns has been pulled down. It is supposed that Maryland will [[rise?]] [[simultaneously?]] with the [[attack?]] on the city & perhaps again cut off our communication with the North. [[Germantown?]] W. 28th Had a pleasant journey from Washington found troops stationed at intervals all along the [[end page]]
[[start page]] road & the bridges well guarded. At every station officers passed through the cars to see whether they contained any run away soldiers. Mrs. Gen. McCooke & her little daughter were with us. The winning sweetness & merry laugh of the latter greatly relieved the bothersomeness of our journey. We met Sam Stockton in the cars he said his uncle Col. Hunter was to start for Missouri the next day. Mrs [[Gwen?]] Mrs Greenhow & Mrs [[blank]] have been arrested as spys. Sat 31st The body of Gen Lyon passed through the city to day. M Sep. 16th The important events of the month have been the capture of the forts at Cape Hatteras a severe blow to the Southern confederacy as it must divide their armies. The proclamation of Fremont [[the?]] [[moderation?]] [[thereof?]] of the President & another battle in Missouri in which the Southerners are said to have sustained a great loss. There is no truth in the report of the death of Jefferson Davis. We were very much startled last evening by a report that all the regiments of the city has been ordered immediately to W. as the southerners had possession of Arlington Height & were shelling the city. The excitement was very great both in Phil & [[Ger?]]. Our capitol is still safe however. Father started to go there this morning. It was not prudent to venture back so soon after his illness. [[end page]] [[start page]] but he felt uneasy about the affairs of the Institution. Public affairs weigh very heavily upon his mind. He thinks Gen Fremonts proclamation will [[strikethrough]] have [[\strikethrough]] only serve to unite the South more strongly. He thinks too that if the war continues long the country must be flooded with treasury notes & another of those terrible financial crises ensue which have more [[than?]] once reduced our country to the verge of ruin. W.18th Went yesterday to see a parade in Philadelphia in honour of the day Mr. Holt & Mr. Dallas were both to preach but the former did not make his appearance. Fri 20th Have heard from Father. Mrs. [[Harris?]] was his companion de voyage. She has since been arrested. Her husband [[was?]] sent to negotiate for the body of Gen Cameron & was detained by the South it is suspected that he was not true to the Government. Their youngest daughter is still in Germantown. The event of the week has been the arrest of the Maryland legislature. Papers were discovered proving beyond a doubt that the Marylanders were to have acted in concert with the forces around W. an attack was to have been made upon the Capitol last Sunday so that the excitement in the city was not entirely groundless. Gen. McC. has won the enthusiastic affection of his officers & men they have given him the appellation of [[underlined]] George. His speeches ^to them are very concise here is one of them "we have suffered our last defeat, we have made our last retreat you stand by me & Ill stand by you." Mesdames Rodgers, Mc Combe, & Meigs are in Germantown Cap Meigs has returned from the West. He is said to have gone to Missouri to [[settle?]] the difficulties [[end page]]
[[start page]] between Fremont & the Floyds. Another naval expedition [[has?]] said to have left [[N.Y.?]] it's destination unknown. The times of this morning gives an account of a skirmish at Mariatown the confederates were routed but the Federal officer Col. Johnson was pierced by nine bullets ^& instantly killed while riding at the head of his column. Sep 25th Came to Princeton yesterday at Trenton met a long train of cars filled with soldiers en route for Washington. The air rang with their shouts as they passed us. Another battle in Missouri. Col. Mulligan has been obliged to surrender Lexington He fought bravely but was without water & overpowered by superior numbers. Col. Fremont is becoming very unpopular he is charged with mismanagement & extravagance in expenditure. It is said that he has placed Col. F P Blair under arrest for attempting his removal by correspondence with the Government officials at Wash. Kentucky has been invaded by the Confederate forces at several points. The legislature & the people have declared most emphatically for the Union & have given the command of the state forces to Major Anderson. The report that the American Minister at Brussels has offered a command in the Union army to Garibaldi is confirmed but whether the offer will be accepted is not known. The Prince is now in Boston. Gen. [[MJ?]] Thompson chief of the confederates forces in Missouri as issued proclamation [[end page]] [[start page]] declaring that for every southern soldier put to death in accordance with the proclamation of Gen Fremont, he will hang, draw, & quarter a minion of Abraham Lincoln. Sep 27th Yesterday the national fast was observed with great solemnity. Oct 3rd The Great Eastern has been much injured by a violent storm. She was very nearly wrecked. Oct 7th News have been received [[strikethrough]] from the [[\strikethrough]] of the disloyalty of the Cherokee Indians they have held a council & appointed Commissioners to make a treaty of alliance with the Southern Government. Oct 11th The paper to day announces the return of Dr Hays the Artic Explorer. Oct 14th Gen Anderson & been relieved of his command in Kentucky is commanded to report himself at W. as soon as his health will permit. Zollicoffer is said to be at Cumberland Ford with a large force. Advances from Missouri state Gen Price is moving Southward. A grand naval expedition is preparing destiny unknown. Oct 19 Another slight skirmish at Harper's Ferry. Gen Price has crossed the Osage river. '' 22nd a battle of some importance took place yesterday at Leesburg Col. Baker the Senator from Cal. was killed Nov. 9 news from fleet two vessels driven ashore by gale ^[[NY?]] rest of fleet badly shelled by batteries of Port Royal [[end page]]
[[start page]] another battle in Missouri rebels defeated. Nov 11 Rumors from the fleet Beaufort said to be taken nothing certainly known. A victory of the rebels in western Virginia. " 12 Reports concerning the fleet confirmed Gen Fremont removed. Nov 14 The paper today contains the official dispatch of Com Dupont. Port Royal & Beaufort both taken. I have been in New York for several weeks the feeling against the South is exceedingly bitter here & I am afraid will only be satisfied with the immediate emancipation of the negros. Dec 28th Reached home Last Saturday. Find the city in a frightful condition The streets dirty & torn up by the heavy army wagons. Almost every other house on Penn. Avenue displays a sutler's sign or garabaldi neck ties & McClellan's books adorn the dry good stores. The great subject of interest now not only before the American public but before the world is the arrest of Mason & Slidel by Capt. Wilks. They were seized on board of the English vessel The Trent & will be certainly demanded by England. Should we not surrender them our war of 1812 is for nought. England in demanding [[strikethrough]] Jan 1[[\strikethrough]] the prisoners yields the question of the right of search. [[end page]] Jan. 1st 1862 The sun has risen brightly on the new year I wish we could think it a good omen but the sky was as free from clouds the day twelve months ago & sad have been the calamities that have visited the Nation since then. 10 p.m. We have had a pleasant day but greatly missed the old familiar faces now separated from not so much by distance & by the insurmountable barrier raised by the cries of War. Feb. 6th I have commenced the year badly. I have allowed more than a month to go by without writing in my journal. The question concerning Mason & Slidel has been decided. They have reached England & we have remained true to the principal which cost so much bloodshed in 1812. It is feared however that England is not as well disposed toward us as she wishes to appear. Much as she has condemned slavery her interests are too deeply concerned in the bondage of the negro to allow her to dwell with complacency upon the prospect of their emancipation. No white man can labor under the scorching sun of the South & the [[underscored]] free negro is perfectly worthless. ---- Sec. Cameron has been removed & given a foreign embasy. Rumours are afloat of other changes to be made in the Cabinet. Financial affairs look dark the Treasury notes issued in such abundance are already at [[end page]]
[[start page]] a discount of 5 percent. In Congress much excitement has been created by the trial of Sen. Bright. He wrote to Jef. Davis some time ago recommending a certain person who had a peculiar sort of firearm to sell. He was dismissed from his seat yesterday the two thirds vote decided by two. I was in the Senate on Tuesday & heard Mr Sumner & Willis of Virginia both discuss the subject. Bright seemed unabashed & confident that he should be able to retain his seat. There have been a series of abolition lectures in the Smithsonian building but unconnected with the Institution They have troubled Father greatly for by a law of the [[constitution?]] all political topics, sectarian religious views or subjects connected with bills before congress are prohibited in the Smithsonian lectures. A [[committee?]] of 100 of the most respectable gentleman in the city came to Father early in the season & requested the use of the room for a series of lectures for a [[underlined]] charitable purpose & showed him a list of persons whom they expected to invite among others Prof. Felton of Harvard. The list was afterward changed however & others substituted in their place. [[strikethrough]] He intended [[strikethrough]] Father was troubled by the [[underlined]] direct violation of the [[underlined]] rules of the Institution & wished to put a stop to the lectures but was advised [[end page]] [[start page]] by his friends to allow them to proceed as the [[strikethrough]] y [[strikethrough]] course was nearly completed & then exclude all lectures [[strikethrough]] expect [[\strikethrough]] for the future except those immediately imployed by the Institution. We have been daily expecting a forward movement of the troops but the state of the roads prevents. Another naval expedition under command of Gen Burnside has sailed for Cape Hatteras & a third for the Gulf. The latter [[who?]] deeply interested in Capt Farragut is an old friend of ours & Lieuts. Heisler & Harris the one on the Hartford the other on the Pensacola left our circle of friends two or three weeks ago. We [[strikethrough]] have [[strikethrough]] heard twice from Mr. Harris while his ship was at Fortress Monroe awaiting the other vessels of the fleet. She was fitted up in the Washington navy yard & great fears were entertained that she would be destroyed by the batteries on the Patomac. She passed them however uninjured with the exception of a splinter [[knawed?]] from her prow, by one of the rebel guns. The dense fog favored her escape. Col. Alexander is with us. He has been sick for more than two weeks & is greatly reduced in strength. He was in the battle of Mannassas & one of the bravest officers there. There was a brilliant party at the President Mansion last evening. The heads [[end page]]
[[start page]] of the diplomatic corps, the judges of the Supreme Court some of the Senate & other distinguished guests were there. It was a very brilliant affair. The most important military news of the month is the death of Zollicoffer He was strongly entrenched in the [[blank]] part of Kentucky but left his mountain fortress to attack our troops & was killed & his army routed. Feb. 7th News of the capture of Fort Henry by the Federal troops. only one man killed, a rebel general one colonel, two captains & sixty privates taken prisoner Sat. Feb 15th The young men of the building have all gone into the city to hear the particulars of the great ^victory of the Burnside Expedition The papers are full of excitement this evening The Burnside Expedition left Cape Hatteras on the 5th. & headed by Com. Goldsborough proceeded up Croton Sound lying between Roanoke Island & the main land. The confederates were driven from their batteries in the centre to the upper part of the island & their forced to surrender. over two two thousand prisoners were said to have been taken. The whole Island is now in the possession of the Federal army also the [[strikethrough]] cities of [[\strikethrough]]Elizabeth City & Edenton. The former was set fire to by the Southerners & partly consumed. Edenton is a small ^but flourishing port [[end page]] [[start page]] town & [[strikethrough]] is the key to the road around the Dismal swamp. [[strikethrough]] The Generals most conspicuous in the contest besides Goldsborough & Burnside were Foster, Parke, & Reno. The news from Missouri & Tennessee is of equal interest. Gen Price has been driven from Springfield & virtually from the state. Fort Donelson on the Cumberland river is surrounded by Generals Grant, Smith, & McClernand with 40 000 men. The confederates have about eleven thousand & Generals Johnson Pillow Floyd & Buckner are said to be in the fort: also Beauregard & John Bell. The news from Great Britain announce the arrival of Mason & Slidell at Southampton. No demonstration was made on their arrival The former went to London & the latter to Paris. The French papers conclude from the attitude of the English press that the Trent affair was only a pretext for war & that Eng. wants to force the blockade of the Southern ports. The speech of the French Emperor at the opening of the legislature is characteristically cautious it is impossible to discover from it what are is intentions in regard to America. A bill has passed both Houses of Congress making the Treasury notes a legal tender. Feb 17th Success seems to crown the Federal armies in every quarter just now. Gen Lander has routed [[end page]]
[[start page]] a confederate camp at Blooming gap in Maryland & thus opened the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to Bowling Green (Missouri) is in [[possession?]] of Gen Mitchel & Gen Buel is in pursuit of the enemy. Gen Curtis has overtaken the retreating army of Gen Price, & taken a number of prisoners. Fort Donelson is still in the hands of the Southerners but two of the outer batteries have been taken. Fort Henry & been called Fort [[Pierce?]] in compliment to the Gen. for his gallant conduct in the capture of Fort Henry. Nashville it is supposed will be the next point of attack. The guns have been fired all day in honor of US victories. The greatest excitement [[strikethrough]] has [[strikethrough]] every where prevailed ^for news has [vertical text] been received of the of the surrender of Fort Donelson [end vertical text] the streets have [[reacted?]] with the rejoicing cries of the populace. Gen McClellan himself carried the official ^dispatch of Gen. Cullum [[commandant?]] at Cairo to the war Department. The Sec. read it aloud & three times there rose cheering from the crowd collected in the hall it was ^his reception day. In the Senate & House the enthusiasm was unbounded. cheers resounding from gallery to gallery as well as from the floors. In the house all attempts to preserve order were in vain the members left their seats & surrounded Mr Colfax who was the bearer of the dispatch The [[?]] Mr. [[Conkling?]] was the object of [[p?]] attention & received the [[warm?]] congratulations of Mr. [[House?]] that Kentucky was at last free [[end page]] [[start page]] from confederate control. Feb 18th The papers are filled with accounts of the reception of the news of victory in the different northern cities General rejoicing is the order of the day. The Burnside expedition has taken two more towns. Our loss in the [[destruction?]] of Fort Donelson is great many fine officers have fallen. Generals Pillow, Buckner & Johnston have been made prisoners the latter should have been mentioned first. He is said to be one of best generals in the confederate army. Gen Grant ^(Fed) has been promoted for his gallant conduct. Com. Foote ^(Fed) is said to be advancing with his fleet on [[Cole?]] on the Cumberland river about fifty miles from Nashville. Feb. 20th. Great preparations are making for the illumination of the city on the 22nd. Washington's birth-day. Jefferson Davis [[strikethrough]] on [[strikethrough]] is be inaugurated on the same day as President of the Confederate States for six years. This morning we attended a wedding of the daughter of Mr. King the former Post Master Gen. Father came in from the building about seven with a gentle look upon his face to ask whether we had not something to send to Mrs. Reese's little girl. He was obliged to detain her Father so that she could not attend the wedding as she had been promised. Overwhelmed as he was just then with business few would have been [mindful?] of the disappointment of a baby. Feb. 21st. Our reception day. Went in the evening to Willards to call upon [[strikethrough]] [the?] [[strikethrough]] Mrs. Erastus Corning, Mrs. Horton & [[end text]]
[[start page]] Mrs Foster & others. Mr. E. [[Corning?]] is a noble specimen of man, the mild radius of his ^dark full eye denotes a nature as gentle as strong. Saw Dr. Hays for a few moments he delivered his closing lecture at the Institution last evening. The President's family is in deep affliction. Willie Lincoln is dead He was an intelligent child of eleven years of age & a great favorite of the visitors at the White House. It is reported to night that Nashville has surrendered. Clarksville has been taken. The rolling Mills owned by John Bell near Fort Donelson have been destroyed. It is further reported that the southern troops are returning from Manassas. 22nd We have been at the Capitol all day & are completely tired out. We left home at 10 o'clock as we feared we should not otherwise be able to obtain good seats. We were very fortunate in that respect. The House of Rep. had been provided with a number of additional seats for the invited guests. At 12 o'clock just as all the bells of the city rang out a merry peal the members assembled on one side of the Hall & after some discussion as to propriety of presenting the Flags taken at the recent battles which was to have formed part of the order of the day & which was strenuously opposed by the ven. Mr Crittenden on the ground that in accepting these trophies the Government would acknowledge [[end page]] [[start page]] the South as a separate Foreign power. This interesting part of the programme was voted down much to the disappointment of the occupants of the Galleries. At one o'clock the [[strikethrough]] [door?] [[\strikethrough]]]august body arose to receive their distinguished guests. First appeared the Vice President conducted by the Sec of the Senate & followed by the chaplain senators cabinet, count de Paris, Duke de Chartres, Judges of the Supreme Court Foreign Ministers, Officers of the Army & Navy headed by Gen McClellan & invited guests. After a prayer by the chaplain the Farewell Address was read. During the reading we had ample time to enjoy the scene before us. The assemblage of distinguished men [[listened?]] with reverence to the words of our gentle Father. The Gen & [[deputy?]] old Commodores with their white locks ^[[brilliant?]] [[epaulets?]] & [[shoulder?]] [[vertical text]] [[stripes?]]. [[end vertical text]] Among whom we recognised Gen Totten. Com. Shubrick Com. Wilkes Gen. Casey & others. The ladies galleries filled to over flowing & particularly brilliant from the bright scarlet so much worn at present. Near us sat Mrs. McClellan her face bright with pleasure at the applause which greeted the entrance of the Gen. Mrs. Wilkes fair & gentle Mrs. Corning dignified & courtly. Mrs Crittenden handsome & stately Mrs Harris & the wifes & daughters of many other distinguished senators graced our [[corner?]] of the gallery. The Secession Flags were displayed in the old House of Rep. but the crowd was so great we could not get near enough to see them. As is [[end page]]
[[start page]] left the steps of the Capitol we were introduced to Mr Willis the [[collector?]] I was surprised to see a tall red haired individual in place of the slender dark eyed man I had imagined him. Savannah is said to have surrendered but the news is not yet confirmed. Gen Curtis has driven the Cecessionists entirely out of Missouri & has taken Bentonville in Arkansas. I see by the Intelligencer that Dr Bachs & Prof [[Price?]] have been elected associate members of the University of Kiev in Russia. The same from which Father received a diploma a few days ago with a very complimentary letter from Baron Stoeckl ambassador from Russia. 28th Our reception day, among other guests we had a visit from Mrs. McClellan. She is very agreeable sprightly in conversation & very good looking the cardes de visite of her do not do her justice. Miss Chase was also here. She is tall & slender & her soft brown hair waves away from a face expressive of strong character & intelligence I think she is very attractive though free from diffidence she is modest & does the honours of her Father's house very gracefully. Miss Hamlin the daughter of the vice President is not as pleasing in her appearance but has a good sensible face. Every one who came brought long faces a large number of the troops have been ordered to Virginia [[end page]] [[start page]] & an engagement of the whole army is expected soon. Nashville was occupied on the 24th by Gen Buell with 10,000 troops. The excitement there the Sunday previous was intense. The news of the success of the Northerners reached the inhabitants just as they were going to church they immediately dispersed to their homes to prepare for speedy flight We have not been able to learn much about Mr. Bell's family a paragraph in the Newspaper informed us that Mr. Yeatman had been advised to claim the rolling mills which [[strikethrough]] by [[\strikethrough]] were destroyed when Fort Donelson was taken One of the managers of the mills was captured reported the illness of John Bell as well as the intemperate habits of Breckenridge. [[March?]] [[4th?]] General Smith lectured. He seems to be a true earnest man although fanatical. Immediate emancipation was of course his theme. " 4th A Matinee at Sec. Chases. Miss Chase received her guest with graceful dignity. Gen McClellan was there for a few moments. Mr. [[Day?]] was very agreeable. Gottschalk concert in the evening. 7th Reception day. a number of people here among others Miss Goldsborough. She has reason just now to be proud of her Father. 8th Went to inquire about Mrs Casey she is not expected to live through the day Gen Casey may [[end page]]
[[start page]] be ordered off any moment. We met a number of ambulances conveying the sick from the other side of the river. Every thing seems to indicate a speedy movement of the troops. Sunday 9th Saw Com. Subrick on my way to church in the afternoon. he was excited by the news that the iron clad steamer Merrimac which has been fitting up in Norfolk harbor had sunk one of the vessels of the blockading squadron destroyed a second while a third was aground. Monday 10th The time [[strikethough]] looked [[strikethrough]] anticipated by some with eager beating hearts by others with sad forebodings has come at last. The grand movement of the troop took place to day. We did not see them go but Dr Cox told us this evening that the procession was three hours in passing the hotel where he was staying. He said there was no shouting. The faces of the men were determined as though they meant to do their duty but grave with the thought of the severe struggle before them. The Southerners are said to have evacuated Manasses for fear of being attacked in the rear. Poor Gen. Casey I am glad to learn has not been obliged to leave his wife. Capt. Davis is in Baltimore on his way to Wash. as [[became?]] of dispatches from Capt Dupent he telegraphs that St Simons & Brunswick Ga. & Fort Clinch & St Mary's Florida are taken by the fleet. [[end page]] [[start page]] Leesburg has been evacuated by the Southerners. Tuesday 11th. Manassas has been evacuated. The immense Southern Army is gone. Where, no one knows. Our troops last night were at Centreville. Gen. McClellan at Fairfax Court House. News has been received from Roanoke Island that Gen. Burnside is preparing for another expedition to the main land. It is thought by some that the Southern army has gone to meet him. The cities of Fernandina on the Georgia coast & St Marys Florida, have been taken by the expedition under Capt DuPont. or rather have been evacuated by the Southerners. The town of Fernandina was particularly well defended & the possession of its batteries commanding all the windings of the ship channel rendered the approach of an enemy vessels almost impossible had the courage of the Southerners equaled their advantage of position. They fled precipitately without attempting any resistance. Com. Buchanan is said to have been the commander of the Merrimac in her attack upon the Government vessels. Wed. 12th. It is rumoured to day that the Burnside expedition has been surrounded by the army lately at Manassas & entirely destroyed but there does not seem to be much foundation for the statement. The President & organizers the Army of the Patomac into 4 corps. 1st corps of 4 divisions. Gen. McDowell commander. 2nd of 3 div. Brig. Gen. Sumner [[end page]]
[[start page]] 3rd of 3 div. Brig. Gen. Heintzelman 4th of 3 div. Brig. Gen. Keys. A 5th army corp to be commandey by Gen. Banks will be formed of his own & Gen. Shields late Gen. Lander's division. As Gen McClellan has to [[be?]] the field in person he is relieved from the command of all military departments except the army of the Patomac. Gen. Halleck is to have command west [[strikethrough]] of a line [[strikethrough]] Knoxville Ten. & while there the county lying east of [[Halleck?]] department & west of the Patomac department ^to be called the mountain dept. is given to Gen Fremont who has been restored to favor. The latest report of Gen. Bank's division on the upper Patomac is that the Southerners have evacuated Winchester. T 13th Last night we attended some private theatricals at Lord Lyons. Carlotta Gerolt Madam [[L?]] Mrs [[Vilette?]] daughter of the ^[[Smith?]] Sec. of [[blank]] & Miss Long were the principal [[strikethrough]]lady [[strikethrough]] actresses the actors were mostly members of the the English legation. Lord Lyons had fitted up the ballroom of his house as a theater & spared nothing that might add to the pleasure of his guests. Mr [[Russel?]] took part in the Fernades Furioso. & did remarkabley well he made a most capital Fernades. Lord Lyons seemed to enjoy the plays heartily Mr [[?]] [artist?] of the London news was stage manager. We have just had a visit from a [[strikethrough]] gentleman [[\strikethrough]]^Dr [[Newbury?]] who was at Fort Donelson immediately after [[end page]] [[start page]] the battle. The wounded he said had been removed from the scene of action but the dead were still there. It was terrible to see the [[deceased?]] [[limbs?]] & gastly bodies of the brave men who had perished in their countrys cause. Dr [[Newbury?]] was on board the steamer with many of those who had been wounded. One a mere boy died with his mothers name upon his lips & one poor fellow who had received a ball in his brain repeated incessantly charge on, charge on, his [[p?]] [[i?]] at the moment he was wounded. No special news from the army Gen. McC. is expected in the city this evening. Capt Buchanan who was in command of the Merrimac will probably have to lose a limb he was severely wounded in the knee. Excursions to Mannassas is just now the order of the day. Monday 17th The river has been filled with boats loading at Alexandria with soldiers their destination is unknown. Tuesday 20th Went to day to Alexandria to see the embarcation of the troops. We were first obliged to go to the Provost [[Marshall?]] & sign a pass solemnly swearing thereby that we were true & loyal citizens of the United States & would in no way render aid or comfort to the enemy. The office of the [[Marshall?]] is in the house formerly occupied by the [[G?]] [[strikethrough]] is [[\strikethrough]] as we passed through the elegantly [[end page]]
[[start page]] finished rooms once thronged with the gay & fashionable now filled with soldiers & rough men we could not but give a sigh for our former hostess & her vanished splendor. The day was rather too cool for enjoyment on the water but as we approached Alexandria boat after boat passed us laden with soldiers. & the air rang with their enthusiastic shouts as we greeted them. They seemed to be in excellent spirits. Alexandria seemed like a great military camp. Soldiers in the street, soldiers in the houses blue coats everywhere & heavy army wagons rumbling along unceasingly. One officer told us 20,000 men had arrived on Saturday. no provision had been made for their accommodation but several churches were thrown open for them to lodge in. We concluded to visit Fort Elsworth & on our way there passed the old church Washington regularly attended. Those grey old walls saw the beginning of our republic were they to witness its downfall. Fort Elsworth is beautifully situated commanding a most beautiful view of the surrounding country. We saw it in the Spring before its completion. The [[works?]] are very finely finished & the accommodation for the officers & men excellent although the [[condition/situation?]] of some of the tents was far from [[inviting?]] in appearance as little attention seemed to have been paid to neatness. Several of the guns are [[rifled?]] They were quiet & harmless enough looking [[end page]] [[start page]] [[then?]] but it made one shudder to think of the death & destruction [[those iron monsters are?]] capable. Two pretty little brass guns interested us particularly they had seen service in four or five of the Mexican battles. They seemed to be pets as they were polished with great care. The Fort is upon a hill & as we descended toward Alexandria our eyes were charmed by the appearance of a cavalry camp below us Nothing could have been more picturesque. The tents, the drill, the piles of [[redlious?]] blankets here & there, [[strikethrough]] & [[\strikethrough]] the sunlight dawning brightly over all the slopes of the [[hill?]] with its groups of soldiers formed a beautiful tableau. Not the least interesting part of the scene was the [[?]] of a large tree not far from us. We watched its stately head sway from side to side The [[yul?]] [[strikethough]] with dignity [[\strikethrough]] to its fate with [[strikethrough]] [[the?]] [[\strikethrough]] dignity. ^Like [[strikethrough]] as of [[\strikethrough]] a great human soul in misfortune it fell but noble in its falling, Lord of the forest still though low in the dust. Sat. April 19th Since I last wrote success has every where [[crowned]] the [[mens?]] [[arms?]] In Tennessee [[Island?]] no. 10 commanding the Mississippi or [[strikethrough]] [[rather?]] [[\strikethrough]] at least one of the most important forts on that [[river?]] held by the Southerners has yielded after a prolonged seige [[strikethrough]] [[ended?]] [[\strikethrough]]the combined forces of [[end page]]
[[start page]] Com. Foote & Gen Pope. Pittsburg Landing has been the scene of one of the greatest battles yet fought. Gen Prentiss army was surprised by the southern & driven from its[[positioning?]] but the timely arrival of Gen Buell with reinforcement saved the credit of the North & our army has regained its position The loss on both sides is heavy. Gen Johnson one of the principal confederate generals has been killed & Beauregard lost a arm. In Virginia Gen Shields has been wounded in an engagement at Winchester. The Northern forces encamped a little out of the town & the inhabitants who had professed loyalty as long as the [[union?]] soldiers were about ^though they had evacuated the [[farms?]] notified the confederates who attacked them The engagement was severe but the Southerns were obliged to beat a hasty retreat. The army under Gen McClellan is now opposite Yorktown the scene of one of our revolutionary battles. News from there is awaited with great interest as the Southerners are strongly fortified & seem determined to make great resistance Jef. Davis himself is said to be there. From the valley of the Shenandoah we hear of new victories Mount Jackson is ours & several small towns Gen McDowell has advanced on Fredericksburg & from last accounts was only prevented from crossing the river by the destruction of the bridges The [[end page]] [[start page]] confederates have evacuated the town. An expedition was made up the Rappahanock a few days [[since?]] by two or three gun boats nothing was seen of the confederate forces & the inhabitants left in the towns eagerly welcomed the Northerners. From Com. DuPont we hear that Fort Pulaski has been taken The seige was conducted with consummate skill The Fort would have held out much longer as it was well garrisoned & [[provisioned?]] but a breach in the wall exposed her powder magazine which a few more shells might have ignited. Com DuPont expressed his thanks to Gen Hunter for allowing some of his men to take charge of some of the land batteries. In North Carolina Gen Burnside is besieging Fort Macon. England has been in a great state of [[excitement?]] since the affair of the Merrimac. The superiority of iron clad vessels seems now to be fully established. Great curiosity is felt just now to know the object of M. Mercier the French minister's visit to Richmond. It is supposed he went there to see the [[F?]] [[their?]] monopoly of tobacco. We had a visit from Mrs Gen [[Heintzelman?]] yesterday she is a pleasant little woman Her husband is at [[L?]] he was badly [[end page]]
[[start page]] wounded in the battle of Bull's run but has entirely recovered his health his arm is useless however. We have an addition of Mr [[Pallins?]] & family to our family. We have heard indirectly from Mrs. Bell she is in Nashville Mr. Bell is in Memphis He sorrows for the desolation brought upon his country but does not regret the step he has taken. Mon. 21st A.M. Father came home late Saturday evening & reported that the city was intensely excited regiments were moving about drums beating & the streets filled with people. Yesterday morning we learned that Gen McDowell [[strikethrough]] was [[\strikethrough]] had been outflanked & that the Southerners were moving upon Washington This report was contradicted in the evening however The panic was caused by a [[strategem?]] on the part of the Government to discover whether the troops, the rescue corps about Washington were ready for a sudden attack. They were not completely prepared so the lesson was not unnecessary. Thurs 24th Received a letter from Dr. Woodhul. He is with the army at Yorktown He says the rebels are so near that all military orders have to be given quietly as possibly no reveille sounded no drums beaten. More than one shell had burst within a few feet of his [[end page]] [[start page]] tent. The men were making most excellent [[works/roads?]] as well as strengthening their position. Friday 25(?) went to the Navy Yard went on board the Yankee she is a small vessel with two or three guns. A French vessel [[strikethrough]] lay [[\strikethrough]] had ^just arrived [[strikethrough]] that morning [[\strikethrough]] from Richmond with M. Mercier [[strikethrough]] it is [[\strikethrough]] the object of his journey thither is not known ^May 1st [[strikethrough]] [[May?]] [[1st]] [[\strikethrough]] Went last evening to a party given by Mr Seward to the French officers. I was introduced to four or five of them & found [[them?]] sprightly & agreeable. May 26th Sunday seems to be the day for panics yesterday the city was thrown into a great state of excitement by the news that Banks had been driven across the river [[strikethrough]] & [[\strikethrough]] Jackson was said to be in possession of Harper's Ferry & great fears were entertained that he would come upon Washington. Gen. McDowell's troops have been ordered back for the defense of the city. Wed. 28th The seventh Regiment of N.Y. is in Baltimore the excitement in the Northern [[cities?]] is immense. Gen McDowell is blamed in some quarters for Gen Banks retreat as he withdrew from him a number of his men. Gen McClellan is now within a few miles of Richmond the Southerners have evacuated their extensive defenses ^at [[L??]] & [[gradually?]] [[orchestrated?]] giving fight [[strikethrough]] at Williamsburg [[\strikethrough]] [[?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] considerable [[clashes?]] at Williamsburg. A fleet of gun boats proceeding up James river towards Richmond [[strikethrough]] were [[\strikethrough]] met with a reverse & Com. Rodgers was slightly wounded. A terrible battle is expected before long. We had a visit from Prof Barnard last week. He has been in Norfolk all winter. He said the college with which he was connected in Oxford Miss. was entirely broken up & the buildings occupied by soldiers. Of several hundred of the young men who had been under his charge ten per cent & been killed at the battle of Manassas. [[coffee stains]] [[He said?]][[the army?]] at Richmond was greater than ours. That the Southerners were full of courage & hope in their cause & were ready to fight desperately. We have received a letter from Mr. Harris giving us an account of the passage of the Gulf fleet up the Mississ & the taking of New Orleans. He says it is impossible to imagine the horrors of the scence The air was filled with shot & sheel & the shrieks of the dying [[are?]] [[above?]] the [[noise/row?]] of artillery Mr. Harris was on board the Pensacola one of the first vessels to advance The fleet had to pass the guns of this large & [[perpetually?]] defended forts while they at the same time encountered the [[floating?]] batteries of the [[enemy?]]. Just as they [[were?]] congratulating themselves upon [[their/hours?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[?]] most of the difficulties in their way the southerners set fire to the shipps about N.O. & a number of vessels came drifting down the stream their masts [[marts?]] [[heads?]] & [[?]] one sheet of flame. In spite of all the danger encountered the loss on the Federal side was very small & the meeting of friends after the battle was over was touching in the extreme. Cap. Farragut has [[proved?]] himself a gallant commander & his [[leter?]] to the Government is characterized by the modesty which [[also?]] accompanies his merit. As the fleet approached N.O. the warfs were crowded with the inhabitants [[gazing?]] with wonder upon the intrepid little vessels what had so humbly met the [[horrors?]] [[prepare?]] for their reception. A few handkerchiefs were waved in welcome but the owners thereof were immediately shot down by the mob. From the West we learn that a severe battle is expected at Corinth. Beauregard is determined not to yield the place without hard fighting. We have heard from Mrs Bell She is in Nashville. She says "do not believe any of the reports you hear about my husband It is said Mr. Bell is to be sent on here as one of two peace commissioners who are to negotiate terms with the Government. [[end page]]
[[start page]] Friday 30th A call from Gen. Casey's daughters They have heard from their Father. He was in good spirits when he wrote but feared a severe encounter at Richmond. The young ladies leave early on Monday for the North. Mon. June 2nd Yesterday was clouded with the news of the terrible battle at Richmond. The Southerners attacked Gen. Casey's division which gave way & for a time victory seemed to be in the hands of the South. But the Confederates were finally driven back into Richmond. The slaughter on both sides is said to be terrible. Gen. Casey is reported to be severely wounded but [[Gov.?]] is very [[reticent?]] & it is impossible to know any thing certainly of the fate of our friends. I feel very sorry for Gen. Casey He is an old man & suffering so much from the death of his wife that [[that?]] any serious wound may prove fatal. He must be mortified to that his division was the only one that gave way He has been drilling troops all winter [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] sending them off as soon as they were ready for service & was finally ordered very suddenly with a body of [[new? raw?]] recruits. He is a good Gen. I hope justice will be done him. I took tea last night with Mrs. Hodges Mrs. Rodgers was rejoicing that her husband was not in the battle but said she had no doubt he had paced the deck of his vessel all day with [[compunction?]] that he could not [[have?]] a hand in the affray. [[end page]] [[start page]] Mrs. Marcy the Mother of Mrs. McClellan had [[strikethrough]] just [[strikethrough]] been there with a note from the President giving her the contents of the telegram from Gen McClel. It contains nothing more than I have mentioned. No further particulars have been received to day. The paper contains only the telegram of the Gen. The news from the west is that Corinth has been evacuated. Little Rock Arkansas is in possession of the Union troops. Tuesday June 3rd Gen Casey's daughters were here this morning They came to thank Father & Mother for their invitation to come to us with their Father Gen. Casey is unhurt but feels very badly about the behavior of his division. It is said. Will has just come in with the N.Y. papers. The battle took place at Seven pines about five miles from Richmond. Many of Gen Caseys officers were disabled by illness & his troops were all more or less affected by the [[malarious?]] atmosphere of the country being fresh from the North & consequently not acclimated as were the other regiments. Gen. Jackson is in retreat before the forces of Gen. Fremont. Sat. June 7th Had a visit from Mr. Holt. He talked more than usual but said very little about the country. He thought it terrible that the insignificant race of negros should be the means of such ruin to the [[end page]]
[[start page]] country. He is a good man I hope he will be our next president. Gen. Casey's daughters have left for the North. Mon. 8th Went to Mrs [[Peales?]] yesterday before church. saw a poor woman who had come to Washington to learn something about her husband. He has been taken prisoner in the last engagement at Winchester. Friday June 13th A visit from Mr Welling. He thought the anticipated battle at Richmond would be probably the last great encounter we should have. A guerrilla warfare might be maintained for ten years or more. In the course of conversation Father asked Mr. Welling if he knew Mr. [[Gibbs?]] the author of a hoax which had recently appeared in the papers in account of a man who had _______ & drinking the contents was [[??]] petrified also of an animal formed for [[??]] on the side of a hill with one set of legs shorter than the other. Mr. W said he did not like such jokes that ridiculed the doctrine of final causes, a good doctrine & worthy of respect. Father of course believed in the doctrine but thought it might be carried to far he did not believe in being called to admire as beautiful designs of a Divine Providence what after all were only petty imagining of men Mr W said [[l?]] in his [[Position?]] Philosophy argued that there was no design in nature that things are as [[end page]] [[start page]] they are, from a simple necessity of their being. because an eye sees there was no necessity for supposing it was made for the purpose of seeing. Father said that since, should he construct an instrument for seeing according to the known rules of optics, he should form one similar in all essential respects to the human eye, he could not but conclude that said eye was originally designed for the purpose of sight. He said he was certain of the existence of our soul at least in the universe __ one mind his own & from this one fixed indisputable fact be reasoned from analogy there were other minds like his own & then to the great controlling [[intellect ?]] of the Diety. _______||Mr. W. spoke of the [[?]] of the Hon. Mr. [[Mccan?]] of Kentucky the ablest man now in the senate. He had been a boatman until twenty one years of age. Dr. Hays has just come under the window to tell us all the churches in the city are to be taken as hospitals. Sat. June 14th A visit from Mrs. Calvert & Hon. Mr. Mallory of Kentucky. Mrs. Calvert had heard from her daughter she was at Richmond she [[married?]] a daughter of Judge Campbell [[we?]] [[saw?]] her last spring just after the difficulties with the south [[commenced?]] she was very disconsolate then at being separated from her betrothed. The [[end page]]
[[start page]] papers contain the official report of Capt. Davis our Cambridge friend. He gives a description of the naval conflict opposite Memphis. The [[rams/names?]] [[butting/battery?]] [[strikeout]] he [[strikeout]] each other seems to strike Father as very comical. Cary had a letter from Mr. Harris yesterday. He was N.O. with a sprained ankle. He said he did not know the future destination of the fleet. The Pensacola would be left at N.O. as she was too much [[strikeout]] disabled [[strikeout]] injured for use. The report about the churchs has been confirmed. We are to have service tomorrow however. Such extensive preparations for the wounded excites some fear either that had bad news has been received or that the conflict at Richmond is expected immediately. Some say Gen. McClellan is fighting them to day. All Gen Fremont's wounded 180 men to be brought on here. Had a visit from Mr. Frank a member of Congress this evening He contradicts the report that the churches chosen for hospitals were selected on account of the disloyal sentiments of the parish & congregation. Mon. 16th Our church has been spared. The President told Dr. Gurley yesterday it should be left undisturbed as long as possible I went in the afternoon to Dr. Halls to see the flowers. Service was over when I reached there. [[strikeout]] The [[church?]] was seen [[strikeout]] most of the [[end page]] [[start page]] congregation had collected around the church & many persons were weeping bitterly at the loss of their church. I could not give them much sympathy as I thought their tears might better be shed for the poor fellows who were soon to be there. Our servants were stopped on their way home from church by a train of cars with the wounded from Virginia. Margaret said it was sad indeed to see the poor fellows many of them with their arms & legs shot away. They were taken to the nearest churchs & public rooms as no arrangement had been made for their reception [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] many private houses were ^also thrown open to them while kind hearts & hands ministered to their comfort. The crowd around one of the churchs was so great that two, died from want of air. They were Father & son. Sat. 21st. Baron Osten Sacken came to bid us "good bye" He has been appointed consul in N.Y. The little man told us to sell his horse for him if we could we thought this rather a singular commission to entrust to young ladies. We have been busy this week dressing dolls for a private fair for the benefit of the wounded soldiers. Wed. 25th. Went to the fair. It was very pleasant [[end page]]
[[start page]] The Misses Kennedy had draped their dining room with flags where three tables one covered with flowers, one with Ices &c [[strikeout]] other refr[[one?]] for [[strikeout]] & a third with fancy articles attracted purchasers. In the garden back of the houses two tents had been spread & colored lights suspended from the trees. All in attendance were invited guests. Many of the Foreign Ministers were present. I had a very pleasant little talk with ^ Madam [[Girol?]] & the Brazilian minister [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] they gave me their versions of the old story of the three wishes both of which differ a little from ours. Madame said she had long ago given up wishing she was content now to let things take their course. Her kind merry face when she said this certainly looked as if the little Demon of Discontent had never obtained much power over her. Gen. Pope was called away before the end of the evening on army business. T. 26th Went to the Kennedy's again. Found only ten or twelve people there besides ourselves. Dr. [[Rankin?]] who has charge of the hospital once Epiphany Church told us he would be happy to show us his quarters any day. F. 27 Attended a party at Mr. Hodges given to the bride of his son. Talked most of the evening with Eliza [[Wilks?]] [[but?]] had a pleasant little chat [[end page]] [[start page]] with Com. [[Shubric?]] & Mr. Stevens. The party was very small. [[Jack?]] ^[[Gillis?]] asked me to go & visit some of his [[friends?]] with him. To go [[menly?]] from curiosity seems unfeeling. Learned from the Mr. Kennedy his daughters had made $300 by their Fair. This morning we had a visit from Mr. Tyler. He said if Gen. McClelen's army was routed Washington must fall into the hands of the Southerners. There was nothing to prevent Gen. Jackson's descent upon the city. Mr. T. is a warm sympathizer with the South so some allowance must be made for his statements. S. 28 Rumors of a great battle nothing certainly know. We have heard again from Mrs Bell she writes sadly she says "there are times when it is easier to die than to live." We have also heard from Dr. Woodhull. ^Gen. McClelen's army He was looking forward with sad forboding I thought to the future of the army near Richmond. He said the shells of the enemy were falling around him while he wrote & one not long before had killed a poor soldier whos Mother had left ^the camp only a few hours before, having traveled all the way from Boston to visit her son. Father heard to day that Sec. Stanton was to be replaced by Gen. Scott [[end page]]
[[start page]] Mon. 30th The wounded were coming into the city all day yesterday. I counted 20 ambulances pass the church. 1500 are said to have arrived. Had a visit from Mr. Welling He thinks the prospects of the country very dark, very dark. He says we may fight until both sides are exhausted, [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] then pause only to renew the conflict. Dr. Hays is now in a hospital at Georgetown he told us to night he had had a visit from Miss Dix. The news to night is that White House has been evacuated by our troops. We have lost all we gained in S.C. James Island is again in possession of the Southerners. Gen. Hunter wished to send his negro regiment there but the white officers refused to serve with their black [[underlined]] "brothers" one [[soldier?]] was sent home for refusing to attend their dusky majesties. It is rumored that two of the Foreign Ministers have interfered to put a stop to this war. England's aspect is still menacing Lord Palmerston's condemnation of the order of Gen Butler that all the women in N.O. [[discredit?]] to the soldiers should be treated as [[harlot?]] was very severe. W. It is difficult to understand the state of affairs near Richmond On Wednesday Friday & Saturday the fighting was severe with heavy loss on both sides. Gen. McClellan is ^now between [[end page]] [[start page]] the Chickahominy & Pamunkey rivers & has obtained possession of a point which is said to command Richmond. He made a very difficult flank movement on Friday to reduce the extent of his line which was 25 miles in length so that is army is in a better position now but his loss on Friday & Saturday was very heavy. He has not enough troops. Government has issued an order for an [[strikethrough]] d [[strikethrough]] addition of 300 000 to be raised from the different states. I should ^think the fate of the Richmond army must be decided before these are fit for service. Gen [[Shields?]] is to have charge of the new recruits I believe. Gen. Rodgers has gone down the James river as far as the chickahominy in order to keep open communications with the army in case of an attack on the right. We have had a French clergyman with us for two days. Taddy Lincoln the President's son was here yesterday to see Will about a buggy for his pony. He seems to be quite a bright child He took pains to inform the girl ^who [[answered?]] door who he was. He has learned his own importance it seems. Mother went with [[JG?]] on Monday to Columbia college now a hospital. One of the wounded a mere boy interested her very much He was only sixteen years of [[end page]]
[[start page]] age. [[Cary?]] has been collecting books to day to send to him. Thursday July 3rd Mr. Welling has just left us. He saw the Count de Paris to day. He ^the Count says that the army before Richmond is full of hope & courage but out numbered by the Southerners who have three times as many men. He arrived in Washington to day & Mr. Welling thinks has enough of the war for the present The papers announced yesterday he had taken a prisoner. Mr. W. asked Father's opinion of the President's plan for liberating the slaves Father approved of [[colonization?]] He thought the experiment ought to be tried. but to liberate the negro [[strikeout]] before they are ready for freedom [[strikeout]] ^[[underlined]] or ever in this country was certain death to the race. The state of Finances was discussed Mr. W. said the currency had deteriorated 10 per cent ^or to use the popular phrase was "10 per cent above par." Sec. Chase has declared the war must be carried on it cannot stop even if we have to pay $100 for a breakfast. Father says in the time of the Revolution paper money went down to 1000 for one. Mr. W. says Mr. Pearce is suffering very much from gout. Father has been giving us a speech of Lord B since Mr. W left It is rather prosy but closes with some favorite lines of Father's which he is now reading with [[end page]] [[start page]] great gusto [[large blank space]] July 4th. The Nation's Birth Day. 86 years old Loving America still compared with the grey [[heading?]] countrys of the Eastern world. Laugh low little children restrain your mirth on this her holiday she is young but the Fever heat of war is upon her. Do you hear her heart [[strikeout]] throbs. [[strikeout]] ^They are quick & heavy Will she die? God only knows. ----- 1048 wounded have come in to day. They were engaged in the battle of Friday We went to the steamboat landing ^this evening after most them had been brought off the boats saw two or three who had been slightly wounded one poor fellow was without an arm. We hoped to learn something of A.W. & other of our friends but could here nothing. We were amused by some contrabands who came off one of the vessels. Their importance & the ^air of conscious elegance with which one of them sported an old cap of her mistress was very comical. The expression of one of them touched me. She was pressing her ebony babe to her bosom with a mother's [[?]] [[fondness?]] & [[end page]]
[[start page]] a timid anxious look [[strikethrough]][[?]] [[strikethrough]] as if the comfort & security of her old Virginia house was illy paid for by her long coveted liberty. ---- We have passed the day very quietly All the bells in the city rang out a merry peal at noon & again at sundown. but with the exception of a few rockets there have been no fireworks. Father amused us at the breakfast table by telling us that for sixteen years ^he suffered from cold in a certain part of his [[northern?]] limbs in consequence of both drawers & shorts being ^rather short but one happy day the bright thought struck him that by lengthening the former the difficulty might be obviated. could a philosopher with his thoughts in [[Heaven?]] attend to any thing so [[sub__?]] as the calves of his legs. Father says I must insert this in his memoir if I can write it I jot it down in my journal instead Mother says I shall not, as is a reflection upon her. Mother is writing to Mrs. Bell to night She has spent many a pleasant Fourth with us we have missed her to day. Father says Mother should not monopolize the paper & [[pens?]] & has ^[[strikethrough]] [[??]] [[strikethrough]] scribbled a letter to his ^"old wife" which she will not let me read. He has seized it & torn it up much to Mother's vexation. He looks more like a mischievous school boy just now [[end page]] [[start page]] than a philosopher. There is very little news from the war quarter to night. Gen. McClellan is now on the James River about 15 or 20 miles from Richmond His force is by no means sufficient. The Count de Paris Duke de Chartres & the Prince de Joinville have arrived with dispatches. They have endeared themselves to their comrades by their affability. Capt. Farragut has passed Vicksburg & is now in communication with Davis & Gen. Halleck so the whole river is open. The Intelligencer contains a letter from Gen Hunter saying he considered himself authorized in organizing his negro regiment by the orders given to his predecessor Gen. Sherman. that all [[underlined]] loyal persons were to be employed [[for?]] the[[strikethrough]] ir [[strikethrough]] Government as he should see fit. No mention being made of the color of the person. Mrs. Hunter does not approve of the proceedings of her husband. July 5th. A visit from Mr. & Mrs. Bates. Father & Casey have gone to escort them home. Mr. Egleston has been here to tell us about Dr. Hay's hospital He has charge of the one in Georgetown 100 came to him to day he has room for 100 more. Epiphany church is full. We are to go up to the observatory on Monday evening to make bandages. The flank movement of Gen McClellan in the face of the enemy is spoken of as a [[end page]]
[[start page]] great military achievement. His front extends over a line of thirty miles & he had besides to guarde the railroad to White House. His forces are now more compact although 25 miles from Richmond. He was prevented from taking a position on the James river before by the presence of the Merrimac. Thursday 10th Mrs. [[Valtre?]] daughter of Sec. Smith is to have a fair to night for the benefit of the hospitals. No additional news from the army Gen. McClellan's flank movement in the face of the enemy seems in some quarters to be considered a very brilliant achievement. Our loss is great. Sat. July 12th. We passed yesterday at Bladensburg we went to attend the commencement of the Agricultural college. We left home in the early morning train. Mrs. Calvert sent her carriage to meet us at the depot. The little shed used for that purpose hardly deserves the name however I remembered it well for several hours passed there with Father & Sec. Thompson two or three years ago had impressed it vividly upon my memory. It was when the college was first organized & Father & the Sec. had been called upon for addresses. We had expected a certain [[end page]] [[start page]] train to stop for us & convey us home but it [[voyaged?]] past us apparently unconscious of our existance so we were obliged to wait for one more accommodating. The Sec. was a rough specimen of humanity but apparently kind hearted. ------ The young collegians acquitted themselves well. Their speeches were followed by an address from the Rev. Mr. [[Pickering?]] & Mr. Underwood the President of the college A ball in the evening was pleasant but we enjoyed rambling over Mr. Calvert's beautiful place more than anything else. Mr. Mallory & Mr. Holt came out shortly after tea. We did not see Mr. Calvert in the morning he was obliged to attend a meeting of [[con?]] members of congress called unexpectedly by the President. We reached home at noon to day. Mr. Welling was our escort. Mon. 14th Went to visit the camps with Mr. [[Lee?]] of Princeton. Crossed over the Long Bridge --- a rail road has been laid over it for the benefit of the soldiery ---- visited several forts & returned by the aqueduct bridge. We also stopped at Arlington House. A number of the trees have been cut down but the property does not seem to be otherwise injured several companies of soldiers [[end page]]
[[start page]] some drilling in the lawn in front of the house. The country every where looks very desolate fences have been destroyed & no trace whatever is left of civilization. There seem to be very few men left for the defence of the city all who can be spared have been sent to reenforce Gen. McC. The Forts are in excellent condition. neatly furnished & kept in good order. A long low building attracted our attention which we were told was a hospital for horses. Thurs July 17th. Went to Epiphany church to hear Miss May sing She had been asked to do so for the pleasure of the sick soldiers. It is the first time we have been in the hospitals. We were very much pleased with the appearance of the men the room looked very pleasant with its rows of iron bedsteads covered with white quilts. The men are improving rapidly Miss May sang in the gallery. There had been a flag raising & a treat of ice cream also before dark for the amusement of the soldiers. Sat 19th. Went to the Baptist church hospital with Annie Kennedy. A little drummer boy interested me. He was only fifteen [[end page]] [[start page]] years old Sunday 20 Went to the hospital again in the Baptist Church to take a book to the drummer boy. The wounded there are rapidly recovering. Mon 21st. Two Cubans passed the evening with us. Some fears are entertained that [[strikeout]] the [[strikeout]]Southerners may cut of communication with the army. They are said to be collecting in considerable numbers on the James river below Gen McClellan [[strikeout]] & [[strikeout]]. [[Tuesday?]] 29th. A letter from Mr. Harris. He says Com. Farragut is in rather a bad position. Vicksburg will not yield, the canal cannot be dug which was to [[strikeout]] cut [[strikeout]] head off the river from her & the water of the Mississippi is now so low the fleet cannot return. ---- Went to see Hase's hospital in the hotel at Georgetown. The men seemed well attended. One poor man had been terribly wounded a ball having passed into his cheek out again through his shoulder & out of his back. he was doing well thanks to the good nursing of Dr. Hase I felt very sorry for one poor ^home sick fellow his sick mother had written a letter to the Doctor entreating him to use his influence to procure her son a furlough. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1862 Sat 26th. The guns at the Navy Yard paid their tribute to the memory of Martin Van Buren. the ex president was buried to day. Sat Aug 2nd. Read to Father from Russell's Journal in India, Father said the great desert [[strikeout]] was [[strikeout]] ^principally owing to the great extent of level plain with no deviation to condense the moisture the air might contain the ^atmosphere continually growing hotter as it approaches the tropics. Very little moisture the air must contain, I should think, for the most of that derived from the Pacific must be condensed by the mountains of Asia & that from the [[Mediterranean?]] by the Atlas Mountains & the ranges in Tripoli. Father spoke of Hail stones - Said he had discovered how the nucleus was formed. He filled a glass globe or bulb with water & placed it out in the cold air, as the water froze the bubbles of air retreated from the exterior which was of course first affected by the cold to the center of the globe & there finally formed the foamy white appearance of the nucleus of the hailstone. The rings sometimes observed in hail stone were a repetition of the same process. Monday Aug. 4th. A very remarkable Aurora. Father has enjoyed it greatly. The flashes of light rolling up to the zenith were very beautiful Father noticed a considerable effect produced upon [[end page]] [[start page]] a small electrical apparatus he has in the parlor. Tuesday Aug. 5th. We are all troubled to night about the Drafting. 300 000 men are called for in addition to ^the 300 000 ^[[volun?]]already demanded. The States are ordered to proceed to drafting if the quotas for the latter are not furnished by the 18th. of Aug but the drafts for the former commence I suppose immediately. Very little is known now about the movements of the Southerners at Richmond. There is a lull in the storm but the quiet is portentous. The usual rumors that the Capitol is in danger are afloat but we pay but little heed to them. Wed. 6th. Gen. Casey has just left us. He said his position was a false one in the battle of Seven Pines, He had in vain remonstrated against it. He had crossed the Chickahominy [[strikeout]] & [[strikeout]], was in advance of the army ^&to use his own expression [[underlined]] "like a wedge in the enemys country." the sides of his division entirely unprotected. The engagement was on the 31st. Two days his men had been busy digging rifle pits & forming abatti. He was on the alert for he learned through a reconnaissance that the cars had been moving rapidly [[strikeout]] forth [[strikeout]] to & fro on the Richmond end of the rail road ^all day on the 30th & some of his pickets had captured one of Gen. Johnston's aids. On the morning of the 31st his pickets were attacked [[end page]]
[[start page]] He at first thought this would prove a slight skirmish ^as several such had taken place the day before but he was quickly undeceived a vidette was sent to inform him the Southerners had arrived in force. He quickly called in his labourers stationed his men in the rifle pits & behind the abattis. On the Confederates came bravely [[strikeout]] to [[strikeout]] unshrinkingly. The artillery mowed down long lines in their ranks but these were immediately closed over. Seeing he must lose his guns Gen Casey ordered a charge boldly & well did the men do their duty driving the enemy back 200 yds. Overpowered at last by superior numbers. Gen Casey was at last obliged to fall back upon Gen Couch's division this [[strikethrough]] also [[strikethrough]] gave way & retreated to the line commanded by Gen Heintzelman which would also have yielded if it had not been for the timely reenforcement of Sherman. Sykesville Friday Aug 29th. I have not written in my journal ^lately because we have been very busy preparing to leave home. In regard to war matters there has been little to record nothing was known ^for some time of Gen McClellan movement except that he had left his position before Richmond after the battle of Malvern Hill & was expected to join Gen Pope. We left home for this place yesterday. In the cars we met an intelligent officer who gave us an account of the battle of Malvern [[end page]] [[start page]] Hill He seemed to think it the most desperate that had yet been fought. He told us the southern troops had possession of Mannassas & would probably drive the Federal troops behind their entrenchment at Alexandria. He said our men were worn out with fighting & sickness. The news to day is that Gen. Lee with his cavalry had not only taken Mannassas but Centreville Gen Pope & Gen Burnside are beyond Mannassas & must cut their way through Gen. Lee's forces in order to reach the main body of the army Gen. McClellan has been in Alexandria for a day or two. He had an interview last evening with the President. He has ^again been made commander in chief of the army of the Patomac. Sat. Aug 30th. Gen. Pope's official dispatch was in the paper this morning He is again in communication with the main body of the army. The Southerners have evacuated Mannassas & fallen back from Centerville Gen. McClellan's army ^at Alexandria has advanced to the assistance of Pope. Went to the village with our host Mr. Bear. He says the [[rocks?]] split only North & South, East & West. Father does not agree with him. He thinks the Potato rot is due to too much heat & moisture when the potato is fully ripe Father thinks these [[concomitent?]] [[circumstances?]] but that there is a [[veritable?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] disease in the potatoe. Monday Sep 1st. We awaited the arrival of the paper with great anxiety. It contained Gen. Pope's official dispatch. Mannassas seems destined to hold a conspicuous place in this war. The whole body of the southerners engaged Gen Pope's army there on Thursday no far from the scene of the [[strikethrough]] old [[strikethrough]] battle of last year. Jackson was driven back towards the mountains on Friday & Pope remained master of the field but receiving reinforcements during the night the Southerners again attacked the Federalists & drove them back to Centreville on Saturday. Franklin & Sumner have joined Pope there so he is now strong in men & position. [[How?]] loss in the recent battles is said to be 17 000 in killed & wounded on Friday we lost 8 000. Mr. [[Pace?]] writes that the little Falls bridge has been taken down by order of Government authorities for fear an attempt may be made to cross there. The city was in a state of intense excitement on Friday & Saturday. Tuesday Sep. 2nd. A beautiful morning after yesterdays rain. The Secessionist report that Banks has been taken. Lee was stationed at Fredericksburg. We are looking forward with eagerness to the arrival of the mails. Thursday Sep 4th. Father left yesterday for Wash. The news from there is of thrilling interest. [[vertical text left margin]] The report that Gen. McClellan has been made commander in chief of the army of the Potomac is false. He has command of only one division Gen Howell and [[in?]] [[command?]] of the whole. [[end vertical text]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page torn out]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[page torn out]] [[end page]] [[start page]] our troops have been driven back & are now in the forts about the city & in Alexandria. Pope & [[McDowell?]] are in disgrace & Gen McClellan is in charge of the defenses of the City. No cars have come from Harper's Ferry to day. I hope Father will come before those from Baltimore cease to run. The Company is afraid to send out trains lest they may fall into the hands of the Confederates who are advancing rapidly. Fredericksburg is theirs. Friday Sep 5th. Went to a country ball at the hotel in Sykesville Expected to be much amused therewith but was uneasy about Father. The Hotel looks upon the rail road & I took my station at the window to watch. Hour after hour passed but still no train. At last a distant whistle, a low rumble made my heart beat nearer & nearer it came but in the wrong direction. A [[burden?]] train shot by us laden with soldiery their arms flashing in the moon light. Then loud shouts as they [[passed?]] feebly echoed by the men & boys on the platform. What did this retrograde movement mean? are the enemy advancing so rapidly that Baltimore was in danger. The [[/moments?]] seemed long now. would the train never come! The dancers kept time to the fiddles in the Dinner Hall The moonlight fell softly & [[strikeout]] [[peacefully?]] [[strikethrough]] through the trees on the bank opposite Would the train ever come. [[end page]]
[[start page]] Hark was that a whistle. I was not [[mistaken?]] this time. The distant rumble grew louder a dull red light gleamed through the trees. The Iron Horse stood smoking & panting by the platform & Father was by my side. It was the last train that came out. The City is much less excited than might be expected under the circumstances. Father saw Mrs. Gen. Franklin. She is greatly incensed against Pope who accuses her husband of having disobeyed his orders. No fears were entertained ^at head quarters of a further advance of the enemy at present. Monday Eighth. No mails. We can know nothing certainly of the movement of the Enemy. Some of the farmers are driving their cattle to places of greater safety. We are cut off from all communication with our friends We shall leave as soon as we can procure a conveyance. Tuesday 9th. The Confederate pickets are within four miles of us & spies are said to have been in the village yesterday. A party of Cavalry were entertained at a farm house about two miles from here last night. we are surrounded by secessionists here. Mother is troubled & [[nervous?]] she will be glad to get away. The hills [[be?]] before ^me in their quiet beauty. I am off for a ramble. We are to take tea with the [[end page]] [[start page]] clergyman of the place this evening 12 m. [Just?]] called in to prepare for our departure Father has hired an open wagon to take us to Ellicott's Mills. It will be here in an hour. Thursday 11th. We found our ride to Ellicott's Mills very pleasant the road lies through such a beautiful country We had four miles to go before we reached the turnpike. Just as we left Sykesville we were mot by two rebel scouts who asked us whether we had met any Federal pickets. They were ragged and forlorn in dress. [[vertical text]] [[Eddinglen?]] [[end vertical text]] Our little wagon was well crowded with our trunks & ourselves but bore the load well. We were told we would probably meet the Federal pickets on our way but we saw nothing of them. Spent the night in Baltimore at the _______ Hotel. Saw Gen Wool who came into the parlor with several other Officers. He stood by the centre table for some time reading telegrams. He looks very infirm & his eye is dull & listless there is very little of the fire of a soldier about him. Col. ____ spent part of the evening with us. He said he knew nothing of the movement of the troops at Washington or of Gen. McClellan's intentions. The secessionist in Baltimore as well as the [[unionists?]] [[where/were?]] in great alarm lest Jackson should come upon Baltimore. The city could be very easily shelled from their fortifications [[end page]]
[[start page]] and would certainly be destroyed should such an event take place. A company of cavelry started on a reconnoitering expedition. We saw the officers preparing in the Hall (one of them had been my neighbor at the supper table) & heard the clatter of the horses hoofs on the pavement as they rode away. If it were possible to forget the nature of their errand they must have enjoyed the ride as it was a beautiful moonlight night. Gen Wood has charge of this region as far as Harper's Ferry I believe. We left Baltimore in the early train passed the night in Philadelphia & reached here at 3 o'clock to day. We are about 15 miles from Phil. in a pretty rural spot but I miss the hills. Friday 12th. A cloudy day spent the morning on reading one of Cooper's Novels aloud. Saturday. Philadelphia in a state of great excitement. Hagerstown in possession of the Southerners the enemy advancing into Pennsylvania. Every able bodied man ordered to arm & equip himself. for the defense of the city. A number of troops sent to Harrisburg. Monday. A battle at Middleton not far from Frederick The southerners defeated. Gen. McClellan had command of our forces. The number of killed & wounded is not definitely known [[end page]] [[start page]] but the Confederates seem to have suffered more than our troops. The enemy is retreating. Col Reno is killed. Frederick was taken some days ago but is now abandoned, the confederates having bought out all the merchants paying them with Confederate scrip but not injuring property. The [[troops?]] was in a deplorable condition when they entered the town ragged and almost starved. A gentleman before we left Sykesville told us he saw some of their captains on horse back with spurs strapped to their bare heels. About 700 Marylanders were added to their forces before they left. Others came to enlist but were discouraged by the appearance of the troops. Philadelphia is very jubilant over the victory. Tuesday. The news to day is that Harper's Ferry is in possession of the Southerners Gen. Miles who was in command there was killed. Wednesday Another battle near Frederick results unknown. [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1862. Oct.19. Willie died on Friday - was buried yesterday. Sat. Dec. 6th. Father asked me to write down all that I remembered of Will's death I could not do so before. He died on Friday, Oct. 17th 1862. On Friday a week before a note came to Princeton for Father from Mr. Rheese. Which I opened as Father was with Mother and Carry in New York. The note was about Smithsonian affairs but mentioned casually that Will had been slightly indisposed. Uncle and Will advised me not to forward the letter as Father was to be in Princeton again in a few days and it was not worth while to trouble Mother about Will when he was probably [[?le]] by the time the letter reached us. I had been greatly disappointed at not finding Will when we reached Princeton & troubled for fear the change from the pure air of [[P.?]] to the [[malarious?]] atmosphere of W. might make him sick but still Mr. Rheese's words did not cause me much uneasiness. On Tuesday evening as we were at tea Carry came in much to our surprise alone. Father & Mother she said had received a telegram on Sunday morning informing that Will was very ill. They could not leave until evening. On Monday Cary's anxiety was relieved by a telegram & afterwards by a letter [[end page]]
[[start page]] saying Will had been very sick but that he was then convalescent & there was no need of returning home. Another letter came from Mother the next morning Wed. telling us Will was still very sick. I left the next morning Nell & Cary yielding to the desire expressed in Mother's letter to the opinion of the physician & Uncle's advise remaining until frost should make it safer for them to return home. Thinking Will still convalescent we all thought it wrong for them to risk their health when there was no necessity ^for so doing. Mrs. Blaney was my traveling companion Dr. Blaney met us at the Depot & kindly took me home. Clemy De Burt opened the door for me. I asked how Will was. He said "his voice is failing" I went up stairs into the dining room The house looked vile & desolate. I dreaded to have ^Mother come in. It was some time before she came but when she did her face reassured me. She did not seem frightened about him. Father also when he came in shortly after did not appear alarmed. After a little while Mother said I might see him I was not prepared for the change in him It was a terrible shock But the smile he gave me was inexpressibly sweet. I can never never forget it. His hand was so thin so damp & cold I thought he was dying I had to kneel down & lean my forehead on it to hide my tears. He stroked my hair said "she looks well", "See her tomorrow" I was afraid to stay longer ^for fear [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page torn out]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[page torn out]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of tiring him. He was very restless after that requiring to be moved from one bed to another every 10 or 15 min. Hannah & Henry the Watchman carrying him like a child. The Dr. had left some medicine to quiet him but it seemed to have the contrary effect. About one o'clock we left him to Hannah's & Henry's care. Towards morning he was very much worse. We sent for the Dr. as soon as possible. He said perhaps we had better send for Nell & Carry We telegraphed immediately. When I went in to him he was lying on the bed in Mother's room Henry was fanning him. He motioned to me to take the fan said "Henry sit down --- tired" He spoke with great difficulty we could hardly understand him. Henry left us them & Father & Mother went in to breakfast He had been quiet for some time & seemed to be sleeping. I sat motionless for fear of disturbing him. His breathing frightened me after a while it was so very peculiar & his eyes were only half closed. He roused up when Mother came in I think it was about this time. Dr. Elliot came He administered a dose of medicine at Will's own suggestion which he thought might quiet him. When the Dr. came out of the room Mother & I went in. Will lay quietly for a short time & then started suddenly upright with a wild look in his eyes crying out "Oh they are [[chaining?]] him. They are [[d?ery]] Father!" Mother held him down with difficulty while I ran to call Father. He was himself again in a few moments [[end page]]
[[start page]] & asked to be moved into the next room. Then to a couch in the same room The corner room. He was quiet a little while there & Father went into talk to him He said my [[?]] life is very uncertain we know not what the issue of your illness may be You must trust in the mercy of God in Christ. Will pressed his hand said I know I do, "I wish I was as well prepared as you my Father" He heard Mother's step then & said "not now" some other time fearing to pain her. Father asked if he would like to see Dr. Gurley. He said "yes". Father asked him shortly after if he would not like to be shaved He seemed very eager for it I think because he thought it would please Father. Mr. De Bust was sitting by his bed then He asked him if he would go for the barber insisting first with his usual thoughtfulness upon knowing whether he had had his break fast. After that he was moved from bed to bed continually answering all our entreaties that he would remain quiet with his plaintive "move me" "[[underlined]]Please move me" "Please" wont you move me" I left the room at last thinking the fewer there were there the more chance there would be of his sleeping. I placed myself where I could see him & hand Mother what she wanted when he was not being moved we were giving him stimulants. Every now & then he would [[end page]] [[start page]] look at his hands & feel one with the other. I had not been long out of the room before he called me. He wanted me to bathe his head with cologne. I did so while mother prepared his stimulants. At one time he was a little delirous refusing to take any unless Mr. Bust gave it to him or unless Mr. De Bust said he must He called again & again for Mr. De. B. so we sent for him. He was quiet then & took the Brandy & Ice Cream Mother had prepared for him. Mr. De Bust raising him up. It seemed to choke him He fell back on the pillow & ceased to breath for several seconds. I thought he was dead. A deep sigh presently told us he was not I heard Father & Dr. Elliot in the entry & called them When Dr. E. came to his bed side he was better. The Dr. told him to hold out his arm at full length he did so. When he came out the Dr. told us he had still considerable strength & might yet be spared to us this was only 1 half hour before he died. The Dr. promised to be back in an hour he had other patients & could not stay with us. Mother & Hannah then made some change in Will's dress & yielding to his entreaty of "move me" "Please move me just once more" laid him upon the large bed in the corner room. Father opened the window & said "look out Will see what a beautiful day it is" He did look out & said eagerly "yes! yes!" Father went into the next room then to talk to Prof. [[Baird?]] & [[followed?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] to hear what he was saying about Will. Hannah called "Miss Mary he is calling for Mary, Mary Henry" I ran back to his bed side. He said "put it under me, all under me" mean the sheet I suppose & his clothes all had become disordered by his restlessness. for when Mother smoothed them He seemed satisfied. I bathed his head with cologne & putting my lips near his ear sang to him in a low tone. [[?]] choosing the chorus to a children's hymn For well I know that Jesus died For sinners such as I Oh what does all the world beside That I should prize so high. He grew quiet as soon as I commenced to sing. Mother went away then to get him something leaving me alone with him. I continued singing some time in a low voice thinking he was asleep, but his breathing soon frightened me as it had done in the morning. It was growing slower & slower. I went into the next room to call Father & Prof. [[Baird?]] Prof. [[Baird?]] took his seat by the bed side to feel his pulse. I knew by his face that he thought Will dying. We put hot [[?]] to his feet. His mouth was partly open, [[strikeout]] [[Mother?]] [[strikeout]] put Brandy between his lips. He swallowed two or three teaspoon fulls & his pulse for a few moments grew stronger. Then Father drew Mother [[end page]] [[start page]] away she broke away from him & came back presently crying "why don't some one call Willie! Where's Willie!" I had taken the cup & spoon from Mother & was on the opposite side of the [[strikethrough]] room [[strikethrough]] ^bed from Prof [[Baird?]]. Will's breath was growing slower & slower. He swallowed one more spoon full of brandy He breathed two or three times more softly I could hear nothing then & asked Prof Baird with my eyes if he were dead. Prof Baird bowed assent but I put one more spoonful of brandy in his mouth thinking it might not be so. Mother & I closed his eyes the expression of his face was exquisitely peaceful. It was about 11 o'clock when he died. [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1862 [[underlined]] Dec 13th. It is almost three months since I have made any entries in my journal excepting the sad one of last Sat. When I last wrote Phil. was in an intense state of excitement fearing the city might be invaded. The ship of State seemed driven master less before the adverse winds of Fate. Gen McClellan was called to the Helm once more. The battles of Antietam & South Mountain reassured the wavering self confidence of the people & again the cry "onward to Richmond rose from the conquering unionists. A brilliant raid of the Southern Gen. [[Stewart?]] next excited the admiration of friend & foe. Making the entire circuit of our army, carrying off Horses cattle food & clothing he vanished as quickly as he came Leaving our astonished soldiers grasping their muskets only in time to hear the retiring clatter of his horse's heels. Skillfully had the Helmsman guided the Ship of State. Bravely had he headed the adverse winds & waves of Fate. But the vessel was at Anchor ^now the Nation ^impatient could not understand why her sails should not always be filled, her prow always cutting the waves of Victory. forgetful of the repairs her storm beaten ____ required. The helmsman was denounced. Gen McClellan was deposed & Gen. Burnside given the command of the army of the Patomac. On the eve of a great battle for which he had been preparing for weeks & which he had hoped would decide the affairs of the Nation it was a bitter trial to the brave officers to be thus unreasonably deprived of [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[underlined]] 1862 [[underlined]] Dec 13th his authority when he received the unexpected tidings his only words were "I was so certain of success" Burnside superseded his friend with great reluctance McClellan was closeted with him for several hours before he left the camp giving him all the information & such knowledge of his plans as he thought might be useful to him. The parting of the Gen. with his men was touching in the extreme They crowded round him to shake his hand & eager for some parting words & when his receding form made them realize they were losing their beloved commander they ran to him with tears & lamentations crying "come back to us McClellan! come back to us McClellan!" The army has since then been on the Rappahannock opposite Fredericksburg which is in possession of the enemy. The news yesterday & the day before was that our army had crossed the river fired the city & that the Southerners had retired. Congress has commenced. The President's message is flat. The principal point in it is the renewed recommendation of the second clause of his Proclamation relative to the gradual emancipation of the slaves. Sec. Seward in his report recommends several methods of preventing the too great inflation of the currency. One is by taxing bank note issues, another by forming bank companies for the issue of Government notes, in other words, a great national bank with branches. Gold is now worth 30 per cent. Father has grown touchingly gentle since Will's [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]]1862 [[underlined]]Dec. 13th death. He speaks of him quietly & cheerfully but we can see that it is telling upon him. He has given us several talks lately upon architecture. He was the first to introduce that study in Princeton college. He had models of temples ^made & other facilities contrived for the improvement of the pupils but afterwards gave up the department to Prof Dod. Will enjoyed a similar talk last summer. The lectures have commenced. We have had two from a Prof from Toronto entitled [[underlined]]"Unwritten History." The insolent lecture committee applyed for the room but were refused. Will was very useful to Father lecture nights. I commenced a head of Father to day in clay. Father looked in upon ^me about noon & seemed much amused at the singular mass I expected one day to look something like him. He left his work one bright day last week to have photographs taken for me. Mon. Dec. 15th. Yesterday was a day of excitement. We learned after church that the fighting at Fredericksburg had been very severe 5 000 of our men killed. Gen Bayard a promising young officer lost his life. He was to have been married next Thursday to Miss Bowman daughter of the superintendent at West Point. From nine o'clock until after three to day we heard the distant booming of cannon. It is conjectured that a division of troops under Gen Slocum sent to reenforce Burnside may have been intercepted by the enemy. I met M. Gurley on the [[strikeout]] after [[strikethrough]] Avenue this afternoon. He said he had just come from Willard's Hotel [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[underlined]] 1862 Dec. & had seen a wounded officer brought in He was a tall fine looking man but was very badly injured in the head He said We had been caught in a trap & badly whipped. The Star to night says that our loss is greater than was first announced that our men are not yet within the city but have only taken the first line of fortifications on the other side of the river. Our loss is estimated at nearly 10,000 That of the enemy very small. We met Mrs. Harris this afternoon She was with Mrs. Gen Sumner. The poor lady was nearly frantic her husband, two sons, & son in law being all at Fredericksburg She cannot expect them all to escape. ----- We have had another lecture from Prof. Wilson on [[underlined]] "Unwritten History" Wed. 17th. Say Will Gurley. He said he had just come from Willard's Hotel. An officer had been brought in badly wounded who said we had been caught in a trap at Fredericksburg & badly whipped. Another lecture on "Unwritten History" [[underlined]]Thursday 18th. Our troops have been driven back across the river The retreat was made without loss but the numbers killed in the attempt to take the town & fortifications [[strikeout]] have been [[strikethrough]] is immense 10,000 wounded & dying strewed the battle field. It is terrible to think so much blood should be shed in vain. Dr. Parker was here to day he said Gen Burnside Franklin & others had sent a petition to the President protesting against the crossing of the river [[end page]] [[start page]] but in spite of their remonstrances they were ordered to do so by the President & Sec. of War. The rebels seem to have lost but little. This battle of Fredericksburg seems to have been the most bloody yet fought. We met Mrs. Harris on the street yesterday she was with Mrs. Sumner her husband two sons & son in law were also in the fight. She was almost wild with anxiety. We had a visit from Madame de Linburg & Miss [[Pleasant?]] The latter spoke with great affection of Will she saw him often with James B. Henry. [[underlined]] Friday 19th. A visit from Mrs. [[Hunter?]]. She had heard indirectly from Mrs. Bell. Col. Bell was in Richmond He had gone there to negotiate for peace. Mrs. Bell will probably loose all her property. Sat. 20th. Father has gone to the club. The news to night is that Seward & Chase have both resigned & the rest of the Cabinet will probably follow their example. It is said that Gen. Burnside has also tendered his resignation. Halleck is blamed by the President for the misfortunes at Fredericksburg. Blair also is said to have resigned. --- Mr. McIntyre has just left us. He came last night from the army opposite Fredericksburg where his [[brother?]] is lying sick. He said he came in a train of cars with the wounded. He could not endure the distressing spectacle inside the cars & mounted on top of one of them He was there obliged to seat himself upon a coffin & was in constant fear of [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[underlined]] Dec breaking in upon its dead occupant. The groans of the poor suffers below him was harrowing in the extreme. Most of the wounded are to be brought to Washington. He said he went to an eminence from whence he could see the position of the enemys fortifications & was completely astonished that any attempt to take them in ^[[ways]] the proposed should ever have be conceived. Thee tiers of fortifications half encircle the city the river flowing in front of course when our men crossed they were at the mercy of the southern guns which fired on them from the front, the right, & the left. "In to the jaws of death rushed" our brave thousand at the senseless command of those, who refusing to listen to the protest of their brave hearts in command, thus recklessly sacrificed the blood of their country to their witless impetuosity & ambition. Mr. McIntyre said the soldiers seemed but little affected by the loss of their comrades. They have grown reckless & indifferent. We learned to day that all Mrs. Gen. Sumner's relations escaped. Our troops have captured Kingstown N.C. Mon 21st. Admiral Davis was here last evening. He is going back to Cambridge to spend the Holidays. We had a visit also from Mr. Wyncoop. Dr. Stone the sculpter walked home with us from Bible class. [[end page]] [[start page]] Dec 21st. He is a physician now in the Patent Office Hospital He does not seem to admire the new statue of Franklin by Powers. When we asked him how he liked it, he said very vainly he did not think it equal to his own. He said he could never forget the material of which the statue was made It troubled him to think such an immense amount of marble should be supported by two such slender columns as the legs. Father was pleased with the criticism He said our ideas of ^[[proper]] proportion & beauty in architecture must be modified by our consciousness of the material employed. An entirely different style being required for iron columns from that used in marble buildings.--- Another lecture to night on "Unwritten History",the last of the course. The lecturer came in to our part of the building, after the lecture. also Gen Casey, Dr Bacon, Prof Hopkins, Mr McPherson, & his bride. (Tuesday) (22nd) Father read aloud this evening ^[[an account of]] a discovery of a man who had succeeded in forming an organic substance out of inorganic. It troubled me somewhat for I thought if organic substances were thus produced by combinations of inorganic, [[underlined]] life [[underlined]] might at last be developed from these & what seemed to confirm this idea was the experiment of a man who had taken eggs of certain insects. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 24th. Christmas Eve. We are missing Will. Father has just come in with a book for Carry Scott's Poetical Works. A box of drawing instruments & some books of Architecture for us. 25th. The happiest part of the day to me has been sitting at Father's feet & hearing him read "The Lady of the Lake. I enjoyed not only the beautiful poem itself but Father's intense enjoyment of it. It has been a day of pain in spite of all our efforts. I am thinking to night of a Christmass several years ago, the first time Will had money of his own earning when he put 30 or 40 dollars into Mother's hands to buy presents for us. Sat 27th. The club meets here to night. Will was of so much assistance to Father on such occasions. Baron Gerolt has just passed through the hall. -- The disasterous affairs of Fredericksburg is not attributed to the tardy arrival of the pontoon bridges sent to Gen. Burnside from Harper's Ferry & Washington preventing him from crossing the river until the enemy had time to collect their troops. A misunderstanding seems to have existed between Gens Burnside & Halleck each thinking the other had given orders about the forwarding the bridges. [[end page]] [[start page]] Dec. 27. The secretaries are reinstated. The President having refused to accept their resignations. We had a visit from Mr. [[Henmant?]] last evening. He has been absent for four years in the northern part of the continent. Father thinks highly of him. 29th Mon. The city is in a state of excitement yesterday on account of a raid of Stuarts cavalry at Accotink 12 miles from Alexandria. The enemy was repulsed but succeeded in capturing quite a number of army wagons & ambulances beside 40 prisoners. ---- The wounded Fredericksburg sufferers are coming into the city daily, the hospital inmates are said to number 13,000 Mrs. Smith's dinner to the sick soldiers seems to have passed off well. She was presented on Christmas with a gold watch & diamond ring as a reward for her charitable exertions. The Sec. also received a beautiful gift from his employee of a silver service. Gen Banks has superseded Gen. Butler as command of the Department of the Gulf. Jef. Davis has issued a proclimation announcing that retaliatory measures will be used against Gen. Butler & his officers for certain acts of theirs said to be in violation of the usuages of war. Gen. Butler's whole career seems to have been anything but conciliatory. 31st. We received a letter yesterday from Rear Admiral Farragut containing his photograph. He promised it to us before he left Washington. Father has just [[end page]]
[[start page]] Dec 31st returned from a visit to Mr. Murdoch He wanted the lecture room of the Institution for his readings which Father was obliged to refuse. He asked him however to deliver a course of lectures before the Institution upon locution. It is rumored now that the whole army of the Patomac is about to return to Washington. I suppose to start anew. It is supposed now that France will certainly interfere in our affairs. Mr. McIntyre was here last night & also again to night. He is going to his brother who is still sick with the army near Fredericksburg. Prof. Hopkins has been here also. He was turned out of his place last winter under & unjust charge of disloyalty & has not yet been reinstated. Poor man I feel very sorry for him. This the last night of the old year. I treasure the hours as they go. The last of the year in which we had our Will, It is so hard to commence the new year without him. [[swirl doodle - image]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863. Jan. 1st. We watched the old year out & the new year in. Nell & I sat in Father's Study until the heavy boom of a cannon told us the old year was dead. I shall not soon forget that sound it [[underlined]] was the last of the year that knew our Will. The day has been beautiful, We have [[strikeout]] seen [[strikeout]] not received our friends as usual, we were glad to see among the cards left at our door that of Mr. Schleiden [[comma swirl doodle - image]], we are very glad he has returned from Europe. Mr. McIntyre, came in for a few minutes before tea. Mr. Welling has just gone. He says it is the impression among the Diplomatic Corps that France to day acknowledges the Southern Confederacy that Mr. Slidell is received as minister. The President's signed the proclamation for the Division of the State of Virginia to day in spite of the opposition of the Cabinet. The prospects of the country are very dark. Jan 3rd. Sat. Prof & Mrs. Sandoz came to night. The Prof has gone with Father to the club. A visit from Mr. McIntyre & Father. " 5th. Mon. We had a visit last evening from Admiral Davis also from Mr. Wynkoop. Mr. Baer & his daughters came to day. A lecture this evening. After lecture Gen. Casey Dr. Bacon, Mrs Peale, Mr. Sommers Mr. McKnight & others came in. 7th. Wed. A visit from Madame Gerolt & daughter. She was very kind in her expression of sympathy for us. Carlotta is soon to be married to a young [[end page]]
[[start page]] Jan. Prussian officer. Father brought in a book to day containing an article upon Architecture He was commencing to read it aloud when Madame G. came in to the parlor. In a conversation with her He said that when he was seven or eight years of age he left his home to live for a time with his grandmother in the country He returned to the city from a different direction from that in which he left it & the house appeared to be on the wrong side of the street so that now when he looks back all his life before seven years of age seems to him to have been passed upon one side of the street & the rest of his live spent in the same house upon the other. He mentioned this to show the permanence of an impression upon the mind. Another lecture from Prof [[Guyot?]]. Mr. [[Erlich?]] & wife came in after the lecture. Jan. 8th Count [[Pataleas?]] passed the evening with us. " 10th. Sat. Father & Prof Guyot have gone to the club. I have not had much time to read the papers this week as the house has been filled with company. The excitement is great in regard to the siege of Vicksburg but it is very difficult to know certainly the state of affairs. As far as we can learn the fighting has been very severe. Gen Sherman appears to have done well. Father said to day to Prof Guyot that he had never been much of a politician until his attention [[end page]] [[start page]] Jan 10th, was directed to Meteorology that led him to study climatology, the productions of the earth & political economy & He had come to the conclusion several years before in Princeton that we could hardly hold together as a nation more that 25 ^years longer. Our prosperity he thought had been due to our great extent of country to the quantity of food, enough & to spare for all men. but now we could spread no further the extent of arable land in the West was not as great as supposed. The struggle for life was commencing, we were increasing with fearful rapidity as every year each member of society must interfere ^more & more with every ^other member so that the government ought to be proportionably strengthened. We needed good men now not many & the encouragement of great foreign immigration he thought a mistake. France has not yet recognised the Southern Confederacy. There has been a severe battle at Murfreesboro Tenn. Gen. Rosecrans being in command of our forces & Gen. Johnston leading the confederates. Victory was in our favor but the loss on both sides was terrible. Gen. Banks & Com. Farragut are Gen. Shermans assistants at Vicksburg. The Monitor, the gallant antagonist of the Merrimac has gone down with nearly all her crew. She foundered at sea off Cape Hatteras. Jan. 24th. Sat. Prof Guyot & Madame Sandoz left us on Thurs. We have enjoyed their visit very much. Prof [[end page]]
[[start page]] Jan 24th. Guyot is perfectly charming he gave me several long talks. Prof Hosford has been with us for two weeks. He is lecturing now upon "Munitions of War". He has gone this evening with Father to the club. I think our friends have enjoyed themselves. On Saturday we had some very pleasant gentlemen to dine, On Monday the gentlemen went to a party at Mrs. Hooker's after the lecture on Tues. Dr. Bache & Admiral Davis dined with us & also a young Mr. Rodgers from Phil. who is here attempting to get an appointment to a cadetship at West Point. On Wednesday Prof. H went to a party at the National while the rest of us Prof Guyot Madame Sandoz Father Mother & I spent the evening in a round game played with cards & counters. Father made a great deal of merriment & I think enjoyed the game as much as any of us. Thursday as I said before our friends from Princeton left us. It was the saddest 'farewell' we has ever spoken. We have learned the uncertainty of human life. The war news of the two weeks has been a [[strikethrough]] battle at Murfreesborough victory in our favor. [[strikethrough]] the failure of the siege of Vicksburg & a battle at galveston [[been?]] [[our fleet?]] there was attacked by rebels & several vessels destroyed. It is said that the army of the Patomac have made another unsuccessful attempt to move upon the [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Jan rebels having been stopped by the bad condition of the roads. 26th I took dinner yesterday with Mrs Hodge she very kindly asked me to go home with her after church, Mrs. Rodgers was looking very well, her baby is very pretty. it is five weeks old. Mrs. Rodgers was of course delighted at the arrival of the Weehawken at Fortress Monroe without injury from the storm she encountered on the coast. The Intelligencer says Capt Rodgers has done more for the country in restoring confidence in our iron clad navy, after the sad loss of the Monitor than if he had gained a hard fought battle. He is a gallant noble officer & worthee of all praise. Admiral Davis took tea with us last night. Major Fitz John Porter has been cashiered & dismissed from the service. Mr Frank a member of congress who was here to night told us that but for a single vote his sentence would have been death. His fault was disobedience to certain orders of Gen. Pope during his engagements with the enemy in Virginia in the latter part of Aug. & prompt compliance of which would [[underlined]] in the opinion of Gen Pope have Saved his army from defeat. Gen. Burnside arrived in Washington on Saturday morning & at his own request it is said was relieved of the command [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 Jan of the army of the Patomac. Gen. Hooker is to take his place. Mr. Capon took dinner with us to day He said a regiment of New York troops had mutinied at Falmouth but had been immediately surrounded & reduce to subjection. The state of affairs is terrible great dissatisfaction is felt with the President's course of conduct [[strikethrough]] present [[strikethrough]] in many parts of the country I hope we are not to have civil war among ourselves. Another movement against Vicksburg is in progress under Gen. Grant. Prof. Hosford gave another lecture to night on Projectiles. 27th. Tues. The Common Council of the City of New York has held a meeting to express disaprobation of the result of the trial of Gen. Fitz John Porter & to request his [[counsel?]] to furnish them with a full copy of the evidence they have tendered to the Gen. the hospitalities of the city & a public reception in the Governor's room. so that the people may testify their high appreciation of his courage & ability. Gen. Franklin & Sumner have both resigned what are we to do for generals? The Star says the reason why Gen. Burnside has requested to be relieved was because Gen. Hooker refused to act in [[concert?]] with him in the last forward movement The artillery was caught in the mud & Gen. Burnside wished to move upon the enemy without it arguing that if artillery was useless to [[strikethrough]] them [[strikethrough]] our troops on account of the state of roads it would be equally [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Jan so to the rebels. He called a council of war Gen. Hooker opposed the advance. Gen. Burnside accepted the trust confered upon him with reluctance & resigns at his own request. He was a warm friend of Gen. McClellan. The state of affairs seems to be darkening rapidly in my humble opinion we have every reason to fear anarchy at the North & well as the South. Mr. Capon was here again to day. He says the President ---- 28th. Wed. Dr. [[Schuck?]] & his son are with us. They have been to the Capitol this evening, the House is voting upon the bill for arming the negros. Prof Hosford was on the floor for a while with Mr. Frank who said he was going to vote for the bill though he did not seem very much in favor of it. Gen. Couch & Smith are to take ^the places of Gens. Franklin & Sumner. The latter were relieved from duty because higher in rank than Gen. Hooker who could not therefore be appointed to a command over them. The President has appointed Father one of the commissioners to examine the Mint. Gold is now worth 1,55 our paper currency will soon be worth very little. The New Yorkers have presented Mrs. McClellan with a beautiful furnished house in that city as a testimonial of respect to the Gen. We practised our German with Prof. Hosford after his return from the Capitol. He speaks the language very fluently. He amused us with a descrip- [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 Jan. tion of some of his adventures in Germany & Switzerland. Speaking of the monotonous life passed by the peasants of those countries he said he asked an old woman living in one of the mountain passes how far she had ever been from her home. She said she thought she has been as far as two hours walking could take her. Speaking of the Alps He said he had been taken by his guide to the top of the Sonnenberg to see them He had been left there with some traveling companions before sunrise, daylight came but no alps. The great mountains were not to be found. Just as they were turning away thinking the guide had deceived them certain clouds in the valley & above them seemed to Prof Hosford to [[congeal?]] ^he had not noticed before that they were motionless with here & there dark specks. They were the glaciers. The alps that now broke upon him in all their beauty. 29th. Thurs. 10. A.M. Prof Hopkins has just been here he has received a letter from his son who is under Gen Foster at New bern. He writes that the army there is about to make a movement further South & should they do so there will be hard fighting. 30th. Friday A.M. Father saw Gen. Franklin yesterday He said he did not know but he might [[be?]] called before a Court Martial as well as Gen. Porter. He says the army is terribly [[disprited?]]. Father also so Mr. Bancroft the historian, who was terribly [[strikeout]] but [[strikeout]] blue about the country. Last eve [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Jan. Mother & I went to Mrs. Peale's Father & Dr. [[Parker?]] stopped for us on their way from Gen. [[Loffen?]].-- Senator Salisbury who behaved so disgracefully in the Senate a few days since has apologized for his offence & will not be expelled & was [[mortified?]] I feel an interest in his fate having met him last summer & found him agreeable. ----- Father after our return from Mrs. Peale's read us a letter from one of the Turkish Cadi to Mr. Layard commencing "My illustrious friend & joy of my liver." then came a discussion upon the study of words & language between Prof Hosford which I have not time to write out & a laugh over ^some of Dr. Johnson definitions Such as "Network something [[reticulated?]] or [[decusated?]] ^at equal distances with interstices between the intersections." Oats [[strikeout]] [[meant?]] [[strikeout]] "a grain which in England is generally given to horses but in Scotland supports the people." Pronouncing the Dr. & old wag we went to bed. 11 h. P.M. The Prof did not have many people at his lecture on account of the storm. Gen Casey came in after lecture. He says Gen. Franklin is to be court martialed next week. Mrs. Gilles was here this morning with her son who came from Fredericksburg a few days since He says 11 more Officers of the Army of the Patomac are to be removed. 31st. Mrs. [[?]] has presented Father with a self- [[end page]]
[start page] 1863 Jan lighting gas burner which has excited our great admiration. Mr. Corneilius has presented one to Mrs [[Lenicoln?]] & Mr. Stanton also. It is very ingenious & pretty. He also gave Father an apparatus for producing an electrical spark. which Father has taken with him to the club to night. The discussion of the bill for arming of the negros still continues to create great excitement in the House Mr. Wickliffe made a long speech yesterday, in which he said one man named Hunter had tried the experiment of raising a negro regiment but had failed. He asked if we were prepared to admit that we could not put down the rebellion without calling in the aid of the negro. He would not [[heckle?]] about the rank of Gen. Sambo or Gen. Hunter or Gen. Anybodyelse but this bill might enable Gen. Sambo to outrank Gen. Hunter. To day Mr. Wright of Penn. spoke in favor of moderation & forbearance He said there was never greater need for a spirit of concession than at this time. No man knew when he went to bed at night whether when he arose in the morning the Government would be in existence. If measure obnoxious to a majority of the people of the country were passed the Government could not endure. In every point of view the negro bill was impolitic & uncalled for. Should it pass we should in all probability lose Maryland [[Ken.?]] [end page] [start page] 1863 Feb. & West Virginia besides running the risk of demoralizing the army now in the field. He had been told by officers of the army that if black soldiers were enlisted they would consider it a reflection upon the army & resign. The question of Interest before the Senate now is [[underlined]] "Emancipation in Missouri" That state has applied to Congress for pecuniary aide in freeing her negros. The Intelligencer is very indignant about the Porter Court Martial.--- Foreign Intervention still threatens us but Europe does not seem to regard favorably Pres. Davis' retaliatory proclamation denouncing death without mercy upon Gen. Butler & his officers & issued immediately after the Presidents Emancipation proclamation. Gen. Butler is to be reinstated in Command of the Gulf. 3rd. Tuesday 11h. A.M. Dr. [[Loney?]] came last night he is to lecture on Wednesday. Prof Hosford gave the last of his course last night. Prof Hosford saw Gen. Butler [[strikethrough]] last [[strikethrough] yesterday. It is said he is to take Stanton place as Secretary of War. The bill for raising 150,000 negro soldiers has been passed. It was proposed by Mr. Stevens & modified by Mr. Casey so as to exempt the states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia & Missouri from its operation & prevent negro officers from commanding white soldiers. Admiral Davis came in after lecture. Mr. [Welling?] was also here. He seems to think if we could have a great victory [end page]
[[start page]] 1863 Feb now on the [[?]]. we might hope for peace, As the South might then be willing to yield us Virginia & the North content to establish a boundary line. 4th. The news to night is of [[shining?]] interest The blockading squadron in Charleston harbour was attacked on the 31st by a small fleet under Com. Ingraham two of the vessels were sunk, 4 set on fire & the rest driven away. Dr. Loney's lecture was not very well attended on account of the cold. After lecture we had a visit from Mrs. Wiling & Ingraham from Boston & Mr. Brown of Phil. a lawyer & son of Brown the novelist. 7th. Sat. A visit from John Young. We have spent the morning in directing notes for Prof. Hosford. He is to show his bread making process to a number of influential people on Monday evening. hoping thus to have it introduced into the army Mrs. [[Shulie?]] was here about 2 h. the mingling of kindness & [[severity?]] in the old lady's manner amuses me. Dr. [[Loges?]] was here to dinner Prof. Chase made an engagement with him to spend the evening with Miss Chase. He says the young lady has a little dog very much like ours. Father Mother & Dr. Loney left this morning for Philadelphia. They will return on [[strikeout]] Monday or [[strikeout]] Tuesday or wednesday. 10th. Tuesday. The Prof. bread making passed off well [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Feb. many officers of high rank were present Gens. Heintzelman, Barnard & others. Miss Dix came in to tea. She looked very much fatigued. Mrs [[Merrick?]] did not forget us. Senator & Mrs. Foster went into the lecture room with us. The latter gave us a very kind invitation to visit them. a number of our friends came into our parlor after the lecture. 13th. A visit from Alfred Woodhull John Young & Mr. Harris. It was very hard to meet Alfred Herbert's footstep in the entry sounded so much like Will's I thought he was coming in to speak to him. 14th Saturday. Father & Dr Loney have gone to the club. Prof. Hosford has gone to the President's to exhibit his bread making process. Father at the dinner table to day amused Dr. Loney with an account of his first pair of boots. The cobbler who had the honour of making the aforesaid article was somewhat of a wag & as Father could not decide between the respective merits of the round toed & [[squaretoed?]], the two styles of boots then in voge, concluded to make one of each sort greatly to the [[??]] of [[his?]] satisfaction who I believe never [[decided?]] which was the most beautiful the square or the round [[toe?]]. He did not give quite all the story one of his scool companions [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 becoming emamoured with the boots put them on one day & ran off with them but was soon discovered by his tracks in the snow, the round toe & the pointed toe were unmistakable. The only thing of political interest this week is the attempt of France to negotiate peace between the North & South. All such propositions have been indignantly rejected by Mr. Seward. We have heard from Mrs. Bell through her daughter in law who is in the city Her circumstances are more comfortable than we supposed. Mr. Bell is with his first wife's children. ---- Gen Thomas Thumb & his tiny bride are at Willards. The wedding caused great excitement in N.Y. March 7th. 3 weeks have passed sine I last wrote. Within that time very little of importance has occured in regard to war matters. Vicksburg still remains in possession of the Southerners. Congress has adjourned or rather closed its session. The Conscription Bill has passed the House of Rep. by it all persons between the ages of 20 & 45 are liable to be drafted The law is very general in its provisions the only office holders exempted being the ^Vice President, the Heads of Departments & the Judiciary. We had a visit from Prof. Agassiz. The beautiful symplicity of his character is in charming contrast with his [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 March noble bearing. He was with us several days. He has been appointed Regent of the Smithsonian. Dr. Parker interested him in a very curious specimen of [[strikeout]] l [[strikeout]] natural History. The head of a man reduced to almost the size of man's fist, the bones having first been removed. It is to be brought to the Institution for inspection. MA & E.A. came on Saturday last. We sadly missed the greeting Will always gave them. Miss Dix was here on Sunday. Prof. Hosford left us on Tuesday. Mother & myself to ^day attended a meeting called to form [[strikeout]] an association [[strikeout]] a news boys home. 13th. Miss Hamilton was here this morning. She is the granddaughter of Gen. Hamilton. She is dark eyed with dark glossy braids of hair & exceedingly agreeable manners. Gen Casey's daughters came in while she was here to ask us to spend the evening with them very quietly. We excepted. There were no ladies there but ourselves Dr. Bacon came for us with an ambulance. We were well jolted as the streets have been completely ruined in that part of the city by the [[strikeout]] ambulances [[strikeout]] heavy army wagons. 16th. We passed last night with Mrs. Merrick. We went home with her from church & a storm of rain & sleet detained us. The good lady is very strong in her feeling against the Northerners. denouncing them in the most bitter terms. We realize the sad effects of this terrible war more than ever when we such kind natures as hers so transformed. At [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 March. her table sat a gentle ladylike girl, an orphan whom she treats as her child & a rosy cheeked boy waited upon us also an object of her charity. Sarah Hodge came to us to day. Sat 21st. This week as been a quiet one I am afraid for the girls We amused ourselves one evening in reading Frankenstein. Mr. Welling was here one night. To day Sarah went to the President's reception. To night John [[Torrey?]] has been assisting at a [[carousel?]] frolic. Father is in New York. Mon 23rd. We had all gone to bed on Saturday night when Father arrived. We did not expect him until to night. He came home with a violent cold. His visit in N.Y. was very pleasant He went with Capt. Davis & Dr. Buche to inspect the mode of connecting [[compasses?]] ^on board Iron vessels They were sent down to the [[Narrows?]] in a Government vessel. They have been appointed a committee to decide ^all scientific matters connected with the Navy At a soiree at the House of Mr. Bancroft saw the poets [[blank]] & [[blank]] was invited by [[blank]] to visit his Library. This was an especial treat as very few obtain admittance there. Several beautiful pieces of Statuary in the rooms excited Father's enthusiastic admiration. A visit from Mr. Harris & John [[Loring?]]. Sat. 28th. Have been busy all the week with the New Boys Association. Mother & myself fill the office of Sec. jointly. Father put my papers in the nicest sort of order for me to day it was very kind. He is still sick with his cold. The Alexandria [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 March. girls left us on Tuesday. Mr. Welling & Capt. have been here. Mon. 30 A visit from Mr. Lyon of Lyonsdale. He promised me a book, his photograph & a relic. a piece of a baloon made of the silk dresses of the ladies of Charleston. Mr. Lyon was instrumental in saving the relics of Gen. Washington at Arlington last summer. He is peculiar in his appearance, has a pair of dark eyes that twinkle under heavy eye brows & a long iron grey beard. Father once asked him mischievously how he obtained such a handsome wife. "Ah Prof" said he "I have a great deal of inward beauty." Dr. Bache Capt. Davis & Father are busy with their scientific naval business. 31st. Mr. [[Reese?] a member of the Hudson Bay Company is with us He has lived for a number of years in [[Mahenzius?]] River far away from civilization. & has given us many interesting facts about the Indians. He told us to day at dinner, that if they once taste human flesh the desire for it ever afterwards becomes insatiable He knew one Indian who had eaten his wife & [[six?]] children the latter in sight of the Fort when he might have obtained [[?]] food. He knew of two Europeans who had been killed by Indian women their flesh partly eaten & the rest salted down for future use. April 1st Wed.-- Mr. [[kerr?]], a Scotch clergyman dined with us. He seemed to think England very favorably disposed towards us. He thought at first she was inclined [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 April to sympathise somewhat with the South because that was the weaker party. After dinner Mr Kerr amused us, that is Father & myself by repeating some of Burns poems; his scotch accent & explanations of the purely scotch words made the poetry doubly pleasurable, Father enjoyed them exceedingly. Judge Mason came in soon so I was Mr. Herr's only auditer. He repeated some old Scotch ballads that were very quaint & pretty. After tea Dr Bache & Admiral Davis came in They have been appointed with Father a committee to settle Scientific questions arising in naval affairs. Mrs Bache accompanied the Dr. Capt Hague came to play chess with me. Tues. 3rd. Started on an expedition to the Observatory ^yesterday [[strikeout]] this [[strikeout]] morning; it is the first time we have been there this winter. We thought we should never reach there the mud was so deep [[strikeout]] & [[strikeout]] The army wagons have completely destroyed the streets in that part of the city. We stopped at Gen. Casey's on our way home to see Bessie. [[Staied?]] last at Mrs. Peale's went in the morning to see Miss Bates. It was the first regular visit made since Will's death & I dreaded it. Mrs. Bates was exceedingly kind, she is motherly & gentle I went to thank Miss Bates for the photograph of [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 April Father she had sent me. She was going with her sister to spend the morning in the Cemetery at Georgetown. They kindly asked me to accompany them [[I?]] proposed taking pencils & papers to sketch. It was a lovely day & I enjoyed the expedition greatly. The grounds never seemed more quietly beautiful. Miss Bates is determined to learn to sketch & we are to go again the next fine day. Miss Sally Bates is looking forward with great pleasure to visiting the army The President & others have made up a party for that purpose. Fri. 10th. The Battle of Charleston has at last commenced The Ironclads have at last reached their destination Com. Dupont has command of the fleet. The fortifications are exceedingly strong & we must expect sharp fighting. To day the Keokuk is reported to have been sunk. The excitement is great & papers are selling rapidly as a [[little?]] news boy one of our protege's told us. Sat. 11th A visit of Baron Gerolt. He came to see Father but not finding him at home gave me the pleasure of his company for a while. He said his daughters & his wife were very busy preparing to go to Europe in June. Carlotta is to be married. He wanted to see Father about a paper he is preparing for the Report. Carlotta has translated it for him. Speaking of the [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 April rainy weather we have had this winter, he said after all we were never satisfied in the world even had we every possible happiness we should still have something to wish for. When he was in Mexico once he thought he had at last found the perfection of weather, not a cloud to shadow the unbroken sunshine but he soon found himself longing for rain [[averying?]] for some change in the bright unclouded sky above him. Mon. 13th. Gen. Casey's was ordered off last week but Bessie told us yesterday he was not to go. Went this afternoon to enquire if Mrs Rodgers & heard any thing from the Capt. He is in command of the Weehawken one of the ironclads in the Charleston fleet. She had received no [[strikeout]] t [[strikeout]] letter but was comforted by hearing that his vessel had been struck 50 times without damage & not a man on board injured. She is of course exceedingly anxious. Little Willie & the baby were brought in to see us. Foster has been surrounded & defeated. Tuesday 14th. Miss Dix was here a little while this morning she has hurt her foot. Mother asked her when she was coming home to be [[nursed/married?]]. She said when the Rebellion was over She [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 April was in better spirits than I have seen her for some time. ---- Foster has not surrendered He is at Washington (N.C.) Surrounded, but boldly challenges the Southerners to take the place. No additional news from Charleston. Father is in the Study with the Naval Commission. He expects to leave for N.Y. on Saturday. Capt Davis & Dr. Bache have just gone The Commission seems to have had a pleasant evening. We asked why they were laughing as they went down stairs. He said, he remarked to Capt Davis that in criticising the inventions sent for their approval, in condemning & making objection they had given exercise to their [[bad?]] passions, the architects of ruin] were always more successful than those of construction. Capt Davis said "yes, but [[underlined]] apparently [[underlined]] it had been the object of his life to suppress his virtues & [[encourage?]] his vices, to cultivate a good stomach & a bad heart." 15th. The carpenter came in this morning with a report that the city was in a great state of excitement, in consequence of a rumor that Harper's Ferry was in the hands of the rebels The "star" this evening says there is no foundation for such a report. The Intelligencer this morning contained an account of the [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 April battle of Charleston, it is fruitless, but was bravely fought, The Weehawken led the fleet, She advanced boldly undaunted by heavy fire from Fort Sumter until stopped by a [[Hauser?]] [[stretched?]] across the channel hung with torpedos & c forming an effectual barrier to further progress. The scene which followed was terrific beyond description Shells tried their strength in vain against the stone walls of Sumter, destructive missels fell harmlessly from the sides of the Ironclads, but though fighting bravely & well the gallent commanders were obliged to turn at last & the fleet steamed slowly out of the inhospitable harbor. Most of the vessels received some slight injury The Keokuk alone received her death blow, [[Torn?]][[strikeout]] h [[strikeout]] after crossing the bar she gave signals of distress & her officers of & crew had barely time to leave her before she sunk beneath the waves. So ends the great Charleston expedition so long the subject of speculation & wonder. It is said this evening the fleet is to be sent to join Capt. Farragut. Father has praised a letter I have written to Mrs. Senator Wilson I am as happy as a queen. Sat. 18th. Father had gone to the Club. He expected to go to N.Y. to day but did not like to leave home when Nell was sick. She has a very bad cold. There is a rumour to night that [[Suffolk?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[torn top of the page]] sorry is taken. Mr. Lyon of ^Lyonsdale was here while we were out to bring me a piece of a rebel balloon he promised me As his photograph he left one of an ugly old Indian. I shall tell him I am glad he put his name upon it as I should not have recognized it, the Sun certainly does not flatter him. Tues. 21st, A visit from Gen. Casey & daughter in the evening. Wed 22. Received our cards of invitation to day [[strikeout]] from [[strikeout]] for the ball at the [[blank]] Minister's given in honor of his daughter's marriage. A visit of Dr.----. went this afternoon to see Mary Felton She is nurse in the Hospital opposite to us. We found giving out medicines the ward ^over [[strikeout]] in [[strikeout]] which she presides looked exceedingly comfortable & pleasant. The one adjoining hers, under the care of Miss Lowell of Cambridge, some relative of the poet [[strikeout]] look [[strikeout]] was very prettily ornamented with green crosses. Father is in New York, we miss him greatly. Fri. 24th. Miss Dix looked in upon us for a few moments She greatly disapproves of young ladies being [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[torn top of page]] 1863 April 25th. employed as nurses. She was very sorry to hear Mary Felton was here in that capacity. We expect Father to night. He went to New York partly on Naval Commission business but also to attend the meeting for the formation of the National Academy. We saw by the papers on Wed. he presided. We have not received a letter from him since he left. Mon. 27th. Father arrived about six o'clock. His visit in N.Y. was pleasant. He was appointed to preside at the meetings for the formation of the National Academy but declined all permanent office, since being virtually President of the Smithsonian, he would have much [[business?]] to transact with the Academy & could not therefore be very well one of its officers. Father expressed to the Academy, his estimation of the great responsibility of the Institution how important it was that every member should be hard working. Should any fail to bring forth [[fruits?]], they should be excluded & their places supplied by those who hearty exertions would [[favor?]] the cause of science. [[end page]] [[start page]] April 27th. Father said the giving of the oath of Allegiance was very impressive. It was first administered to him by prof. Caswell. After which in his office of presiding he gave it to the 33 members present. they all standing & repeating it after him. Some objections were made to the oath at first on the ground that as it excluded from the Society all who had ever taken up arms against the government. Southern [[Secessionists?]] should our country be united would be debarred from being members, this difficulty was settled by the agreement that the oath should be the same as that of the Senate & change when that changed. Thursday 31st. I find I have made a mistake of a day or two in my dates this month somewhere I must be more careful in future. This is [[Fast?]] Day we attended church in the morning heard a sermon not at all tended to excite humility since the clergyman spent a least an hour in [[debating?]] upon our grandeur, our extent our immeasurable superiority over all nature our eneffable ^greatness past present & to come. In the evening we went to hear Mr. Sunderland who in a notice in the Intelligencer & other papers had signified his intention of "[[displaying/defining?]] his position" his church might be disintegrated [[end page]]
[[start page]] April 31st. Himself dischared from his Pastorate but he considered that it was every ones duty in the present dreadful crisis to express a positive & fearless opinion. After the Bombastes Furioso [[notice?]] of the little man we felt anxious to hear him but the house was so crowded we found it impossible to get inside of the doors. May Sat. 2nd. Read aloud this Afternoon to Father & Nell from Madame [[D?]] [[blank space]] letters. She describes the Cathedral at Exeter Father said he had seen it & was exceedingly impressed with its beauty, He was told to take off his hat when he entered, but the injunction was quite unnecessary he should have done so involintarily. The Army of the Patomac has at last moved various rumours are afloat concerning it. Mon. 4th. Went this morning to Armory Hospital to see Mary [[Felton?]]. While I was there a comotion in the street called our attention & going to the door we saw passing a number of rebel prisoners walking two abreast with a federal soldier on each side of them. They were mostly dressed in Virginia homespun & seemed to be labouring men rather than soldiers: some of them appeared to be very feeble. 800 are said to have been brought in to day but I think the number must have been exagerated. Gen. Hooker has crossed the Rap. [[end page]] [[start page]] April in several places & is moving "onward to Richmond There has been some terrible fighting but it is impossible to found out whether we are victorious. Mrs. Olmstead stopped at the door this evening just before tea & told us. we had been successful but that our loss was great.- 10h. P.M.- Henry the watchman has just come in; he says it is reported in the city that gens. Sickles & Sykes are both killed. Father had gone out with Mr. Patterson an Irish gentleman travelling in this country & intensely interested in our affairs. Later -- Father has just returned he went to [[see?]] Mr. Sumner with Mr. Patterson & had a very interesting interview with him. He said one thing that surprised me much that he had strongly opposed the [[retaking?]] of Fort Sumter & had told the President that such a measure would certainly bring on the war. Father said a number of ambulances had been sent down ^to the [[warf?]] for the wounded from the Rapahannock. From the great reserve in regard to our supposed victories he seems to think with [[me?]] that they may possibly turn out a defeat. -- Still later -- Father has been reading scraps of Johnson's poetry much to our mutual enjoyment. He like his poems very much, his favorite being [[blank]] It is almost twelve oclock. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 May 5th. Went this morning to the News Boys Home A flag was floating from one of the windows in honour of our victories. are they such I wonder: Mrs. Bliss our Treasurer is in trouble her husband surgeon of Armory Square Hospital has been arrested on charge of having accepted a bribe. Miss Ripley came in, her manners are graceful & gentle. The town is filled with rumours. Gen Couch as well & Gens. Sickles & Sykes is said to be killed. I am afraid our troops have suffered terribly. A relative of one of the employees of the Institution returned to day from the scene of action says his company was entirely [[cut?]] pieces. Wed. 6th. The "Times" gives a full account of the late military operations in the vacinity of Fredericksburg. A week from last Monday the army commenced to move crossing the river at three places. A few companies were sent over 2 miles below Fredericksburg to [[arrouse?]] the enemy & withdraw their attention from the main body of the army which [[crossed?]] at Kelly's & United States Fords about 8 & 11 miles above the city. Those two detachments uniting, formed a line of battle stretching some distance beyond chancellor (which is about 25 miles from Fred.) & towards the river The most important position was of course [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 May on the extreme right as the enemy would of course attack that in order to bend our lines back & open the route to Richmond. This was given to Karl Schurtz who upon the charge of the Southerners fled ingloriously with his German troops. Gen. Berry a favorite officer of Gen. Hooker was sent to the rescue & acquitted himself well preventing the further advance of the enemy. Karl Schurtz in spite of his disgraceful retreat was again intrusted with an important post again was obliged to quit the field. Gen Berry crossing as before to the rescue. This gallant officer [[on/in?]] a third brave charge was killed. After hard fighting the Southerners succeeded in getting in our rear so our lines were changed forming a triangle. Chancellorsville forming the apex. which is the present position of our forces. Chancellor consisting of only one house was destroyed. The losses on both sides has been terrible in the extreme. if many more such encounters take place there will be no men left on either side to fight. All that I have been [[writing?]] occupied the week but the worse fighting was on Sunday. We are said to be victorious but I do not see but I do not see what the Southerners have gained all they desired driving us back while the passage of Richmond is open. Our position now is said to be very strong & the men are in good spirits. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 May. The news to night is that Gen. Sedgwick who executed the feint below Richmond has recrossed the river. Gen. Sherman who was detached on a seperate commission when the army moved is said to have advanced within 5 miles of Richmond burning bridges, destroying railroads, cutting off as much as possible all communication between the rebels & their Capitol. Gen Jackson is said to be wounded he would be a great lost to them Gen. Sickles is wounded but not killed as was reported last night. England seems to be in a bad humor just now. She does not like the seizure of British ships in neutral waters & the protection granted by Mr. Adams to Mexican traders. Mr. Roebuck made a speech in Parlement announcing himself in favor of putting down the "upstart insolence" of the U.S. Lord Palmerston is in our favor. Father has just looked up from his books to say what a wonderful thing is memory some association of Ideas had bought to is mind a certain passage in a book he had not opened or thought of for thirty years & now some little combination of circumstances had brought vividly before him every thing connected with the reading of it time place & [[strikeout]] so [[strikeout]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 [[strikeout]] May [[strikeout]] June 18th. We have been in Princeton, that is Carry & I to attend Mary Alexander's wedding. It passed off pleasantly & she is now making a tour of the Lakes, Niagara, Montreal &c. We had a letter from her to day --- We returned just a week ago to day - We found an addition to the family in the shape of an infant which had been left at the door of the Institution. It is with us still. Excitement has been intense the week throughout the country on account of the rebel raid into Penn. An immense body of troops was supposed to have invaded the State. & the President called for a large addition to the troops already in service -- In Phil the tolling of the State House Bell announced the danger & the citizens hastened to enlist for the defence of their capitol. The stores were closed & the money at the Mint & banking houses sent out of the city. All this consternation was caused by a body of calvery about 1800 strong under Jenkins, which crossing the Patomac at Williamsport proceeded to Hagerstown & Chambersburg. Horses, cattle, & forage seems to have been the sole object of the expedition. Our city also was in a state of panic on Monday last. Hooker was supposed to be in full retreat & the South it was supposed might be [[down?]] upon us any moment. Prof. Hossford has just been here he gave us a description of some theatricals of the [[B?? Children]] [[?]] our army the number for the benefit of the [[medical?]] Commission, Mr. Everett who was present sent their [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 June. $25.00 as his admission fee. The Scientific commission consisting at present of only Admiral Davis & Father are in secret counsil. Our forces have left Fredericksburg & the two grand armies seem to be preparing for a terrible struggle in the vacinity of Bull's Run. 27th. Sat. I am sitting up today for the first time after a fit of sickness. The Rebels seem to be advancing upon Harrisburg & Philadelphia but this is supposed by some to be a feint, their real destination being Washington. Even the negros are being enrolled for the defense of the city. A number of troops have been sent off to Balt. as that city also is thought to be in danger. Chief Justice Taney thinks we have reason to fear an attack. --- One of the men in the Institution has just announced that the Southerners are within four miles of the chain Bridge but this is probably only a rumor. Prof Longfellow the poet is in town he has been intending to call upon us but prevented by the illness of his son. 29th. Yesterday morning (Sunday) It was reported the rebels had taken possession of York. ^In the [[evening?]] While we were at tea. Our attention was called to signal lights at the top of the Capitol. They were to warn the Forts to be ready in case of an attack. [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 June 29th The night was one of anxiety. To day we learn that a large body of [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] army wagons about 125 were taken by the enemy within eight miles of Georgetown. This morning two ladies connected with the Sanitary commission were here. They were just from Alexandria. They were anxious to remove certain boxes containing stores for wounded soldiers to Balt. but were very much afraid that all communication between that city & Wash. would be cut off before they could succeed in so doing. They said our Grand "Army of the Patomac" was nothing to boast of now, it did not number more than 60 000 men That no one knew what was the intention of the Southerners, that the advance on Richmond might be only a feint. It seemed probable that they intended to cut off all railroad communication with Washington & then take the place. It is said to night that the rail road between Phil & Balt. has been broken but that may be only a rumour. The Northern Central has certainly been injured. There is said to be fighting at Harrisburg to day. That city is of course in a state of intense excitement. I went to dine with Mr. [[Gulicks?]] this evening. We went to the Soldier's Home where the President now resides, we met him returning with his body guard about 20 mounted men following his carriage He seemed so oppressed with care & anxiety I [[end page]]
1863 June. 29. pitied him sincerely. Further on we encountered a body of cavalry & army wagons moving in the direction of Rockville about 12 miles ^from Georgetown where the southerners are said to be with a force of 10 000 men. They were fully equiped for war. There are signal lights again from the Capitol what they portend we know not. Gen Mead has been given the command of the army Gen Hooker not proving himself equal to our present emergency & Gen Butler has been appointed Sec. of War. Two important moves in the game we are playing whether for or against us time must tell. Trains of cars have been running all day from Alexandria heavily laden with Government stores. Everything valuable is being brought away from there I suppose for fear of an attack. Father & Mother have just come in from the city. Father saw a young man at the book store who had been sent ^this morning with stationary to the army now at Frederick but was taken prisoner at Rockville He said the rebels were in force there. [[strikeout]] that [[strikeout]] they were well dressed and mounted. They released him on parole. The people in Rockville were all secessionist & were entertaining the soldiers with generous hospitality. Should our Northern men take their place perhaps they would be found to be equally loyal. [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863. June 30th Tues. Various rumours are afloat to day but it is difficult to know what to believe. The Rebels at Rockville seem to be a body of cavalry under Gen [[Stuart/Stewart?]] on their way to join the main body of the army which is supposed to concentrating some where near Gettysburg. Paid a visit to Prof Matill in his room this evening & watched him make a casting of a South American idol. Father read Chalk on the war after tea. He likes his views very much. July 1st. Wed. Mr & Mrs. Peale & Mr. Welling spent the evening with us. In speaking of the improvements which may be made in the city Father said when he first came here he had taken great interest in the matter & had made great efforts for the carrying out of certain plans for beautifying the city but met with so little encouragement from the mean self interested motives & petty party spirit of men in office that he became disgusted. It was through his influence however that the range of parks from the Capitol to the river were left open & so many of the triangular spaces along Penn. Av. fenced in & planted with shrubbery. Mr Peale in speaking of the war thought we had the rebels now completely in our power. If Government were to intrust him with our [[army/s?]] he thought he could surround & completely destroy them without the slightest hope of escape. Father without meaning to be personal to Mr. Peale told an amusing [[?]] anecdote of [[blank space]] speaking of [[end page]]
1863 July 1st the genius of Shakespere said he did not think him at all remarkable he could himself write as good plays [[underlined]]"if he had a mind to" He said "if you had a [[underline]] mind to." Harrisburg is still [[of/safe?]] troops are rapidly arriving for its protection. Six bridges have been burned upon the Northern Central railroad. 2nd. Thursday. Went to Mrs. Peale's this afternoon to meet Father & Mother Miss Dix was there. She seemed to be in good spirits & was playfully upbraiding Father for not speaking to her in the streets. She said some of the rebels had been in the city on Monday night attending the theatre & others had passed the evening with their friends. Saw Gen. Casey went to his boarding house to enquire if his daughter had gone & found him sitting on the porch reading a book of Hebrew prayers. 3rd. Exciting news to night, a great battle yesterday between the combined armies of Lee & Meade near Gettysburg our arms said to be successfull but two of our Generals Reynolds & Paul killed. Gen Rosecrans has driven the enemy quite out of Tenn. after bloody battle at Tullahoma. 4th. The day unusually quiet. Went to the hospital in the evening the men had a supper given them in honour of the day. A band discoursed sweet music for some time in front of the wards. Mary & some of the other nurses passed the evening with us. [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 July 6th. Mon. the fighting at Gettysburg commenced on Wed. & continued on Thursday & Friday. The loss on both sides has been terribly severe but the Rebels are in full retreat. Their bridge at Williamsport has been destroyed & the rain has swollen the river so that the [[fords?]] must be impassable. Their retreat seems to be cut off. Gen. Lee in this move has evidently trusted too much to the incapacity of Hooker. 8th. Vicksburg is ours. I passed last night with Mrs. Peale. The President & Secretaries were [[serenaded?]] & speeches were made by the dignitaries in honour of the recent victories. We heard the distant music & shouts & Mr. Peale reported the speeches. The President commenced his with the stupendous announcement that the 4th of July was a remarkable day with the reasons for its being so considered & ended with the elegent expression that on this particular 4th the Rebels had "turned tail & run". Mr. Sewards speech was fine. 100 guns have been fired today for the taking of Vicksburg. Mary Felton & her friend Dr. Bowen passed the evening with us. Father gave us two reminiscences of his boyish days that were interesting. When he was a tiny little fellow he crept into a bakers wagon & was let down in State Street (Albany) for the first time He saw the big state House at one end & the cross [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 July 8th. below & thought in an agony of apprehension that he was completely surrounded by houses from which their was no outlet such was his first glimpse of the street which the Albanians regard with so much pride. He was once walking with one of his boyish companions & happened to enquire who lived in a certain house. I don't know but Ill find out said the boy & springing up the steps rang the bell. "Does Mr. Brown live here "yes" said the man who came to the door I am Mr. Brown somewhat taken aback at this information he asked his Christian name. John Brown said the man, Oh the person I wanted to see is Jim Brown a colored man. This did not mend matters & the young scape grace was unceremoniously kicked off the porch. July 9th. Went to the Hospital to see Mary Felton, most of the men are convalesing rapidly some few badly wounded, looked dolefull with their confined limbs. Our forces are persuing the Rebels, the river is entirely unfordable but Gen Lee's men are said to be making a bridge near Williamsport. If they do not succeed in crossing we must expect a very terrible battle. Sat. 11th. Mary Felton left this morning her place has been supplied by one of the nurses from Chester Hospital Reports from the upper Patomac give indication that a battle may be fought within 48 hours. Gen Lee has possession of the heights on the Hagerstown [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863. July side of Antietam creek & his headquarters are in the town. There is a rumour tonight that the fighting has commenced. Lee position seems to be strong He is acting now on the defensive, [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] holds the stone bridge over the Antietam at Funkstown. The banks of the creek in that vicinity are bold & the ravine deep so that it will be difficult for our forces to cross unless we gain possession of the bridge. Stewart Patterson has lost four fingers of his right hand in one of the recent engagements. Wed. 15th. A visit from Mr. Frank. He had just come from Gettysburg. Said the appearance of the battle field was still too dreadful to be described, numbers of horses lay putrifying in the sun most of the men had been buried, long mounds marking the principal places of interment. Many were buried separately with neat wooden head boards. On one had been nailed the bottom of the man's napsack on which his name had been painted. In the cemetary where the worst part of the fighting had taken place he found the graves of three men from his own village lying side by side. The college building was a hospital for the rebels. He conversed with some of them. They were undiscouraged. The village of Gettysburg was filled with the wounded almost every house was a hospital. The incidents of those terrible three days will [[strikeout never [[strikeout]] be [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863. July long remembered in that vicinity. Port Hudson is ours. The Rebels have escaped Gen. Meade & are in Virginia greatly to the chagrin of the Government. Sat. 18th. We have been greatly excited for the last [[strikeout?]][[week?]] days by the accounts of the terrible mob in New York. railroads have been torn up, houses & other property ^destroyed, & the lives of many of the citizens sacrificed to the fury of men governed only by their passions. Resistance to the draft had been expected but no such frightful scenes as these. There has been some [[trouble?]] in Boston also in Troy & other northern cities. but none in Phil. _ Victory has smiled upon the union arms this week besides the surrender of Port Hudson. Gen. Bragg has been forced to retreat to Altona Georgia leaving east Tenn. free of Rebels & Joe Johnstons has been defeated in Miss. Mon 20th. Bad news from Mr. Bell Father saw Mr. Welling yesterday who said Mr. B. was dangerously ill. He promised to come & give us particulars. Went to Mrs Hodge's to dinner yesterday saw the flag Capt. Rodgers captured from the [[blank space]] She was a very fine vessel [[strikethough]] & had been [[strikethrough]] which had run the blockade into charleston's harbour. had been iron clad by the Southerners & sent [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 July forth with the confident hope that she would annihilate the blockading fleet. The flag is very pretty white, with a St Andrews cross in [[blank space]] with white stars on a square of in the corner. The rioters are quelled in N.Y. Several places in New Jersey have been affected by the discontent & even little Princeton assumed a hostile attitude & attempted to stop the passage of troops on their way to New York. T. 21st Carlotta Gerolt was married to day. She has been engaged for several years Madame Gerolt said she met Mr. Ward at a place on the Rhine where she had been invited to spend her first three months after leaving school. The 9 weeks passed under the same roof led to an engagement which the Baron consented to ratify at the end of [[5?]] years if they should continue of the same mind, holding no [[interview?]] in the interim. Their mutual constancy has been rewarded. He is in British India service. Fighting has commenced at Charleston by land & sea. The brave Weehawken is of the fleet she led the last engagement Wed. 23rd. Mr. Welling here says Mr. Bell very ill. [[G?]] gone on to see him. Mon. 27. Saw Baron Gerolt yesterday at Mr [[Kennedys?]] said the family would leave here soon. Went [[end page]]
[[start page]] 1863 July. to Prof. [[Malile?]] this morning to learn how to [[cast]]. The Southerners have succeeded in Crossing the Blue Ridge. After trying several of the Gaps they forced that of Chester & are now in their old field of action. I suppose we shall have another panic in Washington before long The venerable Mr Crittenden is dead. Nov. 14th Monday Nell & myself came home last Monday from the country after an absence of almost three months. We chose the beautiful valley of Wyoming for our summer residence. It is about three miles in width & lies between two ranges of high hills the Susquehanna flowing through its centre. The views in every direction are exceedingly beautiful & the historical associations connected with the controversies of the early settlers & the Indian atrocities are exceedingly interesting. A monument is erected on the spot where perished most of the brave men who [[strikeout]] perished [[strikeout]] ^fell in the terrible massacre immortalized in Campbell's poem. -- The first few day Father was with us & we ^that is Cary & myself had the pleasure of going with him through one of the coal mines of the district. We stepped upon a wooden platform & slowly descended a shaft 190 ft. in depth [[?]] from the square opening at the top until ^[[b?]] on the ground we found over ourselves in black darkness faintly illuminated by the lamps held [[end page]] [[start page]] by our guards we waited a few moments to get our eyes to use a mining phrase & then proceeded along a low arched way the sides & top of coal as we could see ^only when we approached our lamps close enough to its [[jetty/jelly?]] surface ^following the course of a narrow rail road. Suddenly from out the distant darkness a faint star appeared growing brighter & brighter until the blackened face of miner peered through the darkness the lamp in his hat shedding a faint ray of light We saw more of these moving stars from time to time until we came upon quite a collection of them, the ^dirty forms of the miners faintly visible as they stood [[around?]] a large grate full of burning coal placed at the mouth of one of the air shafts for the ventilation of the mine the hot air rising producing an ^upward current which carries off the impurity from below. We proceeded a little further to where the men were preparing to blast & then not unwillingly retraced our steps to an inclined plane up which we climbed over heaps of fine coal until we came into a part of the mine now no longer worked. Here Mr Minor one of the gentlemen who accompanied us fired a blue light & then for the first time we had some idea of a coal mine Before us behind us, in every direction stretched away the ^dusky arches of coal supported by massive square columns of the same [[strikeout]] dusky [[strikeout]] material seamed at regular intervals with slate while the blazing light gave a strange unearthly look to the scene suddenly [[end page]]
1863 Nov. 14th. we were in darkness again, one more allumination we had & then a faint streak of of what appeared very much like moonlight appeared [[strikethrough]] from [[strikethrough]] in the distance from what appeared to be a very small opening but which gradually seemed to increase in size as we approached until a lovely picture of rural beauty presented itself to our admiring eyes through the mouth of the mine, very glad were we to see once more the light of day. [[Wearied?]] with our exertions we seated ourselves on some fragments of slate & while selecting from these specimens [[strikethrough]] of [[strikethrough]] containing impressions of fern leaves refreshed ourselves with the contents of a basket which had been carefully carried by one of the party. Before us lay the [[entrance?]] to the mine, a succession of low arches in the side of the hill, reminders of the pictures I had seen of ancient tombs in Egypt. I told Mr. Minor so & remarking that these coal formations were older and older than the monuments even of that [[hoary?]] age, he repeated these beautiful lines to an Egyptian mummy which have always been such a favorite with Father. The remained of the day was passed in driving over the valley & in enjoying the exquisite views. The next week Father & Cary left us for the Lakes & Niagara & Mother Nell & myself moved from the mountain house where we had been staying to the town of Wilkesbarre where we remained for six weeks. We were there [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Nov. 14th. during the election for Governor great complaints were made by the Democrats that the Republican soldiers were allowed to return home & vote while the Dems. were kept away & so the election carried by fraud. The same was said to be the case in Phil. The [[amish?]] are mostly democrats & greatly opposed to the war fears are entertained that when the draft is enforced they will rebel. [[strikethrough]] The secon[[strikethrough]] In my humble opinion we have every reason now to fear civil war between the Republican & the Democrats our country is in a terrible state. Far away from political excitement & enchanted by the beautiful hills of Wilkesbarre I ^have barely opened a newspaper during my absence so that I know very little of what has been going on. The repeal of the Habeas Corpus the foundation of our own & well as English liberty could not fail to excite us however even there & lead us to wonder at the [[daring?]] of the despotism that now rules us. We have been defeated in the west but have gained in a late engagement in Virginia, our victory seemed to have been a bloody one however, most of the wounded have been brought to the hospitals near us. We saw two from [[rebels?]] [[there?]] on [[Wednesday?]] [[there?]] was one shot though the head the other [[one]], the lungs. I [[suspect?]] they will die. Will this miserable war never end? Father has gone to the club tonight, before [[end page]]
1863 Nov. 14 he went he was reading a book on Swedenbourgianism by Mr. James. A former pupil of his & who has always been grateful to him. When Father was going abroad Mr. James asked him to purchase him some books & placing a sum of money in his hand told him to use the balance as he chose. Father was greatly surprised to find it was $250, He purchased philosophical [[instruments?]] with it, now in Princeton college. Miss Chase was married on Thursday. Father went to the reception in the evening. Her dress was of white velvet. She is very pretty & interesting & the groom Gov. Sprague is agreeable I hope their future may be happy. I forgot to say that we met Mrs. Bell in Phil. She has gone through much hardship while living in Nashville but is looking well. She told us many sad tales of the cruelty of the soldiers to the people there, but they are balanced by others equally harrowing which we hear of the southerners. Human nature is the same North & South & when men are allowed unbridled reign to their passions they will commit like outrages upon their fellow men wherever they may be. This mutual recriminations is what separates us making us forget we are brothers. ^A party of Our friends in Phil made a visit to Gettysburg while we were there. They said many of the bodies still lay unburied or at least the skeletons for only bones lay whitening in the [[end page]] [[start page]] 1863 Nov. 14th [[strikethrough]] ? [[strikethrough]] one of them ^had gradually sunk until it lay at [[strikethrough]] lay at [[/strikethrough]] full length in a stream beside which the brave soldier had met his. One of the young ladies [[wishing?]] a button from a coat that lay half covered with [[soil?]] was horrified when told the garment was attached to a body. Every where in the town marks of the dreadful affray were [[seen?]]. A young girl was the only female killed frightened by the storm of bullets falling round the house in which she was alone with her mother she entreated the latter to retire with ^her to the cellar. But to do so they would have been obliged to pass into the open air & thinking they were safer where they were the mother refused. A few seconds after her daughter fell dead at her feet shot by a bullet passing through the room. She was obliged to remain alone with the corpse until the cannonading was over. Such is ^but one of a thousand sad scenes [[induced?]] by this terrible war. " 19th. Had a delightful walk in the woods with Mr. Harris & [[Mrs.?]] Young. Made a translation from the Magazin Pittoresque for Father of a notice of the regulation of pensions in ____ in ______ Father gave it to Mr. Welling in the evening for the Intelligencer. 20. Went to the Navy Yard to see one of the Monitors there for repairs. She is a flat boat only a few inches above the water with nothing to be seen upon her iron plated deck but a steam pipe a tall pipe for ventilation a few little holes here & there for the same purpose which are tightly closed however when the boat is at sea and a round turret. We climbed into this through a small opening & saw her great
[[start page]] 1863 Nov. 20. guns One of them is a monster the other some what smaller but large enough to make one shiver at the thought of the damage she might do. The turret can be turned in any direction. 18 men are required to man the guns how they can find the room in the confined space round them I cannot imagine. The greatest [[danger?]] they are exposed to is the loosening of the bolts fastening the iron plates which are sometimes driven into the turret by the robust concussions causing great damage. The quarters for the officers & men are of course entirely under water they seem to be quite comfortable although very small. It is very difficult to ventilate the vessel the pipe for that purpose we observed on deck is a new invention. We were shown an engine for pumping in the air through the opening in ^the top of the Turret. After leaving the Monitor we went on board of another vessel, which has been awaiting government order for three [[strikethrough]] weeks [[strikethrough]] months. She has an apparatus for heating the steam after it comes from the boiler & so a greater amount of the power is produced from the same amount of fuel. Capt Blake her commander received a sword for gallant conduct on board the Hatteras which was sunk by the Privateer Alabama. In the evening Miss Felton, the Misses [[Blagden?]] & Mr Welling Mr. Harris & [[strikethrough]] the [[strikethrough]] took tea with us. 21st. Father read poetry to me all the evening admiring Mr ___ the most 23rd. Saw Mrs. Hodge after church on Sunday. She said Capt Rodgers was preparing to sail. He has been very ill during the summer. Com Shubric is very ill with fever Father saw his daughter Mrs Chamber to day she fears [[end page]] [[start page]] he cannot recover. I asked Father how I knew that my [[nephew?]] was [[written upside down on top margin]] like myself whether he saw as I did & he said from the [[consideration?]] [[end top margin note likely continuing with left margin note as follows]] Of impression from the fact that we can reason from [[ideology?]] & understand each other when we so reason. He said it was a subject that had puzzled him greatly when he was a boy. Nov. 24th. Rain all day. Father made experiments in regard to the specific gravity of oils. He said he judged whether they more less viscid by the velocity with which they spouted out through a hole in the bottom of ^a vessel into which they were poured. He judged that all liquids ought to flow ^they sink on [[?]]with equal velocity for although some are much heavier than others, as mercury than water the weight upon each atom as it passes out from the superincumbent atoms of the liquid is proportionally greater in one case than the other When reading about Specific Gravities He said it amused him now to think how some old women that he knew when he was boy used to obtain the specific gravity of their soft soap boiling the lye they obtained from ashes until an egg which would sink in water would swim in [[strikethrough]] [[water?]] [[strikethrough]]. He said it was a great disappointment to him that Will could not follow in his footsteps. he had manifested a great taste for Nat Phil. when he was a very little boy but as Father was not attached to [[Princenton?]] college while he was there his attention was turned in other directions. [[end page]]
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[[start page]] May God keep thee Father dear Keep thee through the coming year All over [[end page]] [[start page]] To [[Amnviker?]] [[faolltu?]] [[inf]] [[end page]]
[[upside down page, when righted this is the left-hand page]] [[start page]] Ruisseaux à la molle haleine, Ah ! Si j’avais votre voix ! Si seulement, ô mon âme! Ce Dieu dont l’amour t’enflamme Comme le feu, l’aquilon, Au zèle ardent qui t’embrase Accordait, dans une extase Un mot – pour dire son nom ! Son nom, tel que la nature Sans parole le murmure, Telle que le savent les dieux Ce nom que l’aurore voile, Et dont l’étoile a l’étoile Est l’écho mélodieux. Les ouragans, le tonnerre, Les mers, les feux et la terre Le tairaient pour l’écouter ; Les airs ravis de l’entendre S’arrêteraient pour l’apprendre, Les deux pour le répéter. Ce nom seul, redit sans cesse, Soulèverait ma tristesse [[end page]] [[start page]] Dans ce vallon de douleurs, Et je dirais sans me plaindre: Mon dernier jour peut s'éteindre, J'ai dit sa gloire, et je meurs! [[text in old German script (Sütterlin) transcribed below in modern German script]] Kosziusko Fordre Niemand mein Schicksal zu hören, Dem das Leben noch wonnevoll winkt. Ja, wohl, könnte ich Geister beschwören, Die der Acheron besser verschlingt. Aus dem Leben, mit Schlachten umkettet, Aus dem Kampfe, mit Lorbeeren umlaubt, Hab ich nichts, hab ich gar nichts gerettet, Als die Ehr und das alternde Haupt. “ Keine Hoffnung ist Wahrheit geworden Selbst des Jünglings hochklopfende Brust Hat im Liebe blühenden Norden Seiner Liebe Zu des Vaterlands Rettung berufen, Aus dem Kampfe von Rossen umschubt Blieb mir unter den feindlichen Hufen Wer die Ehr und das alternde Haupt. [[end page]]
[[upside-down page on the left]] Elle s'use et se consume Comme un aiglon dont la plume N'aurait pas encore grandi, Dont l'oeil aspire à sa sphère, Et qui rampe sur la terre Comme un reptile engourdi. Ah! ce qu'aux anges j'envie N'est pas l'éternelle vie, Ni leur glorieux destin: C'est la lyre, c'est l'organe Par qui même un coeur profane Peut changer l'hymne san fin! Quelque chose en moi soupire, Aussi doux que le zéphyr Que la nuit laisse exhaler, Aussi sublime que l'onde, Ou que la foudre qui gronde; Et mon coeur ne peut parler! Océan, qui sur tes rives Épands tes vagues plaintives, Rameaux murmurants des bois, Foudre dont lanue est pleine. [[end page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[upside-down page]] L'Exorde de l'oraison funébre de la reine Henriette d'Angleterre par Bossuet Celui qui regne dans les cieux et de qui relèvent tous les empires, à qui seul appartient la gloire, la majesté et l'indépendence est aussi le seul qui se glorifie de faire la loi aux rois et de leur donner quand il lui plait de grandes et terrible leçons. Soit qu'il élève les thrônes, soit qu'il les abbaisse, soil qu'il communique sa puissance aux princes, ou qu'il la retire Lui-même et ne leur laisse que leur propre faiblesse, il leur fait voir leurs devoirs d'une manière souveraine et digne de Lui. Car en leur donnant la puissance, il leur commande d'en user comme il fail Lui-même pour le bien du monde. Et Il leur fait voir en la retirant, que toute leur majesté est empruntée, et que pour être assis sur le thrône, ils n'en sont pas moins sous sa main, et sous son autorité suprême. C'est ainsi qu'il instruit les Princes, non seulement par des discours et par des paroles, mais encore par des effect, et par des exemples. Et maintenant, Entendez oh grands de la terre, instruisez-vous, arbitres du monde! [[end page]]
[[upside-down copy of poem in English pasted over, French page]] Thoughts while curling Carrie's hair Sister--I twine thy glossy Locks As oft in days gone by Has times that steals with stealthy step Touched them to silently? Yes longer darker now they flow Unlike the golden spray That round the dimpled rosy face A golden cloud did stray. Softly they steal around the cheek Time's touch has made so bright The eye upraised to mine me thinks Beams with a different light. Childhood is fleeting fast away While girlhood steals apace Upon thine earnest brow e'en now It's downy touch I trace. [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 dog -1 4 1/2 doz. 4 N = 2 Dresses Oct 14 Oct 2 21 Chemis 8 4 5 22 [[drawers?]] 4 4 2 23 24 Hose 8 2 L 25 Skirts 7 4 U 26 [[P.fc?]] 4 9 Y 27 Nap. 4 W 28 collars [[9?]] 1 1 111 Y 29 sleeves 1 1 1 Y 30 cuffs 2 Nell 62 1/2 Y 31 NY 1 --- -- 3 3 I [[?]] 85 1 1 186 12/42/3 " H 1 2 1 25 36 shirts 2 1 3 3, 61 [[chesses?]] 1,50 sack 1 I am sure un & 1 3 - 6 3 doz 8/15 13 30 2 [[end page]]
[[partial image of news story about Joseph Henry with area marked in red]] man who ever officiated in this city- who suggested the use of steam applied to land carriages, [[red mark starts here]] and proved its practicability here in Philadelphia by a successful exhibition of the plan early in the present century. Then, after the lapse of years, when our population had spread across the continent to where California's golden gate "fronts the falling sun," and when, if ever, the idea of Montesquieu might be supposed to have appropriate application, there was another American scientists quietly at work in his laboratory in New Jersey, whose genius had anticipated this last emergency. For in 1834, as I myself witnessed, the practical working of the principle of the magnetic telegraph - afterwards so ingeniously utilized by Morse - was exhibited and explained in a series of successful experiments to the students of Princeton by their revered instructor, Joseph Henry, whose modesty is equalled only by his merits, the whole of whose useful and unselfish life has been devoted to scientific investigations, to "the diffusion of knowledge among men," and who deserves to be known as "the Franklin of the nineteenth century," so that thus by the genius of Americans, intelligence can be despatched and received across the continent in less time than was required in the days of our fathers for the post-boy to put on his jack-boots for a journey. But I have been led into a longer digression than I intended. To return to the topic of the Centennial. [[red mark ends here]] Besides the impulse which it will impart to the enterprising spirit and inventive genius of
Macmillan & co. London, who also publishers to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. They have the good fortune to have in their clientage Dr. Edward A. Freeman, whose latest volume, " Comparative Politics," six lectures read before the Royal Institution in London last January and February, with "The Unity of History"; the Rede Lecture, delivered before the University of Cambridge, last year, may be accepted as a novel and successful attempt "to claim for political institutions a right to a scientific treatment of exactly the same kind as that which has been so successfully applied to language, to mythology, and to the progress of culture." To these lectures is as appended a body of highly important Notes, which state, in detail, what could only be mentioned in actual delivery before a large audience and the volume concludes with an unusually good index. Mr. Freeman, it should be borne in mind, is now the most eminent among living British annalists. His "History of the Norman Conquest of England, its Causes and Results", has hitherto been kept out of the American market by its high price, but an edition has been prepared, with all the original maps and plans, which now can be had, in four volumes, at a much reduced price, and the author's latest revision. He deals with the Saxons, the Danes and the Normans of a thousand years back, as if he were composing contemporary history. -- From Macmillian & Co. we have "An Art Tour to the Northern Capitals of Europe", by J. Beavington Atkinson. The
[[start page]] Thoughts while curling Carrie's hair ------- Sister--I twine thy glossy Locks As oft in days gone by Has times that steals with stealthy step Touched them to silently? ------- Yes longer darker now they flow Unlike the golden spray That round the dimpled rosy face A golden cloud did stray. ------- Softly they steal around the cheek Time's touch has made so bright The eye upraised to mine me thinks Beams with a different light. ------- Childhood is fleeting fast away While girlhood steals apace Upon thine earnest brow e'en now It's [[downy]] touch I trace ------- [[end page]]
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[[page is upside down]] [[start page]] Aux bords de Bendemir est un berceau de Roses Que jusqu'au dernier jour, on me verra cherir. Le chant du rossignol, dans ses fleurs demi closes, Charme les flots de Bendemir. J'aimais à m'y bercer d'un songe fantastique, M'enivrant de parfums, de repos et d'avenir; J'écoutais tour à tour l'oiseau melancolique Et les ondes du Bendemir. Maintenant, loin des lieux où fleurit mon aurore, Je dis: voit'on encore la rose s'embellir? Et la chantre des nuits soupire-t'il encore Sur les rives du Bendemir? Non, le printemps n'est pas plus, la rose est flétrie, Le triste rossignol de douleur va mourir, Et je ne verrai plus couler dans ma patrie Les flots d'azur du Bendemir. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[undecipherable list of items, numbers, calculations]] [[end page]]
dresses 2 at 25 & 1 at 18 3/4 6 [[crossed thru]] collars 6 1 3 sleeves 4 2 4 [[replaced with 3, then crossed thru]] chemises 4 [[crossed thru]] 2 drawers 3 [[crossed thru]] 2 2 [[crossed thru]] Hose 5 [[crossed thru]] 1 Skirts 6 [[crossed thru]] 6 Nap 5 returned[[crossed thru]] PH [[??]] 191 [[crossed thru]] 3 NG 2 [[crossed thru]] 2 sack 1 UH 1 UB 2- X corset 3 [[crossed thru]] shirts Paid 5$ 15 1/2 dog [[??]] 2 dresses at 25 cts = 50 1 " at 18 2/4 [[crossed thru]] 50 + 18 2/4 = 68 2/4 [[crossed thru]] dress - 87 1/2 + 2.75 = 3.62 1/2 87 1/2 + 3.50 = 4.37 1/2 Last two - 4.37 1/2 6 dresses - 1.12 1/2 1 wash [[??]] - 1.50 2 wash [[??]] - 1.25 [[crossed thru, replaced with 1.41]] = 8.25 [[??]] + 6 [[should be 0.06]] = 8.31 1/4 + 16 [[should be 0.16]] = 47 1/4 [[should be 8.47 1/4]] 1.25 + 16 [[should be 0.16]] =1.41
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