Agency history, 1889-

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  • Kelly, Dennis W
  • Monfort, Steven L
  • Reed, Theodore H
  • Mann, William M. 1886-1960
  • Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978
  • Robinson, Michael H
  • Hollister, N (Ned) 1876-1924
  • Baker, Frank 1841-1918
  • Spelman, Lucy H
  • Hornaday, William T (William Temple) 1854-1937
  • Evans, David L. 1945-
  • Berry, John 1959
  • Smith, Brandie


Agency History


  • This is an agency history. It does not describe actual records. The Smithsonian Institution Archives uses these histories as brief accounts of the origin, development, and functions of an office or administrative unit to set that unit in its historical context. To find information on record holdings, please double-click the highlighted field "Creator/Author", which will open on a brief view of relevant records.
  • Guide to the Smithsonian Archives, 1996
  • Washington Post, July 20, 2000
  • The Torch, September 2005
  • Smithsonian News Release, "Brandie Smith Named Director of the Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute", November 9, 2021,, accessed March 25, 2022
  • The Director is responsible for all operations of the National Zoological Park. In addition, Directors have often actively pursued their own research interests. This was true in the Zoo's early years when acquiring animals was a major concern. It remains so today, when animal ecology and endangered species have become prominent issues in planning and operating zoos.
  • William Temple Horndaday was Superintendent, 1889-1890. Frank Baker served as Acting Manager, 1890-1892, and Superintendent, 1893-1916, followed by Ned Hollister, 1916-1924; Alexander Wetmore, 1924; William M. Mann, 1925-1956 (Director from 1926); Theodore H. Reed, Acting Director, 1956-1958, Director, 1958-1983; Michael H. Robinson, 1984-1999; Lucy H. Spelman, 2000-2004; David L. Evans, Acting Director, January-September 2005; John Berry, October 2005-February 2009; Steven L. Monfort, Acting Director, February 2009-February 2010; Dennis W. Kelly, February 2010-2017; Steven L Monfort, 2018-2021; and Brandie Smith, Acting Director, May-October 2021 and Director, November 2021- .
  • For a history of the larger creating unit, refer to "Forms part of " above.

Repository Loc.

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Capital Gallery, Suite 3000, MRC 507; 600 Maryland Avenue, SW; Washington, DC 20024-2520


  • 1889
  • 1889-


  • Zoos
  • Zoo directors
  • Zoos--Administration


Mixed archival materials

Local number

SIA AH00206

Full Record

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