Agency history, 1920-

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  • Bayer, Frederick M
  • Clark, Austin Hobart 1880-1954
  • Cairns, Stephen
  • Pawson, David L (David Leo) 1938-
  • Ruetzler, Klaus
  • United States National Museum
  • United States National Museum Division of Marine Invertebrates
  • United States National Museum Division of Echinoderms
  • Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Invertebrate Zoology


Agency History


  • This is an agency history. It does not describe actual records. The Smithsonian Institution Archives uses these histories as brief accounts of the origin, development, and functions of an office or administrative unit to set that unit in its historical context. To find information on record holdings, please double-click the highlighted field "Creator/Author", which will open on a brief view of relevant records.
  • Guide to the Smithsonian Archives
  • Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution
  • Smithsonian Year
  • National Museum of natural History, Smithsonian Institution, "Invertebrate Zoology at the Smithsonian." []. September 2, 1999.
  • From 1880 to 1920, the study and curation of the United States National Museum collection of echinoderms was under the administrative direction of the Division of Marine Invertebrates. In 1920, an independent Division of Echinoderms was created. Austin Hobart Clark, who had served since 1908 as Collaborator and Assistant Curator in the Division of Marine Invertebrates, was appointed Curator and remained in the position until his retirement in 1950. At that time, the Division of Echinoderms ceased to exist as an administrative entity, and the collections reverted to the care of the Division of Marine Invertebrates. On July 1, 1965, the Division of Echinoderms was revived as a division of the newly created Department of Invertebrate Zoology. Around 1988, the name was changed to the Division of Echinoderms and Lower Invertebrates.
  • Professional staff of the Division since 1965 have included David L. Pawson, Associate Curator, Curator, Research Zoologist, and Senior Research Zoologist, 1965- ; Klaus Ruetzler, Associate Curator, Curator, and Research Zoologist, 1966- ; Frederick M. Bayer, Curator, Research Zoologist, and Zoologist Emeritus, 1972- ; and Stephen Cairns, Curator and Research Zoologist, 1985- .
  • For a history of the larger creating unit, refer to "Forms part of" above.

Repository Loc.

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Capital Gallery, Suite 3000, MRC 507; 600 Maryland Avenue, SW; Washington, DC 20024-2520


  • 1920
  • 1920-


  • Marine invertebrates
  • Echinodermata
  • Invertebrate zoology


Mixed archival materials

Local number

SIA AH00022

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