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Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Record Unit 7315

Carus, Julius Victor, 1823-1903

Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album Collection, circa 1854-1902 and undated, with related materials to 1953

Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at osiaref@si.edu.
Creator: Carus, Julius Victor, 1823-1903
Title: Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album Collection
Dates: circa 1854-1902 and undated, with related materials to 1953
Quantity: 1.68 cu. ft. (2 document boxes) (1 half document box) (1 12x17 box)
Collection: Record Unit 7315
Language of Materials: English
Summary:

The Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album contains the private collection of photographic portraits assembled by Carus, a German zoologist and editor. The album contains 127 portraits, primarily of European scientists in the fields of natural history, biology, comparative anatomy, physiology, embryology, and medicine. Scientists represented by photographs include Charles Darwin, Jean Louis Agassiz, Karl Ernst von Baer, Ernst Haeckel, Thomas Henry Huxley, Richard Owen, Herbert Spencer, and many more. Also included are a few photographs of natural history specimens. Most of the photographs are cartes-de-visite, which were commonly exchanged between professional people during the latter half of the 19th century. A small number of cabinet size photographs are included. The album was donated to the Smithsonian in 1953 by Harley J. Van Cleave.

Also included are prints of the original photographs; reprints of articles on the album and negatives of plates which appeared in the articles; index card files which contain information on the portraits; and a partial description of the album.

Historical Note

Julius Victor Carus (1823-1903) was a zoologist, editor, and historian of science. Educated in German universities and at Oxford, he served on the faculties of the latter, as well as the universities at Edinburgh and Leipzig. Carus is probably best remembered as editor of the Zoologischer Anzeiger, a position he held from its inception in 1878 until his death. He was also recognized for the translation into German of many of the classical works of Charles Darwin.

Carus established wide professional contacts during his career and he exchanged "carte-de-viste" photographs with many of the eminent scientists of his era. After his death in 1903, Carus' private collection of portraits (housed in an album) fell into the hands of a book dealer. The album was purchased by Harley J. Van Cleave, an invertebrate zoologist and faculty member at the University of Illinois. Van Cleave published a series of articles on the Carus album in BIOS in 1943. In the articles he included several plates of unidentified portraits in the hope that readers might recognize the subjects. Van Cleave donated the album, along with his collection of fresh-water mollusks, to the Smithsonian Institution in 1953.

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Introduction

The Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album Collection (Record Unit 7315) was received from the Division of Mollusks, National Museum of Natural History in October 1984.

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Descriptive Entry

This collection includes an album housing the private collection of photographic portraits assembled by Julius Victor Carus. The album contains 127 portraits, primarily of European scientists in the fields of natural history, biology, comparative anatomy, physiology, embryology, and medicine. Also included are a few photographs of natural history specimens. Most of the photographs are "carte-de-vistes," measuring 2 1/2 x 4 inches, which were commonly exchanged between professional people during the latter half of the 19th century. A small amount of "cabinet" size photographs are also found. Most of the 127 photographs are identified. Many of these are autographed and include words of greeting.

Also included are prints of the original photographs; reprints of Harley J. Van Cleave's articles on the Carus album published in BIOS in 1943; negatives of the plates which appeared in the BIOS articles; index card files prepared by Van Cleave and by the Division of Civil History, United States National Museum which contain information on the subject of the portrait (or unidentified), photographer, and autograph or greeting; and a partial copy of a description of the album by Van Cleave.

The Archives wishes to thank David M. Damkaer for identifying many of the scientists in this album.

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This collection is indexed under the following access terms. These are links to collections with related topics, persons or places.

Name

Subject

Physical Characteristics of Materials in the Collection

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Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7315, Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album Collection

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Container List

Series 1

Julius Victor Carus Photograph Album, circa 1854-1902 and undated

This album contains the original photographic portraits collected by Julius Victor Carus. The photographs are arranged numerically within the album. Apparently, the photographs were given numbers after the album was acquired by Harley J. Van Cleave. Listed below is an index of the identified portraits in the album, in order of the number designated by Van Cleave, and followed by the Smithsonian Institution (SI) negative number in brackets.

Box 1

1-3: Darwin, Charles, 1881 (#1) [SI Neg. #85-4427]; 1864 (#2) [SI Neg. #85-4428]; c. 1854 (#3) [SI Neg. #85-1429]

Box 1 of 4

4: Owen, Sir Richard, undated [SI Neg. #85-4430]

Box 1 of 4

5: Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), undated [SI Neg. #85-4431]

Box 1 of 4

6-7: Baer, Karl Ernst von (1792-1876), undated [SI Neg. #85-4432 and #85-4433]

Box 1 of 4

8: Milne-Edwards, Henri, undated [SI Neg. #85-4434]

Box 1 of 4

9: Agassiz, Jean Louis (1807-1873), undated [SI Neg. #85-4435]

Box 1 of 4

10: van der Hoeven, Jan (1801-1868), undated [SI Neg. #85-4436]

Box 1 of 4

11: Harting, Pieter, 1867 [SI Neg. #85-4437]

Box 1 of 4

12: Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von, undated [SI Neg. #85-4438]

Box 1 of 4

13: Leuckart, Karl Georg Fredrich Rudolf, undated [SI Neg. #85-4439]

Box 1 of 4

14: Gray, John Edward, undated [SI Neg. #85-4440]

Box 1 of 4

15: Gunther, Albert Charles Ludwig Gotthelf, undated [SI Neg. #85-4441]

Box 1 of 4

16-17: Steenstrup, Johannes Japetus Smith, 1873 [SI Neg. #85-4442 and #85-4443]

Box 1 of 4

18: De Filippi, Filippo, undated [SI Neg. #85-4444]

Box 1 of 4

19: Schron, ?, undated [SI Neg. #85-4445]

Box 1 of 4

20: Thomson, Charles Wyville (1830-1882), undated [SI Neg. #85-4446]

Box 1 of 4

21: Middendorff, A. Th. von, undated [SI Neg. #85-4447]

Box 1 of 4

22: Poppig, Eduard (1798-1868), undated [SI Neg. #85-4448]

Box 1 of 4

23: Panceri, Paolo (1833-1877), undated [SI Neg. #85-4449]

Box 1 of 4

24-25: Miklicho-Maclay, Nicolai (1847-1888), undated (#24) [SI Neg. #85-4450]; and with Ernst Haeckel, undated (#25) [SI Neg. #85-4451]

Box 1 of 4

26: Cope, Edward Drinker, 1893 [SI Neg. #85-4452]

Box 1 of 4

27: Forbes, Edward (1815-1854), undated [SI Neg. #85-4453]

Box 1 of 4

28: Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August, undated [SI Neg. #85-4454]

Box 1 of 4

29: Flower, William Henry, undated [SI Neg. #85-4455]

Box 1 of 4

30: Rolleston, George (1829-1881), undated [SI Neg. #85-4456]

Box 1 of 4

31: Busk, George, 1867 [SI Neg. #85-4457]

Box 1 of 4

32: Lyman, Theodore, undated [SI Neg. #85-4458]

Box 1 of 4

33: Agassiz, Alexander (1835-1910), 1870 [SI Neg. #85-4459]

Box 1 of 4

34: Schmidt, Oscar (1823-1886), undated [SI Neg. #85-4460]

Box 1 of 4

35: Schneider, Fredrich Anton, undated [SI Neg. #85-4461]

Box 1 of 4

36: Weismann, August Fredrich, 1877 [SI Neg. #85-4462]

Box 1 of 4

37: Gruber, August (1853-1938), undated [SI Neg. #85-4463]

Box 1 of 4

38: Mivart, St. George Jackson (1827-1900), undated [SI Neg. #85-4464]

Box 1 of 4

39: Dohrn, Anton (1840-1909), [SI Neg. #85-4465]

Box 1 of 4

40: Leydig, Franz von, undated [SI Neg. #85-4466]

Box 1 of 4

41: Kingsley, Charles (1819-1875), undated [SI Neg. #85-4467]

Box 1 of 4

42: Kovalevsky, Aleksandr Onutrievich, undated [SI Neg. #85-4468]

Box 1 of 4

43: Unidentified [SI Neg. #85-4469]

Box 1 of 4

44: Rosenberg, Emil, undated [SI Neg. #85-4470]

Box 1 of 4

45: Darwin, Francis, undated [SI Neg. #85-4471]

Box 1 of 4

46: Goette, Alexander Wilhelm, undated [SI Neg. #85-4472]

Box 1 of 4

47: McIntosh, William Carmichael, 1867 [SI Neg. #85-4473]

Box 1 of 4

48: Gray, George Robert, 1870 [SI Neg. #85-4474]

Box 1 of 4

49: Sclater, Philip Lutley, undated [SI Neg. #85-4475]

Box 1 of 4

50: Boettger, Oskar, undated [SI Neg. #85-4476]

Box 1 of 4

51: Milne-Edwards, Alphonse, 1895 [SI Neg. #85-4477]

Box 1 of 4

52: Berg, Wilhelm Carl, 1893 [SI Neg. #85-4478]

Box 1 of 4

53: Wright, R. Ramsay, undated [SI Neg. #85-4479]

Box 1 of 4

54: Dohrn, Anton (1840-1909), undated [SI Neg. #85-4480]

Box 1 of 4

55: Gray, John Edward, with Maria Emma Gray, 1864 [SI Neg. #85-4481]

Box 1 of 4

56: Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, undated [SI Neg. #85-4482]

Box 1 of 4

57: Bergh, Rudolph, 1873 [SI Neg. #85-4483]

Box 1 of 4

58: Westwood, John Obadiah (1805-1893), undated [SI Neg. #85-4484]

Box 1 of 4

59: Hagen, Hermann August, 1873 [SI Neg. #85-4485]

Box 1 of 4

60: Lubbock, Sir John (Lord Avebury), undated [SI Neg. #85-4486]

Box 1 of 4

61: Taschenberg, Ernst Ludwig, undated [SI Neg. #85-4487]

Box 1 of 4

62: Heller, Camill (1823-1917), undated [SI Neg. #85-4488]

Box 1 of 4

63: Gerstaecker, Adolph (1828-1895), undated [SI Neg. #85-4489]

Box 1 of 4

64: Ehlers, Ernst (1835-1925), undated [SI Neg. #85-4490]

Box 1 of 4

65: Grube, Eduard, undated [SI Neg. #85-4491]

Box 1 of 4

66: Eisig, Hugo, 1877 [SI Neg. #85-4492]

Box 1 of 4

67: Unidentified - photo from Berlin [SI Neg. #85-4493]

Box 1 of 4

68: Hertwig, Karl Wilhelm Theodore Richard von, 1882 [SI Neg. #85-4494]

Box 1 of 4

69: Schulze, Franz Eilhard, undated [SI Neg. #85-4495]

Box 1 of 4

70: Ludwig, Hubert, 1891 [SI Neg. #85-4496]

Box 1 of 4

71: Graff, Ludwig von, undated [SI Neg. #85-4497]

Box 1 of 4

72: Butschli, Otto, undated [SI Neg. #85-4498]

Box 1 of 4

73: Ludwig, Hubert, undated [SI Neg. #85-4499]

Box 1 of 4

74: Kolombatovic, Georg, undated [SI Neg. #85-4500]

Box 1 of 4

75: Koppen, Fedor Petrovich (1833-1908) - photo from St. Petersburg [SI Neg. #85-4501]

Box 1 of 4

76: Unidentified [SI Neg. #85-4502]

Box 1 of 4

77: His, Wilhelm, undated [SI Neg. #85-4503]

Box 1 of 4

78: Hubrecht, Ambrosius Arnold Willem, 1896 [SI Neg. #85-4504]

Box 1 of 4

79: Hickson, Sydney John, 1892 [SI Neg. #85-4505]

Box 1 of 4

80: Thomson, Allen, undated [SI Neg. #85-4506]

Box 1 of 4

81: Gegenbaur, Carl, undated [SI Neg. #85-4507]

Box 1 of 4

82: Turner, Sir William, 1873 [SI Neg. #85-4508]

Box 1 of 4

83: Vrolik, Willem, undated [SI Neg. #85-4509]

Box 1 of 4

84: Weber, Ernst Heinrich (1795-1878), undated [SI Neg. #85-4510]

Box 1 of 4

85: Weber, Eduard (1806-1871) - brother of Ernst Heinrich, undated [SI Neg. #85-4511]

Box 1 of 4

86: Kolliker, Albert von, undated [SI Neg. #85-4512]

Box 1 of 4

87: Sharpey, William, undated [SI Neg. #85-4513]

Box 1 of 4

88: Wyman, Jeffries, undated [SI Neg. #85-4514]

Box 1 of 4

89: Robin, Charles-Philippe, undated [SI Neg. #85-4515]

Box 1 of 4

90: Stieda, Ludwig, 1876 [SI Neg. #85-4516]

Box 1 of 4

91: Unidentified - photo from Zurich [SI Neg. #85-4517]

Box 1 of 4

92: Bowman, Sir William, undated [SI Neg. #85-4518]

Box 1 of 4

93: Marchi, Pietro, 1869 [SI Neg. #85-4519]

Box 1 of 4

94-95: Carpenter, William Benjamin, undated [SI Neg. #85-4520 and #85-4521]

Box 1 of 4

96: Welcker, Hermann (1822-1899), undated [SI Neg. #85-4522]

Box 1 of 4

97: Hetsohko, Alfred, 1902 [SI Neg. #85-4523]

Box 1 of 4

98: Schaaffhausen, Hermann (1816-1893), undated [SI Neg. #85-4524]

Box 1 of 4

99: Unidentified - photo from Freiburg i. B. (possibly Alexander Ecker, 1816-1887) [SI Neg. #85-4525]

Box 1 of 4

100: Cleland, John, 1864 [SI Neg. #85-4526]

Box 1 of 4

101: Behn, Wilhelm Friedrich Georg (1808-1878), undated [SI Neg. #85-4527]

Box 1 of 4

102: Photo of bird on nest [SI Neg. #85-4528]

Box 1 of 4

103: Photo of fish specimens [SI Neg. #85-4529]

Box 1 of 4

104: Darwin, Charles, undated [SI Neg. #85-4530]

Box 1 of 4

105: Spencer, Herbert, undated [SI Neg. #85-4531]

Box 1 of 4

106: Donders, Franciscus Cornelius (1818-1889), 1873 [SI Neg. #85-4532]

Box 1 of 4

107: Bernard, Claude (1813-1878), undated [SI Neg. #85-4533]

Box 1 of 4

108: Carus, Carl Gustav, undated [SI Neg. #85-4534]

Box 1 of 4

109: Bidder, Friedrich Heinrich (1810-1894), undated [SI Neg. #85-4535]

Box 1 of 4

110: Engelmann, Theodor Wilhelm, 1867 [SI Neg. #85-4536]

Box 1 of 4

111: Bezold, Albert von (1836-1868), undated [SI Neg. #85-4537]

Box 1 of 4

112: Braune, Christian Wilhelm (1831-1892), undated [SI Neg. #85-4538]

Box 1 of 4

113: Metchnikoff, Elie (1845-1916), undated [SI Neg. #85-4539]

Box 1 of 4

114: Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), undated [SI Neg. #85-4540]

Box 1 of 4

115: Claparede, Edouard (1832-1871), undated [SI Neg. #85-4541]

Box 1 of 4

116: Bennett, John Hughes (1812-1875), 1872 [SI Neg. #85-4542]

Box 1 of 4

117-129: Not in album

Box 1 of 4

130: Apelt, Ernst Friedrich (1813-1859), undated [SI Neg. #85-4543]

Box 1 of 4

131: Acland, Henry Wentworth (1815-1900), undated [SI Neg. #85-4544]

Box 1 of 4

132: Bruhns, Carl, Professor of Astronomy, Leipzig (1830-1881), undated [SI Neg. #85-4545]

Box 1 of 4

133: Not in album

Box 1 of 4

134: Zollner, Johann Carl, Professor of Astrophysics, Leipzig (1834-1882), undated [SI Neg. #85-4546]

Box 1 of 4

135-136: Not in album

Box 1 of 4

137: Unidentified [SI Neg. #85-4547]

Box 1 of 4

138-139: Not in album

Box 1 of 4

140: Mobius, Theodor, Professor of Nordic Languages, Leipzig (1821-1890), undated [SI Neg. #85-4548]

Box 1 of 4

141: Fleischer, Lebr. G., undated [SI Neg. #85-4549]

Box 1 of 4

142: Welcker, Hermann (1822-1899), undated [SI Neg. #85-4550]

Box 1 of 4

143: Gegenbaur, Carl, undated [SI Neg. #85-4551]

Box 1 of 4

144: Muller, Fritz (1822-1897), undated [SI Neg. #85-4552]

Box 1 of 4

145-155: Not in album

Box 1 of 4

156: Fitzinger, Leopold (1802-1884), undated [SI Neg. #85-4553]

Box 1 of 4

Series 2

Copy Prints

Box 2

Copy prints, #1 - #67

Box 2 of 4

Box 3

Copy prints, #68 - #156

Box 3 of 4

Series 3

Reprints, Articles, Negatives, and Card Files, 1943, 1953 and undated

Box 4

Folder 1 "The J. Victor Carus Album of Portraits, Four Eminent British Biologists," by Professor H. J. Van Cleave. Reprinted from BIOS, vol. XIV, no. 1, March 1943.

Box 4 of 4

Folder 2 "The J. Victor Carus Album of Portraits, Six Distinguished Teachers and Investigators," by H. J. Van Cleave. Reprinted from BIOS, vol. XIV, no. 2, May 1943.

Box 4 of 4

Folder 3 "The J. Victor Carus Album of Portraits, Four Leaders in the Study of Vertebrates," by Harley Jones Van Cleave. Reprinted from BIOS, vol. XIV, no. 3, October 1943.

Box 4 of 4

Folder 4 "The J. Victor Carus Album of Portraits, Nine Prominent European Zoologists," by Professor Harley Jones Van Cleave. Reprinted from BIOS, vol. XIV, no. 4, December 1943.

Box 4 of 4

Folders 5-6 Negatives of plates I - IX from BIOS articles

Box 4 of 4

Folder 7 "A Historical Collection of Portraits of Famous Zoologists," by Harley J. Van Cleave. Incomplete typescript.

Box 4 of 4

Folder 8 Index card file prepared by Harley J. Van Cleave

Box 4 of 4

Folder 9 Index card file prepared by the Division of Civil History, USNM, 1953

Box 4 of 4