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Finding Aids to Personal Papers and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Record Unit 7117

Abbott, William Louis, 1860-1936

William Louis Abbott Papers, 1887-1923

Repository:Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at
Creator:Abbott, William Louis, 1860-1936
Title:William Louis Abbott Papers
Quantity:1.81 cu. ft. (3 document boxes) (1 half document box) (3 microfilm reels)
Collection:Record Unit 7117
Language of Materials:English

The papers of William Louis Abbott consist of specimen lists and letters to Smithsonian curators, 1892-1917; letters to his mother and sister, 1887-1923; photographs taken by Abbott in the field, 1890-1923; and some miscellaneous material.

In describing the individual pieces of this collection particular attention was paid to material relating to the natural and social history of the regions Abbott visited, the activities and people associated with the Smithsonian Institution and similar bodies, and, to a lesser extent, material that illuminated the character of the man. No attempt was made to highlight the personal relationships of the Abbott family except where larger issues were involved. Material on these matters may, however, be found in virtually every manuscript.

Historical Note

A native of Philadelphia, William Louis Abbott (1860-1936) was educated at the University of Pennsylvania (A.B., 1881; M.D., 1884). He continued his medical education in England, attaining Licentiates from the Royal College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Physicians. Upon receiving his inheritance, however, Abbott left the practice of medicine forever, and from then on indulged his avocation for travel and the study of natural history.

Abbott had already made collections of birds in Iowa and North Dakota in 1880, and in Cuba and Santo Domingo in 1883. His collection of the birds of Philadelphia and southern New Jersey had been received by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. His serious field work began in 1887 with a two-year exploration of the Taveita region near Mount Kilamanjaro in East Africa, the products of which were presented to the United States National Museum in 1890. The same year Abbott returned to Europe by way of Madagascar and the Seychelles, collecting specimens as he traveled through those regions. Abbott went to Kashmir India in 1891, and traveled and collected throughout Kashmir until 1894, leaving only for a six-month voyage to the Seychelles in June 1892 and an expedition through Turkestan during the winter of 1893-94. In December 1894 Abbott left Kashmir for Madagascar in order to enlist with the native "Hova" army during the Malagasy resistence to the second French occupation of the island. The local suspicion of foreigners caused his resignation, but Abbott continued to travel through the island collecting until his return to Kashmir in September 1895. Abbott sailed to the Far East the next year, where he explored and collected for the Smithsonian along the Malay Peninsula and lower Thailand until he contracted fever. Returning to Kashmir to recuperate in the highlands, Abbott continued his collecting there and in Tibet until 1898.

The hostility between the United States and Spain caused Abbott's return home in 1898, and he was wounded slightly while serving as a volunteer in Cuba.

Upon his recovery in the same year, Abbott returned to Southeast Asia, where he was to remain for the next ten years. Initially he continued his work along the Malay Peninsula, but in 1899 he had his schooner Terrapin constructed. In her, with a few Malay sailors as crew, and the occasional company of Cecil Boden Kloss (whose In the Andamans and Nicobars constitutes the only published account of the explorations of Abbot during this period), Abbott visited virtually all of the Southeast Asian island groups within 600 miles of Singapore. Abbott's collecting extended beyond mammal and bird specimens to include ethnological artifacts found among the local inhabitants he encountered.

Abbott's activities in Asia were halted by eye disease of increasing severity, which forced him to sell the Terrapin and return to Europe for treatment in 1909. Smithsonian acquisitions from the region did not cease, as Abbott funded the Borneo expeditions of Henry C. Raven, who continued what Abbott had been forced to leave. Upon his recovery in 1910, Abbott returned to Kashmir, where, while unable to shoot, he trapped specimens until 1915.

Abbott left Kashmir for the last time in 1916 to take up exploring and collecting on the island of Hispaniola. In July 1916 he spent five months in the Dominican Republic, and in 1917-18 fifteen months in Haiti, leaving only after a near fatal attack of dysentery. He returned to Santo Domingo in 1919, and in 1920 returned to Haiti in the company of E. C. (Emory Clarence) Leonard to collect botanical specimens. In 1921 Abbott returned to the highlands of the Dominican Republic, as he was to do for the next two years until he retired in 1923.

William Louis Abbott was, in the words of a contemporary, "one of the greatest field naturalists America has produced." Although he did not engage in taxonomic analysis, his collecting activities were unparalleled in extent and scope, making available for study by Smithsonian naturalists plants, land shells, ethnological material, and vertebrates of all classes, but particularly birds and small mammals. Abbott donated more than 10,000 of the latter. Species described as new number 462, and more than twenty bear his name. Perhaps no other single collector provided as much for the Smithsonian Institution.

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Descriptive Entry

The papers of William Louis Abbott consist of letters to Smithsonian curators and specimen lists, 1892-1917; letters to his mother and sister, 1887-1923; photographs taken by Abbott in the field, 1890-1923; and some miscellaneous material.

In describing the individual pieces of this collection, particular attention was paid to material relating to the natural and social history of the regions Abbott visited, the activities and people associated with the Smithsonian Institution and similar bodies, and, to a lesser extent, material that illuminated the character of the man. No attempt was made to highlight the personal relationships of the Abbott family except where larger issues were involved. Material on these matters may, however, be found in virtually every manuscript.

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Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7117, William Louis Abbott Papers

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Container List


This series is composed primarily of letters written by William Louis Abbott to Smithsonian naturalists. The letters are identified by the name of the recipient, the place from which they were written, and the date on which they were written. A manuscript copy of an article written by Abbott and specimen lists, identified by locality and the dates of the expedition, may also be found.

Box 1

Folder 1 ca. 1890.

Box 1 of 4
1. Manuscript of "Ethnological Collections in the U.S. National Museum from Kilima-jaro, East Africa," published in the Annual Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1891, pp. 381-428. This manuscript does not include the specimen list, pp. 381-398.

Folder 2 1892-1993.

Box 1 of 4
1. Robert Ridgway, Vale of Kashmir, April 13, 1892. Includes material on Abbott's collecting trips in Nepal and Kashmir; specimen list.
2. Specimen lists: birds of Aldabra, Assumption, and Glorioso Islands, Seychelles archipelago, c. 1893. Includes outline drawing of the flightless rail from Aldabra Island.
3. Ridgway, Seychelles Islands, March 10, 1893. Includes additional information on Abbott's Aldabra collections.

Folder 3 1894-1897.

Box 1 of 4
1. Ridgway, Kashgar, Eastern Pakistan, March 24, 1894. Includes: additional information on the collections made on Aldabra and Glorioso Islands; details of an expedition in Kashmir in August 1893; his itinerary for the coming months.
2. Ridgway, Camp in Kashmir, October 27, 1895. Includes: details of his collecting activities in Turkestan; more about the collections made in the Seychelles; comments on the increase of game in India, brief mentions of his adventures as an officer in the Hova army in Madagascar.
3. Dear Sir (Ridgway or Charles Wallace Richmond), Trong, Malay Peninsula, January 20, 1897. Includes: material on Abbott's collecting activities in Madagascar, central Asia, and Africa, with much about the geography and native populations of these areas; ref. to Ernst Johann Otto Hartert, W. Davison.
4. Charles Wallace Richmond, Rangoon, May 13, 1897. Includes much on his collecting activities on the Malay peninsula, and a specimen list, 15 pp.
5. Charles Wallace Richmond, Srinigar, Kashmir, June 5, 1897. Includes: material on his collecting activities in Trong (on the Malay peninsula); comments on the political situation in Trong; and the geography of Trong.
6. Charles Wallace Richmond, Leh Ladak, September 22, 1897. Includes: data on his collecting activities in Rupshu (Kashmir); comments on the depletion of game by sportsmen. Part of p. 2 has been cut out.
7. Richmond, Calcutta, December 2, 1897. Written on his way home to America after an absence of 7 years. Includes information on specimens recently dispatched to the Smithsonian, including some material collected for the Anthropology Department.

Folder 4 1898-1899.

Box 1 of 4
1. Richmond, Gantong, Trong, Lower Siam, December 22, 1898. Of special interest is Abbott's statement that when the Spanish American war broke out he had returned to America and joined the Cubans, serving with Gomez until peace was declared, and returning to Singapore in November 1898.
2. Richmond, aboard the S. S. Palamcotta between Penang and Singapore, March 15, 1899. Includes information on his collecting activities in Trong; copy of his itinerary in Trong; data on specimens sent to the Smithsonian.
3. Frederick William True, Singapore, March 16, 1899 (typed copy of the original). Includes information on his collecting activities in Trong, especially on rats collected.
4. Specimen list, mammals collected on a trip among the small islands of the South China Sea, Indonesia and the New Hebrides, July 7, 1899 to October 4, 1899.
5. Gerritt Smith Miller, Jr., Singapore, October 16, 1899. The specimen list above accompanied this letter. Includes additional information on the collections mentioned in item #14 above.
6. Richmond, Singapore, November 4, 1899. Includes much on the geography of Trong, with a map.
7. True, Singapore, September 4, 1900. Includes list of mammals obtained in the Natunas (Indonesia); ref. to a collection of birds made there previously by Ernest Hose; ref. to Karl Richard Haintsch of Raffles Museum, Singapore; ref. to Ridgway; ref. to Miller.

Folder 5 1900-1901.

Box 1 of 4
1. Miller, Singapore, October 23, 1900. Includes comments on mammals seen and collected on a recent trip to Tringamu (?); ref. to Haintsch and the "mess" at the Singapore Museum.
2. Miller, Victoria Point, Burma, December 27, 1900. Includes general detail about his collecting activities.
3. Miller, Singapore, August 18, 1901. Includes much information on specimens collecting on a cruise in the Straits of Malacca; itinerary of the voyage; descriptions of the areas visited. Ref. to Kloss and Davison.
4. Richmond, Singapore, August 19, 1901. This is a report in the same trip reported on in #20 above, but pertaining mainly to birds collected.
5. Specimen lists as follows: (1) Mammals of Lingga Island, August 23, 1901 to September 1, 1901; (2) Mammals of Singkep Island, September 1, 1901 to September 9, 1901; (3) Mammals of Indragin River, East Coast of Sumatra, September 13, 1901 to September 28, 1901.
6. Richmond, Singapore, October 9, 1901. Includes some details of his recent trip to Lingga, Singkep, and the East Coast of Sumatra. Ref. to Kloss.
7. Miller, Singapore, October 10, 1901. Includes more details of Abbott's recent trip to Lingga, Singkep, and the East Coast of Sumatra.
8. Miller, Penang, October 29, 1901. Includes details on his collecting activities in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and Trong; ref. to Kloss, Davison, and Harrison Gray Dyar.

Folder 6 1902-1903.

Box 1 of 4
1. Richmond, Straits of Malacca, April 6, 1902. Includes some discussion of specimens collected on Nicobar Island; ref. to Kloss and A. L. Butler. Includes specimen lists of birds collected on a trip through the small islands of Indonesia, November 7, 1901 to March 14, 1902.
2. Richmond, Singapore, September 9, 1902. Includes descriptions of birds collected on a four-month trip up the Rumpin River, Pabang and the Rhio archipelago; plans for a trip to the islands off the west coast of Sumatra; observations and comments on the natives of the islands off the west coast of Sumatra.
3. Richmond, Gunong Sitoli, Pulo Nias, West Sumatra, March 14, 1903. Includes details of his collecting activities in this region; material on native implements and weapons that he was collecting for Otis Tufton Mason of the SI Department of Anthropology.
4. Richmond, Singapore, May 12, 1903. Includes a discussion of specimens recently collected on his expedition to the islands off the west coast of Sumatra.
5. Richmond, Singapore, October 18, 1903. Includes material on specimens collected in the Rhio archipelago and neighboring coast of Sumatra; comments on Kloss' efforts to convince the Sultan of Johor to establish a museum; unfavorable comments on the director of the Singapore Museum (Haintsch).
6. Specimen lists as follows: (1) Birds of Nias, March 15, 1903 to March 31, 1903; (2) Notes on birds of the Batu Islands; (3) Birds of Pagi Islands, November 11, 1902 to January 17, 1903. Includes map of the Batu Islands and Nias.

Folder 7 1904-1905.

Box 1 of 4
1. Richmond, Straits of Malacca, April 14, 1904, with letter added to May 11, 1904 in Singapore. Includes mention of a recent cruise off the coast of Burma, but little of importance; data on specimens collected over the winter.
2. Specimen list: Birds of Engano, November 1, 1904 to December 5, 1904. Includes map of Engano.
3. Specimen list: Notes on birds of Nias, February 6, 1905 to March 31, 1905. Includes map of Nias, with collecting stations, 1903 and 1905, shown.
4. Richmond, Singapore, May 20, 1905. Includes comments on Abbott's recent trips to Engano, Nias, Tarussan Bay, and Polary (?); ref. to Mason.
5. Richmond, Singapore, October 25, 1905. Includes a note that he had just shipped to the Smithsonian 31 cases of specimens from his recent trip to Borneo; comments on the natives of Borneo; a sketch of a hornbill; ref. to Robert Ridgway and Herbert Christopher Robinson.

Folder 8 1907-1917.

Box 1 of 4
1. Richmond, Singapore, April 18, 1907. Includes a discussion of his plans for the coming year; ref. to Kloss.
2. Richmond, Singapore, October 27, 1908. Includes comments on his recent trip to Southwest Borneo; comments on preservation of specimens in the tropics; ref. to Edgar Alexander Mearns.
3. Miller, Port de Paix, Haiti, February 27, 1917 (typed copy of original). Includes comments on the poor range of specimens found in the area; comments on the Haitian population; ref. to Kloss.

Series 2


This series is composed of the letters from William Louis Abbott to members of his family, predominantly his mother, Susan F. Abbott, and his sister, Gertrude Abbott. A few pieces addressed to his sister and brother-in-law, "Dollie" and "Val" de Calry, will also be found.

Box 2

Folder 1 1887.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Kingston, Jamaica, April 23. Includes: description of sea passage from New York and of the island of Jamaica.
2. Susan Abbott, Rigi-Kuhn, Switzerland, August 14. Includes description of journey from England; preparations for African expedition.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Thusis, Switzerland, August 18.
4. Susan Abbott, Macunaja, Italy, August 28. Includes description of Alpine Italy.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Chamonix, France, September 4. Includes: account of his return from Italy by foot through the Alpine passes.
6. Susan Abbott, Mortlake, England, September 11. Includes: an account of his return to England; details of his preparations for departure for Africa.
7. Susan Abbott, Mortlake, September 18.
8. Susan Abbott, Mortlake, September 25.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Mortlake, October 15. Includes: material on preparations for impending African expedition; and advice on African native languages and customs and the necessary acclimatization to Africa given to him by Sir John Kirk, English explorer and naturalist.
10. Susan Abbott, on board ship in the Mediterranean, November 5. Includes a description of voyage.
11. Gertrude Abbott, on board ship in the Red Sea - Aden, November 14 - 16. Includes description of passage through the Suez Canal; port of Aden.
12. Susan Abbott, on board ship in the Indian Ocean, November 23.
13. Susan Abbott, Zanzibar, December 3-5. Includes: a description of the island and its Sultan; a discussion of the preparations for his first trip into the interior; ref. to Mr. Ropes, the U.S. Consul to Zanzibar.

Folder 2 1888.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Zanzibar, January 15. Includes: an account of his first trip; details of the preparations for the journey to Mt. Kilimanjaro.
2. E. M. (Dollie) de Calry, Zanzibar, January 15. Includes further description of his first trip into the interior of Africa.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Zanzibar, January 25-28. Includes an account of the difficulties in mounting a second expedition.
4. Susan Abbott, Masindi, February 10-11. Includes descriptions of the expedition and the African settlements encountered along the way; and observations on the local chieftains.
5. Susan Abbott, Taveita, February 24. Includes: an account of progress of journey to Mt. Kilimanjaro; descriptions of physical features and wildlife of the Taveita area and the Watavieta, the local inhabitants.
6. Gertrude Abbott, Taveita, March 2-4. Includes further description of campsite in the Tavieta forest.
7. Susan Abbott. Taveita, March 23. Includes: description of base camp and the wildlife of the "velt" surrounding the Tavieta forest details of his journey to Lake Chala.
8. Susan Abbott, Tavieta, April 29. Includes: material on native fetish worship.
9. Susan Abbott, Taveita, May 15. Includes: material on the Masai Tribe; notes the depletion of game in the Taveita area.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Taveita, May 23. Includes: account of trip to Lake Jipe; description of a "rain-tree."
11. Val de Calry, Mt. Kilimanjaro, June 7-21. Includes: plans for reaching summit; material on bird and butterfly collecting; description of African environment, esp. Taveita and Mt. Kilimanjaro areas; ref. to Robert H. Harvey, Tom Greenfield, Joseph Thompson.
12. Susan Abbott, Taveita, June 19-21.
13. Susan Abbott, Tavieta, July 17-18. Includes: an account of trips to Kahe and Lake Chala; material on shooting and collecting specimens; observations on the political situation in Zanzibar; account of life in Taveita; ref. to Tom Greenfield.
14. Gertrude Abbott, Taveita, August 13-16. Includes: an account of attempt on the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro; encounters with other Europeans; problems with the Masai tribesmen; material on the collection of specimens.
15. Susan Abbott, Taveita, September 10-13. Includes descriptions of journeys to Kahe and the Useri River and the hunting there, dangers from Masai.
16. E. M. (Dollie) de Calry, Taveita, September 11-16. Includes detailed account of the trip to the Useri River; descriptions of the dress of the native children; ref. to Robert Harvey.
17. Susan Abbott, Taveita, October 10. Includes: a description of a successful hunting trip north of Taveita and specimens taken; observations on British and German colonial expansion; and material on Count Tellecky's expedition.
18. Susan Abbott, Arusha - Taveita, October 30-November 8. Includes description of Arusha and trading station there; relations of natives with the Masai; account of hunting.
19. E. M. (Dollie) de Calry, Arusha - Taveita, November 1-8. Includes description of the wildlife and terrain of Arusha and surrounding areas.
20. Gertrude Abbott, Taveita, December 4. Includes: detailed account of attempt on the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro in the company of Otto E. Ehlers, lieutenant of the German Army, including descriptions of physical features and wildlife observed.
21. Susan Abbott, Taveita, December 31-January 3. Includes: an account of successful hunting expedition to the Useri River area, including the shooting of a rhino and a lion; description of Useri River region and its wildlife; details of an encounter with a tribe chieftain; ref. to Ehlers.

Folder 3 1889.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Taveita, January 27. Includes: account of a hunting expedition north of Taveita and his attack by an African Buffalo; describes the villagers' fear of Masai raids; mentions interest of the Smithsonian in receiving his collections.
2. Susan Abbott, Zanzibar, March 5. Includes: description of the African interior as seen on his march from Taveita to the coast; account of life in Zanzibar; ref. to Ehlers; Thomas Stevens of the New York World.
3. Susan Abbott, Zanzibar, March 11. Includes: material on proposed new expedition with Stevens; description of life in Zanzibar.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Mombassa, March 24. Includes: material on the death of an Englishman, Guy Downey, from a wild buffalo attack; description of his camp; observations on the treatment of porters; refers to the German Weisman expedition.
5. E. L. (Dollie) de Calry, Freretown, opposite Mombassa, March 24. Includes: material on cooking on the expedition, Downey's death, Thomas Steven's mission to find Henry M. Stanley, German and English colonial expansion in the region.
6. Susan Abbott, Taveita, April 20-21. Includes: material on the difficulties on leading a 125-man expedition, his men's fear of Masai raids, his treatment of the porters, the American newspapers' rumor mongering, Abbott's displeasure with the Academy of Natural Science's treatment of his earlier donations.
7. Susan Abbott, Moshi, May 19-21. Includes: account of expedition with Thomas Stevens to the northwest of Mount Kilamanjaro; description of Machame, a native state in the region, and its sultan; observations on the character of his porters and Africans in general.
8. Susan Abbott, camp north of Taveita, July 17-18. Includes: material on the mutiny of his porters on the second expedition with Stevens. Abbott's killing one and the need to remain in the bush until any uproar dies down; description of the Masai tribespeople encountered.
9. E. L. "Dollie" de Calry, Mandara, August 6-16. Includes: detailed description of the Masai encountered; more details on the mutiny and murder; the need to remain in the interior until things settle; descriptions local chieftains ref. to William Astor Chambers.
10. Susan Abbott, camp on River Kilerman, August 10. Includes: account of life in Moshi, description of Mandara and the return of his envoys from Germany ref. to Ehlers.
11. Susan Abbott, Mandara, September 8-11. Includes: account of life in Mandara, observations on missionary activity; material on the collection of ethnological specimens.
12. Susan Abbott, Mandara, October 6. Includes: material on the settlement of claims against Abbott for the death of his porter; efforts to collect specimens and artifacts; anticipated problems from German colonial expansion, ref. to Chambers, Stevens, Dr. Meyer, a German explorer, Ehlers.
13. Susan Abbott, Kahe, October 31. Includes material on a hunting trip to Arrucha Wai; and the shooting of his first elephant.
14. Susan Abbott, Kahe, December 3-4. Includes: material on his bad relations with the local porters and Abbott's consequent treatment of them; description of a hunting trip to Aruscha; the challenge to Ehlers' credibility in his ascending Mt. Kilamanjaro by Dr. Meyer.
15. Gertrude Abbott, Maschi, December-January 5, 1890. Includes: material on the collection of ethnological material; a visit to hitherto unexplored native state of Uru, description of the African terrain and Abbott's feelings for it and life in Africa; observations on the ravages of locusts in the region; comments on the hostile activities of the Masai; ref. to Chambers.

Folder 4 1890.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Mt. Kumeni, Teita Hills, January 11. Includes: material on Abbott's encounter with an American expedition. Steven's finding Henry M. Stanley in the jungle; account of night crossing of the Seregeti Plain; ref. to Ehlers, Col. Evan Smith.
2. Susan Abbott, Zanzibar, January 25. Includes material on life in Zanzibar and the increased European presence there and in the interior; ref. to Col. Evan Smith.
3. Susan Abbott, Indian Ocean, East of Madagascar, February 10. Includes: description of the voyage and the islands visited, including Masse Be, Sante Marie, and the Malagasy port of Tanatave, and description of Madagascar.
4. Susan Abbott, Curepipe, Mauritius, February 21. Includes: description of "New Port," Reunion Island, and the interior detailed description of Mauritius, its people, and their customs.
5. Susan Abbott, S.S. Mendoza, South of the Seychelles Islands, March 15. Includes: description of his 20-mile hike through Mauritius and sights seen, further observations on life there; plans for activities in the Seychelles.
6. Susan Abbott, Mahe, Seychelles, April 15. Includes: material on measles quarantine in the islands; Abbott's receipt of news of the destruction and massacre of the villagers amongst whom he lived in Taveita; his discovery of a new species of bird; description of life on the island.
7. Susan Abbott, Mahe, Seychelles, May 10. Includes: account of hiking around the island; description of the indigenous double cocoa nut; report of events in Taveita.
8. Susan Abbott, Antananavive, Madagascar, June 19. Includes detailed description of journey by canoe and on foot along the coast and the interior to the capital city of Madagascar.
9. Susan Abbott, Antananavive, July 16. Includes account of 470-mile hike through the interior of Madagascar to Fianarantsoa and back.
10. Susan Abbott, Majunga, Madagascar, August 14. Includes account of journey on foot and canoe from Antananavive to the port of Majunga.
11. Susan Abbott, Rome, Italy, October 10.
12. Susan Abbott, Sunbury on the Thames, October 24.

Folder 5 1891.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Haramosh, Baltistan, February 19. Includes: description of the area surrounding his campsite; success in hunting; and observations on the raising of children; education, and army life.
2. Susan Abbott, Mahabuleshwa, Western Ghauts, India, May 14. Includes: description of Bombay; account of journey by rail and carriage through Poona to Mahabuleshwa.
3. Susan Abbott, Kurrachee (Karachi), May 29-June 1. Includes: account of journey by rail carriage, boat and steamer to Karachi and Lahore; description of life in the two cities.
4. Susan Abbott, Rawal Pindi, Punjab, June 13. Includes: description of Rawalpindi, preparations for journeying northwards to Srinagar.
5. Susan Abbott, Murree, Punjab, June 15-20. Includes: account of trip from Rawalpindi by Ekka - a local cart and sights seen passing through the valley of Ihelum and the Vale of Kashmir; description of Srinagar and the Kashmiris.
6. Susan Abbott, Vale of Kashmir, June 30. Includes: material on specimen collecting, particularly the Hinalayan Bear; life in the field; description of the Vale of Kashmir; and an encounter with a Hindi traveling merchant.
7. Gertrude Abbott, The Lolab Valley, Kashmir, July 12. Includes: description of the surrounding "Mullah" specified hunting ground; camp life and porters, observations on the wildness of Africa versus that of Kashmir.
8. Susan Abbott, Palahian Mullah, Kashmir, July 18-25. Includes: material on the physical features and wildlife in the region; Abbott's hunting activities.
9. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, August 7. Includes: material on European life in Srinagar; account of Abbott's hunting in the Kashmir highlands.
10. Susan Abbott, camp at Bawan, in Eastern Kashmir, August 11. Includes: material on Abbotts' visit to the ruins of Awantipur and Martund and the nearby sacred caves.
11. Susan Abbott, Vernag, Eastern Kashmir, August 19. Includes: descriptions of the sacred springs at Vernoy and the waterfall of Haribal; material on firearm restrictions.
12. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, September 3. Includes a description of the Kansa Nag, a highland peak.
13. Susan Abbott, Bonar Mullah, Kashmir, September 19. Includes material on the Kashmiri goats and life in the field.
14. Susan Abbott, Bonar Mullah, September 26. Includes: material on plans for and difficulties in traveling to Yorkand, description of Kashmiri tax system.
15. Susan Abbott, Bonar Mullah, October 19. Includes: comments on life in the field and lack of success in hunting; observation on Europeans and Americans encountered abroad.
16. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, Kashmir, November 1. Includes: description of hunting; encounter with Captain Younghusband, a British political agent, preparations to visit Yorkand; description of a Tibetan religious dance.
17. Susan Abbott, Dras, Kashmir, on the road to Skardu, November 9. Includes: account of journey from Sonamang through the Sind Valley to Ladak and Dras; description of terrain, wildlife, and people seen.
18. Susan Abbott, Askole, Braldu Valley, Baltistan, November 27-December 1. Includes an account of journey to Skardu through the Braldu Valley with description of the features and wildlife seen.
19. Susan Abbott, Braldu Valley, Baltistan, December 16. Includes: material on journey; glaciers and other physical features; wildlife seen; lack of success hunting Ibex.

Folder 6 1892.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Skardu, Baltistan, January 25. Includes: material on the mountain passes out of Kashmir and the difficulty crossing them; observations on the effects of high altitudes and the quality of life for the local population.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Vale of Kashmir, April 2. Includes: account of his recent journey; descriptions of scenes from along the Indus and Dras rivers, the Zogi-la Pass, and the Sund Valley.
3. Susan Abbott, camp in the Kaj Nag, April 22. Includes: material on his preparations to travel to Yorkand (Soche, Sinkiang, China) and his receipt of his Chinese passport: descriptions of life in the field and his ill-success hunting snow-bears.
4. Susan Abbott, Vale of Kashmir, May 24. Includes: material on Abbott's recent attack of fever ruining plans for Yorkand; cholera epidemic in the region and the state of local water supplies; plans for sailing to the Seychelles.
5. Susan Abbott, Kashmir, June 9. Includes material on his recovery from fever and desire to be quit of Kashmir.
6. Susan Abbott, Aden, July 3. Includes: material on American consular officials, especially Moore, consul at Aden; descriptions of Aden; account of proposed expedition in Africa by Chambers.
7. Susan Abbott, on board S.S. Australian, off the Seychelles, Mahe, July 16-17. Includes: description of a side trip from Aden to the Oasis of Lahey; account of his arrival in Mahe; plans to stay at Aldabra Island.
8. Susan Abbott, Mahe, Seychelles, July 31. Includes: account of trip among the mountain region of Mahe Island; proposed sail to outlying islands.
9. Susan Abbott, Mahe, September 7. Includes accounts of preparations for voyage to and exploration of Aldabra Island; journey to the outlying coral islands to the south of the Seychelles including Coetivy, Providence Islands, and the Admiraltra aboard a small schooner; specimen collecting there.
10. Susan Abbott, Aldabra Island, September 22. Includes: description of explorations of Assumption and Aldabra Islands; details of his plans and preparations for two-month stay in Aldabra; ref. to Spur and his expedition to Aldabra.

Folder 7 1893.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Mahe, Seychelles, February 28. Includes: account of stay and collecting activities on Aldabra; account of Abbott's seven-week return voyage including shipwreck on Alonoso Island.
2. Susan Abbott, Bombay, India, March 31. Includes: description of Bombay; account of Parsee religious practices.
3. Susan Abbott, Krishnagunga Valley, Kashmir, May 4. Includes comments on his disgust with cold climate and his lack of success hunting.
4. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, May 24. Includes: material on life in mountains, preparations for Yorkand trip, clipping from local newspapers.
5. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, June 8. Includes: material on preparations for York and expedition; living conditions in Kashmir.
6. Susan Abbott, Dras, on the road to Leh, June 21. Includes descriptions of journey from Srinagar, including material on Dal section of Srinagar, the Sund Valley, and travel in general.
7. Susan Abbott, Leh Ledak, July 3. Includes: account of journey by foot from Dras through Kargil and Shargol; material on religious habits and social structure of the area; detailed description of people and environs of Leh Ledak.
8. Susan Abbott, Leh Ledak, July 12. Includes: material on preparations and plans; material on political situation in Leh Ledak area; ref. to a Hamburg, an English companion.
9. Susan Abbott, near Kashgar (K'oshih, Sinkiang China), August 25-September 9. Includes account of journey by foot from Leh through the Khardany, Stesser, and Karakoram passes to Yorkand, and then to Kashgar, including material on their people and environs.
10. Susan Abbott, Aksu, Eastern Turkestan (Russia), November 19. Includes: material on expeditions; encounters with Chinese soldiers and the native population.

Folder 8 1894.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Southeast of Maralbashi, Eastern Turkestan, February 8-17. Includes material on travel and hunting along the Yorkand River; relations with Chinese and African peoples; falcony in Karatol region; encounters with a Chinese telegraph line expedition; ref. to Hamburg.
2. Susan Abbott, Kashgar, March 21-23. Includes material on return to Kashgar.
3. Susan Abbott, Tagdumbash Pamir - camp in Mintaka Mullah camp above Eggig Yar, May 24-June 27. Includes: material on journey through the Pamir region; physical features, vegetation, wildlife, and people.
4. Susan Abbott, Yorkand, July 5-12. Includes: material on Abbott's journey to Yorkand and its people and customs; refers to the Phelps and Church expedition.
5. Susan Abbott, Leh Ledak, September 5. Includes account of return there; material on hunting climate and geography along the route, ref. to Phelps and Church.
6. Gertrude Abbott, in the Sund Valley, Kashmir, September 21-22. Includes: description of ship and hotel accomodations, material on difficulties with pack ponies, Europeans in India.
7. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, October 1. Includes: discussion of European impact in Kashmir; Abbott activities there, refers to books by Conway in Kashmir, Rockhill on Tibet.
8. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, October 7. Includes: material on Abbott's discounting of Nolovitch book on the Tibetan origins of Christ's doctrines.
9. Susan Abbott, Tenala, near Bhadrowah, October 24-30. Includes: account of march from Islamabad over the Marbal Pass through Kishtwar, Jangalwar, and Chamba to Dalhous.
10. Susan Abbott, Calcutta, November 4-8. Includes: description of reception of Viceroy of India Elgin at Pathonhote; description of Calcutta; ref. to Ehlers.
11. Susan Abbott, aboard S.S. Muttra off Coast of Ceylon, November 16-28. Includes: account of meeting with Ehlers, description of departure from Calcutta.
12. Susan Abbott, Curepipe, Mauritius, December 8-12. Includes: description of Colombo, Ceylon; Durepipe.

Folder 9 1895.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Curepipe, Mauritius, January 1-3. Includes: opinion on the raising of children; French colonial expansion in Madgascar, description of Hindu religious celebration.
2. Susan Abbott, Fort Dauphin, Madgascar, January 14. Includes description of area, Hova (Malagesy) unpreparedness for war and his intentions to join them.
3. Susan Abbott, Antananarivo (Tanamarine) Madagascar, January 30. Includes: account of travels with London Telegraph war correspondent, Burliegh, through central Madagascar.
4. Susan Abbott, Antananarivo, February 15-25. Includes: description of Hova military, and their resentment of European officers; Abbotts' enlistment with them as a surgeon.
5. Susan Abbott, Antananarivo, March 18-19. Includes material on Abbott's resignation from the Hova army with all the other European officers.
6. Susan Abbott, Antanambas Mahanaro, Madagascar, April 21-May 4. Includes: discussion of Malagesy distrust of foreigners; the destruction of the forest by slash and burn agriculture; the infertility of soil; Malagesy wildlife; people and social conditions.
7. Susan Abbott, Mananjara, Madagascar, May 22. Includes account of march along coast to Mahanoro.
8. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, Kashmir, September 22.
9. Susan Abbott, Camp near Bandipur, Kashmir, October 11. Includes description of campsite and hunting plans.
10. Susan Abbott, Camp above Bandipur, October 22.
11. Gertrude Abbott, Camp in Kashmir, November 1. Includes: material on his opinions on America; comments on the absence of game; refers to future plans to charter schooner for sailing among islands of Asia.
12. Susan Abbott, Camp near Rampore, Kashmir, November 9. Includes material on events in Madagascar.
13. Susan Abbott, Nagmarg, Kashmir, November 30. Includes: account of encounter with shikanies (poachers); total lack of success hunting.

Folder 10 1896.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Calcutta, January 17-20. Includes: material on Abbott's theories of child raising, Venezuela boundary dispute, U.S. military unpreparedness and contemporary strategic affairs; description of the lot of Eurasians in India; ref. to the death of Ehlers.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Taiping, Perah, Malay Peninsula, undated (January 31 or February 5) Includes: description of city of Thaiping and environs, tin mining and smelting.
3. Susan Abbott, Canton, Trong Provice, Siam, February 18. Includes: descriptions of city and the surrounding area, Governor of Trong, local shipping.
4. Susan Abbott, Trong, Siam, March 16. Includes: material on collecting activities; observations on the social customs and state of medicine among natives and Chinese, ref. to Wolfe, an explorer.
5. Susan Abbott, Pleean village, Trong Province, Siam, April 3. Material on the extent of gambling among Malays, incidence of killings of cattle and people by tigers.
6. Gertrude Abbott, Pramon, Siam, April 13. Includes material on the lack of wild country hindering collecting activities; general description of the area and people.
7. Susan Abbott, Tyching, Trong, Siam. May 6-14. Includes: material on life in Tuchin village and surrounding area; ref. to Frederick William True.
8. Susan Abbott, Penang, June 9. Includes material on life in Penang.
9. Susan Abbott, Penang, June 15. Includes: description of Chinese quarter of Penang, comparison of cleanliness of the respective races; refers to Dutch colonial expansion in Sumatra.
10. Susan Abbott, Tyching, June 29. Includes: description of his life in Tyching, and the area itself; Abbott's acquisition of a pet monkey and crane; ref. to Otis Tufton Mason.
11. Susan Abbott, Tychung, July 13. Includes: account of Chinese medicines, life in Tychung. Page 4 has been mutilated.
12. Susan Abbott, Tychung, July 31. Includes: material on collecting activities, references to life in the U.S. and impending war with Spain, refers to Smithsonian receipt of specimens.
13. Susan Abbott, Bandee, Trong Province, Siam, August 15-17. Includes: account of journey by boat from Tychung, description of the area and its people; hand-drawn map of Trong Province.
14. Susan Abbott, Lake near Bandee, August 27-September 6. Includes: material on wildlife of the area and collecting same; description of the region, comments on presidential election; ref. to Mason.
15. Susan Abbott, Lake near Bangdee, September 30-October 16.
16. Susan Abbott, Trong, October 27. Includes: description of collecting trip to a Buddist temple; material on festival observed there; account of reports from Madagascar.
17. Susan Abbott, Lay Song Hong Lake, Trong, November 24-26. Includes: account of encounter with an elephant; refers to the death of George Brown Goode.
18. Susan Abbott, Lay Song Hong, December "6 or 7". Includes: comments on the imminent crisis with Spain over Cuba; the emergence of "the New Woman" in America.
19. Gertrude Abbott, Lay Song, Hong, December 24. Includes comments on collecting, Wood's work on natural history, and life in the U.S.

Folder 11 1897.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Tychung, Trong, Siam, January 11. Includes material on shipments to Smithsonian; comments on the United States; trouble over Cuba; refers to Skinner, an entomologist with Academy of Natural Sciences.
2. Susan Abbott, Chong, Trong, January 23-29. Includes: account of journey by elephant from Tychung to Chong; description of area and wildlife.
3. Susan Abbott, Penang, April 7. Includes material on illness contracted in Trong.
4. Susan Abbott, Penang, April 13. Includes: material on Penang; medicine as practiced in Western hospital there; opinions of the United States.
5. Susan Abbott, Penang, May 8. Includes: material on life in Penang including problems with petty theft and the first exhibition of moving pictures; ref. to True and Charles D. Walcott.
6. Susan Abbott, Calcutta, May 20. Includes material on passage to Calcutta on a small coastal steamer.
7. Susan Abbott, Cawnpore (Kampur), May 29. Includes: account of rail travel from Calcutta; material on British administration of famine relief; life in Cawnpore.
8. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, India. June 9-10. Includes material on cooking in the field; impressions of Kashmir.
9. Susan Abbott, Dras - on the road to Leh, June 18. Includes: description of conditions of the area; travel through upper Kashmir.
10. Susan Abbott, Leh, Ledak, July 1. Includes: comments on British Commissioners for Ledak, Morcivian Mission there.
11. Susan Abbott, Camp in Rupshu, Ledak, July 22. Includes material on physical features and wildlife of the Ledak region.
12. Susan Abbott, Leh, September 19. Includes: comments on lack of success hunting; border war on the Afgan frontier; ref. to Tom Greenfield, Hamburg.
13. Susan Abbott, Rambok Mullah, October 1-5. Includes: description of geophysical features of the area; religious practices of local Buddists; Christian missionary efforts.
14. Susan Abbott, Matayan, Logi-la Paso, Kashmir, October 16-24. Includes: comments on customs regulations in U.S. and the Straits; prevalence of smallpox in the area; Smithsonian exhibit of Abbott's Siamese collection.
15. Susan Abbott, Camp in Dandwar, Pin Panial Mountains, November 3. Includes: Abbott's observations on the peoples of India and Tibet; and material on traveling through Tibet.
16. Susan Abbott, Calcutta, December 2. Includes: extensive material on British difficulties in the Afgan border war; observations of Europeans and Americans in India.
17. Susan Abbott, Singapore, December 17. Includes account of passage from Calcutta.

Folder 12 1898.

Box 2 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, at sea between Shanghai and Japan. Includes descriptions of Singapore, Saigon, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
2. Hotel bill from the Kyoto Hotel dated January 20, and an oriental bookmark.
3. Susan Abbott, Tampa, Florida, May 8-10. Includes material on Abbott's enlisting with William A. Chambers "irregular horse" volunteers for the Spanish-American War.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Tampa, Florida, May 19. Includes: accounts of life at camp, war preparations, departure of General Lacret's unit of Cuban volunteers; ref. to Chambers.
5. Susan Abbott, Tampa, May 26. Includes material on war preparations. Attached is an advertisement for patriotic songs in the form of a Cuban Flag.
6. Val de Calry, Tampa, June 9. Includes material on disorganization of military transport, refers to Roosevelt's Rough Riders.
7. Susan Abbott, Tampa, June 11.
8. Susan Abbott, Tampa, on board S.S. Florida, June 20. Includes: comment on belief that his unit will join Cuban insurgents.
9. Susan Abbott, S.S. Florida off Key West, June 23. Includes: account of activities aboard ship.
10. Gertrude Abbott, S.S. Florida, of Southern Cuba, July 7. Includes: account of landing in Cuba and a brief skirmish in which Abbott was wounded; ref. to General Gomez.
11. Susan Abbott, S.S. Wanderer, off Caribbean, Cuba August 27. Includes a brief account of activities in Cuba, ref. to General Gomez.
12. Susan Abbott, Singapore, November 24. Includes: description of the feast of Hokien Chingay; description of travel aboard a Japanese steamship.
13. Susan Abbott, Singapore, November 30. Includes a brief description of the city with some mention of the botanical gardens; a list of photographs not found with the letter.
14. Susan Abbott, Singapore, December 9.
15. Gertrude Abbott, Penang. December 17. Includes: material on Sing Bee, ruler of Trong.
16. Susan Abbott, Gantong Trong, Siam.

Box 3

Folder 1 1899.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, camp on Khow nok Ram, January 8-9. Includes: descriptions of campsite and conditions; material on an aboriginal native tribe the "Chowpath."
2. Susan Abbott, camp at Kok Sai, January 18. Includes material on wildlife in the area.
3. Susan Abbott, camp on the Khow Sai Dow, Trong, February 7. Includes: descriptions of conditions at campsite; account of collecting activities.
4. Susan Abbott, Penang, March 7-11. Includes: material on the introduction of the bicycle to Malaya and Java; material on the transportation of Buddist relics from Nepal to Bangkok.
5. Susan Abbott, Singapore, March 23.
6. Susan Abbott, Batavia; March 28-30. Includes: descriptions of Batavia (Djakarta, Indonesia) and Buitenzorg (Bogor, Java, Indonesia); comments on Dutch colonial rule.
7. Susan Abbott, Garvet (Garut, Java, Indonesia), April 5. Includes: descriptions of journey by rail to Garoet through Bandung, account of the ascent of several small volcanos.
8. Susan Abbott, Singapore, April 17-19.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, May 3. Includes: material on life in Singapore; Phillippine Insurrection; also includes a list of photographs not found with the collection.
10. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 14-18. Includes: descriptions of the wildlife around suburbs of Singapore.
11. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 27 - June 1.
12. Susan Abbott, on board the Terrapin, Singapore June 23. Includes material on the outfitting of Abbott's schooner, the Terrapin.
13. Susan Abbott, Singapore, June 18. Includes: material on visit to city by Admiral George Dewey, comments on The Philippine Insurrection; account of Abbott's preparations of Terrapin.
14. Susan Abbott, Linga (Lingga Island, Indonesia) on board Terrapin, July 8. Includes: descriptions of island and the volcanic mountain.
15. Susan Abbott, camp on Linga Mountain, July 15-22. Includes: accounts physical features: fauna, and flora collecting activities; refers to arrival of Cecil Boden Kloss.
16. Susan Abbott, Siantan, Anamba Islands, August 19. Includes: description of the voyage through and explorations of the small island groups between Lingga and the Anambas.
17. Susan Abbott, on board Terrapin, at anchor in Telok Pas, September 2-12. Includes: description of Anambas Islands; details of his diet while in the area.
18. Mrs. J. W. McKnight, Singapore, October 11. Includes: material on cruise through Lingga and Anambas Islands just completed.
19. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 12. Includes: description of Tioman Island; material on natives on Jimaja (Djemadja) Island; details of the making of sajo; account of machinations of American travelers in Singapore.
20. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 19. Includes material on difficulties in getting Terrapin re-rigged.
21. Susan Abbott, Singapore, November 2-5. Includes material on native coastal sailing vessels.
22. Susan Abbott, Penang, November 23. Includes: material on plans for next expedition; observations on the poor quality postal and other officials in the area; refers to the German Skeat expedition.
23. Susan Abbott, Tonkah, Junkseylon Island, December 22. Includes descriptions of islands, their population, and his collecting activities.

Folder 2 1900.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point Burma, January 2-3. Includes: material on the voyage; description of Victoria Point and the settlement there.
2. Susan Abbott, Sullivan's Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 5. Includes description of islands visited, complaints of the lack of interesting wildlife specimens and native artifacts.
3. Susan Abbott, Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 17. Includes: references to lack of success collecting and to Burmese pearl fishing.
4. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point, March 16. Includes: account of voyages since last letter; description of material conditions of selung people; general description of the area.
5. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point, Tenasseum, March 29. Includes material on expedition up Pakchan River to Maliwar and Abbott's collecting activities.
6. Susan Abbott, Near Singapore, April 23-26. Includes: comments on American missionary activity in Asia; observations on the quality of British colonial officials in Malaya; ref. to guerrilla activity in the Philippines; Pratt, former U.S. consul; Frederick William True; D. Gerritt Smith Miller.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, May 9. Includes: comments on taxes in the U.S., India, and Malaya; comment on medical strife in Singapore.
8. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 14.
9. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 1. Includes: account of 3-month voyage among the Kepulauan Natuna Besar and Kepulauan and Kepulauan Natunu Selatin island groups with some description of Terrain and wildlife encountered; comments on the Boxer Rebellion.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, September 9. Includes: comments on Americans encountered in Asia; observations on inter-racial marriages.
11. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 18. Includes: material on voyage to Tringanu and Kemanan and their physical features, wildlife and people; comments on European diplomatic tensions and the Boxer Rebellion; mentions German scientific expedition aboard the Alice; ref. to Miller.
12. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 30. Includes: material on plans for voyage with Mr. Kloss to Andaman islands; comments on German naturalist expedition aboard the Eberhard, ref. to Cambell, American dentist and U.S. Consul.
13. Susan Abbott, Penang, November 12-16. Includes: material on the growth of Penang; references to the presidential election; Kloss.
14. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point, Burma, November 23. Includes: descriptions of voyage, and cooking on board ship; material on the Victoria Point settlement.
15. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point, December 15. Includes material of hunting trips from Victoria Point.

Folder 3 1901.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Port Blair, Andaman Islands, January 12. Includes: descriptions of Port Blair and several islands visited en route, including Barsen Island and the islands around Kwanting Strait, and Henry Lawrence Island.
2. Susan Abbott, Car Nicobar, January 24. Includes: material on native inhabitants of South Andaman Island and Car Nicobar.
3. Susan Abbott, Olehleh, (Uleeheue), Sumatra (Indonesia), April 6. Includes: report of successful voyage to the Nicobar Islands in company of Kloss.
4. Susan Abbott, Straits of Malacca, between Sumatra and Penang, April 12-15. Includes: detailed description of voyage among the Nicobar Islands including geophysical and natural features; the natives and their customs; and Abbott's collecting activities; material on Achinese guerilla war in Sumatra; ref. to Otis T. Mason.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, April 29. Includes: material of native crime in Singapore; plans for witnessing eclipse of the sun; refers to the Boxer Rebellion.
6. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 13. See Folder 14.
7. Susan Abbott, Dabo, Singhep Islands, May 21. Includes: account of the eclipse; ref. to a Professor Todd of Amherst College and Mr. Wilson of the New York Botanical Gardens; Miller.
8. Susan Abbott, Mouth of the Endau River, Johore, July 21. Includes account of voyages among islands in China Sea and collecting activities and the expedition up the Endau River.
9. Susan Abbott, Singapore, August 12. Includes: material on collection shipments and the collecting success of the voyage just concluded; comments on the activities of Kloss and family.
10. Susan Abbott, Rhio (Bintan Island), August 20. Includes: discussion of the Rhio area and his plans.
11. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 2. Includes: material on voyage to Lingga and Singkep Islands and Sumatra, ref. to Miller.
12. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 14. Includes: comments on Kloss, Orchard, Miller, and Mason.
13. Susan Abbott, Penang, October 29. Includes: material on development of Penang.
14. Gertrude Abbott, Olehleh (Uleelheve), North Sumatra, November 3. Includes material on Dutch attempts to suppress Archinese [Achinese] guerrillas in Northern Sumatra; description on area and general conditions; ref. to Theodore Roosevelt.
15. Susan Abbott, Tempat Tuan (Tapaktuan), Sumatra, November 14. Includes: material on his voyage down the northwest coast of Sumatra.

Folder 4 1901.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 13. Includes: material on plans to witness total eclipse of the sun; ref. to Robert Louis Stevenson. Second page is mutilated.

Folder 5 1902.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Siboga (Sibolga) west coast of Sumatra, February 9-10. Includes an account of voyage and collecting activities through Sineulve, Lasia, Babi, and other islands of the Banjah island group.
2. Susan Abbott, Siboga, West Sumatra, March 1. Includes a mention of the Dutch prohibition of gunpowder sales to the local population.
3. Susan Abbott, Siboga, March 14. Includes: material on the local inhabitants of Pulo Mansalar (Musala) and his collecting of specimens there.
4. Susan Abbott, Siboga, March 27-29. Includes: Abbott's reaction to a British Museum proposal that he collect for them; details of the observed habits of gibbons found on Jaga Jaga; comments on contemporary dentistry; ref. to Miller.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Penang, April 17. Includes: comments on the disappearance of Simalur language; passage and sea conditions in the Andaman Sea region, crime in Singapore; ref. to a Mr. Christian.
6. Susan Abbott, Singapore, April 25.
7. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 1.
8. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 9-10. Includes: discussion of Catholicism in reference to niece's desire to enter a convent; refers to dispatch of specimens to Smithsonian and the publication of Kloss's book In the Andamans and Nicobars.
9. Susan Abbott, Rhio (Bintan), August 1. Includes: extensive material on expedition up the Rumpin (Rompin) River and description of the river valley; comments on Miller; Mason; and Kloss.
10. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 4. Includes: material on the Orang Laut, the aboriginal peoples of Malyan peninsula; ref. to Kloss; drought in Singapore.
11. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, September 16. Contains: material to the dispatch of specimens to the Smithsonian, comments on the performance of H.M.S. Pinafore in Singapore; notes the publication of Kloss's book; ref. to Sultan of Jahore.
12. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 21.
13. Susan Abbott, Penang, October 6. Includes references to Kloss, British troops in Penang.
14. Susan Abbott, Olehleh, North Sumatra, October 14. Includes material on the Dutch colonization of Sumatra.
15. Susan Abbott, Padang, West Sumatra, November 5. Includes: discussion of voyages from Olehleh including stop for collecting at Simalar (Simeulue) Island, comments on unrest on Sipora and Siberut islands in the Mentaur (Mentawai) group that he intends to explore.
16. Gertrude Abbott, Sikakap Strait, Pagi Island, West Sumatra, December 29. Includes: description of his collection of both wildlife and artifacts, material on the native peoples and customs.

Folder 6 1903.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Padang, West Sumatra, January 25. Includes: material on collecting among the Metawai island group. ref. to Kloss.
2. Susan Abbott, Pulo Tello (Pulantelo), Batu Islands, West Sumatra, February 24. Includes description of explorations on the islands of Batu and Nais.
3. Susan Abbott, Penang, April 13. Includes: material on collecting at Nais Island.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, April 24-30. Includes: material on inflation and other aspects of life in Singapore; intended donation of complete series of Kloss photographs from the Andaman expedition to major museums.
5. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 18. Includes material on communications with Bruno Muller, ref. to Kloss.
6. Susan Abbott, Pulo Karimon, Straits of Malacca, June 6. Includes: description of Kariman Island.
7. Susan Abbott, off West Coast of Lingga Island, August 1-2. Includes: extensive material on explorations and collections in the Lingga archipelago.
8. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 23. Includes: material on Kateman River area of Sumatra and Abbott's activities there; comments on Kloss and his book.
9. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 5. Includes: material on condition of the Raffles Museum and taxidermy in Singapore. Ref. to Kloss.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Penang, October 26. Includes comments on passage to Penang; material on Penang; mentions the prospects of a Russo-Japanese war.
11. Susan Abbott, Victoria Point, Burmah, November 30. Includes: material on voyage and collecting activities among the coastal islands of western Malaya; feelings on life in the West as opposed to the Orient.

Folder 7 1904.

Box 3 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Victoria Point, January 15. Includes: material on collecting and ethnological activities among the islands off the Burmese coast.
2. Susan Abbott, Pakchan River, March 5. Includes material on his collecting activities at Victoria Point; observations on the Russo-Japanese War ref. to Ropes, Mason, and Kloss.
3. Susan Abbott, Penang, April 11.
4. Susan Abbott, 50 miles north of Banka (Bangka), May 18-19. Includes: observations on Malayan and Chinese peoples; description of Muntok.
5. Susan Abbott, Muntak, Banka, June 16. Includes: extensive description of Banka including observations on local population.
6. Susan Abbott, Tanjong Pandan, Billeton (Belitung), July 12. Includes: account of explorations along north coast of Bangha; observations on the Orang Sikka, the indigenous population; and description of the passage to Belibung.
7. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 24. Includes: material on Singapore; British Museum; ref. to Muller.
8. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 9. Includes: comments on British colonial officials ref. to Paultney Bigelow.
9. Susan Abbott, off Ben Kulen (Bengkulu), west coast Sumatra, October 28. Includes: account of passage from Singapore.
10. Susan Abbott, Pandang, West Sumatra, December 14. Includes: material on plans to collect on Siberut or interior of Sumatra; comments on the state of contemporary natural sciences and scientists.

Folder 8 1905.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Padang, January 22-February 4. Includes: material on Russo-Japanese war, British Army, and Count Festities's cruise and book; plans for collecting on Nais; ref. to Mason and Miller.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, May 25. Includes: material on life in Singapore, including the introduction of various inventions, economic activity, and social affairs.
3. Susan Abbott, Pontianak West Borneo, June 12. Includes: material on collecting at Pulo Tenaja; description of Pantianah and Big Kapuas River region.
4. Susan Abbott, Pontianah, June 23. Includes: extensive observations on the Dyck people, who inhabit the region.
5. Susan Abbott, Pontianak, July 18. Includes: material on unsuccessful collecting trip up the Landoh River to Ngabong; comments on American consular system; Russo-Japanese War.
6. Susan Abbott, Sanggau, Kapuas River, West Borneo, August 17. Includes: material on expedition up the Sanggau and Sakaiam Rivers; U.S. and Australian Chinese exclusionary policies and Abbott's general views on race; ref. to Mason.
7. Susan Abbott, Tyan, Kapuas River, Borneo, August 30.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, October 12. Includes: Abbott's observations on European geopolitics and the German threat; ref. to Kloss.
9. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 29. Includes: material on state of Singapore harbor.
10. Susan Abbott, Belawan, Deli (Sumatra), November 13. Includes: brief descriptions of island of Pulo Berhala and the Dutch trading center of Medan.
11. Susan Abbott, Aru Bay, East Sumatra, December 18. Includes: description of the area and collecting activities.

Folder 9 1906.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Aru Bay, January 9. Includes: material on collecting activities and animals encountered.
2. Susan Abbott, Bengkalis, March 19. Includes: material on voyage down the eastern coast of Sumatra, collecting on island of Rupat; observations on its indigenous population - the Orang Akit; ref. to Ales Hrdlivcka.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, April 8. Includes: material on the state of the museums in Singapore and Jahore; ref. to Mason, Kloss, Karl Richard Hanitsch, the curator of the Raffles Museum of Singapore.
4. Susan Abbott, Singapore, April 21. Includes: itinerary for return to the United States; comment on the San Francisco earthquake; ref. to Kloss.
5. Susan Abbott, Hong Kong, April 30. Includes: comments on San Francisco earthquake; descriptions of Hong Kong and its population.
6. Susan Abbott, off coast of Japan, May 10. Includes: observations on Japan and the Japanese; account of his passage across the Pacific.
7. Susan Abbott, Bengkalis, October 8. Includes brief description of running the Terrapin aground in a storm.
8. Susan Abbott, Bengkalis, East Sumatra, November 12. Includes: material on canoe journey with Kloss up the Little Siak River with descriptions of terrain encountered and the lack of success collecting.

Folder 10 1907.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Singapore, April 3. Includes: observations on Singapore; ref. to Marcus War Lyon, Charles Dolittle Walcott, Miller.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, April 18. Includes: description of grass mats forwarded; observations on the undesirability of Singapore and its harbor; comments on the Kloss family.
3. Susan Abbott, off mouth of Kapuas River, West Borneo, May 12. Includes account of the voyage from Singapore and the collecting stops at Direction Island, Pulo Datu, Pulo Temayer, and Pula Lamukutan.
4. Susan Abbott, Sukadana, West Borneo, June 10. Includes: mention of collecting activites on the islands of Panebangan and Pelapis; description of Sukadana.
5. Susan Abbott, off Sukadana, West Borneo, September 7. Includes: material on three-month expedition up the Sepang River; considerable discussion of the Dyah people and their ways; mention of his ascent of Mt. Palung.
6. Susan Abbott, Singapore, September 29. Includes: account of the dismasting of the Terrapin during a squall; observations on life in the Mideast and other hot climates, the bankruptcy of Mrs. Kloss; ref. to Lyon, Miller, Mason.
7. Susan Abbott, Bowean Island, Java Sea, November 28. Includes: description of Bowean island; fauna found there; and Abbott's ill-luck in collecting same; ref. to Charles Wallace Richmond.
8. Susan Abbott, Kota, Baru, Pulo Laut, Southeast Borneo, December 16. Includes: descriptions of Pulo Solumbo and its people; material on the Laurot Islands and wildlife found there.

Folder 11 1908.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Kota Bahru, Pulo Laut, Southeast Borneo, January 6. Includes: material on Pulo Laut and Pulo Sebuku, its physical features and wildlife.
2. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 10. Includes: account of 29-day return voyage to Singapore; description of the economic doldrums of that city; observations on the arrangement of Indian Native States; comments on the affairs of the Kloss family.
3. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 28. Includes: itinerary of planned Borneo expedition; various unflattering descriptions of Singapore and its economic woes; material on the museum at Kwalla Lumper and its curator.
4. Susan Abbott, Tanjong Batu Jurong, Southwest Borneo, June 17. Includes: account of several abortive attempts to leave Singapore; brief description of Pulo Bauwal.
5. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 15. Includes: account of expedition up the Kundawangan River; account of the grounding of the Terrapin and the subsequent detour to Karimata; observations on prevalence of disease in cities as opposed to wilderness; ref. to Mason.
6. Susan Abbott, Singapore, October 31. Includes: account of repairs to the Terrapin; observations on living in the tropics.
7. Susan Abbott, Singapore, November 7. Includes: references to Balkan Crisis of 1908; and to Marcus Ward Lyon.
8. Susan Abbott, Pulo Laut, South East Borneo, December 4. Includes: material on collecting on Arends Island and Laurot Islands, especially for the Kijang or Barking Deer; account of being caught by a monsoon.

Folder 12 1909.

Box 3 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Tanah Grogot, Pasir River, East Borneo, January 16. Includes: observations on the Dyak people of the area; material on collecting animal and ethnological specimens.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Mouth of Pasir River, East Borneo, January 26. Includes: note of the death of Mason; material on the scarcity of game on the expedition up the Samtai River, and the collection of ethnological artifacts; comments on Catholicism; material on failed Malayan expedition of Kloss, Herbert C. Robinson and a Mr. Ridley with observations on travel in the Malayan peninsula.
3. Susan Abbott, Balih Papan, East Borneo, March 19. Includes: material on the onset of partial blindness which has caused the abandonment of Abbott's collecting activities in the region.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Balih Papan, March 18. Includes further material on vision problems.
5. Susan Abbott, Pulo Laut, Southeast Borneo, April 19. Includes: comments on gradual improvement of his eyesight; specimen collecting in Paneoe Kany Bay.
6. Gertrude Abbott, Singapore, May 19. Includes material on Abbott's intention to auction off the Terrapin and leave the area.
7. Susan Abbott, Singapore, May 30. Includes: references to the impending sale of the Terrapin and to the shipment of specimens to the Smithsonian.
8. Gertrude Abbott, General Hospital, Singapore, June 15. Includes: discussion of loss of vision in left eye and his return to Europe for expert treatment. Letter has been mutilated, center section cut out.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Aachen (Germany), July 31. Includes: report of partial recovery; favorable impressions of Germany.
10. Gertrude Abbott, s.l., August 18. Includes: observations on the museums of Brussels; ref. to Walter Hough. Letter is a fragment, first page is missing, and upper section of second has been removed.

Box 4

Folder 1 1910.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Uni, on the Jhelum Valley Road, Kashmir, March 20. Includes: description of the road from Rawl Pindi to Baramula; comments on the rich harvest in Kashmir, the excellence of the cooking, and the westernization of Kashmir.
2. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, Kashmir, March 27. Includes: descriptions of Srinagar and its development; comments on the game laws of the area; ref. to Hamburg.
3. Susan Abbott, Camp at Trinuik, Kashmir, April 24. Includes description of terrain, conditions at camp and the wildlife in the surrounding area.
4. Susan Abbott, on the Jhelum near Srinagar, May 22. Includes: further details on physical features and climate of the region; mentions Halley's Comet.
5. Susan Abbott, Pandniltan, Valley of Kashmir, May 31. Includes: further comments on birds, vegetation, temples climate of the Valley of Kashmir.
6. Susan Abbott, Camp in Vij Valley, Kashmir. Includes a general description of Vij Valley.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Chota Deo Sai, Kashmir, July 12. Includes: description of campsite and the surrounding region; Abbott's diet while in camp.
8. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, July 25. Includes: cholera epidemic plaguing the region.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Nara Nag, Wangert Valley, Kashmir, July 31. Includes: interesting account of the investigation by Indian native police of the theft of Abbott's valuables by his Kashmiri porters; mentions Hindu ritual pilgrimage to the nearby holy lake of Gunabal.
10. Susan Abbott, Camp on the Zogi-la Pass, Kashmir, August 16. Includes: description of sights observed traveling up the Sind Valley.
11. Susan Abbott, Sonamarg, Kashmir, August 27. Includes: description of Westerners encountered; further details on the robbery of July; reports on cholera in India and Kashmir; mentions receipt of letters from the owner of ponies rented by Abbott prior to the robbery. Attached are 3 letters, one of August 9, and 2 of August 19, 1910, from Lalla Shikari to Abbott.
12. Susan Abbott, Nij Nai Mullah, Sind Valley, Kashmir, September 5-7. Includes: descriptions of campsites and area.
13. Susan Abbott, Tronkol, Wangat Valley, Kashmir, September 18-27. Includes: description of march from Nij Nye to Tronkol. Page four has been mutilated; the bottom third cut off.
14. Gertrude Abbott, Sasgan, Kutihar, Kashmir, October 10. Includes: descriptions of scenery and lack of success in trapping, and episode involving a shepard whose sheep encountered one of Abbott's traps.
15. Susan Abbott, Saogam, Kutihar, October 17. Includes comments on weather, campsite, and the trapping of a fox. Mutilated letter, upper portion of second page has been removed.
16. Susan Abbott, Camp above Chogum, Kashmir, October 31. Includes: account of trapping activities.
17. Gertrude Abbott, Camp in Newborg Valley, Kashmir, November 7. Includes: report from Cecil Boden Kloss, account of ill success in trapping.
18. Susan Abbott, Camp in Lees Nar; Nowboog Valley Kashmir, November 14. Includes account of preparations to trap a leopard.
19. Susan Abbott, Camp in the Nowboog Valley, November 28. Includes: description of conditions at campsite; account of capturing a marten, ref. to Bruno Muller.
20. Susan Abbott, Kemron, Kotihar Valley, Kashmir. Includes: description of conditions at his high altitude location; discussion of suffragette movement.

Folder 2 1911.

Box 4 of 4
1. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, January 1. Includes: report of the death of Homburg, comments on the activities of Dr. B. Workman and his wife; observations on the dishonest nature of Indians and Kashmiris. Attached is a clipping referred to in letter.
2. Susan Abbott, Kewnas, on Woolar Lake, Kashmir, January 17-19. Includes accounts of pig hunting and sightings of local birds.
3. Susan Abbott, Hawan, Kashmir, February 2.
4. Susan Abbott, Forest Bunglow, Koombreal, in the Lolab Valley, February 16. Includes: observations on level of honesty in the East; account of collecting activities.
5. Susan Abbott, Sunagar, March 9. Includes: material on Kashmiri wedding celebrations; the coming of spring to Kashmir; the flora and fauna that may be observed; the difficulties in shipping specimens; clipping attached is referred to in the letter.
6. Susan Abbott, Dusoo, Newboog Valley, Kashmir, March 21. Includes: an account of an encounter with British Indian Cavalry officer, description of winter conditions and difficulties crossing mountain passes.
7. Susan Abbott, Lahasnau, in Dachin district of Khistwar, April 8. Includes: account of passage through the Margon Pass into Chatru and down along the Wardwan River to Lakasnau; description of the Khistwar district and its people.
8. Susan Abbott, Camp in North Nye, Khistwar, May 2. Includes: material on the hunting of ibex in Kashmire; opinions on music, particularly on German tastes. Attached and referred to in the letter is a newspaper clipping on American Rhodes scholars.
9. Susan Abbott, Campat North Nye, May 13. Includes: comments on depletion of game in the area and plans for leaving observations on severity of local population's life.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Camp at mouth of Kiar Nye Khistwar, May 20. Includes: description of the natural features the Kiar Nye area; wildlife observations; description of his future itinerary; refers to cholera epidemic and its effects; and general prevelance of disease in the region.
11. Susan Abbott, Camp in Kiar Mullah, Khishwar, May 27. Includes: description of area and fauna surrounding campsite; impressions of drawbacks in traveling in various countries.
12. Susan Abbott, Camp in Kiar Nye, Khistwar, June 8. Includes: description of campsite; bear and ibex encountered; plans to go to Europe in July.
13. Susan Abbott, Khistwar, June 28.
14. Susan Abbott, Srinagar, July 4. Includes: report from Cecil Boden Kloss on failure of British natural history expedition in New Guinea.

Folder 3 1912

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Dassoo, Torrich Mullah, Baltistan, July 25-31. Includes: description of country passed through and account of his journey.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Camp in Torrich Valley, Baltistan, August 11. Includes: material on the countryside and his lack of success trapping; details on wildlife encountered.
3. Gertrude Abbott, camp by the Chogo Lungma Glacier, Basha Valley, Baltistan, August 26. Includes: description of the Chogo Lungma Glacier; and surrounding area; discussion of life at camp.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Camp above Arandu, Basha Valley Baltistan, September 10-11. Includes: observations on life in the United States as opposed to that abroad.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Kaiyu, Shigar Valley, Baltistan September 29. Includes: description of a "Zak" - a native raft; account of the capture of a snow leopard; material on the agricultural practices in Baltistan; and description of the hot springs at Chutnum; ref. to Kloss and a New Guinea expedition.
6. Gertrude Abbott, Camp at Hashupa, Shigar Valley, October 9. Includes: observations on the privations of the Baltistani life; descriptions of campsites near villages of Mango Juno, and trapping therein. Bottom third of second page removed.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Shigar, Baltistan, October 21. Includes: accounts of trapping in Skoro; a description of life at his present campsite; plans for journeying to Ledah next year.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Dras, on the road to Kashmir, November 3. Includes: description of conditions on the road from Baltistan to Dras; comments on quality of trapping.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Srinagar, November 11. Includes: brief comments on preservation of Red deer heads; journey to Srinagar; life at camp versus life in the cities; American politics.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Kumas, on the Woolar Lake, Kashmir, December 2. Includes: observations on the degenerative effect of wealth on Americans, particularly women; material on attempts to trap specimens; the successful trapping of a jungle cat; and details on life at camp.
11. Gertrude Abbott, Srinagar, December 15. Includes: discussions of miserable winter conditions in Kashmir, and plans for imminent return to Europe for eye treatments at Oachen.
12. Gertrude Abbott, Taj Hotel, Bombay, December 29. Includes: brief comments on Europeans encountered in Bombay; description of a railroad trip from Rawal Pindi to Kashmir; refers to assassination attempt against British Viceroy.

Folder 4 1913.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, on board S. S. City of York, May 9. Includes: account of the voyage from Port Said.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Srinagar, Kashmir, May 18. Includes: descriptions of Kashmir in the spring; account of the difficulties in obtaining a pass for traveling in Ledah; references to an Itahan expedition attempting to ascend Nun Kun mountains; comments on the prospects of Federal Income Tax.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Nimo, Ledah, June 7-9. Includes: description of surrounding country.
4. Gertrude Abbott, camp above Khasclong, Ledah, June 25-27. Includes: account of problems with snow while crossing Khardong Pass; descriptions of physical features of the Ledah region and Abbott's campsites.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Punamich, Nubra Valley, Ledak, August 7. Includes: material on Abbott's difficulties with specimen trapping; trade between Yakland and India; details of his plans to meet Gertrude Abbott in the Orient; ref. to Kloss.
6. Gertrude Abbott, camp at Gohlung, Eastern Ledah, August 24. Includes: material on the game encountered in the region and his ill success with trapping.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Tankse, Ladak, September 16. Includes: mention of future itinerary, descriptions of scenery and wildlife along Panghong Lake and Tanhse Valley; ref. to Gerrit S. Miller and Henry Cushier Raven.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Ranbispur, Ladak, September 30. Includes: mention of the crossing of the Chang-la pass and passage to the Indus valley; intention to trap wolves and foxes; account of the difficulties caused by extreme dryness of Ledah; and comments on honesty of Ledahi peasants and Kashmiris.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Camp in Sobu, near Leh, October 4. Includes: instructions on the preservation of small animals, ref. to Raven.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Giumpa, above Leh, Ledah, October 12. Includes account of trapping at Sobu.
11. Gertrude Abbott, camp at Gyumpo, Leh, October 13. Includes: material on his campsites proximity to Leh impeding specimen collection; description of the port of Bencollen in Southeast Asia. A sentence has been cut out of the letter.
12. Gertrude Abbott, Shergol, Ladak, October 26-27. Includes: material on travel through Ladak; discussion of travel arrangements.
13. Gertrude Abbott, Kangar, Sund Valley, Kashmir, November 2. Includes a description on conditions.

Folder 5 1914.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Hotel Kaiserbad, Aachen, Germany, April 19. Includes a brief description of life in town.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Hotel Kaiserbad, May 3. Includes mention of debilitating effects of the "Aachen Treatment".
3. Gertrude Abbott, Srinagar, Kashmir, September 21-2. Includes comments on various pieces of war news with revealing observations on the German and Austrian national characters.

Folder 6 1915.

Box 4 of 4
1. Letter fragment dated September 20. Includes material on Kashmir habits of dress.
2. Gertrude Abbott, camp in Dandwar, Kashmir, October 3-4. Includes: a brief description of the area; mention of trapping success.
3. Gertrude Abbott, camp in Dandwar, Pir Panjal Range, Kashmir, October 3. Includes: material on Abbott's difficulties with the IRS; his expectations for good trapping; comments on Siberut Islands and Kloss's desire to collect on them.
4. Gertrude Abbott, camp in Dandwar, Kashmir, October 15. Includes: material on trapping; comments on his dissatisfaction with Raven's S.E. Asian collecting, particularly in ethnological material and his competition with Kloss.
5. Gertrude Abbott, camp above Dannour, Kashmir, October 27. Includes a description of area surrounding new campsite and the wildlife encountered.
6. Gertrude Abbott, letter fragment from October. Includes: material on food supply in Kashmir; problems with his traps; Abbott's reaction to German atrocities in Belgium.
7. Gertrude Abbott, camp above Dannour, November 13. Includes Abbott's comments on local wild cats and the war news.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Achebal, Kashmir, November 25. Includes: account of trapping in Achebal; discussion of possible places to retire; mentions Karl Richard Hanitsch's publication and the activities of Kloss; ref. to Raven and Herbert Christopher Robinson.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Kashmir, December 6. Includes: discussions of a return to the United States; comments on the ebb of neutrality sentiment there; material on the activities of Kloss; ref. to Raven.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Karachi, December 27. Includes account of return from Rival Pindi to Karachi and a description of a Gurka officer encountered.

Folder 7 1916.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, San Domingo, July 25. Includes: material on the disease destruction of the cocoa and citrus fruit plantings; Miller's desire that Abbott dig for bone specimens in bat guano deposits being thwarted by commercial excavation.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Costanza, Santo Domingo, September 24. Includes: material on his discovery of a highland area as yet un-worked by naturalists.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Jarabacoa, Republica Dominicana, October 12. Includes: description of Jarabacoa; report of success with the collection of bird specimens; plans to leave Dominican Republic for the U.S. in November.

Folder 8 1917.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, Hayti, January 28. Includes: observations on Haiti; its people; and the effect of U.S. intervention; reports plans to explore Tortuga Island.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, February 13. Includes: report of uneventful collecting on Tortuga Island; plans to go into the interior of Haiti; ref. to Kloss, Hanitsch, upper left corner of the letter has been removed.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, February 28. Includes: description of River's Bar valley and the disappointing specimens collected; Abbott's satisfaction with Haitian climate.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, April 3. Includes: a description of journey by sail and foot through the Northwest peninsula of Haiti; observations on the people, animals and country encountered; comment on Haitian decline since French colonial period.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, April 16. Includes: material on his indecision whether to return to the U.S.; difficulties in securing sea passage; material on second visit to Tortuga Island and his lack of success in collecting there, observations on Haitian history.
6. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, April 17-18. Includes his intention to leave Haiti.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, May 2. Includes his observations on natural wealth of Haiti.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, May 25. Includes: material on unsatisfactory third trip to Tortuga Island; bird collecting; observations on life in Haiti.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Port de Paix, July 15. Includes: material on his attempt to excavate Indian artifacts and remains in caves on Tortuga; observations on the pay and treatment of American troops.
10. Gertrude Abbott, Port au Prince, on board S.S. Orange Nassau, November 11. Includes: material on the voyage to Port au Prince and a description of the city.
11. Gertrude Abbott, Jeremie, Haiti, December 13. Includes an account of people, country, and collecting at Jeremie and La Grotte.
12. Gertrude Abbott, Jeremie, December 26-30. Includes material on his activities in Jeremie and the highland district of Moron.

Folder 9 1918.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Jeremie, Haiti, January 17. Includes: reports of successful collecting trip to Cayenite island; preparations for a journey into the mountain region; reports his belief that local superstitions are preventing him from obtaining specimens of Agouti.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Jeremie, February 7. Includes material on the failure of his mountain trip due to disease.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Port au Prince, Haiti, March 1-2. Includes: a description of Gonave Island and the upland regions of Haiti; material on his collecting activities; reports plans to visit Assuei Lake.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Port au Prince, March 17. Includes a description of Lake Assuei.
5. Gertrude Abbott, U.S. Field Hospital, Port au Prince, March 27. Includes: instructions on disposing estate should he not recover from severe attack of dysentery.
6. Gertrude Abbott, U.S. Marine Corp Field Hospital, Port au Prince, April 14. Includes report that he is recovering, reports his expectation to leave for the U.S. within two weeks.

Folder 10 1919.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Sanchez, Republica Dominicance, February 4. Includes: material on the influenza epidemic sweeping the island.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Sanchez, February 24. Includes material on guerrilla activity in the country and the influenza epidemic.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Samana (Dominican Republic), March 13. Includes an account of collecting activities in Laguna region and his plans for visiting Lagusia.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Sanchez, March 31-April 1. Includes: plans for trip 'country' with John King, a local guide; comments on making permanent residence in the area, ref. to Thomas Wayland Vaughan.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Constanza, San Domingo, April 13. Includes: description of terrain, people of, and conditions in the area; reports success in collecting bird specimens.
6. Gertrude Abbott, camp in the Loma del Rio Grande, near Constanza, April 20. Includes: an account of collecting activities; a description of region and its depredation by the local inhabitants; conjectures about returning in the Dominican Republic; observations on post war conditions in Europe, ref. to King, Hanitsch.
7. Gertrude Abbott, Aldine Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 25. Includes: material on the purchase of a farm in Maryland; his plans for a return to the Dominican Republic; description of life in Philadelphia, ref. to Raven.
8. Gertrude Abbott, Porto Plata, San Domingo, July 17. Includes: comments on American occupation of the Dominican Republic and Haiti and the local unrest; problems clearing weapons through customs; observations on the desirability of living in the Dominican Republic over the U.S.
9. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, San Domingo, August 24. Includes: material on his lack of success collecting specimens in the area, especially monkeys; activities in Samana; explorations of a cave near Puerto Francis and the finding of pottery.

Folder 11 1920.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, St. Marc, Haiti, February 28. Includes: descriptions of the area; plants seen; account of a fire in Port au Prince; material on the unrest caused by the requisitioning of labor to construct roads; mentions his companion E. C. (Emory Clarence) Leonard.
2. Gertrude Abbott, St. Marc, March 20. Includes: material on trip with Leonard to Gonave Island; ref. to Miller.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Port au Prince, Haiti, May 18. Includes: material on Leonard's success in collecting botanical specimens in the Etang Savmatve area; comments on the destruction of pine forests by the local inhabitants, reference to an unsuccessful Smithsonian botanical expedition involving William Ralph Maxon.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Petionville, Haiti, June 23. Includes: material on Abbott's views on nationalism, patriotism, and world politics, especially concerning Germany; Leonard's collecting success and attempts to collect cacti; ref. to Joseph Nelson Rose.
5. Gertrude Abbott, Sanchez, Republica Dominicana, December 7-10. Includes: material on their botanical collecting activities; comments on the inadequacies of the American rule over the Dominicans.

Folder 12 1921.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, Santo Domingo, April 2. Includes: description of the features and people of the Northeastern portion of the Dominican Republic as far as Cape Samana, material on the collection of botanical specimens; reports of increased guerrilla activity in the region; ref. to King.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, April 16. Includes: material on his desire to retire in Samana being thwarted by the lack of suitable property; description of a campsite in a cave on San Gabriel Islet; mentions his plans to travel to England in the summer and then to India.

Folder 13 1922.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Sanchez, Santo Domingo, January 4.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Barahona, Santo Domingo, January 25. Includes: plans to stay in Paradise on a coffee plantation; mentions smallpox epidemic.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Polo, Santo Domingo, March 1. Includes: descriptions of the Quita Espuela mountain region, especially the flora found; plans to collect along southern Samona Bay.
4. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, May 21-23. Includes: material on the difficulties in finding property in the Dominican Republic; a collecting trip to Laguna; refers to the cession of guerrilla activity.
5. Gertrude Abbott, 400 South 15 Street, June 24. Includes: material on the renovation of property in Elk Neck, Maryland; a visit to American Museum of Natural History and discussions with Gladwyn Kingsley Nobel and Carl Ethan Akeley; possibility of a reunion with Kloss; ref. to Doris Mabel Cochran.

Folder 14 1923.

Box 4 of 4
1. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, Dominican Republic, November 11. Includes: discussions of local politics and the proposal by the Dominican government to reduce the bird population, ref. to King.
2. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, December 9. Includes material on collecting trip near Jovero and the purchase of Carib Indian stone heads.
3. Gertrude Abbott, Samana, December 17. Includes: account of collecting trip with John King to Laguna and the Loma Travenso.
4. Letter fragment, labeled from Northeast, Maryland, 1925.

Series 3

PHOTOGRAPHS, 1891-1923.

These are photographs taken by William L. Abbott during the period 1891-1923; the bulk being from the later date. Virtually all were identified by Abbott with captions on the border or reverse of the photo.

Box 4

Folder 15 1891-1904.

Box 4 of 4
1. 22 photographs of the people and features in the Leh, Ladak, and Srinagar regions of Kashmir, none are dated. Found with 1891 correspondence.
2. Photograph of William Louis Abbott holding "Ovis Polis" horn. Probably taken in 1891.
3. Nine photographs of boats found in the Singapore harbor. Found with 1899 correspondence, and may be the photographs mentioned in letter of November 2, 1899.
4. 14 photographs of people and features of Victoria Point, Burma. Slip of paper with comments by Abbott included. Found with letter to Susan Abbott of May 14, 1900.
5. Five photographs of Pagi Islanders. One photograph of unidentified European man - Abbott? Found with letter to Gertrude Abbott of December 29, 1902.
6. Four photographs of various Southeast Asian subjects. Found with letter to Susan F. Abbott of September 24, 1904.

Folder 16 1923.

Box 4 of 4
1. 46 photographs of various Dominican people, taken in Guaralo, Sanchez Laguna Jovero, and Samana. Some of John King, his relatives and friends.
2. 19 photographs of plants found in the Dominican Republic. Each is identified with a collection number.
3. 32 photographs of Samana and environs.
4. 23 photographs of Sanchez and environs.
5. 67 photographs of various regions; 14 of the Rio Yuma; 15 of Jovero and Rincon area; 11 "on the road to Serbo"; 8 of Liali; 8 of Las Canitas; 5 of Puerto Plato; 4 of Laguna; and 12 miscellaneous.

Series 4


This series consists of divers material found with the letters of series 2. Note the letter to Abbott from his nephew Awley (Item 9).

Box 4

Folder 17

Box 4 of 4
1. An unsigned biographical sketch of William L. Abbott.
2. Five 3 x 5 notes on: the type specimens named for William L. Abbott; the number of skins, skeletons, eggs, and type specimens based on his material; and bibliographic citations of his publications.
3. Sheet on number of botanical specimens collected in Hispaniola by Abbott or E. C. (Emery Clarence) Leonard with his finding.
4. Five 6" x 9" notebook paper sheets containing observations and specimen lists.
5. Itinerary of journey through India and Afghanistan.
6. Newspaper clipping from Pioneer, December 25, 1912. "A Russian View of Indian Officers"; found with the letter to Gertrude Abbott of December 29, 1912.
7. Newspaper clipping from the Washington Evening Star of November 14, 1901, "Finds in Farther India," found attached to the letter of March 27, 1902.
8. Letter fragment - page 7 - with observations on American family life and personal affairs.
9. Letter to William L. Abbott from nephew Awley de Calry dated January 15, 1901, found with letter to Gertrude Abbott of April 29, 1901 (Box 2, Folder 3, item 5).