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Finding Aids to Official Records of the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Record Unit 158

United States National Museum

Curators' Annual Reports, 1881-1964

Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at osiaref@si.edu.
Creator: United States National Museum
Title: Curators' Annual Reports
Dates: 1881-1964
Quantity: 49 cu. ft. (98 document boxes)
Collection: Record Unit 158
Language of Materials: English
Summary:

Includes reports submitted to the Director of the United States National Museum by curators and administrators.

Descriptive Entry

The administration of the United States National Museum required curators to submit regular reports on the activities of the departments, divisions, and sections. Prior to about 1900 these reports were often made monthly and semiannually as well as annually. The reports were traditionally submitted to the Director of the National Museum to be used in preparing the published Annual Report of the United States National Museum. The individual reports, however, were not reproduced in their entirety in the published Annual Report and generally contain more information than is to be found in the published version.

Reports were stored by the Office of Correspondence and Reports (later known as the Office of Correspondence and Documents), and then by the Office of the Registrar.

Includes reports submitted to the Director of the United States National Museum by curators and administrators.

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Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 158, United States National Museum, Curators' Annual Reports

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Container List

Series 1

Annual, Semiannual and Monthly Reports of Departments of the United States National Museum, 1881-1897, arranged by department.

Box 1

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1881

Box 1 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1882

Box 1 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 1 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1884

Box 1 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Monthly Reports, January-June 1885

Box 1 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 1 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 1 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 1 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 1 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 1 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 1 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 1 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 1 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 1 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 1 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Materia Medica: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 1 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Textiles (prior to 1890 known as Section of Textile Industries) and Section of Foods: Annual Report, 1883

Box 1 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Annual Report, 1884

Box 1 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Monthly and Semi Annual Reports, 1885

Box 1 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 1 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 1 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 1 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Arts and Industries - Sections of Textiles and Foods: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 1 of 98

Box 2

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 2 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 2 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 2 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 2 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 2 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 2 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Historical Collections: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 2 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 2 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 2 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 2 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 2 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 2 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, July - December 1894

Box 2 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 2 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 2 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections. Established in 1885 as Section of Steam Transportation of Department of Arts and Industries. In 1886-1887 title changed to Section of Transportation, and in 1887-1888 to Section of Transportation and Engineering. In 1893 name changed to Section of Technological Collections. Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 2 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 2 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 2 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 2 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 2 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 2 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 2 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 2 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Technological Collections: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 2 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Physical Apparatus: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 2 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Physical Apparatus: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 2 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Photographic Collections: Annual Report, 1896-1897.

Box 2 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Electrical Collections: Annual Report, 1896-1897.

Box 2 of 98

Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Religious Ceremonial Objects. See box 5.

Folder 29 Department of Arts and Industries - Section of Costumes: Annual Report, 1883

Box 2 of 98

Box 3

Folder 1 Department of Ethnology (prior to 1894 known as Department of Ethnography): Monthly Reports, 1881

Box 3 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1882

Box 3 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 3 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 3 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Ethnology: Semi-Annual Report and Monthly Reports January-June 1885

Box 3 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 3 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 3 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 3 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 3 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1889-1890

Box 3 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 3 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1891-1892

Box 3 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Ethnology: Monthly Reports, 1892-1893

Box 3 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 3 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 3 of 98

Box 4

Folder 1 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 4 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 4 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery (from 1884 to 1885 known as the Department of American Prehistoric Pottery; in 1886 it became the Section of Aboriginal American Pottery of the Department of Ethnology; from 1887 to 1888, the Section of American Aboriginal Pottery; 1889, the Department of American Aboriginal Pottery; from 1890 to 1892, the Department of American Prehistoric Pottery; 1893 the Section of American Aboriginal Pottery; and after 1894 as the Section of Aboriginal Pottery): Annual Report, 1884

Box 4 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1885

Box 4 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 4 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 4 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1887-1889

Box 4 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 4 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 4 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 4 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Ethnology - Section of Aboriginal Pottery: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 4 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology (prior to 1886, known as the Department of Antiquities; in 1886 as the Department of Prehistoric Anthropology; 1887 as the Department of Archaeology; and from 1888 to 1897 as the Department of Prehistoric Anthropology): Annual Report, 1881

Box 4 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1882

Box 4 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1883

Box 4 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1884

Box 4 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Semi-Annual Report, January-June 1885

Box 4 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 4 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 4 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 4 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 4 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 4 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1890-1891. Includes a report on Thomas Wilson's visit to Philadelphia and Trenton, November 6, 7, 8, and 10, 1890.

Box 4 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Monthly Reports, 1891

Box 4 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Monthly Reports, 1892

Box 4 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 4 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 4 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1895

Box 4 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Prehistoric Anthropology: Annual Report, 1895-1897. Includes a report on Wilson's visit to caverns in southern Ohio, July 1-12, 1895.

Box 4 of 98

Box 5

Folder 1 Department of Oriental Antiquities (prior to 1893-1894, a Section of the Department of Ethnology): Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 5 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 5 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 5 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 5 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1893-1894. Includes annual reports of the Section of Religious Ceremonial Objects of the Department of Arts and Industries, by Cyrus Adler, curator of both collections.

Box 5 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 5 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 5 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Oriental Antiquities: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 5 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Comparative Anatomy: Annual, Monthly, and Semiannual Reports, 1885-1902

Box 5 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Living Animals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1887-1888

Box 5 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Living Animals: Annual and Monthly Reports 1888-1889

Box 5 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1882

Box 5 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1883

Box 5 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1884

Box 5 of 98

Box 6

Folder 1 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1885

Box 6 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 6 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 6 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 6 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 6 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 6 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 6 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 6 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 6 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 6 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Mammals: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 6 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Birds: Monthly Reports, July-November 1881

Box 6 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1882

Box 6 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 6 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 6 of 98

Box 7

Folder 1 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885

Box 7 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Birds: Monthly and Semi-Annual Reports, January-June 1886

Box 7 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1886-1887

Box 7 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Birds: Monthly Reports, 1887-1888

Box 7 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Birds: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 7 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1888-1889

Box 7 of 98

Box 8

Folder 1 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1889-1890

Box 8 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 8 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1891-1892

Box 8 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1892-1893

Box 8 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1893-1894

Box 8 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Birds: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1894-1895

Box 8 of 98

Box 9

Folder 1 Department of Birds: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 9 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Birds: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 9 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 9 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 9 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 9 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 9 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 9 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 9 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 9 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 9 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 9 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 9 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Birds - Eggs: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 9 of 98

Folder 14 Section of Bird Osteology: Annual Report, 1882

Box 9 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Reptiles and Batrachians (prior to 1883 known as the Department of Herpetology): Annual Report, 1881

Box 9 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1882

Box 9 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1883

Box 9 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1884

Box 9 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, January-June 1885

Box 9 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 9 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 9 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 9 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 9 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 9 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 9 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 9 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 9 of 98

Box 10

Folder 1 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 10 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 10 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Reptiles: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 10 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1881

Box 10 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1882

Box 10 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1883

Box 10 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1884

Box 10 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Fishes: Semi-Annual Report, 1885

Box 10 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 10 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Fishes: Report 1851-1886. Includes "A List of the principal sources, Geographically arranged, of the fishes in the U. S. National Museum from 1851-1886, including exchanges."

Box 10 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 10 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 10 of 98

Box 11

Folder 1 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 11 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1889-1890. Includes report on visit to Cape Charles, Virginia, September 15-21, 1890, by Barton A. Bean.

Box 11 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 11 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 11 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1892-1893. Includes a report on the fishes exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893.

Box 11 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 11 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 11 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 11 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Fishes: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 11 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1882

Box 11 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1883

Box 11 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1884

Box 11 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1885. The report for 1885 includes a report on Mollusks exhibited at the New Orleans International Exposition.

Box 11 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1885-1886

Box 11 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1886-1887

Box 11 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1887-1888

Box 11 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1888-1889

Box 11 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1889-1890

Box 11 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1890-1891

Box 11 of 98

Box 12

Folder 1 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1891-1892

Box 12 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 12 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1893-1894

Box 12 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Mollusks: Curator's Report, 1894-1895

Box 12 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Mollusks: Exhibited at Atlanta Exposition, 1895. Includes "Notes on the shell-bearing mollusks exhibited by the U. S. National Museum at the Atlanta Exposition, 1895."

Box 12 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 12 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 12 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1881

Box 12 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1882

Box 12 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1883-1884

Box 12 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, January-June 1885

Box 12 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1885-1886

Box 12 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1886-1887

Box 12 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1887-1888

Box 12 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1888-1889

Box 12 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1889-1890

Box 12 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1890-1891

Box 12 of 98

Box 13

Folder 1 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1891-1892

Box 13 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1892-1893

Box 13 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1893-1894. Report for 1893-1894 includes a special report on the entomology exhibit prepared by the U. S. National Museum and the Department of Agriculture for the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago.

Box 13 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1894-1895

Box 13 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Insects: C. V. Riley's Report, 1895-1896

Box 13 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Insects: Annual Report, 1896-1897. Report for 1896-1897 includes a "report upon collections made in Liberia, West Africa, February to May, 1897," by Rolla P. Currie.

Box 13 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1881

Box 13 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1882

Box 13 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1883

Box 13 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1884

Box 13 of 98

Box 14

Folder 1 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Semi-Annual Reports, January-June 1885

Box 14 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 14 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 14 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 14 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 14 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 14 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Monthly Reports, 1890

Box 14 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 14 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Reports, 1891-1892

Box 14 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Reports, 1892-1893

Box 14 of 98

Box 15

Folder 1 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 15 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Monthly Reports, 1894

Box 15 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 15 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Monthly Reports, 1895

Box 15 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 15 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 15 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Marine Invertebrates: Monthly Reports, 1896-1887

Box 15 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 15 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 15 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 15 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Plants (prior to 1890, known as the Department of Recent Plants; from 1890-1894, as the Department of Botany): Annual Report, 1889-1890. Reports prior to 1889-1890 are filed with reports of the Department of Paleontology - Section of Fossil Plants, because Lester F. Ward was curator of that section as well as the Department of Plants. See box 17.

Box 15 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 15 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 15 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 15 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 15 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 15 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 15 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Plants: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 15 of 98

Box 16

Folder 1 Department of Paleontology (created in 1894 by the fusion of the Departments of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Fossils): Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 16 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1895-1896. The report for 1895-1896 contains a list of specimens exhibited in Atlanta in 1895.

Box 16 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 16 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils (established in 1890-1891 as the Department of Vertebrate Fossils; in 1893-1894 it became a section of the newly created Department of Paleontology): Annual and Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 16 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1891-1892

Box 16 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1892-1893

Box 16 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1894-1895

Box 16 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1895-1896

Box 16 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Paleontology - Section of Vertebrate Fossils: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1896-1897

Box 16 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic (Prior to 1894 known as the Section of Paleozoic Fossils of the Department of Invertebrate Fossils): Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 16 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 16 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885

Box 16 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885-1886

Box 16 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1886-1887

Box 16 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1887-1888

Box 16 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1888-1889

Box 16 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1889-1890

Box 16 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 16 of 98

Box 17

Folder 1 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1891-1892

Box 17 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1892-1893

Box 17 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Paleozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1893-1894

Box 17 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: From 1881 to 1884 known as the Department of Fossil Invertebrates (Mesozoic and Cenozoic); in 1884 name changed to Department of Invertebrate Fossils, Mesozoic and Cenozoic; in 1886 Cenozoic became a separate Department of Invertebrate Fossils (Cenozoic) under the curatorship of William H. Dall, who was also curator of the Department of Mollusks. If any reports exist for this department for this period they would probably be in boxes 12 and 13. In 1894 both Departments became part of the Section of Invertebrate Fossils of the Department of Paleontology. Annual and Monthly Reports, 1881

Box 17 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1882

Box 17 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 17 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 17 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885-1886

Box 17 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1887-1888

Box 17 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1888-1889

Box 17 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1889-1890

Box 17 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1890-1891

Box 17 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1891-1892

Box 17 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1892-1893

Box 17 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Fossils: Mesozoic: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1893-1894

Box 17 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Paleontology - Section of Fossil Plants (prior to 1894 known as the Department of Fossil Plants). Reports through 1888-1889 contain reports of the Department of Recent Plants because Lester F. Ward was curator of both departments. Annual Report, 1882

Box 17 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1883

Box 17 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1884

Box 17 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Fossil Plants: Semi-Annual Report, 1885

Box 17 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 17 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 17 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 17 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 17 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 17 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 17 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 17 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 17 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Fossil Plants: Annual Report, 1895-1896. The report for 1895-1896 includes material relating to the Lacoe collection of Paleozoic plants. See also box 16.

Box 17 of 98

Box 18

Folder 1 Department of Minerals (from 1881 to 1886 known as the Department of Mineralogy; from 1886 to 1893, as the Department of Minerals; in 1894 as the Department of Mineralogy; and from 1894 to 1897 as the Department of Minerals): Annual and Monthly Reports, 1881

Box 18 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Minerals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1882

Box 18 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Minerals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 18 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Minerals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 18 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Minerals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885

Box 18 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Minerals: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1886

Box 18 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 18 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 18 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 18 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 18 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 18 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 18 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 18 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 18 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1894-1895. Report for 1894-1895 includes a report on minerals exhibited at the Cotton States and International Exposition.

Box 18 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 18 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Minerals: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 18 of 98

Box 19

Folder 1 Department of Geology (established in 1890 with the fusion or the Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology with the Department of Lithology and Physical Geology. Reports prior to 1889-1890 are those of the Department of Lithology and Physical Geology. Prior to 1882, known as the Department of Geology. Reports of the Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology can be found in box 20): Annual Report: 1882

Box 19 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1883

Box 19 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1884

Box 19 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1885

Box 19 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology: Monthly Reports, January-June 1885

Box 19 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 19 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 19 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 19 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 19 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 19 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 19 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 19 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 19 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 19 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 19 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 19 of 98

Box 20

Folder 1 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology (prior to 1884, known as the Department of Metallurgy; in 1890 the department fused with the Department of Lithology and Physical Geology to form the Department of Geology): Annual Report, 1881

Box 20 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1882. Report for 1882 contains a report of a visit to Colorado by Fred P. Dewey.

Box 20 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1883. Report for 1883 includes a report on a trip to Virginia and North Carolina by Dewey.

Box 20 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1884

Box 20 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1885

Box 20 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 20 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 20 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 20 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 20 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Metallurgy and Economic Geology: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 20 of 98

Folder 11 Annual Report of the Chemist, 1881

Box 20 of 98

Folder 12 Annual Report of the Chemist, 1882

Box 20 of 98

Folder 13 Annual Report of the Chemist, 1883

Box 20 of 98

Box 21

Folder 1 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1882

Box 21 of 98

Folder 2 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1883

Box 21 of 98

Folder 3 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1884

Box 21 of 98

Folder 4 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1885

Box 21 of 98

Folder 5 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1885-1886

Box 21 of 98

Folder 6 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1888-1889

Box 21 of 98

Folder 7 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1889-1890

Box 21 of 98

Folder 8 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1890-1891

Box 21 of 98

Folder 9 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1892-1893

Box 21 of 98

Folder 10 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1893-1894

Box 21 of 98

Folder 11 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1894-1895

Box 21 of 98

Folder 12 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1895-1896

Box 21 of 98

Folder 13 Annual Report of the USNM Photographer, 1896-1897

Box 21 of 98

Folder 14 Annual Reports of USNM Artist, A. Zeno Shindler: 1886-1897

Box 21 of 98

Folder 15 Office of the Registrar (Department of Registry and Storage): Annual Report, 1881-1882

Box 21 of 98

Folder 16 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1882-1883

Box 21 of 98

Folder 17 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1883-1884

Box 21 of 98

Folder 18 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1884-1885

Box 21 of 98

Folder 19 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 21 of 98

Folder 20 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 21 of 98

Folder 21 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 21 of 98

Folder 22 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 21 of 98

Folder 23 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 21 of 98

Folder 24 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 21 of 98

Folder 25 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 21 of 98

Folder 26 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 21 of 98

Folder 27 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 21 of 98

Folder 28 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 21 of 98

Folder 29 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 21 of 98

Box 22

Folder 1 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1881

Box 22 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1882

Box 22 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1883

Box 22 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1884

Box 22 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual and Monthly Reports, 1885

Box 22 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1885-1886

Box 22 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1886-1887

Box 22 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1887-1888

Box 22 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 22 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Buildings and Labor: Semi-Annual Report, January-June 1889

Box 22 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Buildings and Labor: Semi-Annual Report, July-December 1889

Box 22 of 98

Box 23

Folder 1 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 23 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Buildings and Labor: Semi-Annual Report, January-June 1890

Box 23 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 23 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 23 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 23 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 23 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 23 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 23 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 23 of 98

Box 24

Folder 1 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1882

Box 24 of 98

Folder 2 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1883

Box 24 of 98

Folder 3 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1885

Box 24 of 98

Folder 4 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1887-1888

Box 24 of 98

Folder 5 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1888-1889

Box 24 of 98

Folder 6 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1889-1890

Box 24 of 98

Folder 7 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1890-1891

Box 24 of 98

Folder 8 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1891-1892

Box 24 of 98

Folder 9 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1893-1894

Box 24 of 98

Folder 10 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1894-1895

Box 24 of 98

Folder 11 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1895-1896

Box 24 of 98

Folder 12 Annual Report of the Librarian and List of Accessions, 1896-1897

Box 24 of 98

Box 25

Folder 1 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1888-1889

Box 25 of 98

Folder 2 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1889-1890

Box 25 of 98

Folder 3 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 25 of 98

Folder 4 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 25 of 98

Folder 5 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 25 of 98

Folder 6 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 25 of 98

Folder 7 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 25 of 98

Folder 8 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 25 of 98

Folder 9 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1891-1892

Box 25 of 98

Folder 10 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 25 of 98

Folder 11 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 25 of 98

Folder 12 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 25 of 98

Folder 13 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 25 of 98

Folder 14 Office of Property and Supplies (Property Clerk): Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 25 of 98

Box 26

Folder 1 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1885. The entry for 1885 is correspondence relating to publications.

Box 26 of 98

Folder 2 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1886. The entry for 1886 is correspondence relating to publications.

Box 26 of 98

Folder 3 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1890

Box 26 of 98

Folder 4 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1890-1891

Box 26 of 98

Folder 5 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1892-1893

Box 26 of 98

Folder 6 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1893-1894

Box 26 of 98

Folder 7 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1894-1895

Box 26 of 98

Folder 8 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1895-1896

Box 26 of 98

Folder 9 Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins: Annual Report, 1896-1897

Box 26 of 98

Series 2

Annual Reports, 1897-1898 to 1929-1930, arranged by department.

Box 26

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 26 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 26 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 26 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 26 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 26 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 26 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 26 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 26 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 26 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 26 of 98

Box 27

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 27 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 27 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 27 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 27 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 27 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 27 of 98

Box 28

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1914-1915. Report for 1914-1915 contains a report of the Anthropological Laboratory for that year.

Box 28 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 28 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 28 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 28 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1918-1919. Report for 1918-1919 includes a brief biographical sketch of Alonzo Howard Clark.

Box 28 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 28 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1920-1921. Beginning in 1920-1921, many of the reports include divisional reports for that year.

Box 28 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1921-1922. Report for 1921-1922 contains a brief biographical sketch of Mrs. Julian James.

Box 28 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 28 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 28 of 98

Box 29

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 29 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 29 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 29 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 29 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 29 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology: Annual Report, 1929-1930

Box 29 of 98

Folder 7 Anthropological Laboratory: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 29 of 98

Folder 8 Anthropological Laboratory: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 29 of 98

Folder 9 Anthropological Laboratory: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 29 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 29 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 29 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 29 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 29 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 29 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 29 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 29 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 29 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 29 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 29 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 29 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 29 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 29 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 29 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 29 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 29 of 98

Box 30

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1913-1914. See also box 28 for more Ethnology reports.

Box 30 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 30 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 30 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 30 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 30 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 30 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 30 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 30 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 30 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 30 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology: Annual Report, 1929-1930

Box 30 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1911-1912. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more Art Textiles reports.

Box 30 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 30 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 30 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 30 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 30 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual -Report, 1917-1918

Box 30 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 30 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Art Textiles: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 30 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1903-1904. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more Musical Instruments reports.

Box 30 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 30 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 30 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 30 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 30 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 30 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 30 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 30 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 30 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 30 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 30 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 30 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 30 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 30 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 30 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Musical Instruments: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 30 of 98

Folder 36 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1902-1903. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more Ceramics reports.

Box 30 of 98

Folder 37 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 30 of 98

Folder 38 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 30 of 98

Folder 39 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 30 of 98

Folder 40 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 30 of 98

Folder 41 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 30 of 98

Folder 42 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 30 of 98

Folder 43 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 30 of 98

Folder 44 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 30 of 98

Folder 45 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 30 of 98

Folder 46 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 30 of 98

Folder 47 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 30 of 98

Folder 48 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 30 of 98

Folder 49 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 30 of 98

Folder 50 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 30 of 98

Folder 51 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 30 of 98

Folder 52 Department of Anthropology - Division of Ethnology - Section of Ceramics: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 30 of 98

Box 31

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology (prior to 1897 known as the Department of Prehistoric Anthropology; from 1897-1914, known as the Division of Prehistoric Archaeology): Annual Report, 1897-1898. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more American Archaeology reports.

Box 31 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 31 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 31 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 31 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 31 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 31 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 31 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 31 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 31 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 31 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 31 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 31 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 31 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 31 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 31 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 31 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 31 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 31 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 31 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 31 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 31 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 31 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Anthropology - Division of American Archaeology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 31 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology (prior to 1913-1914, known as the Division of Historic Archaeology; the division was abolished in 1928, after the death of the Curator, I. M. Casanowicz, and the holdings were placed under the general supervision of the Division of American Archaeology): Annual Report, undated. Reports for 1897-1898 and 1898-1899 are filed with the reports of the Division of Historic Religions, because Cyrus Adler was curator of both divisions. See box 33.

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Folder 25 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

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Folder 26 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

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Folder 27 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

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Folder 28 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

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Folder 29 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

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Box 32

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1907-1908. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more Old World Archaeology reports.

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Folder 2 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

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Folder 3 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

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Folder 4 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

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Folder 5 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 6 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 7 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

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Folder 8 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

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Folder 9 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

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Folder 10 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

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Folder 11 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

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Folder 12 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

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Folder 13 Department of Anthropology - Division of Old World Archaeology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

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Folder 14 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology (established in 1903): Annual Report, 1902-1903. See also boxes 28 and 29 for more Physical Anthropology reports.

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Folder 15 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

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Folder 16 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 32 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

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Folder 18 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

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Folder 19 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

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Folder 20 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

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Folder 21 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

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Folder 22 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

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Folder 23 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 24 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 25 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

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Folder 26 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

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Folder 27 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

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Folder 28 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

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Folder 29 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

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Folder 30 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

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Folder 31 Department of Anthropology - Division of Physical Anthropology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

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Box 33

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions (prior to 1904, known as the Division of Religions): Annual Report, 1897-1898. Report for 1897-1898 includes report of the Division of Historic Religions because Cyrus Adler was curator of both divisions.

Box 33 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1898-1899. Report for 1898-1899 includes report of the Division of Historic Religions because Cyrus Adler was curator of both divisions.

Box 33 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 33 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 33 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 33 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 33 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 33 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 33 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Anthropology - Division of Historic Religions: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 33 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology (established in 1897, and including the old departments of Mammals, Birds, Birds' Eggs, Reptiles and Batrachians, Fishes, Mollusks, Insects, Marine Invertebrates, Comparative Anatomy, and Plants): Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 33 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

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Folder 12 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1920-1921. Reports from 1920-1921 on, include the divisional reports.

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Folder 13 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

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Box 34

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1922-1923. Reports from 1920-1921 on, include the divisional reports.

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Folder 2 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

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Folder 3 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1924-1925.

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Box 35

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1925-1926. Reports from 1920-1921 on, include the divisional reports.

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Folder 2 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

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Folder 3 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

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Box 36

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1928-1929. Reports from 1920-1921 on, include the divisional reports.

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Folder 2 Department of Biology: Annual Report, 1929-1930

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Folder 3 Department of Biology: Annual Report, undated

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Folder 4 Department of Biology - Chief of Exhibits: Annual Report, 1905-1906

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Folder 5 Department of Biology - Chief of Exhibits: Annual Report, 1909-1910

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Folder 6 Department of Biology - Chief of Exhibits: Annual Report, 1910-1911

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Folder 7 Department of Biology - Chief of Exhibits: Annual Report, 1916-1920.

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Box 37

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals (prior to 1897, the Department of Mammals): Annual Report, 1897-1898

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Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1898-1899. See also boxes 33-36 for more Division of Mammals reports.

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Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1899-1900

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Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1900-1901

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Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1901-1902

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Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1902-1903

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Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1903-1904

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Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1904-1905. Report for 1904-1905 includes a "Special Report on European Work of Gerritt Smith Miller, Jr., Assistant Curator," (6/12/1904 to 5/6/1905).

Box 37 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 37 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1906-1907

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Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1907-1908

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Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1908-1909

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Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1909-1910

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Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1910-1911

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Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1913-1914

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Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1914-1915

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Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1915-1916

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Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1916-1917

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Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1917-1918

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Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1918-1919

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Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Mammals: Annual Report, 1919-1920

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Box 38

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Birds (prior to 1897, the Department of Birds): Annual Report, 1897-1898. See also boxes 33-36 for more Division of Birds reports.

Box 38 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1898-1899

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Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 38 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 38 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 38 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1902-1903

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Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1903-1904

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Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 38 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 38 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 38 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 38 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 38 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1909-1910

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Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1910-1911

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Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1913-1914

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Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1914-1915

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Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1915-1916

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Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1916-1917

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Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1917-1918

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Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1918-1919

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Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Birds: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 38 of 98

Box 39

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs (prior to 1897, the Department of Birds' Eggs; the section ceased to exist as an administrative unit after 1907.): Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 39 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 39 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 39 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1901-1902

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Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1902-1903

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Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 39 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 39 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 39 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Section of Birds' Eggs: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 39 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Birds - Reports of the Taxidermist, 1889, 1891, 1894-1897, 1900, 1902

Box 39 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians (prior to 1897, the Department of Reptiles and Batrachians): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 39 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 39 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 39 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 39 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 39 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 39 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 39 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 39 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1905-1906. The report for 1905-1906 includes a separate report by Leonhard Stejneger on his investigations of the salamander fauna of part of the Allegheny Mountains. See also boxes 33-36.

Box 39 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 39 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1907-1908

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Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1908-1909

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Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 39 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 39 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 39 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 27 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 39 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 39 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 39 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 39 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 39 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 39 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Biology - Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 39 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes (prior to 1897, the Department of Fishes): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 39 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 39 of 98

Folder 36 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 39 of 98

Box 40

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1900-1901. See also boxes 33-36 for more Division of Fishes reports.

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Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 40 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 40 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 40 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 40 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 40 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 40 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 40 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 40 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 40 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 40 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 40 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 40 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 40 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 40 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 40 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 40 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 40 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Fishes: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 40 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Insects (prior to 1897, the Department of Insects): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 40 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 40 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 40 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 40 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 40 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 40 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 40 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 40 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 40 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 40 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 40 of 98

Box 41

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1908-1909. See also boxes 33-36 for more Division of Insects reports.

Box 41 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 41 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 41 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 41 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 41 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 41 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 41 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 41 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 41 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 41 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 41 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 41 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Insects: Historical Data on the Division of Insects

Box 41 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates (prior to 1897 the Department of Marine Invertebrates): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 41 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 41 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 41 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 41 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 41 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 41 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 41 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 41 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 41 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 41 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 41 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1907-1908

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Box 42

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 42 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 42 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 42 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 42 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 42 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1913-1914. In 1914 the Division of Mollusks and the Division of Marine Invertebrates became one under the name of the Division of Marine Invertebrates. The Division of Mollusks was recreated in 1921. From 1914 to 1921 reports of the "Division of Mollusks" are filed under the Division of Marine Invertebrates. See also boxes 33-36.

Box 42 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 42 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 42 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 42 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 42 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 42 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 42 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 42 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 42 of 98

Box 43

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 43 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1901-1902

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Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 43 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 43 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 43 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 43 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 43 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 43 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 43 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 43 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Marine Invertebrates - Section of Helminthological Collections: Annual Report, 1916-1917. The section was switched to the Division of Mollusks in 1920-1921. See also boxes 33-36.

Box 43 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Echinoderms (established in 1920 to curate collections formerly housed in the Division of Marine Invertebrates): Annual Report, 1919-1920. See also boxes 33-36 for more Division of Echinoderms reports.

Box 43 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Echinoderms: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 43 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks (prior to 1897, the Department of Mollusks): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 43 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 43 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 43 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 43 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 43 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 43 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 43 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 43 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 43 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 43 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 43 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 43 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 43 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 43 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 29 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 43 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Biology - Division of Mollusks: Annual Report, 1913-1914. In 1914 the Division of Mollusks and the Division of Marine Invertebrates became one under the name of the Division of Marine Invertebrates. The Division of Mollusks was recreated in 1921. From 1914 to 1921 reports of the "Division of Mollusks" are filed under the Division of Marine Invertebrates (see box 42). See also boxes 33-36.

Box 43 of 98

Box 44

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Plants (prior to 1897, the Department of Plants): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 44 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 44 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 44 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 44 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 44 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 44 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 44 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 44 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 44 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 44 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 44 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 44 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 44 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 44 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1911-1912

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Folder 16 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1912-1913

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Folder 17 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1913-1914

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Box 45

Folder 1 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1914-1915. See also boxes 33-36.

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Folder 2 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1915-1916

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Folder 3 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1916-1917

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Folder 4 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 45 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 45 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology - Division of Plants: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 45 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology (established in 1897, and including the old departments of Paleontology, Minerals and Geology): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 45 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 45 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 45 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 45 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 45 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 45 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 45 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 45 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 45 of 98

Box 46

Folder 1 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 46 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 46 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 46 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 46 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 46 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 46 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 46 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 46 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 46 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1915-1916. Report for 1915-1916 includes a short biographical sketch of Albert Charles Peale.

Box 46 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1916-1917. Includes divisional reports.

Box 46 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 46 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 46 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 46 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1920-1921. Report for 1920-1921 includes brief biological sketch of Joseph P. Iddings.

Box 46 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 46 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1922-1923. Includes divisional reports.

Box 46 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 46 of 98

Box 47

Folder 1 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 47 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 47 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 47 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 47 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 47 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology: Annual Report, 1929-1930. Report for 1929-1930 includes divisional reports.

Box 47 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology (systematic and applied). Prior to 1897, the Department of Geology. Annual Report, 1903-1904. See also boxes 46 and 47.

Box 47 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 47 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 47 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 47 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 47 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 47 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 47 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 47 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 47 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 47 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 47 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 47 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 47 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 47 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 47 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 47 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 47 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 47 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 47 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 47 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 47 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 47 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 47 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Geology - Division of Physical and Chemical Geology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 47 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology (prior to 1897, the Department of Minerals; from 1897-1911, the Division of Mineralogy): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 47 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 47 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 47 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 47 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 47 of 98

Box 48

Folder 1 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1902-1903. See also boxes 46 and 47.

Box 48 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 48 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 48 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 48 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 48 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 48 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 48 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 48 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 48 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 48 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 48 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1912-1914

Box 48 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 48 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 48 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 48 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 48 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 48 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 48 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 48 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 48 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 48 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 48 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 48 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 48 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Geology - Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 48 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology (prior to 1897, the Department of Paleontology. In 1908 the division was eliminated and the three new divisions of Paleobotany, Invertebrate Paleontology, and Vertebrate Paleontology were created in its place. In 1910 the three new divisions became sections of the newly created Division of Paleontology. In 1924 the Division of Paleontology was divided into Divisions of Stratigraphic Paleontology (with sections of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany) and Vertebrate Paleontology): Annual Report, 1897-1898. See also boxes 46 and 47.

Box 48 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 48 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 48 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 48 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 48 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 48 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 48 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 48 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 48 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 48 of 98

Folder 36 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 48 of 98

Folder 37 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 48 of 98

Folder 38 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 48 of 98

Folder 39 Department of Geology - Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 48 of 98

Folder 40 Department of Geology - Division of Palenotology (created in 1910 with the fusion of the divisions of Paleobotany, Invertebrate Paleontology, and Vertebrate Paleontology. In 1924 the Division was divided into Divisions of Stratigraphic Paleontology (with Sections of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany) and Vertebrate Paleontology): Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 48 of 98

Folder 41 Department of Geology - Division of Palenotology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 48 of 98

Box 49

Folder 1 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1913-1914. See also boxes 46 and 47.

Box 49 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 49 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 49 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 49 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 49 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 49 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 49 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 49 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany (prior to 1897, the Section of Fossil Plants of the Department of Paleontology; from 1897 to 1908, the Section of Paleobotany of the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology; from 1908-1910, the Division of Paleobotany): Annual Report, 1898-1899. See also boxes 46, 47, and the Division of Paleontology reports in box 49 above.

Box 49 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 49 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 49 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 49 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 49 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 49 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 49 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 49 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 49 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 49 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 49 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 49 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Paleobotany: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 49 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Paleontology (prior to 1897, the Section of Invertebrate Fossils of the Department of Paleontology; from 1897 to 1908, the Section of Invertebrate Fossils of the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology; from 1908-1910, the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology): Annual Report, 1899-1900. See also boxes 46, 47, and the Division of Paleontology reports in box 49 above.

Box 49 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 49 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 49 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 49 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Geology - Division of Paleontology - Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 49 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology (prior to 1897, the Section of Vertebrate Fossils of the Department of Paleontology. In 1897 it became the Section of Vertebrate Fossils of the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology of the Department of Geology. The Curator of Vertebrate Fossils, Frederic Augustus Lucas, left in 1904, and the section was virtually eliminated. In 1908 the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology was eliminated, and three new divisions of Paleobotany, Invertebrate Paleontology, and Vertebrate Paleontology were created in its place. The latter was the lineal descendant of the Section of Vertebrate Fossils. In 1910 Vertebrate Paleontology was made a section of the newly created Division of Paleontology in the Department of Geology. In 1924 the Division of Paleontology was divided into Divisions of Stratigraphic Paleontology (with Sections of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany) and Vertebrate Paleontology): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 49 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 49 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 49 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 49 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 49 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 49 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 49 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 49 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 49 of 98

Box 50

Folder 1 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1907-1908. See also boxes 46, 47, and 49.

Box 50 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 50 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 50 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 50 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 50 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 50 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 50 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 50 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 50 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Geology - Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 50 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries and History. In the general USNM reorganization of 1897 the Department of Arts and Industries was abolished, and those of its sections which survived became divisions of the Department of Anthropology. In 1919 the Department of Arts and Industries was reestablished, with divisions of Textiles, Medicine, Mineral Technology, and Mechanical Technology. In 1920 the Division of History was removed from the Department of Anthropology, and established as an independent division. In 1924-1925 it was merged with the Department of Arts and Industries to form the Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History. Annual Report, 1924-1925. All contain divisional reports.

Box 50 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries: Divisional Reports, 1925-1926

Box 50 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries: Annual Report, 1926-1927

Box 50 of 98

Box 51

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Annual Report, 1927-1928. All contain divisional reports.

Box 51 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 51 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Annual Report, 1929-1930

Box 51 of 98

Box 52

Folder 1 Division of History (prior to 1897, the Section of Historical Collections of the Department of Arts and Industries; from 1897 to 1904, the Division of History and Biography of the Department of Anthropology; from 1904-1920, the Division of History of the Department of Anthropology. In 1920 the division was removed from the Department of Anthropology, and established as an independent division. In 1924-1925 it was merged with the Department of Arts and Industries to form the Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 52 of 98

Folder 2 Division of History: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 52 of 98

Folder 3 Division of History: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 52 of 98

Folder 4 Division of History: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 52 of 98

Folder 5 Division of History: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 52 of 98

Folder 6 Division of History: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 52 of 98

Folder 7 Division of History: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 52 of 98

Folder 8 Division of History: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 52 of 98

Folder 9 Division of History: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 52 of 98

Folder 10 Division of History: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 52 of 98

Folder 11 Division of History: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 52 of 98

Folder 12 Division of History: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 52 of 98

Folder 13 Division of History: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 52 of 98

Folder 14 Division of History: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 52 of 98

Folder 15 Division of History: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 52 of 98

Folder 16 Division of History: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 52 of 98

Folder 17 Division of History: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 52 of 98

Box 53

Folder 1 Division of History: Annual Report, 1915-1916. See also boxes 50, 51, and 52.

Box 53 of 98

Folder 2 Division of History: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 53 of 98

Folder 3 Division of History: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 53 of 98

Folder 4 Division of History: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 53 of 98

Folder 5 Division of History: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 53 of 98

Folder 6 Division of History: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 53 of 98

Folder 7 Division of History: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 53 of 98

Folder 8 Division of History: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 53 of 98

Folder 9 Division of History: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 53 of 98

Folder 10 Division of History: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 53 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology (established in 1921 as a result of the merger of the Division of Mechanical Technology and the Division of Mineral Technology). In the general USNM reorganization of 1897 the Division of Technology of the Department of Anthropology was formed from the merger of the Technological Collections and Electrical Collections of the old Department of Arts and Industries. In 1912 the Division of Technology became the Division of Mechanical Technology. In 1919 the division was shifted from the Department of Anthropology to the Department of Arts and Industries. In 1921 it was merged with the Division of Mineral Technology to form the Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology. The Division of Mineral Technology was established in 1913 as an administratively independent division. In 1918-1919 it became a division of the Department of Arts and Industries. In 1921 it was merged with the Division of Mechanical Technology. Reports prior to 1921 included here are reports of the Division of Mineral Technology. Reports of the Division of Mechanical Technology prior to 1921 are in box 53 below and box 54. Annual Report, 1913-1914. See also boxes 50 and 51.

Box 53 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 53 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 53 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 53 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 53 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 53 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 53 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 53 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 53 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 53 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 53 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 53 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1897-1898. See also boxes 50, 51, and 53 above.

Box 53 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 53 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 53 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 53 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 53 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 53 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 53 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 53 of 98

Box 54

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1906-1907. See also boxes 50, 51, and 53.

Box 54 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 54 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 54 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 54 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 54 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 54 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1913-1914. Report for 1913-1914 includes some historical data on the division.

Box 54 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 54 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 54 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 54 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 54 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 54 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Mechanical Technology: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 54 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles. During the 1880's a Section of Textile Industries (renamed the Section of Textiles shortly before its demise in 1890) existed as part of the Department of Arts and Industries. The Division of Textiles was established in 1912 as an administratively independent division. In 1919 the division became part of the newly established Department of Arts and Industries. Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 54 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 54 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 54 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1915-1916. Report for 1915-1916 includes report on the Section of Wood Technology, and a "report on the exhibit of industrial work done by the children of the Washington and Alexandria playgrounds, held in the older museum building, October 1 to November 15, 1915."

Box 54 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 54 of 98

Box 55

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1917-1918. Reports include reports of Division of Medicine and the Section of Wood Technology and Foods, because all were under the direction of Curator, Frederick L. Lewton. See also boxes 50 and 51.

Box 55 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 55 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 55 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 55 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1921-1922. Report for 1921-1922 includes "Statement covering the establishment of the Loeb Collection of Chemical Types in the National Museum during the fiscal year 1921-1922;" by 1922-1923 reports of the Section of Chemical Technology are included.

Box 55 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 55 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 55 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Textiles: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 55 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine (prior to 1897, the Section of Materia Medica of the Department of Arts and Industries. In the USNM reorganization of 1897 the section became the Division of Medicine of the Department of Anthropology. In 1911-1912 James Milton Flint, curator of the division since its inception, retired, and his duties were added to those of the curator of the Division of Ethnology. In 1916-1917 the Division of Medicine reappeared as an administratively independent division. In 1919 it was assigned to the newly established Department of Arts and Industries. Annual Report, 1897-1898. See also boxes 50 and 51.

Box 55 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 55 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 55 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 55 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 55 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 55 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 55 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 55 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 55 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 55 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 55 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 55 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 55 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 55 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 55 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 55 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 55 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Medicine: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 55 of 98

Box 56

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts (prior to 1897, the Section of Graphic Arts of the Department of Arts and Industries. In 1897 it became the Division of Graphic Arts of the Department of Anthropology. In 1920 the division was transferred to the Department of Arts and Industries): Annual Report, 1899-1900. See also boxes 50 and 51.

Box 56 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 56 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 56 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 56 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 56 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 56 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 56 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 56 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 56 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 56 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 56 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 56 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 56 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 56 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 56 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 56 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 56 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1918-1919. Beginning with 1918-1919, the reports of the Section of Photography are included.

Box 56 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 56 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 56 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 56 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 56 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 56 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 56 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography (prior to 1897, the Photographic Collections of the Department of Arts and Industries. In 1897 it became a section of the Division of Graphic Arts): Annual Report, 1898-1899. See also boxes 50, 51, and 56 above.

Box 56 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 56 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 56 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 56 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 56 of 98

Folder 30 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 56 of 98

Folder 31 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1905-1906

Box 56 of 98

Folder 32 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 56 of 98

Folder 33 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 56 of 98

Folder 34 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 56 of 98

Folder 35 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 56 of 98

Folder 36 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 56 of 98

Folder 37 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 56 of 98

Folder 38 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 56 of 98

Folder 39 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 56 of 98

Folder 40 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 56 of 98

Folder 41 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 56 of 98

Folder 42 Department of Arts and Industries - Division of Graphic Arts - Section of Photography: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 56 of 98

Box 57

Folder 1 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1897-1898

Box 57 of 98

Folder 2 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1898-1899

Box 57 of 98

Folder 3 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1899-1900

Box 57 of 98

Folder 4 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1901-1902

Box 57 of 98

Folder 5 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1902-1903

Box 57 of 98

Folder 6 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1903-1904

Box 57 of 98

Folder 7 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1905-1906

Box 57 of 98

Folder 8 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1906-1907

Box 57 of 98

Folder 9 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1907-1908

Box 57 of 98

Folder 10 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1908-1909

Box 57 of 98

Folder 11 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1910-1911

Box 57 of 98

Folder 12 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1913-1914

Box 57 of 98

Folder 13 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1914-1915

Box 57 of 98

Folder 14 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1915-1916

Box 57 of 98

Folder 15 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1916-1917

Box 57 of 98

Folder 16 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1917-1918

Box 57 of 98

Folder 17 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1918-1919

Box 57 of 98

Folder 18 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1919-1920

Box 57 of 98

Folder 19 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1920-1921

Box 57 of 98

Folder 20 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1921-1922

Box 57 of 98

Folder 21 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1922-1923

Box 57 of 98

Folder 22 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1923-1924

Box 57 of 98

Folder 23 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1924-1925

Box 57 of 98

Folder 24 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1928-1929

Box 57 of 98

Folder 25 Annual Report of USNM Photographer, 1929-1930

Box 57 of 98

Folder 26 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 57 of 98

Folder 27 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 57 of 98

Folder 28 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 57 of 98

Folder 29 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 57 of 98

Folder 30 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 57 of 98

Folder 31 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 57 of 98

Folder 32 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 57 of 98

Folder 33 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1904-1905

Box 57 of 98

Folder 34 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 57 of 98

Folder 35 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1908-1909

Box 57 of 98

Folder 36 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1909-1910

Box 57 of 98

Folder 37 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 57 of 98

Folder 38 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 57 of 98

Folder 39 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1913-1914

Box 57 of 98

Folder 40 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 57 of 98

Folder 41 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 57 of 98

Folder 42 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 57 of 98

Folder 43 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 57 of 98

Folder 44 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 57 of 98

Folder 45 Office of the Registrar: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 57 of 98

Box 58

Folder 1 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 58 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 58 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 58 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 58 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1925

Box 58 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Buildings and Labor: Annual Report, 1929-1930

Box 58 of 98

Folder 7 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1897-1898

Box 58 of 98

Folder 8 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1898-1899

Box 58 of 98

Folder 9 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1900-1901

Box 58 of 98

Folder 10 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1902-1903

Box 58 of 98

Folder 11 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1903-1904

Box 58 of 98

Folder 12 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1905-1906

Box 58 of 98

Folder 13 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1906-1907

Box 58 of 98

Folder 14 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1907-1908

Box 58 of 98

Folder 15 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1910-1911

Box 58 of 98

Folder 16 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1911-1912

Box 58 of 98

Folder 17 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1913-1914

Box 58 of 98

Folder 18 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1914-1915

Box 58 of 98

Folder 19 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1915-1916

Box 58 of 98

Folder 20 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1916-1917

Box 58 of 98

Folder 21 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1917-1918

Box 58 of 98

Folder 22 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1918-1919

Box 58 of 98

Folder 23 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1919-1920

Box 58 of 98

Folder 24 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1920-1921

Box 58 of 98

Folder 25 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1921-1922

Box 58 of 98

Folder 26 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1922-1923

Box 58 of 98

Folder 27 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1923-1924

Box 58 of 98

Folder 28 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1924-1925

Box 58 of 98

Folder 29 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1925-1926

Box 58 of 98

Folder 30 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1926-1927

Box 58 of 98

Folder 31 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1927-1928

Box 58 of 98

Folder 32 Annual Report of the Librarian, 1929-1930

Box 58 of 98

Box 59

Folder 1 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 59 of 98

Folder 2 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 59 of 98

Folder 3 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1898-1899

Box 59 of 98

Folder 4 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 59 of 98

Folder 5 Chief Clerk: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 59 of 98

Folder 6 Editor (prior to 1897, Editor of Proceedings and Bulletins): Annual Report, 1897-1898

Box 59 of 98

Folder 7 Editor: Annual Report, 1899-1900

Box 59 of 98

Folder 8 Editor: Annual Report, 1900-1901

Box 59 of 98

Folder 9 Editor: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 59 of 98

Folder 10 Editor: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 59 of 98

Folder 11 Editor: Annual Report, 1903-1904

Box 59 of 98

Box 60

Folder 1 Editor: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 60 of 98

Folder 2 Editor: Annual Report, 1907-1908

Box 60 of 98

Folder 3 Editor: Annual Report, 1910-1911

Box 60 of 98

Folder 4 Editor: Annual Report, 1911-1912

Box 60 of 98

Folder 5 Editor: Annual Report, 1914-1915

Box 60 of 98

Folder 6 Editor: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 60 of 98

Folder 7 Editor: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 60 of 98

Folder 8 Editor: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 60 of 98

Folder 9 Editor: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 60 of 98

Folder 10 Editor: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 60 of 98

Folder 11 Editor: Annual Report, 1920-1921

Box 60 of 98

Folder 12 Editor: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 60 of 98

Folder 13 Editor: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 60 of 98

Folder 14 Editor: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 60 of 98

Folder 15 Editor: Annual Report, 1924-1925

Box 60 of 98

Folder 16 Editor: Annual Report, 1925-1926

Box 60 of 98

Folder 17 Editor: Annual Report, 1927-1928

Box 60 of 98

Folder 18 Editor: Annual Report, 1928-1929

Box 60 of 98

Folder 19 Editor: Annual Report, 1929-1930

Box 60 of 98

Folder 20 Chief of Correspondence and Documents: Annual Report, 1921-1922

Box 60 of 98

Folder 21 Chief of Correspondence and Documents: Annual Report, 1922-1923

Box 60 of 98

Folder 22 Chief of Correspondence and Documents: Annual Report, 1923-1924

Box 60 of 98

Box 61

Folder 1 National Gallery of Art. In 1906-1907 the National Gallery was established as an administrative unit of the U. S. National Museum. In 1920 the Gallery became a Smithsonian bureau independent of the U. S. National Museum. Annual Report, 1912-1913

Box 61 of 98

Folder 2 National Gallery of Art: Annual Report, 1915-1916

Box 61 of 98

Folder 3 National Gallery of Art: Annual Report, 1917-1918

Box 61 of 98

Folder 4 National Gallery of Art: Annual Report, 1918-1919

Box 61 of 98

Folder 5 National Gallery of Art: Annual Report, 1919-1920

Box 61 of 98

Reports on Expositions in which the United States National Museum participated.

Folder 6 Printing Exposition and Fair of New York, 1900

Box 61 of 98

Folder 7 Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1900-1902

Box 61 of 98

Folder 8 South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, 1901-1902

Box 61 of 98

Folder 9 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1903-1905 (folder 1 of 2)

Box 61 of 98

Folder 10 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1903-1905 (folder 2 of 2)

Box 61 of 98

Folder 11 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, Oregon, 1905

Box 61 of 98

Folder 12 Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, 1906

Box 61 of 98

Folder 13 International Fishery Congress, Washington, 1907-1908

Box 61 of 98

Folder 14 Tokyo Exposition, 1908

Box 61 of 98

Folder 15 International Prison Congress, Washington, 1910

Box 61 of 98

Folder 16 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 1876 - correspondence (1911) regarding material exhibited there.

Box 61 of 98

Folder 17 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1916

Box 61 of 98

Folder 18 Expositions, general, 1907-1922

Box 61 of 98

Folder 19 Administrative Assistant: reports on cases and furniture purchased, 1899-1900 to 1901-1902

Box 61 of 98

Folder 20 Administrative Assistant: Annual Report, 1901-1902

Box 61 of 98

Folder 21 Administrative Assistant: Annual Report, 1902-1903

Box 61 of 98

Folder 22 Administrative Assistant: Annual Report, 1906-1907

Box 61 of 98

Folder 23 Administrative Assistant: Annual Report, 1916-1917

Box 61 of 98

Folder 24 Report of Charles A. Platt, architect of the Freer Gallery Building, 1919-1920

Box 61 of 98

Series 3

Annual Reports, FY 1931-FY 1934, FY 1936-FY 1956, FY 1958-FY 1960, FY 1964, arranged chronologically by fiscal year.

Box 62

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, including Anthropological Laboratory, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of History, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Divisions of Textiles and Medicines, and Sections of Wood Technology, Organic Chemistry, and Foods, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 17 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 18 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 19 Administrative Offices: Report of the Librarian, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Folder 20 Administrative Offices: Correspondence and Documents, FY 1931

Box 62 of 98

Box 63

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of History, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of Textiles and Medicine, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Industries and Division of History: Division of Engineering (formerly the Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology), FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1932

Box 63 of 98

Box 64

Folder 1 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1932

Box 64 of 98

Folder 2 Administrative Offices: Report of the Librarian, FY 1932

Box 64 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1932

Box 64 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Report on Finances, FY 1932

Box 64 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Correspondence and Documents, FY 1932

Box 64 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology, Divisional reports (incomplete), FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 18 Division of History (by this time an independent Division of the U.S. National Museum, no longer part of the Department of Arts and Industries), FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries: Divisions of Textiles and Medicine, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Arts and Industries: Loeb Collection of Chemical Types (a newly established "division" of the Department of Arts and Industries), FY 1933

Box 64 of 98

Box 65

Folder 1 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1933

Box 65 of 98

Folder 2 Administrative Offices: Report of the Librarian, FY 1933

Box 65 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1933

Box 65 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1933

Box 65 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Report on the SI exhibit at A Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933, by Carl W. Mitman. Includes Photographs, FY 1933

Box 65 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 18 Division of History, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1934

Box 65 of 98

Box 66

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Industries: Divisions of Medicine and Textiles, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries:"Tentative Classification of the Museum of Engineering and Industry of the United States National Museum," proposed by Carl W. Mitman, 1934, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 6 Administrative Offices: Report of the Librarian, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1934

Box 66 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrate, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1936

Box 66 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Plants

Box 66 of 98

Box 67

Folder 1 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Industries: Divisions of Textiles and Medicine, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of History, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 6 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 8 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 9 Administrative Offices: Report of the Librarian, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 10 Administrative Offices: Report on SI exhibit at the Texas Centennial Exposition, Dallas, June 6-November 30, 1936, FY 1936

Box 67 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1937

Box 67 of 98

Box 68

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Industries: Divisions of Textiles and Medicine, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of History, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 9 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 10 Administrative Offices: Division of Property and Supplies, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 11 Administrative Offices: Report on visitors, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 12 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 13 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1937

Box 68 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1938

Box 68 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1938

Box 68 of 98

Folder 17.Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1938

Box 68 of 98

Box 69

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Textiles and Medicine, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Industries: Division of History, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Folder 13 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1938

Box 69 of 98

Box 70

Folder 1 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1938

Box 70 of 98

Folder 2 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1938

Box 70 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Division of Property and Supplies, FY 1938

Box 70 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1938

Box 70 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1938

Box 70 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Engineering and Industries (previously, the Department of Arts and Industries): Division of Engineering, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Engineering and Industries (previously, the Department of Arts and Industries): Divisions of Crafts and Industries and Medicine and Public Health. Crafts and Industries replaced the Division of Textiles, and Textiles became a "Section" of Crafts and Industries. The old Division of Medicine was renamed the Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Engineering and Industries (previously, the Department of Arts and Industries): Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Engineering and Industries (previously, the Department of Arts and Industries): Division of History, FY 1939

Box 70 of 98

Box 71

Folder 1 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1939

Box 71 of 98

Folder 2 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1939

Box 71 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1939

Box 71 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1939

Box 71 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1939

Box 71 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1940

Box 71 of 98

Box 72

Folder 1 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 6 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1940

Box 72 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1941

Box 72 of 98

Box 73

Folder 1 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 4 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 5 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 6 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 8 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 9 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1941

Box 73 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1942

Box 73 of 98

Box 74

Folder 1 Department of Geology, Divisional report, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 6 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 8 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 9 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 10 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 11 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1942

Box 74 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals. Includes letter accompanying Biology Department reports from Waldo LaSalle Schmitt to Alexander Wetmore, 7/24/1943, FY 1943.

Box 74 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1943

Box 74 of 98

Box 75

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 9 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 10 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 11 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 12 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 13 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1943

Box 75 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1944

Box 75 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1944

Box 75 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1944

Box 75 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1944

Box 75 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1944

Box 75 of 98

Box 76

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 11 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 12 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 13 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 15 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1944

Box 76 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports (Division of Physical Anthropology missing), FY 1945

Box 76 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1945

Box 76 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1945

Box 76 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1945

Box 76 of 98

Box 77

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, and Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 12 Administrative Offices: Superintendent of Buildings and Labor, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 13 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 15 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Folder 17 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1945

Box 77 of 98

Box 78

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates (bibliography only), FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries (incomplete), FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 17 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 18 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 19 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 20 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1946

Box 78 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports and fragment of Department report, FY 1947

Box 78 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Biology: Division of Mammals, FY 1947

Box 78 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Biology: Division of Birds, FY 1947

Box 78 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Biology: Division of Reptiles and Batrachians, FY 1947

Box 78 of 98

Box 79

Folder 1 Department of Biology: Division of Fishes, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Biology: Division of Insects, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Biology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Biology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Biology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Biology: Division of Plants, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Biology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Biology, report, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Aeronautics. Formerly a Section of the Division of Engineering, the Division of Aeronautics was created in 1946 in response to the establishment by the 79th Congress of a National Air Museum as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, FY 1947.

Box 79 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 17 Administrative Offices: Photographic Laboratory, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 18 Administrative Offices: Shipping Office, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 19 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

Folder 20 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1947

Box 79 of 98

In 1947 a major reorganization of the U. S. National Museum took place. The Department of Biology was split into Departments of Zoology and Botany. All the old Divisions of Biology, with the exception of Plants were placed under the new Department of Zoology. The new Department of Botany (the old Division of Plants) administered the new Divisions of Phanerogams, Grasses, and Cryptogams.

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports, 1947-1948, FY 1948

Box 79 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1948

Box 79 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1948

Box 79 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians. Name changed to keep pace with changes in scientific terminology, FY 1948.

Box 79 of 98

Box 80

Folder 1 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Botany, Divisional reports, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries (The Division of Aeronautics was eliminated and the National Air Museum formed as a bureau separate from the U. S. National Museum.), FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of History, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 15 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1948

Box 80 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology, Divisional reports and Departmental Supplement, FY 1949

Box 80 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1949

Box 80 of 98

Box 81

Folder 1 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Biology, Supplement to Annual Report, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Botany, Divisional Reports and Departmental Supplement. Includes report of the newly established Division of Ferns, FY 1949.

Box 81 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology, Divisional reports, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Engineering and Industries: Department of Engineering and Industries, Supplemental Report, FY 1949

Box 81 of 98

Box 82

Folder 1 Department of History, Divisional reports. Formerly known as the Division of History, the newly created Department of History administers Divisions of Military History and Naval History, Civil History, Numismatics, and Philately, FY 1949.

Box 82 of 98

Folder 2 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1949

Box 82 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, and fragment of Departmental report, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology, Annual Report fragment, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Zoology: Chief Taxidermist, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Botany, Annual Report fragment, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Geology, Divisional reports and Departmental Report fragment, FY 1950

Box 82 of 98

Box 83

Folder 1 Department of Engineering and Industries, Annual Report fragment, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 6 Department of History, Divisional reports and Department Report fragment, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 7 Administrative Offices: Editor, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 8 Administrative Offices: Librarian, FY 1950

Box 83 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Anthropology, Divisional and Departmental Reports, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Zoology: Chief Exhibits Preparator, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Zoology, Report fragments, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Botany, Annual Report, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Geology, Annual Report fragments, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1951

Box 83 of 98

Box 84

Folder 1 Department of Engineering and Industries, Annual Report fragments, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 6 Department of History, Annual Report fragments, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 7 Department of History: Divisions of Military History and Naval History, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 8 Department of History: Division of Civil History, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 9 Department of History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 10 Department of History: Division of Philately, FY 1951

Box 84 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Anthropology, draft annual report and fragments, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Zoology, Annual Report fragment, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects (incomplete), FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms. This Division is no longer listed in the Annual Reports after FY 1950. The work seems to have been done by former curator Austin H. Clark, and the staff of the Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1952.

Box 84 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Zoology: Section of Taxidermy (Exhibits Preparator), FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Botany, Annual Report fragment, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1952

Box 84 of 98

Box 85

Folder 1 Department of Geology, Annual Report fragments, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries, Annual Report fragment, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 7 Department of History, Divisional Reports, FY 1952

Box 85 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Zoology: Division of' Echinoderms, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Zoology: Chief Exhibits Preparator, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1953

Box 85 of 98

Box 86

Folder 1 Department of Engineering and Industries, Divisional Reports, FY 1953

Box 86 of 98

Folder 2 Department of History, Divisional Reports, FY 1953

Box 86 of 98

Folder 3 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1953

Box 86 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports and Departmental Report fragments, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology, Annual Report fragments, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Zoology: Chief Exhibits Preparator, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Botany, Annual Report fragments, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1954

Box 86 of 98

Box 87

Folder 1 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports and Department Report fragment, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Engineering and Industries, Annual Report fragments. Includes list of museums visited by Frank A. Taylor in February and March 1954, FY 1954.

Box 87 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 7 Department of History, Annual Report fragment, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 8 Department of History: Divisions of Military History and Naval History, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 9 Department of History: Division of Civil History, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 10 Department of History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 11 Department of History: Division of Philately, FY 1954

Box 87 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Anthropology, Annual Report, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Zoology, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Zoology: Division of Echinoderms, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Zoology: Chief Exhibits Preparator, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Botany, FY 1955

Box 87 of 98

Box 88

Folder 1 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Geology, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Engineering and Industries, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 12 Department of History, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 13 Department of History, Divisional Reports, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 14. Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 15 Administrative Offices: Report on Mailing and Shipping, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 16 Administrative Offices: U. S. National Museum Annual Report, FY 1955

Box 88 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology, FY 1956

Box 88 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1956

Box 88 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Zoology, FY 1956

Box 88 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1956

Box 88 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1956

Box 88 of 98

Box 89

Folder 1 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Botany, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Botany, Divisional Reports, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Engineering and Industries, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 15 Department of History, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 16 Department of History, Divisional Reports, FY 1956

Box 89 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology, FY 1957

Box 89 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1957

Box 89 of 98

Box 90

Folder 1 Department of Zoology, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Botany, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Botany, Divisional reports, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Geology, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Engineering and Industries, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Engineering, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Crafts and Industries, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Medicine and Public Health, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Engineering and Industries: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 18 Department of History, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

Folder 19 Department of History, Divisional Reports, FY 1957

Box 90 of 98

During FY 1958 the organizational structure of the U. S. National Museum underwent a major revision. The U. S. National Museum was divided into two administrative subdivisions: the Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History and Technology. The new Museum of Natural History included the Departments of Anthropology, Zoology, Botany, and Geology, all of which retained their old administrative structure. The Museum of History and Technology consisted of the Departments of Science and Technology (with Divisions of Physical Sciences, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Transportation, Agriculture and Wood Products, Electricity, and Medical Sciences); Arts and Manufactures (with Divisions of Textiles, Ceramics and Glass, Graphic Arts, and Industrial Cooperation); Civil History (with Divisions of Political History, Cultural History, Philately and Postal History and Numismatics); and Armed Forces History (with Divisions of Military History and Naval History).

Folder 20 Department of Anthropology, FY 1958

Box 90 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1958

Box 90 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Zoology, FY 1958

Box 90 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1958

Box 90 of 98

Box 91

Folder 1 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Botany, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 9 Division of Ferns, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Geology, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Science and Technology, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Physical Sciences, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Transportation, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Agriculture and Wood Products, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Electricity, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Medical Sciences, FY 1958

Box 91 of 98

Box 92

Folder 1 Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Textiles, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Ceramics and Glass, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Industrial Cooperation, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Civil History, Annual Report fragment, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Civil History: Division of Political History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Civil History: Division of Cultural History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Civil History: Division of Philately and Postal History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Civil History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Armed Forces History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Armed Forces History: Divisions of Military History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Naval History, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 14 Administrative Offices: Exhibits, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 15 Administrative Offices: Report on accessions, FY 1958

Box 92 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Anthropology, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Zoology, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates (incomplete), FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Botany, FY 1959

Box 92 of 98

Box 93

Folder 1 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns (fragment), FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams (fragment), FY 1959

Box 93 of 98
Box 93 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Geology: Division of Mineralogy and Petrology, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Geology: Division of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Geology: Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Science and Technology, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Physical Sciences, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Transportation, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Electricity, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Medical Sciences, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Agriculture and Wood Products, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Textiles, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Ceramics and Glass, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Industrial Cooperation, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Civil History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Civil History: Division of Political History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Civil History: Division of Cultural History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Civil History: Division of Philately and Postal History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Civil History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Armed Forces History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Military History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Naval History, FY 1959

Box 93 of 98

Box 94

Folder 1 Department of Anthropology, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Botany, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams. During FY 1960 a new Division of Woods was created as a Division of the Department of Botany under the curatorship of William L. Stern. No annual report was submitted by this division in FY 1960.

Box 94 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Geology, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Science and Technology, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Physical Sciences, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, FY 1960

Box 94 of 98

Box 95

Folder 1 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Transportation, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Electricity, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Medical Sciences, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Agriculture and Wood Products. In 1959 this division was abolished, and two new divisions were created to take its place. The Division of Woods of the Department of Botany was established with William L. Stern as Curator; and the Division of Agriculture and Forest Products was established under the Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1960.

Box 95 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Textiles, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Ceramics and Glass, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Industrial Cooperation, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Agriculture and Forest Products, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Civil History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Civil History: Division of Political History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Civil History: Division of Cultural History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Civil History: Division of Philately and Postal History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Civil History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Armed Forces History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Military History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Naval History, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 19 Administrative Offices: Office of the Registrar, FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

Folder 20 Administrative Offices: Report of A. F. Michaels (BMD?), FY 1960

Box 95 of 98

FY 1961 and FY 1962 are missing.

Department of Geology and Divisional Reports, FY 1961. See Record Unit 328, Box 1, Folder 13.

Box 95 of 98

Department of Geology and Divisional Reports, FY 1960. See Record Unit 328, Box 1, Folder 14.

Box 95 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Anthropology, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Zoology, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Zoology: Division of Insects, FY 1963

Box 95 of 98

Box 96

Folder 1 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Geology, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Geology, Divisional Reports, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 5 Oceanography Program (including Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center). This program was organized in FY 1963 under the administration of the Museum of Natural History, FY 1963.

Box 96 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Science and Technology, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Physical Sciences, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Electricity, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Transportation, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Medical Sciences, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Manufactures and Heavy Industry, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Agriculture and Forest Products, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Textiles, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Ceramics and Glass, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Civil History: Division of Cultural History, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Civil History: Division of Philately and Postal History, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Civil History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Civil History: Growth of the United States exhibit, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Armed Forces History, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Military History, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Armed Forces History: Division of Naval History, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

Folder 25 Administrative Offices: Docent service, report, FY 1963

Box 96 of 98

During FY 1964 major changes were made in the administrative organization of the Museum of Natural History. The Division of Insects was abolished as part of the Department of Zoology, and a new Department of Entomology was established with Divisions of Neuropteroids, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and Myriapoda and Arachnida. The Department of Geology was abolished and in its place were created the Departments of Paleobiology and Mineral Sciences. The Department of Paleobiology included the Divisions of Invertebrate Paleontology, Vertebrate Paleontology, and Paleobotany. The Department of Mineral Sciences contained Divisions of Mineralogy and Meteorites (the equivalents of the old Division of Mineralogy and Petrology).

Folder 26 Department of Anthropology, FY 1964

Box 96 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Anthropology: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 96 of 98

Folder 28 Department of Anthropology: Reports on trips finances by private funds, FY 1964

Box 96 of 98

Folder 29 Department of Anthropology, Divisional Reports, FY 1964

Box 96 of 98

Box 97

Folder 1 Department of Zoology, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Zoology: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Zoology: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Zoology: Division of Mammals, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 5 Department of Zoology: Division of Birds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 6 Department of Zoology: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 7 Department of Zoology: Division of Fishes, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Zoology: Division of Marine Invertebrates, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Zoology: Division of Mollusks, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Zoology: Taxidermy Shop - Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Entomology, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Entomology: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Entomology: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Entomology, Divisional Reports, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Botany, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Botany: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Botany: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Botany: Division of Phanerogams, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Botany: Division of Ferns, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Botany: Division of Grasses, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Botany: Division of Cryptogams, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Botany: Division of Plant Anatomy. In FY 1963 the Division of Woods was abolished and replaced by this division, FY 1964.

Box 97 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Paleobiology, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Paleobiology, Divisional Reports, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Palaeobiology: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Paleobiology: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 97 of 98

Box 98

Folder 1 Department of Mineral Sciences, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 2 Department of Mineral Sciences, Divisional Reports, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 3 Department of Mineral Sciences: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 4 Department of Mineral Sciences: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 5 Oceanography Program: Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 6 Oceanography Program: Reports on trips financed by private funds, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 7 Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 8 Department of Science and Technology, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 9 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Physical Sciences, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 10 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 11 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Electricity, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 12 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Transportation, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 13 Department of Science and Technology: Division of Medical Sciences, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 14 Department of Arts and Manufactures, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 15 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Manufactures and Heavy Industries, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 16 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Agriculture and Forest Products, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 17 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Textiles, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 18 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Ceramics and Glass, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 19 Department of Arts and Manufactures: Division of Graphic Arts, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 20 Department of Civil History, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 21 Department of Civil History: Division of Political History, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 22 Department of Civil History: Division of Cultural History, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 23 Department of Civil History: Division of Philately and Postal History, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 24 Department of Civil History: Division of Numismatics, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 25 Department of Civil History: Growth of the United States exhibit, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 26 Department of Armed Forces History, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 27 Department of Armed Forces History, Divisional Reports, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 28 Administrative Offices: Conservation Research Laboratory, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98

Folder 29 Administrative Offices: Office of Exhibits - Reports on trips financed by federal funds, FY 1964

Box 98 of 98
[[reader's handwriting]] One Copy 7-25-'87. C.R. [[/reader's handwriting]] Curators' reports Materia Medica [[strikethrough]] I 8 upper [[/strikethrough]] Beyer Annual Rep. '86-87. Annual Report of Section Materia Medica. 1887 [[reader's handwriting]] Miss Tabler Please make 1 8[[superscript]] 00 [[/superscript]]-copy [[BDS?]]. July 18, 1887. [[/reader's handwriting]]
1 [[strikethrough]] U.S. National Museum. Washington, D.C. July , 1887. Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Institution, and in charge of the US. National Museum. Sir, I have the honor to transmit the following annual report on the operations of the Section of Materia Medica of this museum which was intrusted to my care during the fiscal year ending June 7th, 1887. [[/strikethrough]] Report on [[insertion]] ^ the [[/insertion]] of Mater Medica in the U.S. National Museum for the year ending June 30, 1887. H.G. Beyer: [[underlined]] Honorary Curator. [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] I [[/strikethrough]] [[double underline]] General review of the year's work. [[strikethrough]] a. [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Work of preserving the collection. [[/underline]] A collection of materia medica specimens, as it is found in the National Museum and also in a few museums in other parts of the world, consisting as it must, of mostly dried
2. plants, or the parts thereof, is at best of a perishable nature and, therefore, a large portion of the time at our disposal is, naturally, spent in devising methods and means for its proper preservation, without, at the same time destroying or injuring the specimens in any way whatsoever. While the mineral products of the collection require but little care after they have once been properly bottled, labelled and placed on exhibition, the vegetable and animal products require constant supervision. The enemies threatening the destruction of these specimens are for the most part parasites of both the vegetable and animal kingdoms, but bacteria and fungi are the most predominant among them. A number of remedies have been tried from time to time with more or less satisfactory results but none, it seems, that were so true from objections and the results of which were so promising
3 as the one which will be briefly mentioned below. As it became an established and widely recognized fact that mercuric chloride, one of the most powerful germicides known, was volatile at almost all ordinary temperatures and, furthermore, as it is entirely out of the question to soak drugs in any of the common fluid preservative agents for reasons which are obvious, it occurred to the curator of the collection to try and take advantage of this property possessed by the chloride in preserving drugs, since this seemed at first sight to present all the advantages of germicidal power without its disadvantages, namely the disfiguring of the specimens. Experiments with this bichloride of mercury were accordingly begun on a dozen of the worst specimens in the collection and also a few which were less inclined to become mouldy. In the former the process of moulding was decidedly interfered with by the substance; at the end of two months observation, it was found that the
4 moulds began to degenerate and to partly disappear. In those specimens which had previously been cleaned and then treated in the same way with the bichloride even at the end of 8 months, no new crop of either bacteria or fungi has yet made its appearance while formerly, without the bichloride a [[strikethrough]] mouldy [[/strikethrough]] monthly crop was usually sufficient to envelop the specimen. The climate of Washington seems to me particularly favorable to the growth and development of these parasitical organisms. The atmosphere is moist and damp a portion of the year accompanied with high temperatures and it is perhaps to be supposed that collections of this kind in this vicinity require more attention in this particular than those in the more temperate climates. On reporting the good results obtained by means of this germicidal agent to the members of the Biological Society, a gentleman asserted
5 that oil of cloves would do the same thing. This was done with so much confidence, that I determined to give oil of cloves a thorough trial, although its odor makes it rather objectionable for preserving drugs and places it to begin with, rather beneath the bichloride in value. The bichloride of mercury, as it is well known, has no odor whatever and, consequently, does not interfere with the natural aroma of the specimens which, forms a prominent characteristic of some of the drugs. The oil of cloves was dropped at the bottom of some of the bottled specimens, in the same manner as this was done with the bichloride which was placed in substance into these bottles, but, even at the end of 6 months, it must be stated, that mould continued to flourish unabated and the conclusion, therefore, was only natural, namely: Oil of cloves does not answer our purpose in the preservation of botanical specimens of drugs as well as
6. the bichloride of mercury. These results, not being published any where else, find perhaps a proper place in this report and are, to say the least, noteworthy. The application of the bichloride in the preservation of those of the specimens to which a more direct application of other germicides cannot be made is a very valuable one. [[strikethrough]] B. [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Work of illustrating and labeling the collection. [[/underline]] The work of illustrating and labeling has also called for a large share of our time this year as well as in the preceding years, forming as it does, a rather important feature in a collection of materia medica specimens. In accordance with the newly adopted plan which is intended that every drug on exhibition in the collection shall be illustrated by a pressed botanical specimen of the plant from which it
7. is derived, by a colored plate, showing the anatomy of the plant and its various parts and, also, by cuts illustrative of the microscopical characters or the structure of the specimen; this work, although in many respects a mere matter of chance, consequently of slow growth, is nevertheless of great importance and has, so far as progress has been made in this direction, done much to make the collection both instructive and attractive. Many of these illustrations having been taken from French and German works, the explanatory remarks accompanying them, had to be translated into technical English which was found in many instances no very easy task, requiring much time and the perpetual consultation of rare dictionaries. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Correspondence [[/underline]] Under the head of general work, the correspondence must be mentioned. The information on various topics which is from time
8 to time demanded from the curator of this section is becoming with every year a more prominent feature and letters, requesting such information, either private or official have steadily increased in number. The characters of the questions asked are either of botanical, chemical pharmaceutical or general medical interest and, in some cases, have little apparent relation to a department of materia medica. Many inquiries to be properly answered, require investigation and much time is, therefore, consumed in this part of the work. Tow or three examples in the form of abstracts form a few of the more typical letters which were received ad answered, will perhaps best illustrate the character and extent of this kind of work: - On August 25th 1886, eight numbered specimens of mustard seed were recieved from John W. Schwaner of Guide Rock, Nebraska
9 for examination relative to their comparative value with the standard commercial article. The result of the examination showed that all compared favorably but that specimen numbered one was the best; No. viii coming next; the balance differing but little in quality from each other: a reply was sent accordingly. On September 13th, 1886, a specimen of a plant was sent to this office by Mr. W.R Brown of Sanders Cal., requesting a botanical determination of the plant together with information as to its medicinal properties. On determination this plant proved to be Solidago californica, possessing the medical properties which are common to the genus Solidago. In October, 1886, a letter of inquiry was received from Mr. Le Gallais of Warrington, Florida, with regard to Prof. Barff's process of making boroglyceride and the manner
10 of preserving food-stuffs by means of this agent. The gentleman requested that some experiments be made with this chemical in order to determine its commercial value and establish the same on a more scientific basis than had been done hitherto, at the same time he gave the results of some of his own experiments and the method by which he had arrived at them. Upon examination and comparison of his method and that of Prof. Barff, it was found that the former had not quite understood the process and therefore, extensive abstracts from Prof. Barff's original paper were made, forwarded to Mr. Le Gallais and his attention particularly called to those points in which he had expressly failed, thus enabling him to make the boroglyceride as well as any one. During the same month a quantity of Tangai Nuts was received from
11. Messrs. Ignacio Palan & Co., of Bahia, Ecuador, for examination. It was especially desired that a quantitative determination of the amount of fixed oil which they contained to be made. This was done by the employment of several processes requiring several weeks of steady work. The most exact determination was made with the chloroform process which gave 36.4% of oil as contained in the dried nuts. Letters giving these details were of course forwarded accordingly ^[[insertion]] with sample of the oil. [[/insertion]] A great many more instances of this kind might here be cited but these few are perhaps sufficient to show the kind of correspondence which is constantly being carried on with this department and also the amount of work which is generally connected with it. The work which is, as may be seen after a perusal of these letters, mostly chemical, points strongly to the necessity
12. of a chemical laboratory in connection with this section or at least of better facilities for doing chemical work. Numerous inquiries from Surgeon-General Gunnell have been received mainly with reference to rare foreign books which were sent to this office and the following letter is cited as typical of the kind of work done in this line; viz: "U.S. National Museum. Feburary 12th 1887. Surgeon-General, F.M. Gunnell, U.S. Navy. Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the Handbuch der Hygiene which you were pleased to refer to me for report. The volume which was received from but a small portion of that already well-known and celebrated greater treatise on "General Hygiene",
13. now in process of preservation. Recent researches in bacteriology having made it appear necessary that a most thorough and painstaking revision of the entire field of Hygiene should be made, a [[gallaxy?]] of some the most celebrated and distinguished hygienists of Germany have combined, each in his own specialty to accomplish this end. Their names, in my opinion, warrant that the undertaking will be a success in more than one respect. The volume under immediate consideration treats of the soil, its physical and chemical characteristics, their dependencies, the relations which they bear to human health and the changes, either natural or artificial which tend to make the soil either a means for the prevention of disease or, on the other hand, tend to endanger human existence. It treats of the interchanges which take place constantly and which must take place between the constituents of the soil and
14 the surrounding atmosphere and of man's relation to it. Infectious diseases, of course, form an important part in the consideration of these facts. As a very good example of the kind of questions which are considered in connection with those that are purely chemical, is perhaps the following: In the chapter, treating of the currents of air in the soils of different composition and densities and the conditions of temperature and moisture upon which their movements depend, he approaches the question of why malarial infection has been observed to take place more easily at night than during the day. According to physical investigations, air currents from soil, and, carrying with it germs, into the surrounding atmosphere, ought to attain their maximum of rapidity at the time when the difference in temperature between these two media is greatest,
15 which, on a warm summer's day would be about noon. It is also a fact, established by experiment, that the more rapid the current, the more bacteria will it carry with it, although comparatively slow currents are required to move bacteria. It is, therefore, clear that there most be a different reason why malarial infection takes place at a time of day when the difference of temperature may be such as to reverse the current. This peculiar circumstance is explained in the following way: It is considered that from moist soils - malaria most frequently occurs in such soils - during the heat of day currents of moisture as well as air pass in a direction from the surface of the soil toward the upper warmer stratum of the atmosphere. The germs of malarial infection, of course, are carried along but, rapid diffusion takes place, preventing them from concentrating on
16 any particular spot. After sundown, the atmosphere rapidly cools and this fact causes the moisture to return to the soil in a condensed state or in the form of dew, carrying with it the germs emanated from the soil during the day, in great quantity. This seems to me a rather plausible and quite philosophical explanation for we all remember cases when the simple protection by a mosquito bar of persons sleeping out of doors in malarious districts, have proved successful in the prevention of malarial infection, although we also know, the mosquito netting did not do more than absorb the moisture which was deposited during the night, as was evidenced by the fact that it was very wet, while the bed clothes within the netting were perfectly dry. This may, perhaps, serve as an example of the manner in which questions of general interest are treated in this great book.
17 The book closes with a most instructive geological description of the soils of the cities of Berlin, Paris, Munich and Vienna, indicating the relations of soil and subsoil, of water and ground water and their circulation under different circumstances and how they might influence the health of these great cities and suggesting possible remedies in such cases. The author of the book indicates the lines along which hygienic research must be pursued in order that such research be attended with success and suggests a number of problems yet awaiting their solution. A thorough chemical and biological investigation of the soil, subsoil, water and ground water of the larger cities of our great country, especially the capitol Washington, would form an excellent theme for the Museum of Hygiene to work upon. In returning the book and, hoping I have
18. understood your request, I am, Very respectfully, Your obedient servant. H.G. Beyer." [[strikethrough]] I. [[/strikethrough]][[underlined]] Work in Experimental Pharmaco - physiology. [[/underlined]] This work has been continued and as much time has been devoted to it as circumstances would [[insertion]] allow [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]]. The section not being itself provided with the apparatus necessary for making physiological experiments, the latter were made partly at the Museum of Hygiene in this city and partly in the physiological laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore, Md. Much good work might indeed be accomplished in this line of research and hundreds of new as well as old drugs are awaiting investigation. For the papers published on this subject see bibliography under VT. [[srikethrough]] II. [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Notes upon the more important accessions received during the year. [[/underlined]]
19. One of the most interesting acquisitions of the museum this year is a collection of the various medicinal lints and cottons together with silks thread and cat-gut sutures done up in bottles, all of which are now extensively used in what is known as antiseptic surgery. The treatment of wounds according to the principles of atntisepsis is daily gaining in importance and general application and this collection forms a good nucleus for further work in the illustration of this branch of surgery in connection with this department. It will be added to as opportunity offers and be made so practical that it will prove a guide for the surgeon consulting this part of the collection in the application of this valuable method. A special case has been required for this exhibit which will be placed by itself, filled with these specimens when properly labelled and prepared for that purpose.
20 Special mention must also be made of the addition made to this collection of a bottle of pure Attar of Rose. This bottle contains about 3/4 of a pint of attar, being originally presented to the U.S. Government in 1840 by the Iman of Mouscat. For many years it had been in the vault of the East room of the office of the Treasurer of the United States. In March 1887, it was transferred to the Museum for public exhibition and may now be seen among the specimens of materia medica. The following is a list of the remaining additions received and added to our collection this year:- Charpie Baumwolle. Asclepias verticillata. Carbol gaze Iodoform charpie Baumwolle. Eisen chloride charpie Baumwolle. Iodoform Verband-Päckchen Coton charpie palieglate 4%. Salicyleaure Natta. Salicyl gaze. Gatgut no. 1. Coton charpie Phenique 10%. Ligature no. 3.
21 Carbolisirte No. 2. Nähseide. Margarita Salicylesäure Charpie Baumwolle. 10% Borsäure lint. Flor de Pena. Carbolisirte Nähseide. [[Espantiloba. ?]] Salicylsäure Jute. Palo mitas. Charpie Baumwolle. (2 sp.) " [[ditto for: Palo]] Santo. Carbols. Charpie Baumwolle. Tomato de Pesso. Iodoform Gaze 10%. [[Deir's ?]] Lower Joint. Lister's Macintosch. Cardo Santo. Carbolisirte Drainage. Barbasco. Hydrophiler Veibaudstoff. [[Tilantillo. ?]] Carbol gaze. [[Boregito. ?]] Carbolisirte Nähseide No. 3. Arisco Billroth Batist. Attar of Rose. Flour de mas. Kola nuts. Lithospermum multiflorum [[Pinko - Pinko. ?]] Canella alba. Oil fruits 2 sp. Comocladia integrifolia Popo nuts. Simarouba glauca Dye from W. Africa. Assafoetida [[Bucamassanga. ?]]
22 Bismuth Peptonic. Boadho Medicament from Kaminu. Mangose Cardamons. Korean Drugs. 3 [[symbol?]] Albanna Ke. Pepsin Holz. Blutschwanium. Fouquinia splurdius. Indian Tea seed. Thelespuma gracilio. Orthosiphon staminea. Strophanthis seed. XXX. [[double underline]] Statement of character of routine work in arrangement and classification of the collection, and in the preparation of the exhibition and study series. [[/double underline]] For an account of the preparation of the specimens from the time they arrive here up to the time when they reach the exhibition cases in the collection and in order to avoid unnecessary repetition ,I must refer to previous reports where the process may be found in [[strike]] great [[/strike]] full detail.
23. The exhibited specimens, however, are arranged in strict accordance with the classification adopted by Bentham & Hooker in their "Genera Plantarum", every single specimen in fact, occupying its place in the collection according to this classification in the exact order and sequence which is there followed out. In time it is intended that every specimen shall be accompanied with the very number (genus as well as species) which is formed to accompany them in this book. The publication of a large descriptive catalogue comprising the entire collection has been under contemplation for some time but, owing partly to a want of the necessary books of reference and partly also to want of time, this work has been temporarily interrupted but will be resumed as soon as circumstances favor it. IV. Review of special researches prosecuted [[double drawn line]]
24. [[underlined with double line]] upon material belonging to the department. [[/underlined with double line]] Oil of Tangai Nuts, by George & Doening Phar. D. Tangai nuts are of a brownish black color, varying size from a walnut to about half the size of a man's fist; they have four surfaces and are of such a shape that, if eight of them were placed face to face against their flattened sides a figure approximating to a sphere would be obtained. The shell which is thin and easily broken encloses a somewhat irregular shaped kernel. The integument surrounding the kernel is of a somewhat lighter brown color than the external shell and is more or less wrinkled by the process of drying. The freshly cut surface of the seed presents a slightly pinkish-white appearance upon which, moisture and oil may be seen gathering
25 upon pressure. They are tough and leathery and their taste somewhat disagreeably bitter. Three experiments were made to extract the oil, Exp. III, however, being the only satisfactory one. [[circled and underlined]] Experiment I [[/circled and underlined]] [[forked line drawn from circled text to next sentence]] On expression at an elevated temperature a quantity of a whitish emulsion was obtained the oil from which refused to separate although permitted to stand in a tall glass vessel for several days, during this period the emulsion darkens in color. Agitating with petroleum spirit resulted in obtaining 2'35 per cent of fixed oil, an amount that was plainly extremely low. This was due to the fact that sufficient pressure could not be brought to with the small hand-press which was used, but even though a powerful machine be employed I strongly doubt if more than 10 per cent. could be got, at all events this process is not a desirable in this case since
26 the oil so obtained readily becomes rancid. [[circled and underlined]] Experiment II. [[/circled and underlined]] [[line drawn from circled text to beginning next sentence]] 10 grams of the dried and finely powdered substance, was placed in an extraction apparatus after the method of Church and thoroughly exhausted by chloroform. In this manner all of the oil was doubtlessly extracted but so largely was the oil contaminated with other extractive matters equally soluble in chloroform which so greatly interfered with the production of a clear and pure oil, that this method too was discarded as failing to attain the desired end. It is safe to assume that all oilproducing substances have one or more solvents that are peculiarly suited for extracting a particular oil than are other solvents, in the present case chloroform was found to be unfitted, while benzine seems to be admirably adapted for this purpose, and therefore was
27 instituted [[circled and underlined]] Experiment III. [[/circled and underlined]] [[forked line drawn from circled text to beginning of next sentence]] 75 grams of the dried kernels reduced as before to a fine powder was digested in a flask with 300 c.c. of benzine. The flask was stoppered and the contents frequently agitated for several hours, at the end of which time, the vessel was immersed in boiling water until [[^the]] benzine began to boil. The contents were then poured on a filter and after all the liquid portion had passed through, the residue was twice succesively treated with 100 c.c. more of the solvent. All the filtrates were then mixed together and evaporated in a tared capsule until the weight remained constant. The 75 grams of dried powder yielded 27'3 grams of oil, which quantity is equal to 36'4 per cent. The oil as so obtained is of a clear straw color, with a smooth bland taste, a rather agreeable faint odor suggestive of chocolate, and
28 has a specific gravity of 0'8642. At a temperature of about 10°C. a portion of the oil congeals and may be readily seperated by filtration. The clear filtered oil has a sp. gr. of 0'9478. When solidified by cold and gradually warmed, incipient fusion commences at 5°C. (41°F.) and the oil becomes perfectly limpid at 10°C. (50°F.). Its cohesion figure does not give a very reliable test, the oil rapidly rolls out in the form of a perfect ring, remains quiet for some moments, then gradually retraces for a short distance with an occasional portion retreating so far as to leave a long narrow strip covered with minute spots which in the course of a few minutes is plainly discernible over the entire surface. Treated with a drop of strong nitric acid in a few seconds a faint purple coloration is produced changing quickly to a
29. dark yellowish brown. With strong sulphuric acid there forms instantly a dirty green color changing to black. It is quite likely that this oil will be added to the list of oils already known and will no doubt become a valuable commercial article, and this because of its feedom from disagreeable odor and taste as well as its tendency to remain unaltered. Of the botanical origin of Tangai I am entirely ignorant at present; but, Messrs. Parke, Davis & Co., of Detroit, have kindly volunteered to ascertain, through their representative in Ecuador, the natural history of Tangai, and this information together with the chemistry of the constituents of the nuts, is expected to be embodied in a future special report. [[striked through]] IX. [[/striked through]] [[double underlined]] Present state of the collection. [[/double underlined]] [[striked through, double underlined]] including a table showing the number of specimens in the [[reserve?]], exhibition and [[/striked through, double underlined]]
30. [[strikethrough]] duplicate series, with total. Also the number of the last catalogue entry in June 1886 and in June 1887. [[/strikethrouth]] Total number of specimens on Register 5516 Total number of specimens on Exhibition 3488 Total number of Duplicates 500 Total number of Labels on exhibition 1970 Total number of Herbaria on exhibition 33 Total number of Colored pictures on exhibition 277 Total number of Photographs on exhibition 136 Number of last entry in June, 1886. 77974 Number of last entry in June, 1887. 78047 A List of the papers published during the year by the Curator is published in [[strikethrough]]the[[/strikethrough]]Part IV of this report. [[strikethrough]] and his official associates upon any subject, and by colaborators, not officially connected with the Museum. Each notice in this bibliography should be accompanied with a brief abstract of the paper.[[/strikethrough]]
31 H.G. Boyer [[strike]] S. [[/strike]] The direct action of Calcium, Sodium, Potassium and Ammonium Salts on the bloodvissels. Medical News, Sept. 4th, 1886 When these investigations were begunm comparatively little was known with regard to the action of these salts on the bloodvessels. The results which had been recorded were rather indefinite and contradictory and the methods used rather imperfect. It was of especial importance to ascertain by means of new and improved methods, as accurately as possible, the action of potassium salts on the vascular system and so far as this was done in these observations, the few points of interest will here be briefly stated. Bromide of potassium when administered in certain doses is known to produce sleep and acts therefore as an hypnotic. This effect it is supposed, is produced by a condition of cerebral
32 anaemia induced by the drug, owing to contraction of the bloodvessels which is said to ensue when this drug is administrated. In the above investigations it was found that all the potassium salts tried, namely:- the Iodide, Bromide, and Chloride, dilatation pure and simple with large and small doses was invariably produced and no contraction whatever resulted at any time of the experiments. It is therefore, rendered exceedingly probable by the results obtained in these experiments, that contraction of the bloodvessels is no part of, at least, the direct action of these salts and if the latter produce dilatation at all, it can only be owing to an effect which they might possibly exert on the vaso-motor centre in the medulla. Central anaemia, however, might still be produced even without the assumption of such an effect on the vaso-motor centre, in about the following manner:- In all the experiments which
33 were made with potassium salts on the bloodvessels, considerable oedema of these organs through which the drug was allowed to flow, was noticed. Hence, it must be assumed that one of the chararacteristic effects produced by these salts is to favor the transudation of fluids from out of the vessels into the surrounding lymphatics. The perivascular lymphatics, however, when completely filled, must necessarily compress to a certain extent the vascular lumen and hence cause a much diminished flow of blood to the part, besides compressing the tissues outside of and immediately against them. The conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows:- 1. Calcium salts cause the vessels to contract by virtue of their stimulating influence on the vasomotor ganglia. 2. Sodium an ammonium salts excite, first, the ganglia of the vasodilators; next, those
34 of the vasomotors; hence producing at first dilatation, and afterward contraction of the vessels. 3. Potassium salts stimulate the ganglia of the vasodilators only, and consequently produce dilatation; if, however, as was shown in two observations, the dilatation which they produce is followed by contraction, this contraction is so extremely slight that it may practically be neglected; therefore, any stimulating influence on the vasomotor ganglia which they might possess is insignificant when compared with that which they exert over the vasodilators. H.G. Beyer. [[striked through]] II. [[/striked through]] On the micro-organisms of lactic fermentation. Medical News, Nov. 6th, 1886. This paper is an experimental inquiry into the causes of the souring of milk. The presence of microörganisms in liquids
35 undergoing fermentation has hitherto been interpreted and explained in various ways. While some looked at these low forms of life as the mere associates of these processes, attributing the real cause of the resulting decomposition to chemical ferments, others, though believing in the causation of fermentation by microörganisms, looked at these processes as physiological ones or else attributed them to a certain power of adaptability possessed by certain microbes to different conditions of life. Lister was, perhaps, the first clearly to point out the fact that the peculiar and characteristic fermentation process by which milk becomes sour, is initiated or directly caused by a certain species of microbe. While, however, Lister had proved this fact, it did not necessarily follow from his experiments alone, that the same process might not also be called into existence by a chemical ferment
36 produced by the lacteal glands and which was already contained in the milk when it left these glands. The matter, therefore, even after Lister's famous experiments, remained as undecided as ever, and the contention which has grown up between chemists and biologists for ages past, had not been diminished in any way. In the mean time, our methods of bacteriological research having been greatly improved by the patient and admirable researches of Professor Robert Koch, it had become necessary to reinvestigate this whole question. This task has, indeed, been most ably performed by Dr. Heuppe, whose researches will be found embodied in a recent contribution to our knowledge of lactic acid fermentation and fermentation in general, published in the [[underlined]] Mittheilungen d. kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamtes [[/underlined]], Berlin, 1884.
37. In this paper Hueppe has, we think, successfully demonstrated the fact that lactic acid fermentation, or the process of the souring of milk, by which the sugar contained in milk is converted into lactic and carbonic acids, is directly dependent on or caused by a certain definite variety of microörganism, the morphological and physiological characters of which render it sufficiently distinct from any other known microbe. Hueppe has demonstrated his point in the following manner: First, by showing that this particular organism is constantly associated with lactic acid fermentation; second, by separating it from other microörganisms; third, by cultivating it outside the original media in which it occurs, so as to separate chemical by-products; fourth, by the inoculation of pure cultures into the proper medium, producing the characteristic decomposition; fifth,
38 by ascertaining the biological conditions under which this process of fermentation is brought about in the best manner. Although Hueppe himself is exceedingly guarded in his conclusions, the results obtained by him from the very accurate series of experiments made according to the most modern and advanced methods, will, no doubt, be fully realized by even those who are but slightly familiar with the history of fermentation and the long struggle which has existed for ages, and still exists between chemists and biologists with regard to the nature and causes of fermentation. This alone [[^would]], no doubt, form sufficient pretext for a critical examination and repetition of at least a portion of Hueppe's experiments. But aside from this, and in spite of the fact that the importation of Hueppe's lactic acid germ is most likely to be an almost daily occurence on this side of the Atlantic, the identity between it and the germs
39. which cause the same decomposition in American milk, must be proven by the same methods and experiments, in order to make this mere supposition a certainty. With this object in view, I gladly took advantage of an opportunity kindly offered to me this summer by Drs. E.D. Salmon and Theobald Smith, of the Bureau of Animal Industry, of working out this problem in their well-equipped laboratory. In repeating Hueppe's experiments, so far as this was done by me, it was, of course, thought best to follow out the same course of experimenting and use the same methods as were used by him, and the first question, therefore, which naturally arose was, what microörganisms, if any, do we find in sour milk as it occurs in our market? Bacterium lactis mas be described as a short, thick, plump, little rod, distinctly ovoidal in
40 in shape, about half as broad as long, and varying in length from 1 to 2 μ, its breadth remaining tolerably uniform. The best specimens may be found in milk cultures, the smallest in beef-infusion-peptone-gelatine cultures. As the bacterium lengthens, a slight constriction about its middle portion becomes noticeable which soon broadens and deepens, giving rise just before complete division takes place, to the figure 8 form. This form becomes more especially noticeable in preparations stained with methyl-violet, which leaves a very minute central portion of the protoplasm unstained. The germ does not liquify gelatine, and when examined on the hollow slide, it is found to be motionless. With regard to spore-formation, our experiments have not been attended by very positive results, although everything else seems to indicate that they do form spores. The settlement of this question will form one of the subjects of future investigations.
41 The results of the foregoing experiments have led me to agree fully with those obtained by Hueppe, namely; lactic acid fermentation, or the process of the souring of milk during which the sugar contained in the latter is converted into lactic acid and carbonic acids, is directly dependent on or caused by the life and growth of a certain definite variety of microorganisms,the physiological characters of which are sufficiently distinct to differentiate it from any other known organism and which, therefore, may be properly designated as bacterium lactis. H.G. Beyer. [[strike]] III [[/strike]] The direct action of Atropine, Homatropine, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, and Daturine on the Heart of the Dog, Terrapin and Frog. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. April, 1887. The question of this action of atropine and
42. its congeners on the vascular system of animals, has perhaps, been the most difficult and perplexing which ever presented itself to the physiologist. For a period of fifty year, physiologists have been engaged with this problem many experiments having been made, many bitter controversies having been fought out during this time and yet the question could hardly be said to have been satisfactorily answered. So far as the action of atropia on the heart is concerned, the best authorities still differ in about the following points: (1) That is action may be fully explained by assuming that a paralyzing influence is exerted on the terminal filaments of the pneumogastrics; (2) That atropia at first stimulates and then paralyzes these filaments; (3) That it not only paralyzes these filaments, but also and at the same time, stimulates the vasomotor apparatus
43 of the heart. It seemed to me that the question of the action of atropine had gained anew in interest and importance with the discoveries of Gaskill on the origin, course and distribution of the nerves supplying contain viscera. He found; for instance that the heart of both cold and warm-blooded animals was supplied with two kinds of nerve-filaments, the stimulation of the one accelerating and augmenting the hearts' action, that of the other, retarding or altogether stopping its action. It was thought that by a careful study of the action of atropine on the isolated heart, it might be possible to obtain good evidence, as to how it affected at least the peripheral portions of this double nerve-supply and whether it stimulates or paralyzes the one kind of nerves to the exclusion of the other or whether it affected both alike and if so , how is this action influenced by the quantity of the drug admin-
44 istered at the time. After a great many experiments of this kind, the conclusions which were finally reached were as follows:- 1). Atropine, homatropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine and daturine are stimulants of the sympathetic nerve-apparatus of the heart. 2). The vasomotor portion of this nerve-apparatus is affected by comparatively small doses of these drugs, giving rise to either acceleration or augmentation of the hearts' action. 3). The inhibitory portion is excited by larger doses only, giving rise to slowing of the hearts' action,and, finally, causing diastolic arrest. 4). The muscular substance of the heart is greatly excited by atropine, homatropine and daturine, and only slightly so by hyoscine and hyoscyamine.
45. 5). The vaso-motor nerves and their ganglia are the first to become exhausted ,the inhibitory ganglia and their nerves are the next, and the muscular substance is exhausted last of all. 6). The slowing of the hearts' action which follows the administration of these drugs in the intact animal, may be sufficiently accounted for by their influence on the inhibitory nerves and ganglia of the heart itself. 7). The acceleration following the administration of certain doses of these drugs cannot be sufficiently accounted for by their action on the accelerator nerves and ganglia within the heart but is principally due to causes resident outside this organ. The essential points brought out by these experiments are that both vaso-motor as well as inhibitory nerves are stimulated by the atropines but that the former are
46 affected by small doses, the latter by large doses only; hence a large dose causing an excitation of the vaso-inhibitory portion of this nerve apparatus may entirely cover up the vaso-motor excitement which is present simultaneously with that of the vaso-inhibitory portion of the nerve-apparatus, In as much, however, as large doses quickly paralyze the vaso-motor apparatus and also, as the vaso-inhibitory nerves, the slowing of the hearts' action following primary acceleration, must be looked upon as a sign of much greater danger than the latter and is indication of much more profound action, for if this influence is not arrested it will terminate is diastolic arrest. A point of interest needing to be emphasized is that different doses of the same drug may produce results on the same organ that are diametrically opposed to each other.
47 The influence of atropine on organs of similar innervations as is the heart is assumed to be identical with that exerted on the heart. H.G. Beyer [[strike]] IV [[/strike]] On some of the problems to be solved by pharmaco- physiology, with a new out-line classification of Pharmacology. Medical News, 1887. In this paper some of the more important problems in pharmaco-physiology are discussed. Particular attention is called to the necessity of investigating the action of drugs with due regard to the chemical constitution of the latter and examples are cited showing, beyond doubt the relation which exists between chemical constitution and physiological action. A new outline-classification of the whole science of pharmacology is included in this article with explanatory notes for
48 each of the terms used in this classification which is as follows: - [[diagram]] |-Descriptive---Pharmaco mineralogy--| |-Descriptive---Pharmaco botany------| |-Descriptive---Pharmaco zoology-----| Pharmacology-| |-Pharmaco-therapy |-Experimental---Pharmaco physics----| |-Experimental---Pharmaco chemistry--| |-Experimental---Pharmaco physiology-| |-Experimental---Pharmaco pathology--| H.G. Beyer. [[strikethrough]] X. [[/strikethrough]] The action of Tropin hydrochlorate and sodium tropate on the peripheral bloodvessels. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1887. By a careful experimental study of the influence of atropine on isolated organs we have been able to furnish good pharmacological evidence in proof of the fact that this alkaloid exerts a double action on those organs which are supplied by both motor an inhibitory sympathetic
49 nerve structure. It has been shown that very small doses of the drug will stimulate the motor nerve-elements and that larger doses of it will stimulate the inhibitory portion of the nerve-supply of these organs. thus, very small doses of atropine will give rise to contraction of the pupil, to acceleration of the heart's action, to increased peristaltis of the intestine; large doses on the contrary produce dilatation of the pupil, arrest the heart in diastole and stops the peristaltic movement of the intestine. Furthermore, in view if the important researches by Ladenbury on the chemical constitution of atropine, it seemed to me strongly indicated to try and ascertain if this double action of atropine could possibly be explained by a careful study and comparison of the action of its two constituents - tropine and tropic acid.
50. The pupil did not seem to me a sufficiently typical object for the determination of this all important point and I, therefore, concluded to try the bloodvessels, more especially, since it is now looked upon generally, as a well settled question in physiology that the bloodvessels are supplied by two kinds of nerve-structures namely vaso-motor and vaso-inhibitory or dilator, the stimulation of the former causing vaso-constriction, that of the latter giving rise to vaso-dilatation. Cosequently, we might argue that tropic acid is that part of the molecule of atropine which causes pupillary dilatation and if we have, furthermore, reasons to believe, that tissues which are identical both in histological structure and physiological function, are also similarly affected by the same chemical stimuli, then it ought to follow that this same portion of the molecule of atropine should
51 give rise to vaso-dilatation. Atropine, however, producing also vaso-constriction (in small doses at least), it would perhaps further, follow that the remaining portion of the molecule should give rise to vaso-constriction. In these experiments on the bloodvessels with sodium tropate and tropine-hydrochlorate an improved method was used. Instead of an artificial heart and lung to arterialize and pump the blood through the bloodvessels, as had been used in the latest researches of this kind by Drs. von Frey and Gruter, a natural heart and lung were interposed between the blood-reservoirs and the blood-vessels. Hence this method is far from all those objections which still cling to the old method and, consequently, the results ought to be reliable. After making a number of experi-
52. ments, it was found that Tropin hydro-chlorate produced vaso-constriction and that sodium tropate gave rise to vaso-dilatation. We have here, then, an important and very decided illustration of the relation of chemical constitution to physiological action and, at the same time, a very striking explanation of the double action of the alkaloid atropin. H.G. Beyer. [strikethrough][illegible][/illegible][/strikethrough]. The influence of cocaine on the bloodvessels of the dog not yet published. In these experiments, which were made according to the same method as the preceeding, suffice it to state that it was found that cocaine in large doses and directly applied, gives rise to vaso-dilatation, in small doses, to vaso-constriction. - [strikethrough] Very Respectfully,Henry G. Beyer [illegible] [/illegible] [/strikethrough]
[[stamp]] S55997 [[/stamp]] [[stamp]] Smithsonian Institution Division of Correspondence Received AUG. 6-. 86 [[/stamp]] G I 8 upper Beyer July 86 [[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Washington [[/pre-printed]] Aug. 6th 1886. Professor S.F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir, During the month of July the following list of specimens were received and entered on the register: Iodoform cotton Pure cotton Boric lint Salicylic cotton Styptic cotton Lister's macintosch Carbolic cotton Catgut Carbolized drainage tube Lithospermum multiflorum. All the exhibition cases in this section were thoroughly overhauled by the carpenter and put in good condition. The trouble was with the doors, many of which could be opened only with great difficulty. The annual report of this section for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1886, has been prepared and forwarded to the Director.
[[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] The following material was turned over to the librarian for binding: 11 Vols. Philadelphia Journal Pharmacy 7 Vols. Pharmaceutical Journal & Transactions 1 Vol. Spanish Pharmacopoeia 1 Vol. Bentham and Hooker's "Genera Plantarum" 1 Vol. Christy's "New Commercial Plants and Drugs. 2 Vols. Bentley & Trimen's Botany. 1 Vol. Dymock's Indian Materia Medica. 2 Vols. Luerssen's Botanik. The mounting of colored plates continues. Some time has been expended in cleaning offices in this department. Very respectfully, H.G. Beyer Hon. Curator Mat. Med. Section.
I8 Upper Beyer Sept. 1886 [[letterhead pre-printed in red]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/letterhead pre-printed in red]] Oct. 5th 1886 Professor S.F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum Sir, During the month of September but one specimen was entered on the register and this (Solidago californica) was transferred to Prof. Ward. The curator has returned from his annual leave of absence and resumed his duties. All of the pictures have been mounted and the collection is in a fine condition. Very respectfully, H.G. Beyer, Curator Materia Medica Section.
[[letterhead pre-printed in red]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/letterhead pre-printed in red]] December 4th 1886. Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director of National Museum. Sir, During the month of November the following specimens were entered on the register,viz:- Conocladia integrifolia, Simaruba glauca and Assafoedita. Doctor C.A. White of the Geological survey presented the department with one bottle of Mexican Mescal which will be placed on exhibition. A letter of inquiry as to the chemical composition of Havanna tobacco and other tobaccos and the method of cultivating them was received and an answer transmitted under date of the 20th Nov. Four boxes of specimens have been packed and are now ready for storage. These drugs are all duplicate specimens of comparatively little value; they had all
2. [[preprinted in red]]UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON[[/preprinted]] been received and were laid aside during Dr. Thiels time and were occupying a good deal of room which is much needed at present. The chemical examination of the Tangai Nuts is still being pursued and promises well. The curator is still engaged in the physiological investigation of drugs. So far as this work is concerned, done during the last two years, I am pleased to state that I have lately seen extensive abstracts and most favorable criticisms on it, in four of the leading German periodicals. It is my purpose to turn out still more valuable work this winter, than has been done in the past. The writing of labels is constantly kept up and might be greatly facilitated by the purchase of a few books, so much needed for the necessary
3 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] informative. More than three hundred new labels have been attached to blocks and placed in their respective places in the museum. Very Respectfully, Your obedient servant, H G Beyer Curator Sect Mat. Med.
[[preprinted]]UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Jan. 4th 1887. [[stamped]] Jan 6 1886 [[/stamped]] Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum, Sir, - During the month of December this office received no donations. One more box of duplicates were packed and turned over to the Registrar for storage. 83 labels have been turned in for printing, the majority of which, were for the colored plates illustrative of the anatomy of different plants. This work still continues, but, as might be expected, not as rapidly as under other circumstances, since they have now to be translated from the German into English.
2 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 15 "absence blanks" have been received from the Chief Clerk's office and their requirements shall be complied with whenever necessary. On the 13th ultimo a letter of inquiry pertaining to the poppy plant, was received from Dr. W. W. Wolsey of Jacksonville, Florida. and a reply transmitted through your office bearing date of Dec. 15th. Much of our time is employed in renovating the exhibited collection for it is of a perishable nature. This we have found necessary to do once a month, because of insects and mould. In case of insects we find a ready means of disposing of them
3 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] by the use of chloroform; this is very effectual so far as live insects are concerned, but apparently the germs that exist in some specimens are not destroyed, for, after awhile, we have a reappearance of what we hoped to have gotten rid of. I will cite as examples that have come under my notice the following drugs which have been so affected - Aconitum, Ferox, Sarsaparilla, Coriander and other Umbelliferous seeds. With rhubarb and many other roots this however does not happen, as our experience tends to show that with these drugs one application of chloroform is sufficient. With mould we find that applications of chloroform do no good toward preventing
4 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON[[/preprinted]] its formation: I will mention under this head, Opium, Pomegranate fruit, Mexican Jalap and Terra Japonica. The entire subject is one not well understood and is worthy of investigation. Therefore, these observations were deemed of sufficient importance to warrant recording them. Very respectfully, H. G. Beyer, Hon. Curator Materia Med. Sect.
^[[I8 upper Jan 1887. Beyer.]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Feb. 5th 1887 Professor S. F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir: During the month of January no donations were received. About sixty-five labels have been prepared and are now ready for printing. It is a source of much gratification to observe the increased interest manifested by visitors in looking over the collection of materia medica, since the method of illustrating the specimens by colored plates and mounted herbarium specimens has been adopted and is being carried out. We stand greatly in need of the works sent to the bindery for binding, as they are
2 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] indispensable for the writing of labels. In accordance with your valuable suggestions relating to the preservation of drugs and communicated to me by letter which was duly received, I have concluded to make some experiments, with the view of ascertaining the applicability of bichloride of mercury to this end. The application of arsenious acid seems to me plainly inadmissible for reasons which you have already mentioned in your letter. It is also clearly impossible to apply the bichloride of mercury either in solution in water or alcohol, since both these substances are the chief solvents by means of which the active principles are extracted from drugs and consequently would largely tend to alter both their chemical
3 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] composition as well as their natural outside appearance besides adding something new to them. It is especially for the latter reason that liquid germicides are not applicable to drugs. Since the bichloride of mercury, even in the most minute quantities has been lately proved to be the most poisonous to all vegetable and animal life which we possess in the form of germicides and has for this reason become the most valued means in antiseptic surgery, it seems reasonable to suppose that very small quantities might suffice to prevent the development of, or altogether kill, the various germs and fungi which are commonly found to develop on certain specimens of drugs on exhibition
4 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] in the museum collection. To attain this and without altering the natural appearance of the specimens and without being obliged to saturate them with a solution of the substance in any one of the common solvents, it occurred to me that advantage might be taken of a property of the bichloride of mercury which has been established by experiments beyond dispute and which seems to be a very important one in this direction. This property consists in the volatility of the bichloride of mercury at almost all ordinary temperatures. In accordance with this property, our experiments will consist simply in placing a few crystals of this substance in the
5 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] bottom of some of the bottles in which germ-development has so far shown itself to be particularly active and observations will be made from time to time as to the result. The crystals will be carefully weighed before being put in and this weight recorded. The bottles being closed by a well-fitting stopper nothing can practically escape to the outside and the atmosphere within the bottle surrounding the specimen must soon reach a certain stage of saturation. Besides, a certain amount of moisture being, presumably, contained in every specimen of drug, it is evident that all over the surface of the specimen, a very small amount of the bichloride will be dissolved by it gradually giving
6 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] rise to a very fine protective covering around the specimen which at the same time will be extremely thin and transparent and not sufficient to alter its natural appearance. The results, of course, must show the wisdom of the method. Very respectfully, H. G. Beyer, Hon. Curator Mat. Med.
I 8 upper Beyer Feb.87. [[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] March 4th 1887. Professor S. F. Baird, Director. U.S. Nat. Museum. Sir: During the month of February a small but interesting collection of Mexican Drugs, comprising 13 specimens, was received from Dr. Palmer. As being more worthy of notice may be mentioned the "Deer's lower joint", which by simply heating and rubbing over the face is said to cure toothache, itching and swellings. As a preservative against insects, this specimen was poisoned with a solution of arsenic in alcohol, such as Prof. Mason uses. Not less marvellous are the properties assigned to two different species of
[[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] star fish. Powdered and mixed with water and internally administered one species is credited with the power of bringing on suppressed menstruation, while the other is supposed to check it. On the 5th ult., a letter was transmitted replying to the inquiry of Mr. Geo. H. Blake of Portland, Maine, relative to the obtainment of the Indigo Plant. A lot of labels has been received from Mr. Clark, and these have been mounted and put in the collection. A duplicate copy of Dr. Palmer's Notes has been prepared and will be filed for future reverence. I understand that Dr. Palmer has
[[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[preprinted]] [[on right margin: an arc in purple]] an oil painting of an "Original Drug Store" I would consider it a valuable acquisition if placed in the collection of Materia Medica. Very respectfully H G Beyer. Hon. Curator Mat. Med. Collection.
Beyer March 87. I 8 upper [[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] April 4th 1887. Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director U. S. National Museum. Sir, During the month of March the following specimens were received and entered on the register:_ Kola nuts , Pinko-Pinko, Oil nuts from West Africa, ditto from Kameron, Tannic acid from West Africa, Bucamaranga, Bismuth peptonic, Medicament from Kameron, Bradho, Mangose cardamons, Albauna, Pepsin holz, Blutschwanim, and five unnamed specimens of Korean drugs. In addition to these there was received a bottle of "Attar of Roses" which was transferred from the Treasury Department where it
[[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [/[preprinted]] had been deposited for more than fourty years. It was presented to the U. S. Government by the Imaum of Muscat and is of great interest as representing in all likelihood the purest form of oil obtainable. The great portion of our time during last month has been expended in and thorough overhauling and cleansing of all the glass bottles. The adoption of a new system classification of the specimens makes the frequent handling of the collection necessary, which, consequently becomes soiled in the process. Very respectfully H. G. Beyer. Curator Materia Medica
Beyer April 87 I8 upper [[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] May 3rd '87. Professor S. F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir,_ During the month of April but one specimen was received. This was a section of the trunk of a most odd and interesting shrub - [[underlined]] Fouquieria splendens [[/underlined]]. It grows in sandy places. The bark is peculiar in as much as it contains a large amount of wax, which Miss Abbott denominates as a new wax, and proposes as a name, that of [[underlined]] Ocotilla Wax [[/underlined]]. It, however, is of no use in pharmacy, though it may doubtless find its way into the arts, if placed upon the market.
[[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] Sixty-five labels, for specimens and pictures, have been prepared, and turned over to Mr. Clark for printing. Dr. Palmer has also furnished us with the names of those specimens which we have received since his return, and the information greatly adds to our store of medical literature. Very respectfully, H G Beyer, Curator Mat. Med.
[[stamped in blue]]Jun 10 1887[[/stamped]] [[green]] 3 [[/green]] check mark I 8 upper. Beyer May 87. [[stamped in blue]] S59770 [[/stamped]] [[preprinted]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted]] June 9th 1887. Professor S. F. Baird, Director U.S. Nat. Museum. Sir, During the month of May a specimen of "Indian Tea Seed" was received from Mr. Thos. Christy of London, and entered on the Registers. Eighty-five labels have been written and turned over to Mr. Clark, for printing. Four galleys of proof sent to this office have been revised, and returned to the printer. The usual routine work has been attended to. Very respectfully, H. G. Beyer Curator Mat. Med. Section.
[[red penciled checkmark]] ^[[Dep. file Materia Medica H.G. Beyer, 1887]] [[strikethrough]] Dr. Flint. [[/strikethrough]] [[triple underlined]] Report on the Section of Materia Medica in the U.S. National Museum [[/triple underlined]] [[strikethrough]] for the year ending June 30, [[/strikethrough]] ^[[By]] [[double underlined]] H.G. Beyer, ^[[M.D.,[[/double underlined]] [[underlined]] Assistant Surgeon, U.S.N., Honorary Curator. [[/underlined]] ]] [[strikethrough]] Honorary Curator. [[/strikethrough]] [[left margin]] [[strikethrough]] ^[[S.C. Long?]] ^[[S.C. Breirer]] [[/strikethrough]] [[Double underlined]] General review of the year's work. [[/double underlined]] [[strikethrough]] [[double underlined]] Work of preserving the collection. [[/double underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] A collection of materia medica specimens, as it is found in the National Museum and also in a few museums in other parts of the world, consisting as it must, of mostly dried plants, or the parts thereof, is at best of a perishable nature and, therefore, a large portion of the time at our disposal is, naturally, spent in devising methods and means for its proper preservation, without [[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] at the same time destroying or injuring specimens in any way whatever. While the mineral products of the collection require but little care after they have once been properly bottled, labelled and placed on exhibition,
2. the vegetable and animal products require constant supervision. The enemies threatening the destruction of these specimens are for the most part parasites of both the vegetable and animal kingdoms, but bacteria and fungi are the most predominant among them. A number of remedies have been tried from time to time with more or less satisfactory results ^[[,]] but none, it seems, that were so free from objections and the results of which were so promising as the one which will be briefly mentioned below. As it became an established and widely recognized fact that mercuric chloride, one of the most powerful germicides known, was volatile at almost all ordinary temperatures and, furthermore, as it is entirely out of the question to soak drugs in any of the common fluid preservative agents for reasons which are obvious, [[strikethrough]] it occurred to [[/strikethrough]] the curator [[strikethrough]] of the collection [[/strikethrough]] ^[[has attempted]] to [[strikethrough]] try and [[/strikethrough]] take advantage of this property possessed by the chloride in preserving drugs, since this seemed at first sight to present
3. all the advantages of germicidel power without its disadvantages, namely the disfiguring of the specimens. Experiments with this bichloride of mercury were accordingly begun on a dozen of the worst specimens in the collection and also a few which were less inclined to become mouldy. In the former the process of moulding was decidedly interfered with by the substance; at the end of two months observation, it was found that the moulds began to degenerate and to partly disappear. In those specimens which had previously been cleaned and those treated in the same way with the bichloride even at the end of 8 months, no new crop of either bacteria or fungi has yet made its appearance while formerly, without the bichloride a monthly crop was usually sufficient to envelop the specimen. The climate of Washington seems [[strikethrough]] to me [[/strikethrough]] particularly favorable tho the growth and development of those parasitical organisms. The atmosphere is moist and damp a portion of the year accompanied
4. with high temperature and it is perhaps to be supposed that collections of this kind in this vicinity require more attention is this particular than those in the more temperate climates. On reporting the good results obtained by means of this germicidal agent to the members of the Biological Society, a gentlemen asserted that oil of cloves would do the same thing. This was done with so much confidence, that I determined to give the oil of cloves a thorough trial, although its odor makes it rather objectionable for preserving drugs and places it to begin with, rather beneath the bichloride in value. The bichloride of mercury as is well known, has no odor whatever and, consequently, does not interfere with the natural aroma of the specimens which, forms a prominent characteristic of some of the drugs. The oil of cloves was dropped at the bottom of some of the bottled specimens, in the same manner as this was done with the bichloride which was placed in substance into these bottles, but, even at the end of 6 months, it must
5. be stated, that mould continued to flourish unabated and the conclusion, therefore, was only natural, namely: Oil of Cloves does not answer our purpose in the preservation of botanical specimens of drugs as well as the bichloride of mercury. These results, not being published any where else, find perhaps a proper place in this report and are, to say the least, noteworthy. The application of the bichloride in the preservation of those of the specimens to which a more direct application of other germicide cannot be made is a very valuable one. [[strikethrough]] ^[[S.C. breirer]] [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [[double underlined]] Work of Illustrating and labelling the Collection. [[/double underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] The work of illustrating and labelling has [[strikethrough]] also called for a large share of our time this year as well as in the preceding years,[[/strikethrough]] ^[[occupied much time]] forming as it [[strikethrough]] does, a rather important feature in a collection of materia medica specimens. In accordance with the newly adopted plan which is intended that every drug [[/strikethrough]]
6. [[strikethrough]] on exhibition in the collection shall be illustrated by a pressed botanical specimen of the plant from which it is derived, by colored plate, showing the anatomy of the plant and its various parts, and, also, by cuts illustrative of the microscopical characters or the structure of the specimen; this work, although in many respects a mere matter of chance, consequently of slow growth, is nevertheless of great importance and has, so far as progress has been made in this direction, done much to make the collection both instructive and attractave. Many of these illustrations having been taken from French and German works, the explanatory remarks accompanying them, had to be translated into technical English which was found in many instances no very easy task, requiring much time and the perpetual consultation of rare dictionaries. ^[[S.C.breirer]] [[double underlined]] Correspondence. [[/double underlined]] U ^[[n]] der the head of general work, the correspondence must be mentioned. [[/strikethrough]] The information on va-
7, rious topics which is from time to time demanded from the curator of this section is becoming with every year a more permanent feature ^[[,]] and letters, requesting such information, either private or official ^[[,]] have steadily increased in number. The character of the questions asked are either of botanical, chemical ^[[,]] pharmace[[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] ^[[u]] tical or general medical interest ^[[,]] and[[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] in some cases[[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] have little apparent relation to a department of materia medica. Many inquir^[[i]]es to be properly answered [[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] require investigation ^[[,]] and much time is, therefore, consumed in this part of the work. Two or three examples in the form of abstracts from a few of the more typical letters which [[strikethrough]] were [[/strikethrough]] ^[[have been]] received and answered, will perhaps best illustrate the character and extent of this kind of work:- On August 25th 1886, eight numbered specimens of mustard seed were received from John W. Schwaner of Guide Creek, Nebraska for examination relative to their comparative value with the standard commercial article. The result of the examination
8. showed that all compared favorably ^[[,]] but that specimen numbered one was the best ^[[;]] [[strikethrough]] No. viii [[/strikethrough]] ^[[number 8]] coming next ^[[.]] The [[strikethrough]] balance [[/strikethrough]] ^[[other specimens]] differ ^[[ed]] but little in quality from [[strikethrough]] each other [[/strikethrough]] ^[[one another.]] A reply was sent accordingly. On September 13th 1886, a specimen of a plant was sent to this office by Mr. W. R. Brown of Sanders Cal^[[ifornia]]., requesting a botanical determination of the plant together with information as to its mediciual properties. On determination the plant proved to be [[underlined]] Solidago californica,[[/underlined]] possessing the medical properties which are common to the genus [[underlined]] Solidago.[[/underlined]] In October, 1886, a letter of inquiry was received from Mr. L. Yallais of Warrington, Florida, with regard to Prof. Barff's process of making boroglyceride and the manner of preserving food-stuffs by means of this agent. The gentlemen requested that some experiments be made with this chemical in order to determine its commercial value and establish the same on a more scientific basis than had been done hitherto ^[[.]] At the same time he gave the results of some of his own experiments and the
9. method by which he had arrived at them. Upon examination and comparison of his method and that of Prof. Barff, it was found that the former had not quite understood the process ^[[,]] and therefore [[strikethrough]] , [[/strikethrough]] extensive abstracts from Prof. Barff's original paper were made ^[[and]] forwarded to Mr. L. Yallais ^[[;]] [[strikethrough]] and his attention ^[[being]] particularly called to those points in which he had expressly failed,^[[apparently erred]] thus enabling him to make the boroglyceride as well as any one. [[/strikethrough]] During the same month a quantity of Tangai Nuts were received from Messrs. Ignacio Palan & Co., of Bahia, Ecuador, for examination. It was especially desired that a quantitative determination of the amount of fixed oil which they contained ^[[,]] be made. This was done by the employment of several processes requiring several weeks of steady work. The most exact determination was made with the chloroform process ^[[,]] which gave 36.4% of oil as contained in the dried nuts. [[strikethrough]] Letters giving these details were of course forwarded accordingly with samples of the oil. [[/strikethrough]]
10. A great many more instances of this kind might here be cited ^[[,]] but these few are perhaps sufficient to show the kind of correspondence which is constantly being carried on with this department and also the amount of work which is generally connected with it. The work which is, as may be seen after a perusal of these letter, mostly chemical, points strongly to the necessity of a chemical laboratory in connection with this section or at least ^[[to the desirability]] of better facilities for doing chemical work. [[strikethrough]] Numerous inquires from Surgeon-General Gunnell have been received ^[[,]] mainly with reference to rare foreign books which were sent to this office ^[[,]] and the following letter is cited as typical of the kind of work done in this line; [[strikethrough]] Viz:[[/strikethrough]] ^[[Printer This letter in smaller type & solid]] "U.S. National Museum. Februrary 12th 1887. Surgeon-General, F.M. G ^[[u]] nnell U.S. Navy. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of [[/strikethrough]]
11. [[strikethrough]] the Handbuch der Hygiene which you were pleased to refer to me for report. The volume which was received forms but a small portion of that already well-known and celebrated greater treatise on "General Hygiene", now in process of preparation. Recent researches in bacteriology having made it appear necessary that a most thorough and painstaking revision of the entire field of Hygiene should be made, ^[[and]] a gal[[strikethrough]] l [[/strikthrough]]axy of some of the most celebrated and distinguished hygienists of Germany have combined, each in his own specialty ^[[,]] to accomplish this end. Their names, in my opinion, warrant that the undertaking will be a success in more than one respect. ^[["]] The volume under immediate consideration treats of the soil, its physical and chemical characteristics, their dependencies, the relations which they bear to human health and the changes, either natural or artificial ^[[,]] which tend to make the soil either a means for the prevention of desease or, on the other hand, tend to endanger human exis- [[/strikethrough]]
12. [[strikethrough]] tance. It treats of the interchanges which take place constantly and which must take place between the constituents of the soil and the surrounding atmosphere and of man's relation to it. Infectious diseases, of course, form and important part in the consideration of these facts. ^[["]]As a very good example of the kind of questions which are considered in connection with those that are purely chemical, is perhaps the following :- ^[["]]In the chapter, treating of the currents of air in soils of different composition and densities and the conditions of temperature and moisture upon which their movements depend, he approaches the question of why malarial infection has been observed to take place more easily at night than during the day. According to physical investigations, air currents from soil, and [[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] carrying with it germs [[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] into the surrounding atmosphere, ought to attain their maximum of rapidity at a time when the difference in temperature between these two media is greatest, which, on a warm summer's day would be [[/strikethrough]]
13. [[strikethrough]] about noon. It is also a fact, established by experiment, that the more rapid the current, the more bacteria will it carry with it, although comparatively slow currents are required to move bacteria. It is, therefore, clear that there must be a different reason why malarial infection takes place at a time of day when the difference of temperature may be such as to reverse the current. ^[[-]] ^[[b]] This peculiar circumstance is explained in the following way: It is considered that from moist soils---malaria most frequently occurs in such soils--during the heat of the day currents of moisture as well as air pass in a direction from the surface of the soil toward the upper warmer stratum of the atmosphere. The germs of malarial infection, of course, are carried along ^[[,]] but[[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] rapid diffusion takes place, preventing them from concentrating on any particular spot. After sundown, the atmosphere rapidly cools and this fact causes the moisture to return to the soil in a condensed state or in the form of dew, carrying with it the germs [[/strikethrough]]
14. [[strikethrough]] emanated from the soil during the day, in great quantity. This seems to me a rather plausible and quite philosophical explanation ^[[,]] for we all remember cases when the simple protection by a mosquito bar of persons sleeping out of doors in malarious districts, have proved successful in the prevention of malarial infection, although we also know, the mosquito netting did not do more than absorb the moisture which was deposited during the night, as was evidenced by the fact that it was very wet, while the bed clothes within the netting were perfectly dry. This may, perhaps, serve as an example of the manner in which questions of general interest are treated in this great book. ^[["]] The book closes with a most instructive geological description of the soils of the cities of Berlin, Paris, Munich and Vienna, including the relations of soil and subsoil, of water and ground water and their circulation under different circumstances and how they might influence the health of these great cities and suggesting possible reme- [[/strikethrough]]
15. [[strikethrough]] dies in such cases. ^[["]] The author of the book indicates such lines along which hygienic research must be p^[[u]]rsued in order that such research ^[[may]] be attended with success and suggests a number of problems yet awaiting [[strikethrough]]their[[/strikethrough]] solution. ^[["]]A th^[[o]]rough chemical and biological investigation of the soil, subsoil, water and ground water of the larger cities of our great country, especially the capitol, Washington, would form an excellent theme for the Museum of Hygiene to work upon. ^[["]]In returning the book [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]], ^[[with the]] hope ^[[that]] I have understood your request, I am Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, H. G. Beyer". [[/strikethrough]] ^[[S.C. breirer]] [[double underlined and circled]] Work in Experimental Pharmaco-physiology.[[/double underlined and circled]] [[strikethrough]]This work [[/strikethrough]] has been continued ^[[,]] and as much time has been devoted to it as circumstances would al-
16. low. The Section not being itself provided with the apparatus necessary for making physiological experiments, the latter were made partly at the Museum of Hygiene in this city and partly in the physiological laboratory of the John ^[[s]] Hopkins University at Baltimore, Md. Much good work might indeed be accomplished in this line of research ^[[,]] and hundreds of new as well as old drugs are awaiting investigation. For the papers published on this subject [[strikethrough]]see[[/strikethrough]] ^[[the]] bibliography [[strikethrough]] under vi [[/strikethrough]] ^[[in part IV. should be consulted.]] [[strikethrough]] ^[[S.C.longprimer]][[double underlined]] Notes upon the more important Accessions received during the year. [[/double underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] One of the most interesting acquisitions of the Museum this year is a collection of the various medicinal lints and cottons together with silks ^[[,]] thread and cat-gut sut[[strikethrough]]tuns[[/strikethrough]] ^[[ures]] done up in bottles, all of which are now extensively used in what is known as antiseptic surgery. The treatment of wounds according to the principles of Antisepsis is daily gaining in importance and general application ^[[,]] and
17. this collection forms a good nucleus for further work in the illustration of this branch of surgery in connection with this department. [[strikethrough]] It will be added to as opportunity offers and be made so practical that it will prove a guide for the surgeon consulting this part of the collection in the application of this valuable method. A special case [[strikethrough]] has been [[/strikethrough]] ^[[is]] required for this exhibit. [[strikethrough]] which[[/strikethrough]] ^[[This]] will be placed by itself, [[strikethrough]] filled with[[/strikethrough]] ^[[and will contain]] these specimens when properly labelled and prepared for that purpose. Special mention must also be made of the addition [[strikethrough]] made [[/strikethrough]] to this collection of a bottle of pure Attar of Rose. This bottle contains about [[strikethrough]] 3-4 [[/strikethrough]] ^[[three-fourths]] of a pint of attar, [[strikethrough]] being [[/strikethrough]] ^[[and was]] originally presented to the U.S. Government in 1840 by the Iman of Muscat. For many years it had been in the vault of the east room of the office of the Treasurer of the United States. In March 1887, it was transferred to the Museum for public exhibition and may now be seen among the specimens of materia medica. [[/strikethrough]]
18. [[strikethrough]] ^[[Printer: put this list in double column, italics.]] the following is a list of the [[strikethrough]] remaining additions [[/strikethrough]] ^[[accessions]] received [[strikethrough]] and added to our collection this [[/strikethrough]] ^[[during the]] year:- Charpie Baumwolle. Asclepias verticillata. Iodoform charpie Baumwolle. Iodoform Verband-Packchen. Coton charpie salicylate 4%. Salicyl gaze. Coton charpie Phenique 10%. Carbol gaze. Eisen chloride charpie Baumwolle. Salicyl ^[[esäure]] Watta. Cat-gut No T. Ligatu[[strikethrough]] n [[strikethrough]] ^[[re]] No 3. Carbolis [[strikethrough]] ei [[/strikethrough]] ^[[ir]]te No. 2. Nähseide. Salicylesäure Charpie Baumwolle. 10% Borsäuu [[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] ^[[re]] lint. Carbolis[[strikethrough]] u [//strikethrough]] ^[[ir]]te Nähseide. Salicyl^[[e]]säure Jute. Charpie Baumwolle. (2 sp.) [[/strikethrough]]
19. [[strikethrough]] ^[[ Double column italics]] Carbols. Charpie Baumwolle. Iodoform Gaze 10%. Lister's Maci^[[n]]tosch. Carbolis[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]] ^[[ir]]te Drainage. Hydrophiler Ve[[strikethrough]]d[[/strikethrough]]^[[b]] andstoff. Carbol gaze. Carbolls[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]] ^[[ir]]te Nähseide No. 3. Billroth Batist. Flour de mar. Lothospermum multiflorum. Ca[[striekthrough]]u[[/strikethrough]]^[[n]]ella alba. Comocladia integrifolia. Simarouba gla[[strikethrough]]n[[/strikethrough]]^[[u]]ca. Assafoetida. Margarita. Flor de Pe[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]] ^[[n]]a. Espa[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]] ^[[n]]tiloba. Palo mitas. Palo Sa[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]]^[[n]]to. tomato de Perro. Deer's Lower Joint[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]] [[/strikethrough]]
20. ^[[double column: italics.]] [[strikethrough]] Cardo Santo. Barbasco. Tilantill[[strikethrough]]a[[/strikethrough]] ^[[o]]. Boregito. Arisco. Attar of Rose[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]]. Kola nuts. Pinko-Pinko. Oil fruits 2 sp. Popo nuts. Dye from W. Africa. Bucamaranga. Bismuth Peptonic. Medicament from Kame[[strikethrough]]v[[/strikethrough]] ^[[ro]]n. Korean Drugs. 3 sp. Pepsin Holz. Fouquieria sp[[strikethrough]]hu[[/strikethrough]] ^[[len]]dens. Thelesp[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]] ^[[er]]ma gracilis. Bradho. Ma[[strikethrough]]u[[/strikethrough]]^[[n]]gos[[strikethrough]]a[[/strikethrough]]^[[e]] Cardamon[[strikethrough]]o[[/strikethrough]] ^[[s]]. Albanna Ke. [[/strikethrough]]
21. [[strikethrough]] ^[[double column italics]] Blutschwanium. Indian Tea seed. Orthosiphon staminea. Strophanthus seed. ^[[s.c. long primer]] [[double underlined]] Statement of character of routine work in Arrangement and classification of the collection, and [[strikethrough]] in the [[/strikethrough]] Preparation of the exhibition and study series. [[/double underlined]] For an account of the preparation of the specimens from the time they arrive here [[strikethrough]] up [[/strikethrough]] to the time when they reached the exhibition cases, [[strikethrough]] in the collection [[/strikethrough]] and in order to avoid unnecessary repetition, I must refer to previous reports where the process may be found in full detail. [[/strikethrough]] The exhibited specimens [[strikethrough]], however, [[/strikethrough]] are arranged in strict accordance with the classification adopted by Bentham & Hooker in their "Genera Pla^[[n]]ta^[[rum]]", every single specimen^[[,]] in fact, occupying its place in the collection according to this classification in the exact order in sequence which is there fol-
22. lowed out. In time it is intended that every specimen shall be accompanied with the very number (genus as well as species) which is found to accompany them in this book. [[strikethrough]]The publication of a large descriptive catalogue comprising the entire collection has been under contemplation for some time^[[,]] but[[strikethrough]],[[/strikethrough]] owing partly to a want of the necessary books of reference and partly also to want of time, this work has been temporarily interrupted [[strikethrough]]but[[/strikethrough]] ^[[. It]] will be resumed as soon as circumstances favor it.[[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] ^[[s. c. longprimer]] [[/strikethrough]] [[double underlined]] Review of special researches prosecuted upon material belonging to the department. [[/double underlined]] ^[[Mr. Geo. E. Doering, assistant in this section, has made several experiments with a view to extracting the]] Oil of Tangai Nuts. [[strikethrough]] by George E. Doering, Phar. D. Tangai nuts[[/strikethrough]] ^[[These]] are of a brownish black color, varying ^[[ in ]] size from a walnut to about half the size of a man's fist; they have four surfaces and are of such a shape that if eight of them were placed
23. face to face against their flattened sides a figure approximating to a sphere would be obtained. The shell which is thin and easily broken encloses a somewhat irregular shaped kernel. The integument surrounding the kernel is of a somewhat lighter brown color than the external shell and is more or less wrinkled by the process of drying. The freshly cut surface of the seed presents a slightly pinkish-white appearance ^[[,]] upon which moisture and oil may be seen gathering upon pressure. They are tough and leathery and their taste ^[[is]] somewhat [[strikethrough]] disagreeably [[/strikethrough]] bitter. Three experiments were made to extract the oil, Exp. III, however, being the only satisfactory one. [[double underlined]] Experiment I. [[/double underlined]] On expression at an elevated temperature a quantity of a whitish emulsion was obtained ^[[,]] the oil from which refused to separate although permitted to stand in the tall glass vessel for several days ^[[.]] During this period the emulsion darkens in color. Agitating with petroleum spirit resulted in obtaining 2°35 per cent of fixed oil, an amount that was plainly extremely low. This
24. was due to the fact that sufficient pressure could not be brought to ^[[bear]] with the small hand-press which was used, but even though a powerful machine be employed I strongly doubt if more than 10 per cent could be [[strikethrough]] got [[/strikethrough]]^[[obtained]]. At all events this process is not a desirable one in this case ^[[,]] since the oil so obtained readily becomes rancid. [[double underlined]] Experiment II [[/double underlined]] [[strikethrough]] 10 [[/strikethrough]] ^[[Ten]] grams of the dried and finely powered substance [[strikethrough]], was [[/strikethrough]] ^[[were]] placed in an extraction apparatus after the method of Church and thoroughly exhausted by chloroform. In this manner all of the oil was doubtless [[strikethrough]]ly [[/strikethrough]] extracted ^[[,]] but so largely was the oil contaminated with other extractive matters equally soluble in chloroform ^[[-]] which so greatly interfered with the production of a clear and pure oil, ^[[-]] that this method too was discarded as failing to attain the desired end. It is safe to assume that all oil-producing substances have one or more solvents that are ^[[more]] peculiarly suited for extracting a particular oil than are other solvents. In the present cases chloroform was found to be unfitted, while benzene seems to be
25. admirably adapted for this purpose, and therefore was [[strikethrough]]instituted[[/strikethrough]] ^[[applied.]] [[double underlined]] Experiment III. [[/double underlined]] [[strikethrough]] 75 [[/strikethrough]] ^[[Seventy-five]] grams of the dried kernels ^[[,]] reduced as before to a fine powder [strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] ^[[, were]] digested in a flask with 300 c.c. of benzene. The flask was stoppered and the contents frequently agitated for several hours, at the end of which time [[strikethrough]] , [[/strikethrough]] the vessel was immersed in boiling water until the benzene began to boil. The contents were then poured on a filter ^[[,]] and after all the liquid portion had passed through, the residue was twice successively treated with 100 c.c. more of the solvent. All the filtrates were then mixed together and evaporated in a tar^[[r]]ed capsule until the weight remained constant. The 75 grams of dried powder yielded 27'3 grams of oil, which quantity is equal to 36'4 per cent. The oil [[strikethrough]]as [[/strikethrough]] so obtained is of a clear straw color, with a smooth bland taste, a rather agreeable faint odor suggestive of chocolate, and has a specific gravity of 0'8642. At a temperature of about 10 [[degree symbol]] C. a portion of
26. the oil congeals and may be readily separated by filtration. The clear filtered oil has a sp^[[ecific]] gr^[[avity]] of 0'9428. When solidified by cold and gradual^[[l]]y warmed, incipient fusion commences at 5[[degree symbol]]C. (41[[degree symbol]]F.)and the oil becomes perfectly limpid at 10[[degree symbol]]C. (50[[degree symbol]]F.) Its cohesion figure does not give a very reliable test, the oil rapidly rolls out in the form of a perfect ring, remains quiet for some moments, then gradually retraces for a short distance with an occas[[strikethrough]]s[[/strikethrough]]ional portion retreating so far as to leave a long narrow strip covered with minute spots which in the course of a few minutes is plainly discernible over the entire surface. Treated with a drop of strong nitric acid in a few s[[strikethrough]]w[[/strikethgouh]] ^[[e]]conds a faint purple coloration is produced^[[,]] changing quickly to a dark yellowish brown. With strong sulphuric acid there forms instantly a dirty green color changing to black. It is quite likely that this oil will be added to the list of oils already known and will no doubt become a valuable commercial article, and this be-
27. [[strikethrough]] cause of its freedom from disagreeable odor and taste as well as its tendency to remain unaltered. Of the botanical origin of Tang^[[ai]] I am entirely ignorant at present; but, Messrs. Parke, Davis & Co., of Detroit, have kindly volunteered to ascertain, through their representative in Ecuador, the natural history of Tang[[strikethrough]]ia[[/strikethrough]] ^[[ai]], and this information together with the chemistry of the constituents of the nuts, is expected to be embodied in a future special report. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] ^[[s.c. long primer]] [[/strikethrough]] ^[[The]] [[double underlined]] Present state of the collection [[/double underlined]] ^[[is shown in this accounting table]] Total number of specimens on register. 5516 Total number of specimens on exhibition 3488 Total number of duplicates 500 [[strikethrough]] Total number of labels on exhibition 1970 [[/strikethrough]] Total number of herbaria on exhibition 33 Total number of colored pictures on exhibition 277 Total number of photographs on exhibition 136 Number of last entry in June, 1886. 77974 Number of last entry in June, 1887. 78047. [[strikethrough]] ^[[s.c. long primer [[Siteparty[[?]] work. A list of papers published during the year by the curator, may be found in Part IV of the report.]] [[/strikethrough]]
I 8 upper Beyer 85-86 Annual Rep. [[Right margin]] S [[Stamped]] 55696 [[/stamped]] [[left margin, in green]] [[GBG?]] [[/left margin]] [[left margin]] 2 copies 8-24-86. [[/left margin]] [[Blue oval stamp]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Division of Correspondence RECEIVED JUL.23.86[[/Blue oval stamp]] Annual report of the Materia Medica Section. U.S. National Museum.
Materia Medica Section, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. July 22nd 1886. Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir, In accordance with your directions received at this office June 30th 1886, I hereby, respectfully, submit the following annual report relating to the operations of the department, entrusted to my care, during the fiscal year ending June 30th 1886. I. [[underlined]] Review of important additions during the year [[/underlined]] The following is a list of specimens, representing the more important and rare drugs which were received and entered on the register during that period. A. [[underlined]] Form the Government of Jamaica. [[/underlined]] Amyris balsamifera Cissamphelos Pereira Mucuna pruriens Cypherus articulatus Cassia obovata Capparis cynophallophora Calotropis gigantea Smilax china
2 Rhizaphora mangle Mikania guaco Ipomoea purga Bocconia frutescens Avicennia nitida Croton cascarilla Gouania domingensis Andira inermis Lagucularia racemosa. B. [[underlined]] From the Mexican Exhibit at New Orleans Exposition 1884 - 5. [[/underlined]] Contrayerba Balsamo prieto Faban vegetal Bakamo negro Panita Krameria Valerian, and dried specimens of the saffron plant - Crocus sativa. C. [[underlined]] From the Japanese Exhibit at New Orleans Exposition 1884 - 5. [[/underlined]] Oil peppermint Amanhina aspholoides Daphne Ginka Platycodon grandiflorum Artemisia capillaris Rehmannia luta Schizandra chinensis Asarum variegatum Ophiopogon spicatus Pinella tuberifera Kaolin Xanthoxylum piperitum Cornus officinalis Cocculus Thunbergii Tritillaria Thunbergii Astragalus lancia Trichosanthis japonica Citrus fusca
3 Bupleurum falcatum Ligusticum acutilobum Dioscorea triphylla. D. [[underlined]] From Mr. F. Stearns, Detroit, Michigan. [[/underlined]] Mammea americana Melia azedarach Kola paste Eupatorium aya-pana Plumeria alba Agar Agar, Japanese Myristica surinamensis. E. [[underlined]] From Dr. E. Palmer, [[/underlined]] Persea caroliniensis Vitis arigonica Erythrain tridentata Hilaria cenchoides Tagetes microanthea Liatris odoratissima Tagetes lucida Eleomurus candidans Cedronella cana Salvia scorodonifolia. F. [[underlined]] From W. S. Thompson, Washington, D.C. [[/underlined]] Oil peppermint Pipmenthol II. [[underlined]] Character of Routine Work in arranging and classifying the collection. [[/underlined]] In performing the somewhat peculiar and more or less difficult task of arranging and classifying the collection of materia medica specimens for the
4. purpose of exhibition, two objects are constantly being kept in mind, namely: -(1) To make the collection both attractive and instructive to the general public, giving them an easy reference to any specimen on which they may desire information. (2) To afford the student of medicine and pharmacy the opportunity of studying materia medica in all its details. Every specimen of drug on exhibition is accompanied with a small but concise, so-called [[underlined]] generic [[/underlined]] label which is more especially intended to describe the drug itself as it appears in the market. This label will be found attached to the square block upon which the bottle, containing the specimen, is placed. A second kind of label which may be termed the [[underlined]] specific [[/underlined]] label, is much larger and the instruction which it is intended to give, comprises the characters peculiar to an entire species. The third label is also a large one and gives a description of each larger group of plants to which the specimens belong. This will be found at the beginning of each new group in the exhibition cases.
5. Hitherto the collection has been very imperfectly illustrated and, as a whole, did present a monotonous and unattractive appearance, reminding the public of little more than the very unpopular "Drug Shop". To remedy this evil had long been our intention but lack of case-room had prevented us from carrying it into effect until a few months ago, when three new cases were added to the exhibit. There were between 800-1000 very beautiful colored plates of officinal plants which had been mounted on card-board and put into swing-ing frames. Few lookers-on had any idea of their relation to the drugs in the cases and, besides, their plates not being at all classified it would have been too much of a waste of time to try and find a certain one even for those who did trace the relation between the drugs and the pictures in the swinging frames. Besides colored plates, quite a full and neat collection of herbarium specimens had accumulated; these were all well preserved and being stored away, not often looked at. It was now concluded that it would be a decided
6 improvement to mount both colored plates and herbarium specimens on stiff card-board, attach them to blocks and place them by the side of the bottles containing the drug to which they had reference, in the exhibition-cases. This work was only commenced a few months ago and is not yet complete but the improvement in the appearance as well as in the usefulness of the entire collection has been very mark-edly enhanced and will, no doubt be appreciated by both the public and the student. It is our intention to, finally, have every specimen illustrated in the following way: - (1) By a well preserved and mounted herbarium specimen of the plant from which the specimen is derived. (2) By a colored plate, profusely illustrating not only the entire plant in as nearly its natural state as that can be done by plates, but also showing the anatomy of all its parts. (3) By a picture showing the peculiar microscopical structure of the different constituents of each plant. Every one of these pictures will, in time, be provided with a label which shall be
7. descriptive of whatever it is intended to elucidate. This work, of course, it will require sometime to fully accomplish. At present, we are, by no means in the possession of all the colored plates and herbarium specimens needed to illustrate every specimen in the above described manner and their collection, in many instances, is a mere matter of chance, but a great deal can be done to expedite the accomplishment of the object. A good deal of time has been already devoted to the large descriptive catalogue which we have in contemplation of writing and which is intended, not only as a guide for the general visitor and the student of medicine and pharmacy resident at Washington but which shall also give valuable information on all the rare drugs contained in our collection to druggists and medical men living outside. This work has been progressing slowly for the reason that the library of this section of the museum is not as yet provided with the books which are indispensable to complete a work of this kind.
8 The remainder of the routine work consists in the registering, examining, indentifying and bottling the specimens which are from time to time sent in, for exhibition purposes. The writing of labels for new specimens as well as making constant improvements on old ones is a continued source of work. The invasion of the specimens by insects is prevented in the usual way, by placing blotting paper, moistened with chloroform into the respective bottles which process, so far, has answered the purpose very well indeed. III. Review of researches prosecuted in this department. A list of the papers published in relation to the material and work of this department, [[strike]] has [[/strike]] has been furnished for the bibliography, and it is therefore unnecessary to repeat them in this place. (See under Beyer HQ and [[double underline]] Doerrin [[/double underline]] Gafy (6 papers)
16. IV, [[underline]] Present State of Collection, etc. [[/underline]] Up to last year the arrangement of the specimens was only according to the natural orders as they are found in Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum. The change which has been made this year in the classification and, which is deemed of some importance, is, that each genus is placed in the order in which it occurs in the above mentioned work. [[the rest of the document is obscured by the following document]] [[preprinted]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. MEMORANDUM. To [[/preprinted]] Materica Medica '85-'86
16. IV. [[underlined]] Present State of Collection, etc. [[/underlined]] Up to last year the arrangement of the specimens was only according to the natural orders as they are found in Bentham and Hookers' Ginira Plantanum. The change which has been made this year in the classification and, which is deemed of some importance, is, that each genus is placed in the order in which it occurs in the above-mentioned work. The number of specimens now on exhibition in 3326, out of which 1457 have printed generic [[Sentence is cut off as one piece of paper is on top of another, obscuring the top of the underlying paper. The obscured part is shown on the next page.]] V [[double underlined]] Recommendations. [[/double underlined]] Under this head, I would again respectfully call your attention to the great importance of establishing a laboratory for the investigation of the chemical as well as physiological characters of drugs, in connection with this section of the museum. In our opinion, there is no doubt, whatever that the establishment of such a laboratory, is a step in the direction in which this department must grow, not merely in order to take equal rank with similar European institutions, but for
labels. In order to enable the curator to label the remainder of the collection a few more books of reference must be provided for. The illustration of the specimens by properly mounted colored plates and herbarium plants, which was mentioned at the beginning of this report, is still in progress and will occupy a few months yet. V [[double underline]] Recommendations. [[/double underline]] Under this head, I would again respectfully call your attention to the great importance of establishing a laboratory for the investigation of the chemical as well as physiological characters of drugs, in connection with this section of the museum. In our opinion, there is no doubt, whatever that the establishment of such a laboratory, is a step in the direction in which this department must grow, not merely in order to take equal rank with similar European institutions, but for
17. the more real and practical purpose of rendering the rich and valuable material at hand available in the cure of disease. This must always be the principal aim of this department. An especial appropriation might be urged upon congress for the cost of apparatus and the amount of the annual working expenses, which would be small, considering the work to be turned out. I am sir, Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, Henry G, Beyer, Honorary Curator Materia Medica
[[margin in black pencil]] Jy? 1 copy ?Y [[/margin in black pencil]] [[margin in black ink]] 1 copy G. 10-21-85 [[/margin in black ink]] [[margin in blue pencil]] Requests Beyer I8 upper [[/margin in blue pencil]] [[printed heading]] United States National Museum Under Direction Of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/printed heading]] Oct. 17th 1885 Professor G. Browne Goode, Assistant Director of National Museum Sir: In accordance with your instructions, received Oct. 1st 1885, I herewith respectfully submit the following semi-annual report with regard to the work accomplished in the section of Materia Medica of this museum between Jan. 1st and June 30th 1885. The work may, for convenience sake, be divided into: 1st [[underline]] Experimental Work: [[/underlined]] The experimental portion of the work which has been accomplished during these six months consists in an investigation of the physiological actions of atropine, cocaine and caffeine on the circulatory apparatus; the paper giving the results of these researches in detail, is published in the July number of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences.
2 [[Letter-head pre-printed in red]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN ISTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/Letter-head]] Some further experiments on the action of atropine on the heart, and blood of different temperatures upon the same form the subject of separate small papers published, in the proceedings of this museum. 2nd. [[underlined]] Chemical Work.[[/underlined]] Several specimens of Cinchona barks from Guatemala and Costa Rica have been chemically and quantitatively examined and theirs alkaloids determined. A chemical examination of all the different species of Cinchona barks in this collection, numbering over 100, was begun early in June and is still in progress. The results promise to be of great importance in a commercial point of view and will be embodied in a special report. 3rd. [[underlined]] Microscopical Work [[/underlined]] A study of the structure and anatomy of Glottidea pyramidata has been completed and the manuscript with four plates of drawings handed to the Asst. Director of this
3 [[pre-printed in red]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN ISTITUTION WASHINGTON [[pre-printed in red]] Museum for publication, as a special Museum Bulletin. 4th. [[underlined]] Routine Work[[/underlined]]. 47 new specimens have been added to the collection, many of which required identification, a matter of some difficulty in the majority of cases. The labelling of the entire collection may now be said to be finished, that is to say, all the labels for the specimens, at present on hand, have been sent in to the printer. The next step under this head will be to rearrange and extend our present exhibit of materia medica specimens. Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, W.G. Beyer, Curator Materia Medica.
[[right margin vertical center of page]] Beyer. [[/right margin vertical center of page]]
United States National Museum Under direction of The Smithsonian Institution Washington, October 17, 1885. Professor G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director of National Museum. Sir: In accordance with your instructions, received October 1st, 1885, I herewith respectfully submit the following semi-annual report with regard to the work accomplished in the Section of Materia Medica of this Museum between January 1st and June 30th, 1885. The work may, for convenience sake, be divided into: 1st. [[underlined]] Experimental Work. [[/underlined]] --- The experimental portion of the work which has been accomplished during these six months consists in an investigation of the physiological actions of atropia, cocaine and caffeine on the circulatory apparatus: the paper giving the results of these researches in detail, is published in the July number of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Some further experiments on the action of atropine on the heart, and of blood of different temperatures upon the same form the subject of separate small papers published in the Proceedings of this Museum. 2d. [[underlined]] Chemical Work. [[/underlined]] --- Several specimens of Cinechona barks from Guatemala and Costa Rica have been chemically and quantitatively examined and their alkaloids determined. A chemical examination of all the different species of cinchona barks in this collection, numbering over 100, was begun early
2. in June and is still in progress. The results promise to be of great importance in a commercial point of view and will be embodied in a special report. 3d. [[underlined]] Microscopical Work. [[/underlined]] --- A study of the structure and anatomy of [[underlined]] Glottidea pyramidata [[/underlined]] has been completed and the manuscript with four plates of drawings handed to the Assistant Director of this Museum for publication, as a special Museum Bulletin. 4th. [[underlined]] Routine Work. [[/underlined]] --- 47 new specimens have been added to the collection, many of which required identification, a matter of some difficulty in the majority of cases. The labelling of the entire collection may now be said to be finished, that is to say, all the labels for the specimens, at present on hand, have been sent in to the printer. The next step under this head will be to re-arrange and extend our present exhibit of materia medica specimens. Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, H. G. Beyer. Curator: Materia Medica.
[[vertical on right side middle of paper]] Beyer Jan - June 1885 [[underlined]] Materia Medica [[/underlined]] [[/vertical on right side middle of paper]]
United States National Museum Under direction of The Smithsonian Institution Washington, October 17, 1885 Professor G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director of National Museum Sir: In accordance with your instructions, received October 1st, 1885, I herewith respectfully submit the following semi-annual report with regard to the work accomplished in the Section of Materia Medica of this Museum between January 1st and June 30th, 1885. The work may, for convenience sake, be divided into: 1st. [[underlined]] Experimental Work.[[/underlined]]---The experimental portion of the work which has been accomplished during these six months consists in an investigation of the physiological actions of atropia, cocaine and caffeine on the circulatory apparatus; the paper giving the results of these researches in detail, is published in the July number of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Some further experiments on the action of atropine on the heart, and of blood of different temperatures upon the same form the subject of separate small papers published in the Proceedings of this Museum. 2. [[underlined]] Chemical work. [[/underlined]] ---Several specimens of Cinchona barks from Guatemala and Costa Rica have been chemically and quantitatively examined and their alkaloids determined. A chemical examination of all the different species of cinchona barks in this collection, numbering over 100, was begun early
2. in June and is still in progress. The results promise to be of great importance in a commercial point of view and will be embodied in a special report. 3d. [[underlined]] Miscroscopical work. [[/underlined]]---A study of the structure and anatomy of [[underlined]] Glottidea pyramidata [[/underlined]] has been completed and the manuscript with four plates of drawings handed to the Assistant Director of this Museum for publication, as a special Museum Bulletin. 4th. [[underlined]] Routine Work. [[/underlined]]---47 new specimens have been added to the collection, many of which required identification, a matter of some difficulty in the majority of cases. The labelling of the entire collection may now be said to be finished, that is to say, all the labels for the specimens, at present on hand, have been sent in to the printer. The next step under this head will be to re-arrange and extend our present exhibit of materia medica specimens. Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, H. G. Beyer. Curator: Materia Medica
[[written vertically on right side of the page]] Beyer Jan-June 1885 [[underlined]] Materia Medica [[/underlined]]
JYB 2 copies [[BSJ?]] Beyer Jan June 85 [[boxed]] I 8 upper [[/boxed]] 2 copies BJ 12-22-85 [[checkmark]] [[CJG?]] [[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] Dec. 12th 1885 [[stamped]] S 19619 [[/stamped]] [[in blue crayon]] B [[/in blue crayon]] Semi annual Report of the Section of Materia Medica of the U.S. National Museum. Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum Sir, In compliance with instructions ^[[received]] October 22nd 1885, I hereby respectfully submit the following semi-annual report regarding the materia medica section of this museum. I. [[underline]] Additions [[/underline]] beginning with January 1st and ending June 30th 1885 are as follows: Targua. Aconitum ferox. Withania coagulans. Jequirity. Premna serratifolia. Compleurum cerulatum. Cuprea bark. Justicia adathoba. Quassia wood. Cuprine sulphate. Chaulmugra suds. Odongo. Butyrosum tomentosum. Toddalia aculeata. Sethia acuminata.
2. [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Black quinine bark. Black canula. Raffia vinifera. Boussingaultia baselloides. Syzzgium jambolanum. Vitus agnus castus. Piper betel. Hinteah. Poinciana regia. Michelia nilghirica. Datura stramonium. Debrudwa wood. Canutilla mexicana. Aconitum heterophyllum. Palm fibre from Ceylon. Gracillaria lichenoides. Diospyros embryopteris. Myrospermum toluiferum. Camacusan nuts. Bucha spinosa. Para rubber seed. Eupatorium aya-pana. Cinchona Remijia. Herpestris monniera. Ocimum canum. Remijia Purdeana. Macha root. Levisticum chinensis. Pterocarpus edulis. Yackasura nuts. Smilax zeylanica. Guain tea. [[underlined]] II Character of Routine work. [[/underlined]] When specimens are received, they are, after being carefully examined, entered upon the register and according to their
3 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] condition dried, bottled, and labelled, after which, they are added to the exhibit, which is arranged as follows: first, Animal Products; second, Vegetable Products; third, Products of Fermentation and Distillation; fourth, Inorganic Products; the entire collection being prefaced by an assay of all the "Medicinal Forms" in which medicines occur. [[underlined]] III Review of Researches and Papers published. [[/underlined]] In January a translation from the German of Professor Heubner's Experimental Diptheria made by the curator of this section was published by Geo. S. Davis & Co, of Detroit, Mich. In February two specimens of cinchona bark - one from Guatemala and one from Costa Rica, were presented to this section of the museum for assay. This was performed with the following results: Total alkaloids per cent. Ether soluble alkaloids per cent. Guatemala 8.00 4.00 Costa Rica 0.80
4 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] In March, a package of plants was received from A.R. Fellows, Colorado, for botanical determination. They were found to consist of specimens of Aplopappus Fremontii, and the desired information was forwarded to Mr. Fellows. In May, a revised edition of the catalogue of materia medica was received and a number of copies distributed. A paper on the action of cocaine, atropine and caffeine by the Curator of this section was prepared and printed in the July number of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Also a paper on the "the influence of variations of temperature upon the rate and work of the heart of the slider terrapin (Psuedemys rugosa)." In June, the assaying of all the cinchona barks in the collection was begun.
[[preprinted red letterhead]] United States National Museum Under Direction of The Smithsonian Institution Washington [[/preprinted red letterhead]] [[underlined]] IV Present State of collection [[/underlined]] Number of specimens or register 4490 Number of specimens exhibited 3222 Number of duplicates 300 Number of last entry in 1884 53669 Number of last entry in June 1885 53716 [[underlined]] V Recommendations and General Remarks. [[/underlined]] Under this head I must refer to the recommendations made in my last annual report. The chemical and physiological examinations of drugs in connection with the collection of materia medica and the necessity of providing means to carry on such investigations demand your highest consideration. Very respectfully, H G. Beyer, Curator Materia Medica
[[upper margins]] [[black ink]] 1 copy G. 3.4.86 Beyer. July august & September 1885 I 8 upper [[/black ink]] [[blue & black stamp]] S47691 [[/stamp]] [[3 marks in blue pencil]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Professor Spencer F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir, During the months of July, August and September [[underlined in blue]] eleven [[/underlined]] specimens of drugs have been received and entered on the register. The chemical examination of cinchonal barks has been continued and is not nearly finished. The preparation of the descriptive catalogue has been pursued. During this time 238 printed labels have been received. Very respectfully, H.G. Beyer, Curator Materia Medica Section
[[upper margins]] [[green pencil]] GBY [[/green pencil]] [[black ink]] 1 copy G 3-4-86. I 8 upper January 1886 [[/black ink]] [[blue stamp]] S51004 [[/blue stamp]] [[/upper margins]] [[preprinted heading]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] February 1st 1886. [[underlined]] Monthly Report of Materia Med. Section. [[/underlined]] Professor S.F. Baird, Director US National Museum Sir: During the month of January no new specimens were received. A large number of the labels which were sent to the printer last year have been returned printed; these will shortly be attached to blocks and placed on the specimens on exhibition. A much more detailed arrangement of the collection according to the system of Bentham and Hooker (Genera plantarum) has been made and is now being carried out throughout the collection. Experiments on the physiological action of drugs are in progress. A good deal of time is also devoted to the descriptive catalogue which is under way. Very Respectfully, H.G. Beyer
1. [[top margin in green]] GBY [[/top margin in green]] [[top margins in black]] I 8 upper Beyer Feb ' 86 S.J. 2 cops [[BY?]] 2 cops 3-9-86 [[/top margins in black]] [[top margin blue stamp]] S51760 [[/top margin blue stamp]] [[preprinted in red]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTUTITION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] March 4th, 1886. Professor S. F. Baird, Director of U. S. Nat. Museum. Sir, During the month of February a large collection of [[underlined in blue]] Mexican drugs and one of Japanese drugs were received and entered on the register. [[/underlined in blue]] These drugs are those that were exhibited at the New Orleans Exposition 1884 – 5. The [[underlined in blue]] Japanese drugs are well preserved [[/underlined]] and are [[underlined in blue]] labelled [[/underlined]] with botanical names. On the [[double underlined in blue]] other hand [[/double underlined]] the [[triple underlined in blue]] Mexican [[/triple underlined]] collection is labeled with [[underlined in blue]] common vernacular [[/underlined]] names and [[underlined in blue]] only a comparatively few of [[/underlined]] them could be [[underlined in blue]] recognized. [[/underlined]] The following is a complete list of them, viz.: I. Mexican Contrayerba Faban vegetal Panita Cost. sangre Tacatlaxcabl Yapotillan
2 Manola Paccara Chichicuahmitl Balsamo prito Chichicamote Calaguala Jals Eucalyptus Anicillo Hypericon Catezona Huachibmitl Maguez root Telampacote Capotamja Jicamilla Zacatecas Jalap Krameria Yerba del pasmo Atamasca Artemisia Gomia medicinal Ruicata cabra Ajo campestrano Jalap. Chilillo Flor de Jamaica Garlic Iangra de ciervo Rem Peru Comino Damiana Goma de mesquite Gomia medicinal Mulato Cuapinote Chilpocle Balsamo negro Ytamo real Capal Doradilla Salvia real Flor de Jamaica Capozote Incienso Inez Tibinagu Tlamacascaxochitl Oregano Yuva del negro Tzopiloxihuitl Zacatlaxcale Huttacochl Jicamilla
3 Limoncillo Jalapa digitata Piru o Peru Estafiate Ajonjoli Huaco Ocoxochitl Confituria medicinal Hojasen Yoloxochitl Torongil comun Cantharidas Valeriana Salvia Tibinagui Ytamo real Sahmilitzca Cordonsillo Picamilla Yerba del pasmo Jojoba Gordoloba Inina Pata de leon Calaguala Acuicurtzcaxihuitl Yerba de la virgen Fecoloxihuitl Cantharidas Paeonia Guanecnepil Jicamilla Setainagui Fetemecatl Inina Jicamilla Yerva del indio F. Tzotzomitatl Yerva colorada Hediondilla Hojasen Pinoncillo Picosa Yerba Buena Timbe Huaco Salvia Carolina Sern. de giganto Romero Cordonsillo Estafiate Inina Contrayerba
4 Yerba del venada Tlatlancuaye Sayachi hypericon Acahual Cascara de nava Ocoxochil Copal quima Cebolleja Chaum Pinoncillo Melon Torongil del monk Verbena del campo Chicalote Arnica Algarroba nigriti Valeriana Cascalote Seyeccatzi Yerva de golondina Atamo real Yerba del indio Zorilla Yerva del mango Yerba del pasmo Tepozan Jicamillo Luimichnacaz Culantaillo Venicilla Yerba de la vibora Janilla Yerva del aire Brazil wood Amargosa R. de Jalap Semilla de Peru Zigphyllum Jabago Arnica Valeriana Hoitzelzilxochitl Tabachin Yerba buena Panete Yerba hedionda Yerva del mango Te de milpa Yerba del pasmo Pipocahni Dictamo Cedron te digestica Zoapatl Miaguayui Yuba del aire
5 Hueynemtzi Hojasen Atamo real Yurnostal Damiana Ruda Menta Romero Oregano Lancetilla Verbena o yerva Yerva de stallaria Cascalote fino Higuerilla Tormentilla II. Japanese Syr. Iod. Iron Extract Ergot Cherry laurel water Extract Belladonna Nitrous ether Extract Gentian Sol. Ammonia acetatis Extract Dandelion spr. Ammonia arom. syr. Ipecae Extract Nux Vomica spr. Ammonia fornic. Extract Hyoscyamus Ag. Amygdale Arnar.
6 Tr. Ferri Cit. Evodia rutaecarpa Xanthoxylum piperitum Oil Peppermint Comus officinalis Tritllaria Thum. Laudanum Schizandra chinensis. Liquorice Vin. Opii Crocatum Zizyphus vulgaris var. inermis Aq. Ammonia Gardenia Florida Kaolin Daphne Genka Panax Ginseng Panax repens Artemisia capillaris Trichosanthes japonica Gypsum Oyster shells Ophiopogon spicatus Ginger Belemnite Cocculus Thumbergii Paeonia Botare Pruraria Thumbergiana Astraelylis lancea Citrus Fusca Anemarrhena aspholoides Trichosanthes japonica Cucumis melo Cinnamomum Lour. Pachyma cocos Magnolia hypoleuca Pachyma halea Coptis anemaefolia Paeonia albiflora Iilex divaricatum Platycodon grandiflorum Rehmannia lutu Bupleurum falcatum Ligusticum acutilobum Persica vulgaris Asarum variegatum Alisma plantago Dioscorea triphylla Armeniaca vulgaris Coix lachryma [[strikethrough]] Citrus [[?gariba]] [[/strikethrough]] Pinella tuberifera Nepeta japonica Aralin pubicalyx
7 Aconitum chinense. The arranging of the entire collection according to Bentham and Hooker's "Genera Plantarum" as mentioned in last month's report has been finished and it is hoped, that in a few days as soon as all of the labels have been placed under the specimens, the exhibit will present a freshened appearance. The physiological investigation of the effects of the antipyretics (resorcin, kairin, hydro-chinon, antipyrin, thallin) has been completed and experiments with other drugs are still under way. Very respectfully, H.G. Beyer, Curator Mat. Med. Section.
Beyer. I 8 upper March '86 [[stamp]] S52621 [[/stamp]] B 91 copy 4-19-86 86 1 copy [[?]] [[stamp]] Smithsonian Institution Division of Correspondence. Received APR.3-86 [[/stamp]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONION INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] April 3rd 1886 Professor S.F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir, During the month of March the [[underlined]] following specimens [[/underlined]] have been entered on the register, viz = Citrus margarita Carapa genansis Covinha do Malta Debrudeva Coix lachrymal Henna Azadarach Agar-agar Arkoho Arbar Mammea Americana Guarea tricholoides Eupatorium Aya-pana Agar-agar, Japanese Kola paste African fish berries Anchietea salutaris Pipe guine Guazuma ulmifolia Plumeria alba
21 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Myristica surinamensis Yerba de vibora Perfume bark Canintillo Leucaina glauca Bavica Jatropha curcas Oneago[[?]] Baitasco Mastranca Piper Betel Santese Picao da Praia Hedeondia Ipenoa Calconeca Tibinagui Yerba de la flecha Manola Chacate Yerba de la masque Pegote Saffron Yerba de la Jatroba Retama Mescal Una de gato Chepete Malvos risa Imortal Romesio Rosetio
3 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Calcomeca Mansania Thanurosnea [[?]] mortanum Ephedra syphiliticum Cocoloba uvifera Nalina erumpens Dasylirion wheelerii Ionidium Conchalagua Atherosperma Novae zeylandica Caranna The following is a list of the drugs that belonged to the Mexican collection which have been identified. Contrayerba = Polypodium aureum Jalap = Exoginium purga
4. [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONION INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Aniz = Pimpinella anisum Anicillo = Ichkuhria abrotanoides Chilillo = Polygonum hydropiper Damiana = Turnera aphrodisiaca Balsamo negro = Myrospermum Peruvia Doradilla = Lycopodium nidiforme Crameria = Krameria triandra Goma de mesquiate = Acacia sp. Limoncillo = Dalea citriodora Estafiate Artemisia mexicana Valerian = Valeriana officinalis Huaco = Mikania Huaco Jalap = Jalapa digitata Ajonjoli = Sesamum orientale Caolina = Kaolin Chicalote - Argemone mexicana
5 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONION INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Cascalote = Caesalpinia coriaria Tlatlancuaya = Achyranthus calea Incienso = Boswellia floribunda Yerba del indio = Aristolochia foetida Te de milpa = Bidens tetragona Una de gato = Rosa canina Zoapatle = Montagnoea tomentosa Venmillo = Aclepias linaria The following are duplicates: Valeriana, Estafiate, Damiana, Flor de Jamaica, Yerba del pasmo, Salvia, Eucalyptus,Ytamo real. The following have been rejected because they have been found to be worm eaten, or otherwise injured too much to be preserved Zacatecas Garlic Chichicamote
6 [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONION INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Hutlacochil, Jicamilla, Salvia, Ajo campestrano, Yerba buena, Tepozan Yerba de la virgen, [[Neutra?]]. This being the spring of the year much time is spent in the extermination of insects, which is done in the usual manner with chloroform. Very respectfully, H. G. Beyer Curator Mar. Med. Section.
SY 2 Copies [[?G]] 2 copies 6-1-86 Beyer I 8 upper April '86 [[blue stamp]]SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Division of Correspondence RECEIVED MAY 3 - 86 [[/stamp]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE WASHINGTON[[/preprinted]] May 3rd 1886 [[blue stamp]]S53465[[/stamp]] Professor S. F. Baird, Director of U.S. National Museum. Sir, During the month [[underlined in blue]] of April [[/underlined]] the following [[underlined in blue]] specimens were entered on the register: [[/underlined]] a. Received from Dr. E. Palmer, Persea caroliniensis Artemisia mexicana Tagetes micrantha Coursetia(?) mexicana Tagetes lucida Rattlesnake's skin Ficus _______ ? Armadillo shell Gnaphalium polycephalum. Salvia scorodonifolia Hilaria cenchoides Pycnanthemum albescens Cedronilla cana Macrosiphonia hypoleuca Liatris odoratissima Erythraea tridentata Elionurus candidus Yerba del Indio Xariwinskia humboldtiana [[Contanie?]] latifolia
Sebastiana ______ ? Vitis arigonica Gordoloba Cathesticum Skunk's skin Limoncillo Also a specimen of Elephantorrhiza bark from Thos. Christy, London. Many of the drugs collected by Dr. Palmer are duplicates of those which were received a short time ago from the Mexican Commission at the A. O. Exposition, they are, however, accompanied with interesting and valuable notes. It was thought that if the colored pictures now on exhibition in swinging frames were removed and placed beside their respective drugs that the collection would present a better appearance and be more instructive as tending to attract the public and assisting to fix upon the mind of the students not only the name and appearance but the plant yielding the drug. This has been done so far as possible
and I think with entire satisfaction. Later on it is proposed to place alongside of the drugs photographs of microscopic sections illustrating the minute structure. All of the printed labels that have come to hand have been placed in the cases. They now number 1330 of which 72 consist of large ones. My assistant Mr. Doering has received 5 days leave of absence from the 27th inst. and will resume his duties again on the 3rd prox. Very respectfully, H. G. Beyer, Curator Mat. Med. Section.
Beyer, I 8 upper, May 86 [[stamp]] S54415 [[/stamp]] B [[?BG]] 1 Copy 6-7-86 [[GY?]] 1 copy [[BY?]] [[stamp]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Division of Correspondence. RECEIVED JUN.-4,86 [[/stamp]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] June 4th 1886 Professor S.F. Baird, Director U.S. National Museum. Sir, During the month of May one specimen was entered on the register. This was the pomegranate fruit - [[underlined]] Punica granatum. [[/underlined]] The various herbarium specimens which were presented to this section sometime ago are now being attached to pasteboard, classified, and placed in their proper positions out in the collection. The same is also being done with the colored plates illustrative of medicinal plants. Thus it will be seen that the collection is steadily approaching perfection. Very respectfully, H.G. Beyer Curator Mat. Med. Section
[[?]] 1 copy [[?]] I 8 upper Beyer June 1 copy 7-14-86 [[stamp]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Division of Correspondence. RECEIVED JUL. 13,86 [[/stamp]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] July 13th 1886 [[right margin stamp]] S55432 [[/stamp]] Professor Spencer F. Baird Director U.S. National Museum Sir, During the month of June [[underlined in blue]] three specimens [[/underlined]] were entered [[underlined in blue]] on the register [[/underlined]] - Comocladia integrifolia from Jamaica, and a specimen each of Oil Peppermint and Pipmenthol from Mr. W.S. Thompson. My [[underlined in blue]] assistant [[/underlined]] Mr. Geo. E. Daning [[underlined in blue]] received fifteen days [[/underlined]] leave of absence. The daily [[underlined in blue]] work of mounting pictures [[/underlined]] and herbariam [[underlined in blue]] specimens continues. [[/underlined]] Very respectfully H.G. Beyer, Curator Materia Medica.
^[[D Flint 89 -90]] ^[[Mrs Y Please make 3 (2 carbon) copies]] ^[[Mrs Ray O.K. J.M.F. file]] ^[[ [[boxed]] E A [[/boxed]] ]] Report on the Materia Medica Section in the U.S. National Museum. During the past year the labors of the Curator^[[,]] with such clerical assistance as may have been available or necessary, have been devoted to the identification, arrangement, display, illustration, and discription of the individual specimens which make up the large mass of material already in hand; to the classification and installation of new material; to the care and convenient arrangement of duplicate and reserve series; and to the consideration of ^[[such]] questions of identity or uses of drugs, as have been referred, from time to time, to this section. The principal accessions have been: a collection (about 30 specimens) of East India drugs, received in exchange from the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England, and about 80 specimens of miscellaneous medicinal substances contributed by Messrs. W.H. Schieffelin & Co., of New York, to fill vacances in existing series. Both accessions have been installed and labelled. The most important routine work has been the preparation of descriptive labels, wh^[[i]]ch work has been systematically and per^[[sis]]tently carried on during the year. Each label, in its preparation, involves the study of the specimen, the comparison of its physical characters with those laid down by the authorities, the determination of its sources, geographical, botanical, etc. and ^[[of]]its supposed medicinal properties^[[,]] and uses. The effort is made to select the most important and interesting facts that can be presented in the few lines appropriate to a Museum label, avoiding on the one hand that meagerness that gives the inquiring visitor nothing but a name, and, on the other, that [[strikethrough]] technical [[/strikethrough]] ^[[fullness of]] detail which discourages by its [[strikethrough]]amount[[/strikethrough]] ^[[length]], or confuses by its ^[[technical]]precision[[strikethrough]] of terms[[/strikethrough]].
^[[2]] Of these labels there have been prepared, printed and attached to the specimens 2312, distributed as follows: General labels - - - - 4 Class and order labels - 103 Generic labels - - - 31 Specific labels - - 1902 For Botanical figures - 218 For Animal figures - - 17 For Micrographic figures - 37 Manuscript for 284 additional labels is nearly ready for the press. The present state of the collection is quite satisfactory to the Curator. Most of the specimens are in good condition, and liable only to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] unavoidable deterioration from age, exposure to light, and changes ^[[of temperature]]. It is to be hoped that a substitute for the [[strikethrough]] a [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] present cylindrical bottle may be devised for exhibition purposes, whereby the specimens may be shown behind plane, instead of curved, surfaces of glass. There are now on exhibition 3213 specimens of drugs, classified as follows: Medicinal Forms - - - - - - 116 Animal Products - - - - - - 112 Officinal Vegetable Products - - - 1237 Chemical and Inorganic Products - - 196 Mineral Waters and their Constituents - 95 Indigenous Vegetable Products - - - 162 Medicines of the North American Indians 116 Mexican Drugs - - - - - - - 43 West Indian Drugs - - - - - - 77 South American Drugs - - - - - 45 Drugs of India - - - - - - 325 Chinese Medicines - - - - - - 469
^[[3]] Japanese Medicines ----- 113 Corean Medicines ------- 100 Miscellaneous ------------ 7 These specimens are illustrated by 235 Colored Plates and 37 Micrographs displayed in the cases, and 426 Colored Plates and 1 Micrograph mounted in swinging frames, supported upon pillars standing at the entrances to the alcoves. In the Reserve Series there are: Cinchona Barks ---------------- 99 Crushed and Powdered Drugs --- 204 ^[[*]]Fluid Extracts --------- 200 Pills and Granules ------------ 70 Oils -------------------------- 36 Chemical Products ------------- 33 South American Drugs --------- 108 Corean Medicines ------------- 107 Miscellaneous ---------------- 346 Total -- 1203 The Miscellaneous Drugs include the rare articles, many of them unidentified or bearing only a vernacular name, which are withheld from exhibition until further information can be obtained about them. ^[[*[]] There are about 60 additional bottles of Fluid Extracts from which more or less of the contents have been taken out. For this loss the present Curator is not responsible, as it occurred before his occupancy of the Office, on ^[[this]] tour of duty.^[[]]] In the duplicate series are 800 specimens, mostly enclosed in pasteboard boxes, and arranged in drawers conveniently accessible. [[strikethrough]] A Card Catalogue of the collection has been prepared showing [[/strikethrough]]
^[[4]] Summary. Exhibition Series ^[[{]] Specimens ---- 3213 ^[[{]] Illustrations - 699 Reserve Series ------------------------ 1203 Duplicate Series ----------------------- 800 Total --------------------------------- 5915 A card catalogue of the collection has been prepared showing the present location of every specimen. This catalogue needs revision, and extension by cross references. The number of the last catalogue entry ^[[in June 1889]] was 141877; in June 1890 was 142056.
^[[B]] [[preprinted]] Smithsonian Institution S. P. LANGLEY, Secretary G. BROWN GOODE, Assistant Secretary, in charge of U.S. National Museum UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM Washington,[[/preprinted]] ^[[March 31]], 18^[[90]] Mr. R. J. Geare, Sir, In reply to your inquiry of Mar. 22nd, I have to reply that no papers have been published by me during the fiscal year 1888 & 89. Very respectfully J. M. Flint Curator, Materia Medica
^[[Dr. Flint]]
[[preprinted]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM S. P. LANGLEY, Secretary G. BROWN GOODE, Assistant Secretary in charge of U.S. National Museum UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM Washington, [[/preprinted]]^[[August 5th]], 18^[[9]]0 ^[[Ack'd? Entered?]] Sir, I have the honor to forward, herewith enclosed, my Report on the Section of Materia Medica, in the U.S. National Museum, for 1890. Very respectfully Your obedient servant James M. Flint Honorary Curator Assistant Secretary G. Brown Goode, L.L.D. In charge of U.S. National Museum Washington, D.C.
^[[Copy 3 Copy file]] Report on the Section of Materia Medica in the U. S. National Museum for 1890. By James M. Flint, ^[[U.S.N.]] Honorary Curator. During the past year the labors of the Curator, with such clerical assistance as may have been available or necessary, have been devoted to the identification, arrangement, distribution, illustration, and description of the individual specimens which make up the large mass of material already in hand; to the classification and installation of new material; to the care and convenient arrangement of duplicate and reserve series; and to the consideration of such questions of identity or uses of drugs, as have been referred, from time to time, to this Section. The principal accessions have been: a collection (about 30 specimens) of East India Drugs, received in exchange from the Royal Botanical Gardens,
Kew, England, and about 80 specimens of miscellaneous medicinal substances contributed by Messrs. W. H. Schieffelin & Co., of New York, to fill vacancies in existing series. Both accessions have been installed and labelled. The most important routine work has been the preparation of descriptive labels, which work has been systematically and persistently carried on during the year. Each label, in its preparation, involves the study of the specimen, the comparison of its physical characters with those laid down by the authorities, the determination of its sources, geographical botanical, etc. and of its supposed medicinal properties, and uses. The effort is made to select the most important and interesting facts that can be presented in the few lines appropriate to a Museum label, avoiding on the one hand that meagerness which gives the inquiring visitor nothing but a name, and, on the other, that fullness of detail which discourages by its length, or confuses by its technical precision.
Of these labels there have been prepared, printed and attached to the specimens 2312, distributed as follows: General labels.......... 4 Class and order labels.. 103 Generic labels.......... 31 Specific labels......... 1902 For Botanical figures... 218 For Animal figures...... 17 For Micrographic figures 37 Manuscript for 284 additional labels is nearly ready for the press. The present state of the collection is quite satisfactory to the Curator. Most of the specimens are in good condition, and liable only to unavoidable deterioration from age, exposure to light, and changes of temperature. It is to be hoped that a substitute for the present cylindrical bottle may be devised for exhibition purposes, whereby the specimens may be shown behind plane, instead of curved surfaces of glass. There are now on exhibition 3213
4 3213 specimens of drugs, classified as follows: Medicinal Forma ........................ 116 Animal Products ........................ 112 Officinal Vegetable Products ........... 1237 Chemical and Inorganic Products ........ 196 Mineral Waters and their Constituents .. 95 Indigenous Vegetable Products .......... 162 Medicines of the North American Indians 116 Mexican Drugs .......................... 43 West Indian Drugs ...................... 77 South American Drugs ................... 45 Drugs of India ......................... 325 Chinese Medicines ...................... 469 Japanese Medicines ..................... 113 Corean Medicines ....................... 100 Miscellane ............................. 7 ^[[3213]] These specimens are illustrated by 235 Colored Plates and 37 Micrographs displayed in the cases, and ^[[^also]] 426 Colored Plates and 1 Micrograph mounted in swinging frames, supported upon pillars standing at the entrance to the alcoves.
5 In the Reserve Series there are: Cinchona Barks ..................... 99 Crushed and Powdered Drugs ......... 204 ^[[*]]Fluid Extracts ............... 200 Pills and Granules ................. 70 Oils ............................... 36 Chemical Products .................. 33 South American Drugs ............... 108 Corean Medicines ................... 107 Miscellaneous ...................... 346 Total ...... 1203 The Miscellaneous Drugs include the rare articles, many of them unidentified or bearing only a vernacular name, which are withheld from exhibition until further information can be obtained about them. ----------------------- *There are about 60 additional bottles of Fluid Extracts from which more or less of the contents have been taken out. For this loss the present Curator is not responsible, as it occurred before his occupancy of the Office, on this tour of duty. ------------------------
6 In the duplicate series are 800 specimens, mostly enclosed in pasteboard boxes, and arranged in drawers conveniently accessible. Summary. Exhibition Series {Specimens ........... 3213 {Illustrations ... ... 699 Reserve Series ......................... 1203 Duplicate Series ....................... 800 Total .................................. 5915 A card catalogue of the collection has been prepared showing the present location of every specimen. This catalogue needs revision, and extension by cross references. The number of the last catalogue entry in June 1889 was 141,877; in June 1890, 142,056.
^[[88-89.]] PAPERS PUBLISHED BY W. O. ATWATER BETWEEN JULY 1, 1888, AND JUNE 30, 1889. [[strikethrough]] A. As director of Storrs (Connecticut) Agricultural Experiment Station: [[/strikethrough]] 1. FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STORRS SCHOOL AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, Storrs, Connecticut, 1888 (pp. 104). [[strikethrough]] B. As director of the Office of Experiment Stations of the United States Department of Agriculture: [[/strikethrough]] 2. REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS (pp. 537-558, Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture, 1888). 3. ORGANIZATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. February, 1889. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 1, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations (pp. 82). 4. THE WHAT AND WHY OF AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. June, 1889. Farmers' Bulletin No.1, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations (pp. 16). 5. CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS, March, 1889. Circular No. 7, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations (pp. 39).
(2) 6. EXPLANATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR SOIL TESTS WITH FERTILIZERS. March, 1889. Circular No. 8, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations (pp. 11). 7. DIGEST OF THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR 1888. Part I, June 1889. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 2, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations (pp. 258). Each of the above bears the signature, W. O. Atwater, Director, which is also put on the cover.
[[blank page]]
[[stamped in upper right corner]] b.B.G. Oct 9 1891 [[/stamped in upper right corner]] Copied Oct. 15 [[triple underlined]] Report [[/triple underlined]] on the Section of Materia Mecica in the U.S. National Museum, 1891. By [[double underlined]] James McFlint [[/double underlined]], U.S. Navy,[[underlined]] Honorary Curator [[/underlined]] [[Paragraph symbol]] Since the last report from this Section the work of arranging, displaying, and providing with descriptive labels the large number of specimens composing the exhibit, has been systematically continued. With the exception of the small collection of Medicines of the North American Indians, and the Chinese and Japanese Drugs, every specimen of drug has now its printed descriptive label attached. In addition to these, of the [[strikethrough]] 892 [[/strikethrough]] 862 illustrations of plants and animals, in the exhibit, 350 have their descriptive labels
2 in place, 460 are printed and ready for display, and the manuscript for the remainder is in the hands of the printer. Accessions to the number of 169 have been received during the year, mostly from Messrs Powers and Weightman of Phila, and Parke, Davis and Co., of Detroit, in answer to requests for specified articles to fill vacancies. Some novel and interesting additions have been made to the botanical illustrations, consisting of herbarium specimens of indigenous medicinal plants, not otherwise illustrated, with the characters of each plant displayed by drawings of the magnified organs. These were prepared with great skill by Mr.
3 Theodore Holm, Temporary Assistant in this Section. As mounted in the Swinging Frames they make an attractive addition to the collection. 102 Photographs of indigenous plants have also been mounted, and the descriptive labels prepared and printed. The Collection remains without material change in condition, location, classication, or arrangement since last report. The accessions above mentioned were distributed principally among the "chemical products," and "indigenous vegetable products. The following summary shows the number of specimens in each series:
4 Exhibition series 3,335 Reserve series 1,223 Duplicate series 815 Illustrations Colored plates 662 Photographs 102 Herbarium specimens 60 Micrographo 38 892 ^[[insert]]862[[/insert]] ----------------- 6,265 ------ ------ 6,235 Last catalogue entry June 1890 142 056 " " " " [[dittos for Last catalogue entry 1891 142,225 It is proper to say, in explanation of the fact that the total number of specimens does not balance with the sum of the accessions for the year and the total of the previous year's report,t hat some of the ac-
5 sessions prove to be triplicates and are absorbed in the duplicate list, that a small percentage of specimens are every year rejected as worthless, either originally or by unavoidable deterioration, and that the illustrations are not entered in the Catalogue.
E A Copied 9-9-92. [[Stamped in Red]] Curator in charge Aug 1- 1892 [[/Stamped in Red]] [[strikethrough]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON JULY, 14, 1892. [[/strikethrough]] [[Handwritten insert]] Report on the [[/Handwritten insert]] Section of Materia Medica [[Handwritten insert]] In the U.S. National Museum, 1892. By Wm S. Dixon, U.S. Navy, Honorary Curator [[[Handwritten insert]] [[Strikethrough]] In obedience to your instructions I have the honor to submit the following report. [[/Strikethrough]] During the year ending June, 30, 1892, the labelling of specimens and illustrations of plants &c., in the exhibit, was completed. [[line drawn to signify continuing sentence with next paragraph]] Several specimens that had deteri^[[or]]ated were replaced by good examples. [[line drawn to signify continuing sentence with next paragraph]] Fruitless efforts were made to identify some of the vegetable specimens presented to the Museum. Their accompanying history being meagre and essential characteristics absent, a satisfactory recognition was impossible. [[paragraph symbol]] The accessions during the year number fifty-five (55), received principally from the Royal
Kew Gardens ^[[England.]] Several specimens were received from W. H. Schieffelin & Co., in response to special request. [[line drawn to signify continuing sentence with next paragraph]] The ^[[Exhibition series of]] [[strikethrough]]] display in [[/strikethrough]] this Section, is, essentially, as left by Dr. Flint,^[[the first curator of this collection]] [[strikethrough]] my predecessor [[/strikethrough]]. [[Paragraph symbol]] The following table shows the number of specimens in the varies series. Exhibition series -------------- 3346 Reserve " [[ditto for series]] -------------- 1223 Duplicate ' [[ditto for series]] -------------- 859 ^[[In addition there are the following also:]] Colored plates 662 Photographs 102 Herbarium specimens 60 Micrographs 38 --------- 862 ____ 6290 ^[[The l]]ast catalogue entry ^[[in]] June 1891 ^[[was]] 142225 ^[[, and in]] [[strikethrough]] Last Catalogue entry [[/strikethrough]] June 1892^[[,]] 142280. [[strikethrough]] G. Brown Goode Asst Secty. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Very respectfully, Wm S. Dixon Hon Curator.[[/strikethrough]]
[[underlined]] E & A. [[/underlined]] 1 Copy Aug 3, 1893 L.T. [[stamp]] Division of Correspondence & Reports. Jul 12 1893 [[/stamp]] Report on the Section of [[underlined]] Materia Medica [[/underlined]] in the U.S. National Museum for the year ending June 30th [[underlined]] 1893. [[/underlined]] C.H. White U.S Navy Honorary Curator. (This report was not printed) The work in the Section during the past year has been entirely on the direction of preserving the collection in its present form, preparing and exhibiting such accessions as promised to be of interest to the public or of use to the student, and giving information on matters relating to this Section. There are a few heir-looms here that seem likely to remain unrecognized, but aside from these, all the specimens
2 are in condition, and position to be immediately available for study. The Collection is so extensive now, that novel additions are few. With a view to increasing [strikethrough]our{/strikethrough] ^[[the]] collection, I think that a complete catalogue of our possessions might be issued to advantage and circulated somewhat freely to schools, colleges, museums, large drug houses, and to individuals known to be interested in Botany on Materia Medica. This Catalogue should contain not only the name of the specimen, but embody the exhibition label, and give a complete list of our reserve and duplicate series. Its distribution might be accomplished by a circular inviting contributions of new specimens with such information as to the uses and supposed properties as may be
3 in the possession of the donor. Our duplicate material could be utalized in effecting exchanges when new material could be obtained by such course. As many of our domestic medicines come to us highly recommended by popular opinion, it is fair to presume that some of them contain active principles, which if definitely recognized might extend the use and usefulness of these plants. With a view ^[[to]] [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] obtaining a proximate analysis of any specimens we may receive, which have not before been analyzed, I asked the Surgeon General of the Navy, (under whose supervision this collection is Rept.) if he could assist us in this matter. In reply, he said he would order an analysis made at the Laboratory
4 of the Museum of Hygiene, of any specimens we would send him. There have been twenty six (26) accessions during the year, Dr. E. Palmer, and Merck & Co being the chief contributors. One illustration, a map of South America, showing the distribution of the [[underlined]] Pilocarpus pinnatifolius, [[/underlined]] was added by the gift of [[strikethrough]] Prof. [[/strikethrough]] ^[[Dr.]] D.W. Prentiss. The number of specimens in each series is as follows: Exhibition series, - 3368 Reserve series, 1226 Duplicate series - 860 [[total]] 5454 (over)
[[underlined]] Illustrations [[/underlined]] Colored plates 663 Photographs 102 Aerbarium specimens 60 Micrographs 38 863 Total 6317 Last catalogue entry June 1892. 142.280 Last catalogue entry June 1893. 142.306
Report for 1894 [[right margin]] Mel A Materia Medi[[/right margin]] 1. HOW HAS THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894 COMPARED WITH THE PREVIOUS YEAR, AS FAR AS (1) THE NUMBER OF ACCESSIONS AND (2) THEIR SCIENTIFIC VALUE ARE CONCERNED? [[line]] There have been received during the year, two specimens for identification and report; but in both instances the information concerning them was so meager that it has been impossible to properly study and classify them. They were sent by Mr. E E. Vidrive of villa Platte, La, and by Mr. Thomas E. Bauster of Gibbonsville, Idaho. It was suggested that further information be furnished us together with some leaves and flowers of the plants, if possible. The Section was removed from its former location in the south-east range to the north-east court and is now completely installed in its new location. In doing this it has been necessary to condense some parts of the location; this has been effected without interfering with the classifications. The collection is in a state of excellent preservation and also in condition now for examination and study. The office of the curator was removed during the early spring to the north-east tower. This was satisfactorily effected by storing a quantity of duplicate specimens and material not required for immediate use. The new office, though smaller than the old, is amply large for present purposes and is undoubtedly more healthful.
2. NAME, IN THE ORDER OF THEIR IMPORTANCE, THE ACCESSIONS OF THE YEAR WHICH DESERVE [[underlined]] SPECIAL NOTICE, [[/underlined]] ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY, AND STATE IN EACH CASE WHETHER GIVEN, LENT, RECEIVED IN EXCHANGE OR PURCHASED. ______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[None]]
3. WHAT PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN CARING FOR THE COLLECTIONS UNDER YOUR CUSTODY, i.e., IN THEIR PRESERVATION AND INSTALLATION. ________________________________________________________________________________ ^[[Already noted in answer to first question.]]
4. INDICATE BRIEFLY THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE EXHIBITION SERIES AND THE STUDY SERIES, IN YOUR DEPARTMENT. ______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[Noted in answer to the first question.]]
5. WHAT SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS HAVE YOU COMMENCED, CONTINUED, OR COMPLETED, UPON THE MATERIAL UNDER YOUR CARE, DURING THE YEAR. _______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[None.]]
6. WHAT EXPLORATIONS (1) BY THE MUSEUM AND (2) UNDER OTHER AUSPICES, HAVE RESULTED IN ENRICHING THE COLLECTIONS UNDER YOUR CARE. _____________________________________________________________________________ ^[[None]]
7. WHAT MATERIAL FROM YOUR DEPARTMENT HAS BEEN LENT TO INVESTIGATORS DURING THE YEAR, AND IN CONNECTION WITH WHAT SPECIAL INVESTIGATION WAS THE MATERIAL NEEDED. PLEASE ARRANGE ANSWER, ALHABETICALLY, UNDER NAME OF PERSON TO WHOM SUCH MATERIAL WAS LENT. ______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[None]]
8. GIVE THE NAMES OF ANY STUDENTS WHO HAVE ACCESS TO THE MATERIAL IN YOUR CARE DURING THE YEAR, EITHER IN WASHINGTON OR ELSEWHERE, AND STATE THE SPECIAL AIM OF THEIR STUDIES. _______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[All students have access to the exhibits.]]
9. GIVE A LIST OF CORRESPONDENTS WHOSE CO-OPERATION HAS RESULTED IN ENRICHING THE COLLECTIONS UNDER YOUR CARE, AND STATE BRIEFLY THE MANNER AND EXTENT OF SUCH CO-OPERATION DURING THE YEAR. _______________________________________________________________________________ ^[None.]]
10. GIVE A LIST OF PAPERS [[underlined]] PUBLISHED DURING THE YEAR [[/underlined]] BY YOURSELF, YOUR OFFICIAL ASSOCIATES AND COLLABORATORS, SO FAR AS THE SAME ARE BASED UPON MUSEUM MATERIAL. EACH NOTICE FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED BY A BRIEF ABSTRACT OF THE PAPER. _______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[None]]
11. PLEASE PRESENT ANY PLANS WHICH YOU MAY HAVE IN VIEW FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUR DEPARTMENT. _______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[An exhibit of triturate tablets, as showing the modern approved form in which the active principles of so many medicines is conveniently administered.]]
12. INDICATE THE PRESENT STATE OF THE COLLECTION UNDER YOUR CARE, INCLUDING A TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF SPECIMENS IN THE EXHIBITION, RESERVE AND DUPLICATE SERIES ON JUNE 30, 1894. ______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[ Exhibit series 3,368 Reserve series 1,226 Duplicates 860 - 5,454 ----- Illustrations Colored plates 660 Photographs 102 - 765 Herbarium specimens 60 Micrographs 38 - 98 ----- 6,317 ]]
13. GIVE THE NUMBER S OF THE LAST ENTRIES IN YOUR CATALOGUE ON JUNE 30, 1893 AND JUNE 30, 1894. ______________________________________________________________________________ ^[[142,306. - 142,308.]] [[attached separate note]] [[preprinted]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. _______ MEMORANDUM. [[/preprinted]] Oct. 22.94. As no permanent Acc. have been rec'd it is probable that these entries are not correct. J. [[underlined in blue pencil]] Not counted [[/underlined in blue]] [[/attached separate note]]
13. GIVE THE NUMBER S OF THE LAST ENTRIES IN YOUR CATALOGUE ON JUNE 30, 1893 AND JUNE 30, 1984. _____________________________________________________________ ^[[ 142,306. - 142,308. ]]
letter file H Monthly Report Nov. 30, 1883 [[stamp]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913 [[/stamp]] Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director, National Museum Sir: - I would respectfully submit the following monthly report of the work done in the departments under my charge during the month ending November 30th 1883. By far the greater part of the time has been taken up in running through the collections for the purpose of learning what specimens are on hand, and in transferring all the articles belonging to the food collection to the place assigned for them, and the fibers, textiles etc. to the west entrance, where I am now arranging them. In the Department of Foods, Mr. Towne has been engaged as constantly as possible in arranging the Indian Foods. The work seems to progress very slowly, but it is hoped it will go on more regularly during the next months. I think all the Indian foods can be placed in the cases during the coming months. As soon as they
2 are all put up the work of cataloguing and labeling can begin. In the Department of Fibres, Textiles etc. seven cases are full, and some additional boxes are ready to be placed in cases as soon as the latter can be obtained. All the specimens that have been put up by me have written labels, giving the names and localities, but no attempt has yet been made to prepare labels for permanent use. I find it impossible to prepare suitable labels without further study, and I am in want of the necessary books to enable me to make out a satisfactory classification of fibres and woven products. For the most part my time has been given to putting up the specimens, work which seems to be necessary now, but which I hope can soon be undertaken by an assistant, leaving me more time to study up, and work out classification. At present I am obliged to leave
3. all my study to be done evenings, in order that the installation of specimens may go on as rapidly as I desire. During the month 122 entries have been made in the Catalogue of Textiles, including many articles recatalogued, and 5 entries in the Catalogue of Foods. It has not seemed desirable to recatalogue the articles in the food collection. All the specimens in the cases among the Textiles which were put up when I came, have been provided with temporary labels. In order to identify some of the material on hand a microscope will be quite necessary. I expect to have one that I can use for the purpose in the course of a week, or as soon as a convenient place can be provided where I can place it, and the books and papers I hope to have to assist me in the work. Respectfully R Hitchcock Nov. 30th 1883
Hitchcock November 1883
1 [[typewritten]] One copy by, W.B.T. Revised by ^[[REH and WBT]] Sept. 6th 1884. [[/typewritten]] [[circeld]] Printed in full [[/circled]] Year 1883 [[stamped]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913. [[/stamped]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director. National Museum. Dear Sir, - I have the honor to submit the following report of the section of foods and textiles, for the year 1883. Owing to the short time I have been connected with the museum, it is not possible to know precisely what donations [[strikethrough]] of special importance [[/strikethrough]] have been received during the year, since they are recorded in different catalogues, the special catalogues of the section having been opened in November. So far as I am able to learn, however; there have been no donations to the textile collection of special importance during the year; unless some valuable specimens promised by certain parties in London have been received by Mr. Earll, and are on the way with the other collections. [[written vertically]] 1883 - 90 [[/written vertically]]
2 In the collection of foods I am likewise at a loss to know just what has been received during the year. Since November, however, I have a perfect record of all that has come in, and among other donations one fine set of specimens, in duplicate, illustrative of the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate is worthy of special mention. This set was received from Messrs. Cadbury Brothers, of Bournville, near Birmingham, England. There are eighteen different specimens, embracing cocoa pods, cocoa beans from seven different localities, and specimens showing the various stages of the manufacture of cocoa and chocolates. Labels for this collection have been written, and are ready to be printed if approved. Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbridges & Co., wholesale druggists, of London, have also presented six specimens of pure vegetable colors used in confectionery. Mr. Charles R. Orcutt has presented three specimens of Indian foods from California, among which is a fine cake of "mesquite" meal. A number of specimens of articles of food used in England have been added to the collections by purchase.
3 2. The work of arranging the food collections has been done mainly by Mr. Towne, who has been almost steadily engaged upon the collection of Indian foods during the past two months. This part of the work should be completed in the course of the next two weeks, when it will be possible to label and classify the specimens. My own work in installation has been mostly confined to the textiles, and particularly directed to exhibiting the different varieties of fibres. It is proposed to separate all the textile material, as the work of arrangement progresses, into three parts, (1.) for exhibition (2) for study-series, and (3) for exchanges. This plan has been carried out thus far; but no attempt has yet been made at a systematic classification of the specimens in either series, for the reason that not a sufficient number of specimens is yet in the cases to make it either practicable or useful.
4 4. There are on exhibition in the collection of fibres and textiles, 318 specimens (including 72 specimens of cotton), and 37 specimens of furs. In addition to these there are a number of old forms of spinning and weaving machinery placed on top of the cases and on the floor, awaiting cases which are to be made for them. It is impossible to state the number of specimens now in the collection which will be placed in the series for study or among the duplicates. All of the material would require to be looked over and classified, which would require weeks of labor to do in a proper manner, before the number could be even approximately known.
5 In the collection of foods there are, by actual count, 742 specimens in the cases. Besides these there are 270 specimens of seeds, barks and other, unclassified materials, 74 paints and pigments used by Indians, and 158 specimens of oils, making a total of 1244. It is probable that this number will be materially reduced when the collections are properly arranged and duplicates or imperfectly known materials are taken out. Among the duplicates there are fourteen different specimens of foods from Siam, in most cases five or six specimens of each kind, now ready to be exchanged, twenty seven of China foods, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] thirty-three Indian foods, and ten miscellaneous samples. There are also 106 [[strikethrough]] different [[/strikethrough]] specimens of different oils in the duplicate series, of which there are, in many instances, several duplicates.
6 5 To conduct the work of this section in a creditable manner, a certain number of books of reference are absolutely required. The only work that can be done without books is preparing specimens for exhibition, and even this, without a system of classification, is only practicable [[strikethrough]] up [[/strikethrough]] to a [[illegible strikethrough]] limited extent. The food collections will be arranged upon the scheme worked out by yourself. The system for textiles requires much further study. The routine work of preparing the specimens now in the Museum requires, from the acting curator, an expenditure of time which might be used to much better advantage for the Museum, if an assistant or preparator were appointed to work in the textiles division. It would then be possible to devote more time to study, and the perfection of the classification, the preparation of labels, and to what is, in fact, the most important part of the curator's duties. The exhibition of a series of food-stuffs becomes of value only when the specimens are named and explained. The same may be said of every other set of specimens. But to write labels requires more knowledge than any person can posses without access to books of reference. In the textiles division, however, a kind of knowledge is required which cannot be acquired from books alone. It would be of great advantage to the section if the acting curator could spend a short time visiting some of the large spinning
7 and weaving establishments to become practically familiar with the processes. Although it is very desirable that the microscope should be brought into use in the study and identification of the fibres and fabrics, foods and adulterants, the opportunities for such examinations are extremely limited at present. They are certainly important, and the credit of the museum demands that its officers should be competent to treat any question of importance that is presented, intelligently, and with adequate knowledge of the work and methods of others. To do this requires much study and experimenting. At present the acting curator in this section is uncertain whether it would be better to devote this time principally to study and investigation, or to the display of specimens without order or reason. In the one case the benefits would be seen in the future; in the other the activity of the section would be [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] seen now. The appointment of an assistant as suggested, would solve the difficulty in the most satisfactory way, by permitting the work of installation to go on steadily, while the other work is progressing.
8 There is one part of the work of this section that has not received any attention as yet, but which can doubtless be begun early in the year, - as soon as the material now being worked up in the food collection is out of the way. This is the arranging of series illustrative of the processes of nutrition, showing the relative value of foods, drinks, etc.; and various other illustrative collections which have already been mentioned in a previous communication. It is also desirable that specimens showing the process of spinning and weaving should be obtained for the textiles division, and these can doubtless be readily obtained by a personal visit to the mills.
9 It is with no little diffidence that the needs of this section are set forth thus at length, knowing the personal interest you have manifested in its progress and development, and your willingness to advance its interests by every possible means. Nevertheless, since you have asked for "recommendations and remarks" it has seemed a proper occasion to indicate what that the experience of two months has clearly shown to be essential needs for the proper conduct of the work of the section. Without books it is impossible to do the work creditably - they are quite as necessary as the material itself, in a [[line missing]] museum. It is to be hoped they can be obtained in some way. Respectfully submitted [[P.?]] Hitchcock Jan. 1884.
One copy T 3.26.85 K 3 upper 1884 rep [[circled]]Printed in full[[/circled]] [[stamp]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913 [[/stamp]] Report of the Sections of Foods and Textiles for the year 1884 R. Hitchcock
1 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, National Museum Dear Sir:- I have the honor to submit the following report of the department under my charge for the year 1884. Respectfully R Hitchcock Acting Curator Washington, January, 1885. Textile Fibres and Fabrics. This collection of textile fibres and fabrics placed under my charge in November, 1883, at which time there was a large accumulation of material in the museum pertaining to this department, which was stowed away in drawers and boxes. Much of this material was of value, some of it worthless, and it required no little labor to classify and arrange it for display. When this work was begun there was scarcely a single case of textiles on exhibition, properly arranged and labelled. There are now not less than thirty sliding-screen cases completely filled with specimens, each one of which is labelled either with a permanent printed, or a temporary written label. By far the greater number of these have been mounted during the year 1884. In the beginning of work in this department, many difficulties were encountered. It was necessary, first of all, to devise a system of classifications for fibres and fabrics, which would be comprehensive. As regards vegetable fibres, various systems were considered, in the hope that a scientific classification might be found which would serve well for industrial purposes; but a brief study of this subject clearly showed the impracticability of such a scheme. Turning then to purely artificial systems, it is not necessary to refer to the merits and demerits of those which have been proposed from time to time, but merely to say that the system which has seeemed best [[line cut off]]
2 for museum purposes is based upon the position of the fibres in the plants. The plan of classification adopted for textile fibres is as follows:- Mineral Fibres Type, Asbestos Vegetable Fibres Grasses, stems, barks, etc., used in the natural condition. Type, Esparto. Stem, Leaf & Root fibres Bast fibres Type, Flax Foliacious fibres Type, New Zealand Flax Seed Fibres Type, Cotton Animal Fibres Wool Type Sheep's Wool Hair Type Cow's Hair Silk Type Silk
[[strikethrough]] adapted to the museum collections is as follows:-[[/strikethrough]]
3 Far greater difficulty has been found in classifying textile fabrics, owing to the technical knowledge of the methods of manufacturer required to do this work in a satisfactory manner. No system has yet been perfected, although a general plan has been under consideration for some time, and it [[strikethrough]]is[[/strikethrough]] will doubtless be possible to outline a satisfactory scheme in the course of another year. Meanwhile, specimens are being mounted, [[strikethrough]]and[[/strikethrough]] described, [[strikethrough]][[?]] systems and[[/strikethrough]] and arranged in the cases, according to a provisional classification, based primarily upon their composition (whether of cotton, flax, wool, silk etc.) and secondly upon the method of weaving.
4 1. Important Additions During the year 1884 Twenty-two specimens of jute, grown in Mississippi from seed obtained in India, showing various qualities of the fibre in different stages of preparation. From Hon. W.W. Stone, Stoneville, Miss., President Delta Jute & Fibre Co. Six specimens, showing the process of manufacturing gunny cloth from Calcutta jute butts. From Mr. Appleton Sturgis, New York. A large collection of cordage made of jute, and a fine specimen of jute fibre, from the Schlichter Jute Cordage Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Forty specimens of textile fibres and fabrics of various kinds from different countries, all well named and identified. From the Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, England. A collection of machine-made laces of various kinds, lace mitts, [[?nubias]], etc. From A.G. Jennings & Sons, New York. A large number of textile fibres, and fabrics, from Guatemala and San Salvador, received from the Boston Foreign Exposition, of 1883. Thirteen specimens of textile fibres from Jamaica collected by Mr. V.P. Parkhurst, who was engaged as collector on the occasion of a visit to the West Indies. Twenty-nine specimens of English laces, [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] made in Nottingham and Devonshire, England. [[strikethrough]] France[[?]] [[/strikethrough]] a list of which [[strikethrough]] is [[/strikethrough]] will be found in No. 24 of the "Proceedings" of the Museum. From Mr. A. Robertson with Messrs. Hitchcock, Williams & Co., London. Twenty-two small samples of English silk fabrics, manufactured in Manchester and
In clo
5 Bradford, and [[strikethrough]] thirty [[/strikethrough]] one hundred similar samples of cotton [[strikethrough]] worsted [[/strikethrough]] and worsted fabrics etc, also from Mr. A. Robertson. A fine specimen of Jacquard weaving in silk, from Prof. T.C. Archer, Director of the Edinboro Museum. Nine specimens illustrating the manufacture of hand-made ingrain and rag carpets, from Mr. O. Herring, Maryland Mills, Baltimore, Md. Thirty-seven specimens of rope and twine made of American, Russian and Italian hemp and sisal, from J. T. Bailey & Co., Philadelphia. [[strikethrough]] Fifteen specimens of flax, grown and manufactured in New York State, with A series of fifteen specimens of flax and flax twines, from Mr. E. W. Hartshorn, [[/strikethrough]] A series of fifteen specimens of flat and flax twine, manufactured at Schaghticoke, N.Y. from flax grown in New York state. From Mr. E. W. Hartshorn, President Cable Flax Mills. Twelve specimens of rough and hackled flax [strikethrough]] from France, Canada [[/strikethrough]] French, Irish, Dutch and Canadian, from the Barbour Flax Spinning Co., Paterson, N.J.
6 A series of Thirty-seven specimens illustrating the manufacture of raw silk fabrics in the United States. This collection begins with the raw silk as imported, from Italy, Japan, & China, and shows the various stages in the preparation of the silk for the loom. The series is an interesting one because the successive steps in the manufacture are so well shown. Then follow specimens of the finished goods, plain or brocaded, in considerable variety. Received from John N. Stearns & Co., of New York. Fifteen specimens of raw silks as imported, from Lombardy, Cevennes, Piedmont, Japan and China, carefully [[strikethrough]] prepared [[/strikethrough]] selected as typical samples, and presented by C. Adolphe Low & Co. of New York. Seven specimens of tapestry Brussels carpets, from the Roxbury Carpet Company, Boston, Mass. Specimens of "Napier Matting" and "hemp carpetings" made of jute, from the Dolphin Manufacturing Company, [[strikethrough]] of [[strikethough]] New York. Specimens of [[underlined]] Yucca Brevifolia [[/underlined]] and various kinds of paper made therefrom. From R.E.C. Stearns, National Museum. Fifteen specimens of fibres mostly of animal origin, from the Custom House, Boston, Mass. [[strikethrough]] Fifteen [[/strikethrough]] A set of specimens of knit worsted fabrics, astrachan, jersey cloth, stockinette cloth, etc, manufactured in Philadelphia, from John E Hanifen & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
7 A very valuable collection of one hundred and seventeen specimens, illustrating the manufacture of worsted yarns used in the goods made by the Arlington Mills, and specimens of fine cotton yarns made at the same mills. This is a collection worthy of more than a passing notice. It was prepared with great care and judgement by the superintendent of the Mills, Mr. W.D. Hartshorn, for the purpose of showing the successive stages in the manufacture of yarns from wools of different grades. Beginning with a certain grade of wool the process is followed from the greasy wool through the preparers combs, gill-boxes, etc. [[strikethrough]] showing before and after dyeing and colored tops [[/strikethrough]] and made into tops. The manufacture of colored top from the same grade of wool is likewise fully illustrated. Then the processes of carding are illustrated by samples of fine Australian wool in successive stages from greasy wool through the scorrer, cards, back,=washing, gill boxes, comb, and finishing gill-boxes. Then [[strikethrough]] various [[/strikethrough]] specimens of the top of various grades are shown, and the processes of reducing top to yarn [[strikethrough]] is [[/strikethrough]] are illustrated by three distinct series of specimens representing three different grades of wool. Then follow numerous samples of yarns.
8 An equally complete, and more comprehensive, series of specimens illustrating the manufacture of worsted and cotton yarns, and also of the finished fabrics and the process of calico printing, has been received from the Pacific Mills, and will soon be mounted for exhibition in the museum. This collection likewise begins with the wool in the grease. Six varieties and mixtures of wool are represented by large samples, and these are each carried through the successive stages of manufacture, [[strikethrough]] card [[/strikethrough]] washing, carding, combing, etc. to the finished yarn. The manufacture of cotton yarn is likewise illustrated, two grades being carried through the various operations in parallel series [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]], the specimens being carefully chosen to represent the processes [[strikethrough]] in [[strikethrough]] as completely as possible. Calico printing is illustrated by specimens of cloth before and after bleaching, after printing, with color set, and finished. There is also a copper print-roller, taken from the machine, and the process is still more fully illustrated by photographs taken at the mills by the acting curator on the occasion of his visit during the summer. There is also a fine set of samples of cotton goods, worsteds and delaines representing the large variety of fabrics manufactured by the Pacific Mills.
9 The manufacture of woolen goods, fancy cassimires, etc, is represented by two collections, the first from the Harris Woolen Company of Woonsocket, R.I. which begins with the raw wool and a few samples showing the material in the course of preparation and spinning into yarn. Then follow specimens of worsted fabrics, and wool and wool mixed dress goods. Another collection from the Lippitt Woolen Company, also of Woonsocket, embraces a variety of fancy cassimires. Both these collections will soon be [[strikethrough]]in[[/strikethrough]] on exhibition in the museum. A series of sixteen specimens of English manufacture, including such as seal-cloth, & astrachan, was presented by Mr. H. Herrman, of the firm of Herrman Steinbach & Company of New York. These specimens, valuable in themselves, are worthy of especial mention because of the information concerning the methods of manufacture which accompanied them. The manufacture of ginghams is represented by a good collection from the Whittenton Manufacturing Company, Taunton, Mass., embracing a considerable variety of cotton fabrics, plaids, cotton cassimires and tweeds, fancy shirtings, tickings, etc. An interesting collection illustrating the manufacture of hair-cloth from horse-hair has been received from the Pawtucket Hair-cloth Company. This shows the rough hair as it is received in bales from South America and Siberia, then hackled hair, curled hair, hair prepared for the loom and samples of the woven cloth.
10 A valuable set of specimens has been received from the Bigelow Carpet Company illustrating the manufacture of Brussels and Wilton carpets. Beginning with the carpet-wools employed, the manufacture of yarns is first illustrated by specimens [[strikethrough]] in successive stages [[/strikethrough]] of washed wool, slivers, noils, roping and dyed yarns. Then follow specimens of carpets and borders, in Brussels and velvet carpets. The foregoing collection is supplemented by some specimens of carpets pf the same kind from the Lowell Manufacturing Company, which includes also ingrain carpets of the same manufacture. The Roxbury Carpet Company has presented some fine specimens of tapestry Brussels [[strikethrough]] and tapestry [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] carpets, thus making the collection to illustrate carpet manufacture quite comprehensive. A perfect working model of the original cotton gin invented by Eli Whiney has been received from his son, Eli Whitney of New Haven, Mass. and is on exhibition in the museum.
11 2 Character of Routine Work The work of the acting Curator consists in obtaining and selecting material for exhibition, classifying and arranging it for the cases, collecting information about textile industries generally, and applying such information to the preparation of labels for the [[strikethrough]] collections [[/strikethrough]] specimens. During the year work of this kind has been greatly facilitated by the means afforded [[strikethrough]] by the [[/strikethrough]] for visiting mills in the East as collector for the New Orleans Exposition. Through the courtesy of Treasurers and superintendents of several of the largest mills, the writer was enabled to spend much time in studying the processes of spinning & weaving, with great advantage to the work in the museum. At the same time, photographs were taken [[strikethrough]] from [[/strikethrough]] of machinery in use, which are of great value in illustrating the processes as they are described on the labels in the museum. For special courtesies of this nature the museum is indebted to Mr. H Saltonstall, Treasurer of the Pacific Mills, Mr. W. Whitman, Treasurer of the Arlington Mills, Mr. C. Fairbanks, Treasurer of the Bigelow Carpet Company, and to various other firms and individuals whose mills were visited with interest and benefit. An important part of the curator's duty is to make microscopical [[strikethrough]]obse[[/strikethrough]] investigations of fibres of all kinds, with reference to their value for various purposes, and particularly as to their adaptability to textile purposes. It has been impossible to conduct any systematic work of this kind during the past year [[strikeout]] passed [[/strikeout]] owing to the want of time, and the microscope has only been used occasionally for the purpose of identify-
[[centered, blue]] 12 [[/centered]] =ing specimens. It will be necessary, however, to employ it frequently in future, for the work will require it. But little attention has been given to any but the exhibition series of specimens during this year. It is doubtful if a comprehensive study-series would be of value in the museum. A set of fibers of all kinds and from different localities, that can be always accessible for examination, is, however, very desirable if not absolutely necessary, and it is intended to prepare such a series without delay. The microscopical appearance of the [[strikethrough]] fibers [[/strikethrough]] more important textile fibers will be shown by means of photographs from the microscope [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] in connection with the fibers themselves, as soon as time permits. To this end, some preparations were mounted for microscopical examination by Mr. Harry English, during his connection with the museum and it is expected they will yield fine photographs.
The manufacture of [[squiggle]] tapestry and Brussels
[[centered, blue]] 13 [[/centered]] 3. Review of Researches No original investigations have been conducted in this department, the routine work demanding all the time to the exclusion of other interests. A list of the vegetable fibres in the collection was published in No. 24 of the "Proceedings" of the Museum, but since it was prepared the collection has largely increased. A complete list of vegetable textile fibres, with common local, and botanical names alphabetically arranged, is in course of preparation, but it will not be published for a year or more. This list will give also the [[strikethrough]] position and [[/strikethrough]] classification of the fibres according to the system adopted in the museum.
14 4 Present State of Collection. During the year 1683 specimens have been catalogued, not all of which, however, are desirable for exhibition purposes. There are now on exhibition, approximately, 2000 specimens. The number of duplicates and of specimens in the study series cannot be satisfactorily estimating at this time.
[[centered, blue]] 15 [[/centered]] 5. Recommendations and Remarks. One of the first recommendations the curator would make, is that an assistant be appointed to work constantly upon the textiles collection. The occasional assignment of an assistant, as has been done during the past year, does not prove to be satisfactory, for the reason that to be efficient the assistant must have some knowledge of the work, and of the manner of keeping the records of the department, so that the work may go on without interruption during the curator's absence. The assistent at present engaged is thoroughly competent, careful, and industrious, and his permanent assignment to the work is recommended. To increase the interest of the collections, to make them more instructive and intelligible, it seems desirable to make use of photography to illustrate the textile industries, even to as great an extent as has been done already in illustrating the fisheries. [[strikethrough]] A beginning has been made [[/strikethrough]] What little has been done has enabled the curator to judge as to the value and practicability of such a scheme, and since it does not involve the employment of a photographer, but only some additional work on his own part, it is recommended that every facility should be given to carry out the scheme in a satisfactory manner. The plan advised, [[strikethrough]] is to [[/strikethrough]] taking the subject of cotton for example, is to begin with the cotton in the field and follow it through its entire commercial history by photographic representations of [[strikethrough]] its [[/strikethrough]] the [[strikethrough]] process [[/strikethrough]] picking, ginning, baling, shipping, and handling until it reaches the mills. There it is also followed through the various machines, until it is finally [[strikethrough]] shown as [[/strikethrough]] photographed in the [[strikethrough]] warehouse [[/strikethrough]] piles of
16 woven fabrics in the warehouse, ready for market. One great want which was severely felt in this department during the early part of the year, was books of reference regarding textiles. A few books have since been purchased, but there are a number of others still much needed. In addition to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] such books, there are a number of periodicals published in this country and abroad, which [[strikethrough]] should be [[/strikethrough]] would be of great value. A few of these the curator has succeeded in obtaining [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] by offering [[scribbled through word]] the [[underlined]] Microscopical journal [[/underlined]] in exchange for them, but it is doubtful if the others could be obtained in this way, even if such an offer were to be made.
17 Foods, Drinks etc. The collection of foods, drinks, narcotics etc., which has also been under my charge during the year has received some valuable additions, but it has been impossible to devote much time to arranging or labelling the specimens; the labor required to prepare the collection of textiles for the New Orleans exposition having greatly interfered with the regular work in this department. Such specimens as have been received, however, have been properly cared for, and in most instances placed in the cases with temporary labels attached. 1. Important Additions Thirty-three specimens of foods, spices and fruits of various countries from the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England. Thirteen specimens, including starches, jellies, grains, and fruits, from the Government of Hawaii, received through the Boston Foreign Exposition. A series of seventeen specimens of Cheshire salt from Cheshire, England, presented by Mr. J.J. Higgin, of Liverpool, England. [[strikethrough]] Sixty [[/strikethrough]] Seventy-six specimens of foods from Guatemala, including coffees in great variety, cocoa beans, starches, flours, annato, tamarinds and various other articles, received through the Boston foreign exposition. Nine specimens [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] of foods from Brazil, including coffees, maté, sugar, banana paste, araca paste, etc., received through the Boston Foreign Exposition.
18 Fifty-two specimens from San Salvador, including seven specimens of cigars, ten of leaf tobacco, ten of coffee, with varieties of honey, corn, rice, beans, and various other products, received through the Boston Foreign Exposition. Seventy-nine specimens of canned goods, [[strikethrough]] pickles [[strikethrough]], pickles, sauces and manufactured articles of various kinds, from Messrs. Coosse & Blackwell, London. Thirty-one specimens of foods of various kinds, collected for the museum by Mr. [[strikethrough]] W. [[/strikethrough]] V.P. Parkhurst, in Jamaica. Thirteen specimens of the "Dalls" of various qualities used in India, from Rev. C.H.H. Dall.
Foods
19 2. Character of Routine Work. The collection of foods of the North American Indians, which is large and of great interest, has been arranged in order, but many duplicate specimens are in the cases, which must be removed when there is opportunity for studying the collection. These foods being principally [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] vegetable products, which are for the most part used without preparation other than roasting or boiling, it has seemed advisable to arrange them according to their botanical relations. The other specimens of foods are partly arranged in the cases according to the system proposed by the Assistant Director, and published in volume IV of the "Proceedings", Appendix.
[[centered, blue]] 20 [[/centered]] [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] 4. Present State of Collection. There are now on exhibition Indian foods, [[strikethrough]] 349 [[/strikethrough]] 349 Other foods, narcotics, drinks, etc 1231 _______ Total 1580 A large number of duplicate specimens are reserved for exchanges, but the number is not known.
21 5. Recommendations & Remarks. The collection of foods can be made of far greater interest than one who has given no consideration to the subject would suppose. It is not intended to be merely an set of specimens in bottles to show what people eat, but it should be made to indicate the dietetic value of foods of various, kinds, to represent the best knowledge concerning the nutritive value and digestibility of various foods, resulting from physiological and chemical investigations. Not only should it indicate the value of a food, but it should also explain to what peculiar qualities or constituents its value is due, and what combinations of foods are necessary to the maintainance of health and strength. At present the collection possesses but very little scientific value; but it is hoped that in the course of another year there may be a great change in this respect. Already Prof. W.O. Atwater, whose analyses of various articles of food are well known to chemists, has contributed some valuable results of his labors, in the form of specimens for exhibition to illustrate the composition of the human body. These will soon be displayed, and thus a beginning made toward making a collection which shall be of great educational interest and value. However, the progress that can be made in this work must depend very much upon the assistance which the acting curator receives to carry on the regular museum work.
22 Concluding Recommendation for Foods & Textiles It would be quite possible for the Acting Curator to conduct the two sections of Textiles and Foods together in a satisfactory manner, if his work could be, as it should be, strictly confined to planning and directing, and to the special study necessary for classifying and labelling the specimens. In other words, if he could be releived of the purely clerical and mechanical work, which could be quite as well, and more economically done by assistants. Two assistants, one to work in the collection of textiles and the other, preferably a student of chemistry, in the collection of foods, could be kept profitably employed, and the result would be quickly seen in [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] immediate results in the museum cases. The appointment of two assistants is, therefore, strongly recommended. R Hitchcock
[[stamped]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913 [[/STAMPED]] [[encircled]] Printed in full [[/encircled]] [[margin note]]2 copies [[?]] 11-6-85[[/margin note]] Hitchcock K3 upper Textiles Jan-June 85 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director U S Nat. Museum. Dear Sir:- I herewith transmit to you my report of work done in the section of textiles during the months of January to June, 1885,- inclusive in accordance with instructions conveyed in your communication of Oct. 20th 1885. Respectfully November 2d 1885 R. Hitchcock Acting Curator (1) Among the most important additions to the collection of Textiles during the first six months of the year 1885, may be mentioned the following:- A model of the original Whitney cotton gin, presented by Eli Whitney. A fine collection of textiles fibers from the vegetable kingdom used in Brazil, presented by Dr. J. Carlos Benini. This collection was made especially for the museum by Dr. Benini, at my request. It embraces more than thirty specimens, well named, and particularly well selected for museum purposes. A number of specimens of cocoons, and reeled silk from North Carolina cocoons, presented by Mr. Vizion des Lauriers. A large number of textiles fibers from the museum of the Department of Agriculture. This collection includes wools, silks, and vegetable fibers. many of which are valuable specimens, but a large number
2 have not been deemed suitable for exhibition, for various reasons, and these have been placed in the study series. The collection of wools in bottles received from the Department, is a good one. A collection of American and foreign wools from Mr. George W. Bond, of Boston. This is an exceedingly valuable collection, the specimens having been carefully selected by Mr. Bond, who is a recognized authority on wools. More than one hundred different wools have been selected for exhibition, and these, in connection with the specimens from the Department of Agriculture, when installed in museum cases in the manner adopted, will make the largest & most complete collection of wools to be found. (2) The routine work consists in the identification & cataloguing of specimens for exhibition, and the examination of such as are sent to the museum for reports concerning their value for manufacturing purposes. After a specimen is catalogued it is either placed on exhibition immediately or held in reserve, or put in the study series. (3) The only scientific [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] studies that have been conducted in this section are such as [[strikethrough]] have been required in the ordinary course of [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] identifying fibres of uncertain character. There has been no opportunity to prosecute original investigations. An article on the "Study of Vegetable Fibres" was published by the curator in the [[underlined]] Amer. Micr. Journ. [[/underlined]] VI p.23, & a "Method of Analysis of Fibres, Tissues etc."
3 translated by my assistant, Mr. Rufus W. Deering, from Etudes sur les Fibres, by M. Vétillart, was published in the same journal, vol. VI, p. 47. In addition to the ordinary routine work it is intended, as soon as possible, to display with each typical fibre a large photomicrograph, showing the peculiarities of structure as revealed by the microscope. A number of specimens have been prepared and mounted for this special purpose., (4) The number of specimens in the collection at the end of June 1885 can only be approximately estimated. Including a large number sent to the New Orleans Exposition there were probably not less than 1520 in the exhibition series, and 200 in the study-series. The number in the reserve series at that time is unknown. The last number on the Textiles catalogue of 1884 is 6857. The last entry of from 1885 is 7440, making the total number of additions 583. [[signed]] R. Hitchcock [[/signed]]
[[striked through]] translated from Études sur les Fibres, by Mr. R [[/striked through]]
[[top margin]] 1 copy SF JYB 1 copy RH [[double underline]] Jan-June '85 [[/double underline]] Foods Hitchcock K3 Upper [[circled]] Printed in full [[/circled]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, U.S. Nat. Museum Dear Sir:- I herewith transmit to you my reports of the work done in the Section of Foods, Drinks, etc. during the months of January to June, 1885, in accordance with the instructions conveyed in your communication dated Oct. 20th 1885. Respectfully R. Hitchcock Nov. 2nd 1885. The work in the section of foods, drinks etc, which includes narcotics, [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] the methods of preparing articles of foods, and the comparison of the nutrition value of foods, is comprehensive, and the collection can undoubtedly be made one of the most instructive as well as interesting I the museum. Unfortunately, however, so much time has been required by the demands of the textiles collection, especially in preparing for the exposition at New Orleans, that the work in this section has thus far been almost wholly confined to the routine [[strikethrough]] work [[/strikethrough]] of cataloguing and preserving the specimens. During the [[strikethrough]] year the [[/strikethrough]] six months the following valuable additions have been made to the collection:- A collection of the elements of the human body, from Prof. W. O. Atwater. A specimen of Gail Borden's meat biscuit, manufactured in Mexico, from Professor Baird.
A collection of the compounds of the human body, from Prof. W. O. Atwater. This collection, in connection with the elements already noticed, is intended to represent the composition of the human body. The specimens are on exhibition with temporary labels attached but the set is not yet complete. The last number of the register of the year 1884 is 480, the last entry of June, 1885 is 547, making the total number of additions 167. A report of the number of specimens in the collection, on exhibition or ^[[in]] reserve, cannot now be made, since an actual count would necessarily include many that will be thrown out, either as duplicate or imperfect specimens, or as having no place in the collection, when a systematic arrangement is undertaken. R. Hitchcock
^[[1 copy SF. 10-16-85.]] ^[[JYB 1 copy RH} ^[[Reb 1885]] ^[[Jan-June [[underline]] 1885 [[/underline]] ]] ^[[Regents]] ^[[K3 upper]] [[purple stamp]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUM MARCH 1913 [[/purple stamp]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, U.S. National Museum. Dear Sir:- I send you herewith my report of the operations of my departments during six months of the year 1885, from January to June, inclusive. Respectfully R. Hitchcock October 12th 1885. During the first six months of the year 1885 especial attention has been given to the exhibit of textile fibres and fabrics, which has been largely increased by donations from abroad, but especially through collections made by myself while preparing for the exhibition at New Orleans. The object of these collections is twofold; first, to afford an exhibit of the various textile fibres available for use in this country and abroad, with specimens of [[strikethrough]] materials [[/strikethrough]] articles made therefrom, such as cloth, rope, twine, mats. etc.; second to provide a series of specimens of every fibre that can be used in the arts, to be used for scientific examination, tests of tensil strength, and especially to serve as type specimens for the identification of other fibres by microscopical examination. A number of collections that have been received are worthy of special mention; among these a particularly fine set of fibres from Brazil, collected by Dr. J. Charles Berrini, of Quissaman, who has devoted unusual care and labor to the work. All the textile fibres in the Department of Agriculture Museum were placed in my charge during January, and from this collection some valuable specimens have been selected and placed on exhibition. Mr. George W. Bond, of Boston, has [[strikethrough]] presented [[/strikethrough]] ^[[selected]] [[strikethrough]] prepared [[/strikethrough]] a large collection of native and foreign wools, from samples belonging to the U.S. Customs Department, which have been prepared for exhibition; but they are not yet to be seen in the museum, as the cases for mounting them are not [[strikethrough]] yet [[/strikethrough]] ready. [end page]
[[underlined]] 2 [[/underlined]] This collection is probably already the best of the kind to be found in any museum, and when all the wools belonging to the museum are mounted, and incorporated with it, the display of wools will be, if not quite complete, at least very large and valuable. Owing to the restricted floor-space in the museum that has been assigned to this department, it has been impossible to [[strikethrough]] expand [[/strikethrough]] make the display of specimens as instructive and attractive as it might be. By far the greater part of the collection, [[striked through words]] and some of the most interesting specimens, have been sent to the exposition at New Orleans, where this department of the museum was well represented. A detailed account, however, of the specimens there shown would not be of interest in this report, and the subject may be passed over with the statement that there were sent to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] New Orleans 290 unit boxes to represent the textiles department of the museum, and the display is said to have been very attractive. The collection of foods, which is also under my charge, has received but little attention thus far during the year, as other matters have required so much of my time. The number of additions has been small, but some of them of considerable interest. The collection [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] is not arranged, and [[scribble]] requires a thorough [[scribble]] re-examination of every specimen as soon as time permits, before it will be in a condition suitable for public display. A case has been temporarily arranged for the display of specimens illustrating the composition of the human body, prepared by Prof. W. O. Atwater; but this set is not yet complete. It is hoped that before the close of the year there will be opportunity to arrange the collection of foods in accordance with the classification prepared by yourself. [end page]
[[underlined]] 3 [[/underlined]] The physical apparatus belonging to the Smithsonian Institution has been transferred to the National Museum and placed in cases. The arrangement has been necessarily very unsystematic, owing to the limited space at my disposal, but in a general way it is [[scribble]] classified under three heads [[viz?]], apparatus for experiments on sound, heat and light, and electricity. A list of the instruments in the collection (which is of interest [[scribble]] as having been used by Professor Henry), is in course of preparation. In connection with it may be mentioned the relics of electrical and chemical apparatus of Dr. Joseph Priestley, which is on exhibition in the same place. [[signed]] R. Hitchcock [[/signed]]
Hitchcock
Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director, U.S. National Museum. Dear Sir:---I send you herewith my report of the operations of my department during six months of the year 1885, from January to June, inclusive. Respectfully, R. Hitchcock October 12, 1885 During the first six months of the year 1885 especial attention has been given to the exhibit of textile [['A' in left margins]] fibres and fabrics [[two vertical lines indicating full stop]] [[^This section]] has been largely increased by donations from abroad, but especially through collections made by [[striked through]] myself [[/striked through]] [[?]] while preparing for the exhibition at New Orleans. The object of these collections is twofold; first, to afford an exhibit of the various textile fibres available for use in this country and abroad, with specimens of articles made therefrom, such as cloth, rope, twine, mats, etc.; second, to provide a series of specimens of every fibre that can be used in the arts to be used for scientific examination, tests of tensil strength, and especially to serve as type specimens for the identification of other fibres by microscopical examination. A number of collections that have been received are worthy of special mention; among these a particularly fine set of fibres from Brazil, collected by Dr. J. Charles Berrini, of Quissaman, who has devoted unusual care and labor to the
2. work. All the textile fibres in the Department of Agriculture Museum were placed in my charge during January, and from this collection some valuable specimens have been selected and placed on exhibition. Mr. George W. Bond, of Boston, has selected a large collection of native and foreign wools, from samples belonging to the U.S.Customs Department, which have been prepared for exhibition; but they are not yet to be seen in the museum, as the cases for mounting them are not ready. This collection is probably already the best of the kind to be found in any museum, and when all the wools belonging to the museum are mounted, and incorporated with it, the display of wools will be, if not quite complete, at least very large and valuable. [[scribble]] Owing to the restricted floor-space in the museum that has been assigned to this department, it has been impossible to make the display of specimens as instructive and attractive as it might be. By far the greater part of the collection, and some of the most interesting specimens, have been sent to the exposition at New Orleans, where this department of the museum was well represented. A detailed account, however, of the specimens there shown would not be of interest in this report, and the subject may be passed over with the statement that there were sent to New Orleans 290 unit boxes to represent the textiles department of the museum, and the display is said to have been very attractive. [[two vertical lines]] The collection of foods, which is also under my charge, has received but little attention thus far during the year, as other matters have required so much of my time. The number of additions has been small, but some of them of [[end page]]
3. Considerable interest. The collection is not arranged; and requires a thorough re-examination of every specimen as soon as time permits, before it will be in a condition suitable for public display. A case has been temporarily arranged for the display of specimens illustrating the composition of the human body, prepared by Prof. W.O.Atwater; but the set is not yet complete. It is hoped that before the close of the year there will be opportunity to arrange the collection of foods in accordance with the classification prepared by yourself. B [[two vertical lines]] The physical apparatus belonging to the Smithsonian Institution [[^which]] has been transferred to the National Museum and placed in cases. The arrangement has been necessarily very unsystematic, owing to the limited space at my disposal, but in a general way it is classified under three heads, viz.: apparatus for experiments on sound, heat and light, and electricity. A list of the instruments in this collection (which is of interest as having been used by Professor Henry), is in course of preparation. In connection with it may be mentioned the relics of electrical and chemical apparatus of Dr. Joseph Priestley, which is on exhibition in the same place. [[two vertical stripes]] R. Hitchcock
Hitchcock Jan - June 1885 Textiles and Foods
fulr [[symbol?]] K3 upper Mar. 1885, Mr. G. Brown Goode [[purple stamp saying 'MR. RATHBUM MARCH 1913']] Assistant Director Nat. Mus. Dear Sir:- I herewith send you the report of the work done in my department during the month of March, 1885. Respectfully R Hitchcock In the textiles collection 174 specimens were entered in the catalogue during the month, nearly all of them being from the collection of the Dept. of Agriculture. The greater number of these have been mounted for exhibition or placed in the study-series. No accessions of special value have been secured during the month, and the curators attention has been almost wholey devoted to the routine work of cataloguing and installing. [[scribble]] The apparatus for photo-micrography has been put in order, and is now quite ready for the general work of the museum. [[signed]] R. Hitchcock [[/signed]]
K3. upper. Jan 1885. ^[[Approved G. Brown Goode]] [[stamped]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1916. [[/stamped]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director National Museum. Dear Sir:- I send you herewith my monthly report of the operations in the section of Textiles during the month of January, 1885. Respectfully R Hitchcock Feb. 20th 1885. The following specimens of special value and interest have been catalogued during the month. A model of the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney, presented by his son. A large collection of vegetable fibres from Brazil, collected with great care by Dr. J. Chas. Birrini, of Guissaman, Brazil. This is a collection of unusual value, being accompanied by a letter giving much information concerning the sources and uses of the fibres. The Museum is greatly indebted to the donor for the care exercised in selecting good specimens for [[striked through words]] exhibition, as well as for determining botanical names of the trees from which they are obtained. The collection embraces more than 35 specimens, the greater part of which have been mounted and placed on exhibition with written labels. Dr. Berrini promises a supplementary collection to fill gaps in this one, and to complete the set of Brazillian textile fibres. A number of specimens of silk cocoons raised in North Carolina, and silk reeled from them have been received from Mr. Virion des Lauriers, of New York City. This is a portion of a more complete collection promised to represent the raw silk industry of the United States. Several days were spent at the Depart-
2 ment of Agriculture in selecting specimens of wools, silks, cottons, vegetable fibres, and fabrics from the cases and removing them to the National Museum. A list of the specimens obtained has been prepared, and is now on file. The collections illustrating the manufacture of cotton an wool [scribble] goods from the Pacific Mills, which was received last year, have been mounted, with written labels, and are now in the cases. Respfy [[signed]] R Hitchcock Acting Curator. [[/signed]]
[[stamped]] Approved G Brown Goode [[/stamped]] CPfile K3W [[stamped]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913. [[/stamped]] Feb. 1885 Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director Dear Sir:- I send you herewith the report of the work done in my department of the Museum during the month of February, 1885 Respfy R Hitchcock Feb 28/85 The preparation of labels for specimens already mounted, collecting information concerning textile fibres obtained from the Department of Agriculture, and cataloguing and arranging those specimens have constituted the greater part of the work during the month. Labels for all the fibres from Brazil, mentioned in my report last month, have been prepared for printing, and also labels for the entire collection of wools from the Pacific Mills. Seventy-three specimens have been entered on the catalogue of textiles during the month, most of which are from the Dept. of Agriculture collection. But a small proportion of these are of such a character as to admit of exhibition in the museum, either by reason of their small size, or unsatisfactory determination. The rule strictly adhered to is not to mount any specimen that is not identified beyond all question. Such specimens as are catalogued are distributed as follows:- 1. Good specimens, well identified are mounted for exhibition. 2. " " " " [[dittos for: Good specimens, well identified]] in excess of requirements, are put in duplicate series. 3. Small specimens, not suitable for exhibition but of possible value for microscopical study or reference are put in study series. 4. A specimen of each fibre that is shown in the cases, is also placed in the study series. These specimens are to be used for microscopical preparations, to be photographed & examined when required.
[[in blue]] 2 [[/in blue]] [[blue line down left margin]] In addition to the specimens catalogued from the collection of the Department of Agriculture, there are many which are quite useless for any purpose in the museum, usually because they are not labeled, but frequently also because the specimens are not good ones. These are in all cases rejected without cataloguing, and are so marked on the original list of the specimens presented. [[/blue line down left margin]] During the month Mr. W. S. Jefferson has worked one week in fitting up the old loom and preparing to weave a rag carpet upon it. His work is not yet complete. R. Hitchcock Acting Curator.
Apr. 1885. K 3 upper Apr. rep. Hitchcock [[overstamped]] Approved G Brown Goode [[/overstamped]] Mr. G Brown Goode Assistant Director Dear Sir: – I herewith send you my monthly report for the month of April, 1885 Respfy R Hitchcock Acting Curator May 1st, 1885 On the first of the month I went to Boston for the purpose of securing some samples of American and foreign wool from Mr. G. W. Bond. On my way I stopped in New York, where I presented a letter to Mr. Robinson, Collector of Customs, which was signed by Prof. Baird. Mr. Robinson advised me to wait until the appraiser should be appointed before applying to him for specimens for the Museum. I was therefore unable to obtain specimens on this trip. I spent part of one day at Newark N. J. with Mr. Felix Freminey and from him obtained a promise of a complete set of specimens illustrating the [[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] ramie and wild nettle industry, such as will doubtless be of great value in the Museum. Some of the specimens must be imported especially for us. Going to Boston there was some delay about securing the specimens of wools from Mr. Bond, but they were finally shipped, and have been received [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] catalogued, and every specimen of greasy and washed wool that was of value has been permanently mounted in the boxes provided for the purpose. The mounting has been done entirely by myself. Each specimen has been completely examined, the different kinds of woolen in each selected and arranged in the boxes, so as to show their character as well as possible.
2 To preserve them from the attack of moths &c. A strip of blotting paper saturated with bisulphide of carbon was placed in each box and the latter immediately sealed by pasting a strip of paper around it. The use of bisulphide of carbon for this purpose is an experiment, chloroform being usually recommended. On my return from Boston I met Mr. Freminey in New York and he then gave me some growing plants in pots, to be cultivated for their fibres, and for botanical study. These plants are 1. Ramie, Urtica utilis or tenacissima, 2 plants 2. Urtica pustulata or gracilis, 5 – 6 small plants 3. Conocephalus nivalis. 5 – 6 very small plants The latter was grown from seeds furnished from this department, and may prove to be a useful textile plant in this country. The seeds were sent to Mr. Freminey January 17th, 1885. (Catalogue No. 5326.) Unfortunately the ramie plants did not survive the journey, but the others, in two pots, were taken by me to Mr. Saunders of the Department of Agriculture, who promised to care for them for our use. The number of specimens catalogued during the month is 148. Of these 98 are wools from Mr. Bond, this number including washed samples which are not separately catalogued. About twelve samples have since been rejected as of no value, which will be replaced by Mr. Bond if possible. The collection will also be largely increased by additions from the same source. As an indication of the practical benefits of this department, it may be said that the information concerning the ramie industry which I have been able to obtain has enabled me to present the subject to certain manufacturers while in Boston, while showing them some samples of the slivers, yarns and
3 manufactured fabrics, which aroused deep interest, and may open the way to practical tests, a result greatly to be desired. On the 22d inst. the following specimens for microscopical study were sent to Mr. Geo. S. Lewis Jr., Springfield, Mass. in response to his letter to Prof Baird viz. cocoa nut fibre. 7286 Doryanthus excelsa 7285 Cannabis sativa 7284 Hibiscus moscheutus 7287 Eucalyptus obliqua 7280 Irish flax 6975 Agave mexicana! 7120 India jute 6999 Asclepias down-Tripoli 6971 Phormium tenax My assistant Mr. R. W. Deering was granted leave of absence for one day in accordance with his request, dated March 31st, herewith enclosed. On my return on the 13th inst. I learned that he had been absent from the 2d to the 13th inst. inclusive. R Hitchcock
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] March 31, 1885. Romyn Hitchcock Esq Curator of Dept of Foods and Textiles. Sir: I beg leave to ask for leave of absence from the National Museum during Wednesday April 1st. very respectfully Rufus W. Deering. ^[[Leave of absence granted for April 1st R.H.]]
May,1885 K3u. Hitchcock, May. [[overstampe]] Approved G. Brown Goode [[/overstamped]] Mr. G Brown Goode Assistant Director Dear Sir:- I send you herewith my report of work done in the section of Textiles during the month of May 1885. Respectfully R Hitchcock Acting Curator June 5th 1885 During the month 113 specimens have been catalogued, including a considerable number of silks, and lace fabrics received from the Department of Agriculture, and 50 specimens of wools from Mr. Geo. W. Bond, being the whole of a second collection, received from him during the month. An Indian loom obtained by Dr. Palmer, in excellent condition has been mounted during the month and is on exhibition. Considerable time has been spent in clearing out the North balcony, and all the [[strikethrough]] t [[/strikethrough]] reserve textiles and textile fibres are now stowed away in unit drawers so as to be more accessible than hitherto. An alphabetical list of the textile fibres in the study series has been compiled, and the specimens arranged in drawers in numerical order. The list is now ready [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] to be printed, but is held to await accessions from the New Orleans Exposition. Mr. Deering, assistant, was absent during the first 7 days of the month. R Hitchcock
June 1885 Hitchcock – June 1885– [[underlined]] K 3 upper [[/underlined]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, National Museum Dear Sir: – I herewith send you my report of work done in the Museum during the month of June 1885. Respectfully R Hitchcock Acting Curator July [[underline]] 2d 1885 [[/underline]] Owing to the absence of my assistant from 15th inst. to the 30th, only 24 entries were made in the catalogue during the month. The work of mounting specimens, however, has slowly progressed. During the month all of the philosophical apparatus that has occupied two cases in the Smithsonian Institution has been transferred to the Museum, and has been placed in cases in the East hall. An attempt to arrange the apparatus in systematic order was made, and carried out as well as the small space allowed for it would permit. A list of the apparatus will soon be made out (already started) but I am endeavoring to learn what other apparatus belonging to the set can be found, in order to complete the list. The Priestley apparatus has also been placed on exhibition, so far as it is deemed advisable to display it, and the remainder is ready to be boxed & stored. The parts of Priestley's electrical machine are placed with the electrical apparatus, and some articles of glass-ware are in another case. A set of standard weights & measures from the US Coast Survey [[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] have been placed on exhibition, and some ordinary [[strikethrough]] weih [[/strikethrough]] metric weights & measures are in the same case for comparison. The cases of the textile collection have been moved into the back part of the West hall, where they are so closely crowded that the collection cannot be seen to advantage. The space now allotted [[strikethrough]] to them [[/strikethrough]]
[[centered]] 2 [[/centered]] to this department is entirely inadequate. There are not less than 75 unit boxes ready to be exhibited, including the entire collection of wools, which should be placed on exhibition in order that it may be constantly watched to guard against injury from moths. In addition, there are also specimens of woolen & worsted fabrics which for the same reason should be displayed. It is impossible to display any of these without greater floor-space, and there is no room for the specimens which are to be returned from the New Orleans Exposition. It will be impossible to place any of the [[strikethrough]] nin [[/strikethrough]] new material which has been obtained from New Orleans on exhibition. Nevertheless the specimens will require to be mounted to preserve them, and space to store them in unit boxes will be required. You are familiar with these facts, but I take this occasion to bring them forward and to say that in view of them, it seems advisable that only such work as is required for the preservation of valuable material for further display, should be done in the textiles section, until more space can be accorded to it. I would, however, strongly urge that [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] the enlarged photographic representations of manufacturing operations which were taken by me a year ago, should be finished & mounted by the photographer. They will add greatly to the attractiveness of the exhibit now, and will not require more space. I have been waiting two months to get the aid of a carpenter to enable me to mount two pictures (that are already finished) in a case, to illustrate calico printing. Respfy R Hitchcock
Hitchcock [[underlined]] July 1885 [[/underlined]] K 3 upper [[notes in top left margin]] JYB 1 copy [[RDG?]] 1 copy [[J?]] 8-14-85 1 copy 3-5-86 [[/notes in top left margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director Nat. Museum Dear Sir: – I send you herewith my report of work done in the section of Textiles during the month of July 1885 Respectfully R Hitchcock Acting Curator August 1/1885 During the month of July 134 entries were made in the textiles catalogue, embracing numerous specimens of raw cotton, and silk, as well as some other articles. The greater number of these have also been mounted for exhibition and temporarily labeled. There was received a valuable collection of fibres or fibrous barks from the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, England. During the excessive heat of the month attention has been mainly given to office work, and labels have been prepared for the printer, [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] Two hundred and forty-six
general and special labels, some of which, however, were written some time ago, were handed in for printing on the 17th inst., and others have been made ready since. It is hoped during the present months to complete the writing of labels for all specimens in the collection that are well identified and valuable. Mr. R.W. Deering, assistant in the section, was absent July 20th and 21st. Respectfully R Hitchcock
[[right justified]] [[underline]] Aug. 1885 [[/underline]] [[/justified]] [[notes in top margin]] 1 copy [[J?]] 9-28-85 1 copy 8-5-86. Mr. Goode returned this. MVC. [[/notes in top margin. 1885 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director Nat. Museum Dear Sir: – I herewith send you my report of work done in the Museum during the month of August 1885. Respfy R Hitchcock Acting Curator Sept 2d 1885 During the month of August but little work was done in installing new specimens, only four entries being made on the catalogue of textiles. [[blue line from here to the bottom of the page]] The collections from New Orleans have been unpacked and so far as possible installed in the cases for exhibition – or rather on the Museum floor for the small space allotted to the specimens no proper exhibition can be made. A large number of unit boxes from New Orleans have been sent to Mr. Hawley to have their contents rearranged & condensed for use in the Museum. When this work is completed a final arrangement of the collection
2 can be made. [[left margin: a blue line by this line]] Labels for printing have been prepared during the month for nearly all the specimens that are sufficiently well identified for which labels had not previously been written, and this work has taken up a large proportion of the time. [[left margin: a blue line down the rest of the page]] A complete alphabetical index to the specimens in the study series - principally typical textile fibres for examination - has been made, arranged by common & botanical names. The specimens of fibres in the exhibition and reserve series have also been indexed alphabetically, so that it is possible to know immediately whether any particular fibre is in the collection or not. It is now considered that the textiles collection is in such a condition that it may be left without further constant attention, and the acting curator will give special attention hereafter to the
3 [[left margin: a blue line to the end of this paragraph]] work on foods, and chemical collections. The new material from New Orleans will undoubtedly require much time to install, but besides that it only remains to perfect a system of classification for the textiles, which has not yet been done. Mr. Smith borrowed specimens number 5233, 5234, 5237 for the Southern Exhibition at Louisville, to illustrate Hawaiian products. Mr. Thomas Taylor received a small sample of vegetable tallow from China, No. 57402, for use in some experiments in the microscopical characteristics of fats, August 4th. The following advertisement has been several times inserted in the Photographic Times by the Scovill Manufacturing Co. of New York, for the purpose of obtaining for the museum a set of apparatus for exhibition. As yet only one reply has been received by me, from Mr. E. H. Alley, of Toledo,
4 This, who has offered a set for sale, I have written to him, August 11th, for further particulars, but have no reply. [[typed newspaper clipping inserted]] DAGUERREOTYPE. - Wanted, a complete set of Apparatus, for making Daguerreotypes. It must be in good order throughout, though it need not be necessarily unused. Whether the buffing apparatus be a wheel of a "stick" (as it was called), is not an important matter. That the style of Camera and appurtenances be of the earliest design would be preferable though not indispensable. Address, describing apparatus in detail, and naming price. DAGUERREOTYPER, care of PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES, 423 Broome Street, New York. [[/typed newspaper clipping inserted]] Respefy R Hitchcock
[[handwritten words across top of page, scribbled out with line going through entire sentence]]
[[notes in top margin]] 1 copy [[J?]] 11-4-85 1 copy 3-5-86 JYB 1 copy [[BDG?]] [[stamped]] G Brown Goode [[/stamped]] Hitchcock [[underlined]] October [[/underlined]] 1885 K 3 upper 1885 [[/notes in top margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, Nat. Museum Dear Sir - I send you herewith my report of work done in the sections of foods & textiles during the month of October, 1885 Respectfully, R Hitchcock Acting Curator Nov 2nd 1885 [[left margin: a blue line runs from the first line of this paragraph to the end of the page.]] The collection of foods, which has been allowed to accumulate in the cases for the past two years has been entirely rearranged, preparatory to effecting a material condensation of the collection as a whole, and the more suitable display of such specimens as are valuable for this purpose. During the month a considerable number of additions have been made to this collection chiefly through the New Orleans Exposition, 78 entries in the catalogue having been made. A collection of foods etc. used by the Indians of N.A. has been rec'd from Dr. Palmer & mounted, which does not appear in the food catalogue.
[[underlined]] 2 [[/underlined]] In the Section of Textiles the time has been principally occupied in cataloging and mounting new material from the New Orleans Exposition. During the last week, the entire textiles collection has been transferred from the West hall to the N. E. Court, where it is now almost in order. It has been cut down nearly one-half, and is still somewhat crowded in the space allotted to it. [[there is a blue line that runs down the left side of the page along the section above]] In the textiles catalogue 71 entries have been made, embracing some fine specimens, among which may be mentioned the following - Siamese roller gins & sp[[strikethrough]] p [[/strikethrough]]inning machinery. Specimens of Irish c[[strikethrough]] h [[/strikethrough]]rochet work. Specimens of fibres from Brazil A silk knitting machine, from A. A. Duly Specimens illustrating the French ramie industry 16 specimens of Australian wools. RH Hitchcock
1 copy [[J.?]] 3-5-86 Hitchcock November Nov. 1885 K 3 upper Mr. G. Brown Goode 1885 Assistant Director, Nat. Mus. Dear Sir - I herewith transmit my report for the month of November, 1885. Respectfully, R Hitchcock Dec. 1885. During the month of November 1885 only ten entries were made in the catalogue of textiles. The specimens were from the New Orleans Exposition. The most valuable is a set of warping & weaving apparatus from Siam. The textiles cases, which were moved last month from the West hall to the Northeast court, have been arranged & the specimens classified as well as practicable in the limited space. Probably not more than one-half the specimens in the collection are [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] on exhibition. So far as it goes the collection is in good condition for display, many new labels having been written & attached during the month. [[there is a blue line running down the left side of the above paragraph]] The scientific apparatus has been removed from cases in the East hall to a more suitable position in the North hall, where the work of arranging it has begun. [[there is a red line over a blue line running down the left side of the above paragraph]] The writer was absent on leave Nov. 27th and 28th. R Hitchcock
[[notes in top margin]] 1 copy 3-5-86 Dec. 1885 Hitchcock [[strikethrough]] Jan. 1886 [[/strikethrough]] Dec. 1885 K 3 upper 1885 [[/notes in top margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director Nat. Mus. Dear Sir- I herewith transmit to you the regular monthly report of my department for the month of December 1885. Respectfully R Hitchcock [[left margin: a blue line running to the end of the next 2 paragraphs]] In addition to the usual routine of recording specimens received, the entire collection of food substances has been removed from the N. W. range to the North Balcony, for classification and mounting for exhibition (The Indian food products, however, are still in the cases.) One Kensington case of animal food substances has been prepared & is on exhibition in the N. W. range. Labels for printing have been prepared for the specimens shown. [[left margin: A red line running to the end of the following paragraph.]] The arranging of the Philosophical apparatus in the N. Hall has been completed, but the cases are very much fuller than they should be, & more space is required for the proper display of the apparatus. R Hitchcock
1 copy T. 3-5-86. Feb 1886 Hitchcock K 3 upper Feb 1886 Mr. G. Brown Goode Asst. Director U.S. Nat. Museum Dear Sir:- I herewith transmit to you my report for the month of February 1886. Respectfully R Hitchcock March 3[[underlined]]rd [[/underlined]] 1886 During the month of February almost the entire collection of vegetable fibres from Mexico, received from the New Orleans Exposition, exclusive of the cottons, [[strikethrough]] ?? [[/strikethrough]] was catalogued and placed in reserve for mounting. Sixty-five specimens, not all of them [[strikethrough]] distinct [[/strikethrough]] different fibres, but all of value in some way, have been selected for preservation or for distribution as duplicates. The collection came in good condition but owing to the manner of labeling the specimens they have not the full value to the museum that they should possess. There is no doubt this collection would have been of far greater interest, had the writer been sent to the Exposition to attend to the collecting and packing. That work was done as well as can be expected by persons not particularly conversant with the subject. But when it is considered that such names as ixtle, magney, pita, and others are indiscriminately applied in commerce, without regard to the sources of the specimens, but only to their appearance and uses, and when it is also considered that even microscopical examination is not always
[[underlined]] 2 [[/underlined]] to be depended upon to discriminate between fibres from different but closely related plants, it is obvious that great care must be exercised in collecting and naming specimens. Probably not more than one-third of the collection received possessed any value to the museum whatever. This has been a disappointment, not only as regards the specimens for exhibition, but particularly because it was hoped that in this collection there might be found a very complete series of botanically [[scribble]] named vegetable textile fibres, to be placed in the study series as types for microscopical examination. I regard such a series as of very great importance. At any time specimens may be sent to the museum for microscopical [[scribble]] examination, and without perfectly authentic specimens in the study series, it will be impossible to do the work. The study series is now large and valuable, but not by any means [[scribble]] so perfect as it should be, and would be if collections could be made in a more scientific manner. On the 8th instant Dr. E. Palmer came to the museum with his very complete & valuable [[scribble]] notes on Indian Foods, to assist in identifying the specimens in the collection. In this work his assistance has been invaluable, and deserves recognition, given, as it has been I believe, without compensation. Dr. Palmer devoted about ten days to the work, and I have thus been
[[underlined]] 3 [[/underlined]] enabled to prepare labels for the printer for all the Indian food-products of the vegetable kingdom. Every specimen of value is now on exhibition, with a short, written label attached, and the whole collection arranged according to the order of the genera in Bentham & Hooker's 'Genera Plantarum'. To have accomplished this result without the aid of Dr. Palmer would have been the work of months, and without his notes it could not have been done so well. The collection is on exhibition, but some of the specimens are not permanently installed, and it will present a more attractive appearance when time permits the remounting of those requiring it. Respty [[signed]] R Hitchcock [[/signed]]
[[top margin]] 2 copies 5-27-86. GY 2 copies RH Hitchcock K3 upper March '86 [[underline]] Mar. 1886 [[/underline]] [[/top margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, Nat. Museum Dear Sir:- I transmit herewith my report for the month of March, 1886. Respectfully Romyn Hitchcock April 3rd 1886. [[blue line down left margin]] The work that has been long in progress in connection with the food collection is just now beginning to show itself in the cases in the N.W. range. There are now on exhibition, mainly as the result of operations this month, a Kensington case containing a fine collection of articles of food from japan, a similar case illustrating the manufacture of cocoa & chocolate, and material enough for two more cases of various articles of food which cannot yet be classified in the exhibition series, but which are of interest as they are. There has also been arranged a large collection of starches and farinaceous foods in a slope-top table-case. Among the most important donations that have been catalogued may be mentioned 1. A collection of Spices and other food products from Jamaica, received from the New Orleans Exposition 2. A similar collection mainly consisting of varieties of peppers (chillies) from Mexico, also from the Exposition. 3. A fine collection of oils from the Department of Education, Tokio, Japan 4. A valuable set of specimens of fabrics dyed with anilin dyes [[strikethrough]] , [[/strikethrough]] carefully named, [[/blue line down left margin]]
[[underline]] 2 [[/underline]] [[blue line down left margin]] prepared especially for the Museum by the Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass., through the courtesy of Mr. H. Saltonstall, Treasurer. These were used by Prof. F. W. Clarke to illustrate his lecture on the chemistry of coal, delivered in the Saturday lecture course. [[/blue line down left margin]] A set of duplicate specimens of fibres and foods was prepared and forwarded to the Botanical Gardens, Cambridge, Mass. as an exchange. A set of fibres was also prepared & sent to the Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, La. in exchange for favors received. [[blue line down left margin]] All the silk cocoons that were mounted for the exhibition in this department some time ago were transferred to Professor Riley [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] during the month. RHitchcock [[/blue line down left margin]]
[[top margin]] ST 2 copies RH 2 copies 5-29-86. Hitchcock K3 upper April '86. [[underline]] April, 1886 [[/underline]] [[/top margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, Nat. Museum Dear Sir:- I herewith transmit my report for the month of April 1886. Respfy RHitchcock May 1886. [[blue line down left margin]] Among the important accessions received this month was an old spinning wheel made in France in the year 1694, presented by Charles Beck, of Washington; a fine exhibit illustrating the manufacture of [[strikethrough]] linen [[/strikethrough]] ^[[cotton]] thread, from the Willemantic Linen Company, & some primitive spinning apparatus from Mexico, collected by Dr. E. Palmer. Also, in the food collection, thirty-six specimens from Mexico, collected by Dr. Palmer. With the assistance of Dr. Palmer the specimens of Indian foods of the animal kingdom have been identified, labeled, & placed on exhibition, and a considerable number of Indian paints, which have been in my collection for a long time, were carefully examined by Dr. Palmer, and all the good & properly named specimens selected, duplicates combined, & useless ones rejected. At the desire of Prof. Mason, these were all transferred to his collection. [[/blue line down left margin]] The preparation of labels for the printer has been progressing rapidly, and a large number is on hand already. RHitchcock
[[top margin]] ST 1 copy RH 1 copy 2-20-86. 1 copy 3-5-86. Hitchcock Jan. 1886 K3 upper Jan. 1886 [[top margin]] Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Director, Nat. Museum Dear Sir:- I herewith transmit to you my monthly report of the operations of my department for the month of January, 1886. Respectfully R. Hitchcock [[blue line down left margin]] The arrangement of the cases in the Textiles Hall (N.E. Court), [[strikethrough[[ has [[/strikethrough]] was changed during the month, to adopt the alcove system, for the better convenience of the animal products collection. [[/blue line down left margin]] [[red line down left margin]] Two extra cases in the North Hall, assigned to the philosophical apparatus, have been filled, and the arrangement almost completed. [[/red line down left margin]] [[blue line down left margin]] The entire collection of wools received sometime ago from the Department of Agriculture, which has been standing around in bottles ever since, was examined and the valuable specimens [[illegible strikethrough]] catalogued, labeled and mounted in boxes ready for exhibition. A large number of specimens have been discarded as of no value [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] to the museum, but 133 specimens have been reserved. Probably these will not all be found useful in the final arrangement, but it is likely 100 good specimens will be retained. The wool collection is now an exceedingly good one, but it is not [[popible?]] to keep it in its present condition without great risk of injuring by moths during the coming season. [[/blue line down left margin]]
2 [[blue line down left margin]] Although we have used carbon bisulphide freely on the specimens, & exercised great care in sealing the boxes, it is scarcely possibly that all the eggs have been killed, and if the collection is not mounted where it can be watched, I fear great injury will result. We may regard this is one of the most complete collections of wool to be found - yet not a single specimen is on exhibition, and there is no place now available to display even a small portion of it. [[/blue line down left margin]] RHitchcock
[[top margin]] 1 copy 8-31-86. [[circled]] Printed in full [[/circled]] Hitchcock K3 upper Ann. rep 85-86 [[purple stamp]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913. [[/purple stamp]] [[/top margin]] In accordance with your suggestion that I should prepare a report covering in a general way, the period of my connection with the museum, I have endeavored to give, in a condensed form, a review of the work done, and a statement of the present condition of the collections in my charge. The different divisions of work assigned to me cover so large a field that is has been impossible to give particular attention to all of them. My work has, therefore been mainly confined to the two sections of Textiles and Foods. In addition to these I have received and classified material belonging to the following sections as enumerated in the "Scheme of Museum Classification" devised by yourself, and published in the "Proceedings" of the museum 1881, Appendix, [[underline]] viz. [[/underline]] - 12 The Elements & their combinations, Chemical Collection 21 Preparation of food-stuffs, narcotics, etc. 22 Distillation, Manufacture of perfumeries, etc. 23 Oils, fats, soaps & waxes; their preparation and use. 24 Gums, resins, glues, cements. 25 Pigments and dyes. 26 The chemical manufacturers & their products. 29 Fibres, cordage, textile fabrics, needle work. 30 Paper & its manufacture I have also taken charge of the Smithsonian collection of philosophical apparatus, which is on exhibition in the north hall. In a communication from you dated Oct 13th 1885 you expressed a desire that I would "take charge of all technological material especially raw [[strikethrough]] products [[/strikethrough]] materials and products not otherwise already assigned," and stated that
2 "The greater portion of this will doubtless come to you permanently, as soon as the departments having an interest in such material are developed." [[line across remainder of page, wrapped to beginning of next paragraph]] Accordingly, I have endeavored to catalogue, [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] classify and preserve a great mass of material that it would be impossible for one curator with a single assistant to study, [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] label, and prepare for exhibition. That material, however, is available for use at any time, and will someday be of great value to the museum. I glancing [[strikethrough]] at [[/strikethrough]] ^[[over]] the names of the sections mentioned above, it may seem that they [[illegible strikethrough]] include rather a heterogeneous collection, but, with the exception of the section of fibres etc., it will be seen that they ^[[may]][[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] all be included under pure and applied chemistry, and are, therefore, more or less directly connected, [[strikethrough]] together [[/strikethrough]] although very properly separated in different sections for museum purposes. The section of [[illegible strikethrough]] textiles has engaged my attention most fully during two years. My connection with the museum dates from November, 1883, when [[strikethrough]] I was assigned [[/strikethrough]] an office in the east tower on the ground floor was assigned to me. Mr. F. H. Towne, who had previously been engaged on the collections as Preparator, acting as assistant. A few specimens of textile fibres and fabrics were then on exhibition, but without labels, in the west hall. A large number of specimens of foods in bottles were on exhibition in the northwest range, but very improperly classified, and not selected with discrimination. A large collection of fibres & fabrics, mostly from the
[[underlined]] 3 [[/underlined]] centennial exhibition of 1876 was still unpacked and required attention. These were immediately prepared for study. The different divisions of work will now be separately reviewed. [[double underlined]] Section of Textiles [[/double underlined]] The early work in this section was very much retarded, and some of it was not very perfectly done, so that it required subsequent revision, owing to the want of necessary books of reference. A sectional library was soon provided which has served very well, but even now some very useful books of reference are not available. It was soon found that much of the accumulated material was of very little value, owing to deterioration by long keeping, the loss of marks [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] for identification, and other causes. Gradually such specimens were eliminated, and the plan had been followed throughout the section, to discard all specimens of even doubtful identity, except when it was thought their identity might be established in future, in which case, when the specimen was a good one that might not be easily replaced, it was catalogued & held in reserve. [[strikethrough]] [[F?]] [[/strikethrough]] Four series of specimens [[strikethrough]] have [[/strikethrough]] are provided in this section, viz:- 1. Exhibition series 2. Study series 3. Reserve series 4. Duplicate series
In view of
1. [[underline]] Exhibition series [[/underline]] - This series includes all specimens mounted for exhibition. Owing to the limited space on the museum floor the mounted specimens are not all on exhibition at the present time, but the unit boxes containing them are ready for display when space permits. Every specimen in this series is provided with either a written or printed label. A system of marking the catalogue cards has been adopted which indicates at a glance when a specimen is in the exhibition series, and when a label has been written for the printer. The mark ⦿ on a catalogue card indicates that a [[illegible scratchout]] specimen is mounted for exhibition, & if followed by a check, thus ⦿√, the label for printing [[strikeout]] has be [[/strikeout]] is written. The system of classification proposed some time ago in one of my reports, has been carried out [[illegible scratchout]] in a general way, but the collection is so broken up by the necessity of storing specimens that should
1. [[strikethrough]] Darp[[??]] [[/strikethrough]]
[[circled]] 5 [[/circled]] be shown, that the system cannot be strictly adhered to. Beginning at the entrance of the court (the collection is now in the N.E. court occupying about one-half of the floor-space) the visitor first comes to the textile materials used in their natural condition, such as rough barks, made into ropes by Indians and primitive tribes in different countries; Esparto, made into coarse mats in Spain; palm-leaves, woven into baskets, hats etc. Then may be seen varieties of tru-down, often known as tru-cotton, including the [[underlined]] paina [[/underline]] of Brazil in variety, showing how the down occurs in the [[strikethrough]] pods [[/strikethrough]] seed-pods, and the [[underline]] pulu [[/underline]] of the Sandwich Islands. These materials are used, without preparation, for stuffing. Then follow varieties of fibres extracted from stalks and leaves of plants, the coarser ones used for ropes, the finer for yarns [[strikethrough]] employed in [[/strikethrough]] suitable for knitting & weaving. Among these is a good series representing the ramie industry which may become of considerable importance to this country. Collections of New Zealand flax, common flax, agave fibres in great variety, and many others, leading up to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] cotton. The manufacturer of cotton thread is represented by a case of eight unit boxes mounted especially for the museum by the Willemantic Linen Company, and is one of the best exhibits in the [[strikethrough]] court [[/strikethrough]] series. Following cotton come fibres from the animal kingdom, horse hair, wool and silk.
Some attempt has been made to prepare a good display of spinning & weaving [[strikethrough]] ma [[/strikethrough]] appliances, but the space is too much restricted to permit of proper display of what apparatus we have. A case is filled with spinning wheels, reels etc. which were in use many years ago in the preparation of flax, cotton and wool yarns for hand looms, but it is not as attractive or instructive as it should be. It is interesting to compare the primitive impliments used for the same purposes in different countries, examples of which [[strikethrough]] we hav [[/strikethrough]] are shown. For instance, there is a hand reel of the present day from Siam which is precisely like the common English reel except that in the former the cross-pieces are in one plane while in the latter they are placed at right-angles. [[strikethrough]] and are then making [[/strikethrough]] This very slight change makes the English reel of a century ago far more convenient to use than the one in use in Siam. Among the looms may be seen some very excellent specimens from various parts of the world. Perhaps the simplest are those still in use by the Indian of north america, of which, however, there are several varieties. In one case a fine Pimo Indian loom, collected by Dr. Edward Palmer, is well shown and described. a Moqui loom is also shown, but not in as good condition. Quite recently a Zuni loom was set up and some weaving done upon it by the Indian girl Wawah, thus enabling me to follow the successive operations, and understand them better than
6 has been possible from written descriptions. A loom of the Talamanca Indians, of Costa Rica, with specimens of cloth is of interest. A loom from the Ainus of Japan is also of special interest in connection with the Indian loom, owning to certain distinguishing features in the device for spinning the warp for the passage of the shuttle. A number of photographs of the Indian girl Wawah, engaged in the various operations of spinning preparing look and warp and weaving were taken and are used to illustrate the methods of work among the Zunis.
7 2. [[underline]] Study series [[/underline]] - This series includes authentically named specimens of fibres intended for microscopical examination. It is a valuable, indeed, an absolutely necessary series, as it is not unfrequently required to use small portions of fibres for comparison with others for identification. Occasionally requests for typical specimens of fibres are received, which have been supplied from the study-series. It is expected that specimens will be sent to the museum for identification from time to time. The study-series will afford a means of identification probably better than can be elsewhere found. It is not, however, by any means complete. Every distinct fibre in the textile collection is represented in this series, but not every specimen is so represented. An alphabetical list of the study series is kept on cards in the office of the curator, and a [[strikethough]] printed [[/strikethrough]] list will soon be prepared for printing, possibly in time to be published with this report. When small specimens of textiles are received that seem to possess a scientific rather than popular interest, [[strikethorugh]] and [[/strikethrough]] or which are for some reason not suitable for exhibition, they are placed in this series.
8 3. [[underline]] Reserve series [[/underlind]] - This series includes such specimens as come in from time to time that are of undoubted value for purposes of exhibition, but which cannot be immediately mounted. When such specimens are catalogued they are marked "reserve" and placed in drawers in numerical order, and the fact is noted on the catalogue card. If a portion is desired in the study series, it is selected at the time, and so indicated on the catalog card.
9 4. Duplicate series. - This series includes duplicate specimens which are available for exchanges. These are stored in drawers, or in storage boxes. A special series of cards, numerically arranged, [[strikethrough]] with numerically [[/strikethrough]] gives a list of the specimens in this series, and indicates their location. The specimens in general storage, however, are enumerated on special storage catalogue-cards, bearing the storage number of the boxes and a list of their contents, so that any specimen can be obtained [[strikethrough]] when required [[/strikethrough]] without delay. An alphabetical list, arranged by both common & botanical names of all the specimens in the collection including all in the four series enumerated above, has been prepared, & will someday be [[strikethorugh prepared [/strikethrough]] submitted for publication.
10 The arranging of the textiles collection in accordance with the plan outlined above has been perfected, and its advantages are apparent in the ease with which new material can be handled. Immediately a new specimen is received, the general alphabetical list shows whether it is new to the collection or is from a new locality. Its value can be determined at once, and its place in one of the four series assigned to it. Thus an accumulation of useless material for exhibition is avoided, and the collections are maintained in good order.
11 Section of Foods In this section it is intended to show specimens of foods that may possess special interest, especially such as are used by primitive peoples, and in foreign lands. A more important feature [[strikethorugh]] of [[/strikethrough]] however, will be to afford information concerning the nutritive value of various articles of food in daily use, and to aid in the dissemination of knowledge upon the important subject of nutrition. [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] The relation between the cost of an article of food and its value for nutritive purposes is an important consideration, especially for the poorer classes of laboring people. It has long been a matter of pride with us that the laboring classes in the United States live far better than those doing the same work in foreign countries. But they are enabled to do so because they receive higher wages, and it seems not improbable that the growing competition between nations will require greater economy in labor here, and it will then be necessary for the poorer classes to exercise more economy in living. It becomes, therefore, very desirable to learn [[strikethrough]] what [[/strikethrough]] not only what are the most nutritious foods, but a matter of greater practical importance, what are the cheapest and best foods to buy. Also, what are the best combinations of food, and how these should be prepared. Some of these questions have been carefully studied by Professor W.O. Atwater, and the results of many analyses made by him are now available for use in this section of the museum. As a matter
12 of fact, there is no doubt our laboring classes are living extravagantly, and that by intelligent direction, involving information in the art of cooking as well as in the selection of proper food, their expenses can be considerably reduced without detriment to the excellence of the food provided. The collections in this section are not yet sufficiently advanced to demonstrate these purposes in view. It will be the work of considerable time, but a beginning has been made in two cases now on exhibition. The first of these illustrate the chemical composition of the human body, showing on one side the elements [[strikethrough]] containing [[/strikethrough]] found in the body, in their relative proportions, on the other side the principal compounds. In the second case are shown specimens illustrating the daily income and expenditure of the body, and the quantity of various constituents of food required to supply the waste. The constituents of a ration for one day are shown, and the transformations they undergo in the body are described. The composition of a loaf of bread is also illustrated by specimens. These examples will indicate the practical and instructive tendencies of the exhibits in this section. A collection of foods used by the Indians of North America is now arranged, including all the specimens now on hand, and occupies [[strikethrough]] these cases [[/strikethrough]] two full cases. It is not complete, and cannot be made so until a competent and experienced collector, like Dr. Edward
13 Palmer, who is [[scribble]] better acquainted with this subject than any other person, is commissioned to travel among the Indians and supply the deficiencies. It is very desirable that this should be done as soon as possible. Among the [[scribble]] specimens of general interest maybe mentioned a case of Japanese foods received from the Department of Education at Tokio, which includes many curious products. Another case is [[scribble]] filled with preparations of animal foods from various localities. Another case contains a great variety of farinacious products. There is still in reserve a great variety of food products, some of which are useful for display, others will be eventually discarded. Time has not permitted the arranging of these.
[[underlined]] 14 [[/underlined]] [[double underline]] Chemical Collections [[/underline]] Not much has been done in the section of chemical manufactures, but such specimens as have been received have been cared for, & a few of them placed on exhibition. An excellent series of chemical elements and compounds [[scribble]] will soon be systematically arranged for display, probably during the month of July. It is intended to represent in this section the chemical industries of the country as fully as possible by museum specimens, and photographic views of processes and apparatus. A desideratum in connection with the work of this division, is a [[scribble]] laboratory equipped with the necessary apparatus for chemical work. It need not be large or expensive, but should afford facilities for a certain amount of analytical work, both qualitative and quantitative, and especially for the preparation of compounds that are required in the exhibits. The want of such a laboratory has been heavily felt, not only in this but ^[[ also ]] in other sections in my charge. I am indebted to the laboratory of the geological survey, in charge of Professor F. W. Clarke, for many courtesies, but such work as is required cannot be advantageously done in the laboratory distant from the curator's [[strikethru]] one's [[/strikethru]] office, for reasons that chemists will readily understand. I would, [[Transpose Mark]] therefore, suggest [[/Transpose]] that the room hitherto occupied by the Electrician, in the north tower, be fitted up as a chemical laboratory for this section.
[[underlined]] 15 [[/underlined]] [[double underline]] General Collections [[/underline]] A considerable quantity of material, to be distributed among the various sections not yet provided for [[scribble]] on the floor of the Museum, has been received. It is all classified and stored on the North balcony, where it is available for use at any time. This includes gums, resins, dyes, pigments, oils, fats, soaps, waxes, perfumery [[strikethru]] & [[/strikethru]] essences and other articles. Numerical Summary Textiles on exhibition 1199 specimens Textiles in study series 317 specimens Food products on exhibition [[strikethru]] 125 5 94 [[/strikethru]] 594 specimens Chemical products on exhibition 659 specimens ---- Total. 2769
[[centered]] [[underline]] 16 [[/underline]] [[/centered]] Having received leave of absence from the museum for two years from July 31st 1886, it becomes necessary to make provision for proper care of the collections during my absence. I have, therefore, already recommended that Mr. R. W. Deering, should be [[Strikethru]] appointed [[/strikethru]] placed in charge of the work during this time. During my absence I shall endeavor to add to the collection such specimens as I may be able to secure in the various countries I shall visit, and will endeavor to give general direction to the work so far as that is possible by correspondence. [[right justified]] Respectfully [[R??]] Hitchcock [[/justified]] July 1886
N [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM OFFICE OF ASSISTANT DIRECTOR. ------------ MEMORANDUM. To [[/preprinted]] Miss Tabler 1 copy. 7-3-87 L.t. 1(8 [[underlined]]00[[/underlined]]) copy, please. ROG [[stamped]] G Brown Goode]] [[in a box]] Curator file Hitchcock [[/in a box]] copy ^[[placed]] in report
[[top margin]] 1 copy 7-3-87 L.T. [[RAG?]] Mss Report, as substitute for [[]]Curators Report?]] R [/top margin]] [[stamp in red]]Examined by Mr. RA[[?]] March [[?]] [[/stamp in red]] Preparing Microscopical Mounts of Vegetable Textile Fibres. R. Hitchcock The method of mounting vegetable fibres here described, has been adopted in the National Museum with perfect success. The permanent preparations leave nothing to be desired, for they clearly [[strikethrough]] show [/strikethrough]] reveal the minute striation of the fibres and their appearance does not change with time. Possibly the coarser fibres, after a few months, become rather more transparent than at first, but this change is [[insertion]] so slight that it is [[/insertion]] of no consequence. Moreover, the process is simple, rapid,and sure, even in the hands of a novice. In evidence of this statement it may be said, that Mr. H. English, a young man who has never made a microscopical mount before, in the summer of 1884 made 117 preparations of fibres in fluid mounts, [[insertion]] from printed instructions [[/insertion]] precisely as described below [[strikethrough]] after [[/strikethrough]] having seen the operations performed [[insertion]] two or three times [[/insertion]] by an experienced mounter. Yet not one of [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] his preparations has shown an imperfection [[strikethrough]] to date [[/strikethrough]] up to the present time. The method is as follows: The fibres are cleaned, disintegrated, and prepared precisely as for microscopical investigation, the object being to make the mounted specimens
Preparing Moun
2 resemble in every respect the freshly prepared fibres. The specimens for mounting are selected to show the variations in [[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] size of the fibres, and the forms of their ends. They are then placed in the mounting medium which may be water without any addition, which is the [[strikethrough]] best ger [[/strikethrough]] medium most generally appropriate, or a mixture of water and glycerin in equal parts, which is to be recommended for the coarser & more opaque varieties. The glass [[slides?]] are prepared in advance by running upon them a thin ring of clear shellac in alcohol, just large enough to receive the cover-glass. This is done on a turn-table, in the usual way. When this ring is thoroughly dry the mounting may be proceeded with. First put the slide again on the turn-table and run a fresh coat of [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] shellac over the ring. Then immediately, or after a couple of minutes, put [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] a large drop of the mounting fluid into the cell, transfer to it the specimen selected for mounting, which must be already permeated with the fluid, apply the cover-glass, & press out the superfluous fluid. Press down the cover until the edge comes in contact [[insertion]] all around [[/insertion]] with the
3 fresh shellac, absorbing the liquid that is forced out [[strikethrough]] t [[/strikethrough]] with [[strikethrough]] pro [[/strikethrough]] blotting paper. The slide may then be set aside for a few moments when the cover will be secured, & the moisture outside will be dried off, or, in case the mounting medium contained glycerin, the [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] slide should first be well washed with a [[strikethrough]] curr [[/strikethrough]] stream of water from a wash-bottle. A fresh ring of shellac is then applied to secure the cover-glass, & prevent any possible defect in the sealing. The preparation will now keep indefinitely, if it is set aside & not handled roughly. [[strikthrough]] T [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] For [[/strikethrough]] To ensure permanent preservation a [[strikethrough]] frisab [[/strikethrough]] mixture of equal parts of gold-size and asphalt varnish, or Brunswick black, is applied over the shellac. One or more coats of this very durable & elastic varnish will [[strikethrough]] ensure [[/strikethrough]] protect the more brittle shellac, & give a good finish to the mounts. A more elegant finish is finally applied, consisting of a single coat of [[strikethrough]] pure Bruns [[/strikethrough]] Brunswick black alone. Finally the slide is labelled, and the number on the label is the [[strikethrough]] code [[/strikethrough]]serial number of the original specimen in the Museum Register. --------
[[circled]] [[&c?]] [[/circled]] ? [[blue pencil]] Foods and Textiles [[/blue pencil]] [[stamped]] EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913. [[/stamped]] [[underlined]] Report upon the Section's of in the U.S. National Museum, 1889 [[/underlined]] By [[underlined]] Romyn Hitchock, Acting Curator. [[/underlined]] The time covered by this report is from the middle of January of the present year to the end of June. A review of the work of these six months would be merely a record of routine in restoring order out of the chaotic condition in which the section was found on my return from Japan. I am happy to state that at the present time the material in my charge is all [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] accessible and arranged with some system. This applies to material belonging to [[insertion]] ^ the [[/insertion]] exhibition, reserve & study series, as well as to a large number of duplicates for exchanges. In addition to the work of
2 rearrangement of old specimens, which has involved the withdrawal of a great quantity of material from storage, [[strikethrough]] a considerable [[/strikethrough]] new accessions have been cared for. Among the more important of these may be mentioned my own collection from Japan, which has been temporarily installed in the cases [[strikethrough]] forming [[/strikethrough]] along the west wall of the north hall. The record of accessions during the year has been quite small, doubtless owing to the long absence of the curator. A box from Kew gardens contined a valuable collection of fibres foods, drugs and other articles, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] Valuable contributions or
3 deposits are constantly being received from the Department of State, sent by the consular representatives of the government in various parts of the world. The Solvay Process Co. of Syracuse has presented a very full line of products illustrating the manufacturer of soda from common salt. Other valuable additions to the Chemical collections have been promised & can be secured whenever they are desired. Two very valuable collections made by myself among the Ainos of Japan, are on the way from that country, but owing to delays in shipment they are not yet
4 at hand. These will probably form the best Aino collection in the country. [[left margin: blue line from here to the bottom of the page]] It is perhaps quite proper for me to state that the character of the work I have been obliged to perform myself since my return, has rendered it impracticable for me to write up my Japanese & Aino notes for publication. The material to be cared for in the museum has, in the absence of competent assistance, obliged me to [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] devote all my time during office hours to a daily routine which could as well be carried on by a clerk &
5 preparator. I have therefore, been quite constantly engaged at home on my Japanese writing, [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] and in the next annual report I hope to include some notices of published articles of value. I may say that my travels in Yezo, during the summer of 1888, covered a distance of more than 800 miles, and led me through a portion of the country scarcely known to foreigners. My photographs taken on the way, will effectually settle the question as to the hairy nature of the pure Aino stock, which the observations in the north-east coast cannot
6 fail to be of interest. In Japan proper, in addition to observations on the customs & life of the people, I have given special study to their mythology & [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] ancient burial. My travels were extended over many [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] parts remote from large cities & towns, where the people have not been affected by foreign influences. I have a very valuable series of photographs, many of them taken to illustrate the religion of the people, and some to show the burial mounds, dolmens & rock-caves. In addition to these I have
7 [[left margin: blue line from here to the bottom of the page]] about 75 excellent negatives of choice Japanese paintings, all from originals by artists of note, & illustrating some of the most famous schools of native art. It is hoped that I can be relieved of the work that has thus far required my constant attention, [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] in order that the valuable material thus briefly alluded to may be rendered available during the coming year.
8 [[left margin: blue line from here to the bottom of the page]] I may also add, that on a small island off the coast of Yezo I found probably the last vestiges of a people still living in houses built over pits, such as it is supposed were formerly [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] common throughout Yezo. The remains of what are supposed to have been pit-dwellings are to be seen in many places in Yezo, [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] but the evidence that they were inhabited is based mostly upon Aino tradition [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] It was my good fortune not only to visit the pit dwellings ^[[insert]] but also [[/insert]] [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] to photograph them. In a few years they will doubtless disappear, as the small remnant of people is dying out.
9 [[underline]] Chemicals, Foods, Gums, Dyes etc. [[/underline]] [[blue line down entire left margin]] A statement of the number of specimens in the reserve, exhibition & duplicate series would be of no significance at present, for the reason that the numbers [[strikethrough]] would [[/strikethrough]] will be totally changed within a week of the time of writing. In order to properly arrange the exhibition series, it will be necessary to withdraw all the specimens from the cases & reclassify them, for the reason that during my absence many changes & additions were made without much regard to the plan of classification. Another reason is that it is desirable to withdraw from exhibition entirely certain series of specimens, to make room
10 [[blue line down entire left margin]] for others of a more generally interesting character. The space allotted to technological material is entirely too small for the display of [[strikethrough]] [?] [[/strikethrough]] the valuable & interesting specimens which the museum already possesses. The specimens must be preserved & held in expectation of finding place for them in future & when the time for their installation comes, it will be found that the accumulated material is of far greater value than would be supposed from the present crowded condition of the cases & storage drawers.
11 [[double underline]] Textiles [[/double underline]] The number of specimens on exhibition in the [[strikethrough]] NW [[/strikethrough]] NE court of the museum is 1.118 These are now mounted, for exhibition in the museum, as soon as sufficient space can be provided, 107 unit boxes of textile fibres & fabrics & 5 double unit boxes of fabrics. These are now prepared for storage. A very valuable set of type-specimens of wool, from the principal wool growing countries of the world, [[strikethrough]] as [[/strikethrough]] is also on storage. These specimens are very well mounted & it is to be regretted that they cannot be shown in cases or at least placed when they can be
12 examined when occasion requires. The same may be said of certain specimens of cotton. There are also on storage 27 unit boxes of mounted textiles which will not be required in the museum, but as the specimens are all good & well prepared, it has been deemed best to preserve them ready for use whenever it becomes necessary for the museum to take part in expositions elsewhere. The study-series at present contains 390 specimens, principally of fibres, numerically arranged & catalogued.
10 [[double underline]] Catalogues [[/double underline]] The last entry in the textiles catalogue June 1888 was 8139 June 1889 8217 In the food catalogue June 1888 876 June 1889 911 [[blue line around top and left side of below]] When I went to Japan, in 1886, I reserved a series of numbers in my register for my own use there, to avoid necessity of renumbering specimens on my return. These numbers began with 4501 and the last entry in June, 1889, is 4761. These numbers apply only to the specimens collect by me in Japan. I have recent received, from
14 The Hon. Curator of Materia Medica, a catalogue of chemical compounds, in which, however, some entries of drugs have been made. This book will hereafter be used for the chemical preparations that may be received. My own entries in the book now range from 78051 to 78067.
15 [[strikethrough]] and all following[[/strikethrough]] In a communication addressed to you, dated Feb. 8th, of the present year, I suggested a plan for the chemical exhibit, which I proposed should be printed for circulation among chemists & manufacturers. As that time you were not prepared to act upon the matter, and the plan remains still to be considered. It seems to me that the time has come when the museum may well undertake to build up a [[strikethrough]]chemical[[/strikethrough]] collection illustrating [[strikethrough]]the[[/strikethrough]] pure chemistry & the chemical industries, such as cannot ^[[now]] be found in any instruction in this
16 country. I therefore [[return?]] to present my provisional schema once more for your consideration, not as an essential part of this report, but as an appendix, to be published with it ^[[should]] it meet with your sanction & approval. I offer it not as a well developed plan, but rather as a suggestive outline of what seems to me a practicable & desirable basis of work, to be added to and modified according to the results of experience. [[strikethrough]]Very Respectfully R Hitchcock curator Food & Textiles July 8/89 [[/strikethrough]]
1 [[underlined]] Provisional Plan of a Collection to Illustrate Chemistry and the Chemical Industries.[[/underlined]] By [[underlined]] Romyn Hitchcock [[/underlined]] The scheme here roughly outlined is presented merely to indicate the character and objects of a collection to illustrate chemistry and the chemical industries in the United States National Museum. The arrangement proposed is only provisional, to serve as a basis for systematic work, subject to such additions & modifications as experience may suggest. General Divisions A. Chemical Physics
[[underline]]2[[/underline]] B. Pure Chemistry C. Applied Chemistry D. Analytical [[double underline]]Chemistry[[/double underline]] & Research A. Chemical Physics 1. Conditions of Matter Solid. Liquid. Gas. 2. Crystallization [[strikethrough]]3. Atoms & Molecules[[/strikethrough]] 3. Chemical Theory Atoms, Molecules, Volume Weigh 4. Vapor Density 5. Heat Specific. Atomic. Molecular. Combination. 6. Apparatus for Physical Research.
[[underline]]3[[/underline]] B. Pure Chemistry 1 Elements 2 Inorganic Compounds 3 Organic Compounds C. Applied Chemistry. Acids, Alkalies, Glass, Porcelain, Soap, Candles Glycerin, Paints, Dyes, Coal-tar Products, Fermentation, Distillation etc. D. Analytical Chemistry & Research. Laboratory apparatus & special apparatus for research.
[[underlined]] 4 [[/underlined]] B. Pure Chemistry. [[superscript]] [[HA?]] [[/superscript]] [[strikethrough]]B[[/strikethrough]]1. Elements. - An excellent series of chemical elements is already on exhibition in the Museum, including specimens of Lithium, Rubidium, Caisium, Thallium, Indium, Gallium, Thorium, Rhodium, Ruthenium & other rare metals. Other specimens can be obtained, and already Professor F. W. Clarke has promised a specimen of the new metal Gallium. It is proposed to keep the elements in a collection by themselves.
[[underline]] 5 [[/underline]] 2-3. Compounds.- A large number of compounds is now on exhibition, particularly belonging to the inorganic series. The ordinary preparations are easily obtained as required, but a fraction of this exhibit will be products of special research, donated or deposited by investigators in chemistry. Several such compounds are already available for display, & it is hoped that chemists will [[strikethrough]] co [[/strikethrough]] regard this collection as the best repository for the preservation & exhibition of the
[[underline]] 6 [[/underline]] results of their investigations. C. Manufactures.- This division is a natural offshoot of all the others and naturally is, to some extent, included in them. It is intended to embrace only the greater manufacturing industries which, by reason of the special arrangement & space required by each, would break into regular series of elements and compounds. In every case when an exhibit is made in this division it is intended to represent the processes
7 of manufacture as fully as possible. by showing raw materials, intermediate & [[strikethrough]] [[?unreadable]] [[/strikethrough]] by-products, and the principal grades of finished articles, with illustrative drawings or photographs when they can be obtained. Each article or series of articles will have its proper descriptive label attached. Finished products alone will not, as a rule, be placed in this division, the ^[[main]] object being not to show products but processes, & it is necessary to impose this restriction in order that the division may not be overwhelmed with donations of specimens which
8 do not [[strikethrough]] quite [[/strikethrough]] meet with its requirements. The nucleus for this division is already at hand, the latest accession being a series of seventeen specimens illustrating the manufacture of soda by the Solvay process. Fermintation & Distillation.- This will be a subdivision naturally including the manufacture of beer, wine, and other alcoholic preparations. It will afford opportunity to collect & exhibit various alcoholic beverages from distant parts of the world, most of which are only known
[[underline]] 9 [[/underline]] by name from the accounts of travellers. D. Analytical Chemistry & Research.- This division will include principally various forms of apparatus for special work in analysis & research. [[strikthrough]]It [[/strikethrough]] It would aim to become a historical record of progress & would ensure recognition of priority of invention of improved apparatus to those to whom it is due. The exhibition of improved forms of apparatus for special purposes would be of great interest to chemists.
[[centered]] 17 [[/centered]] Acknowledgments. [[Printed clipping pasted onto page]] the following rules for the acknowledgment of specimens will be adhered to: [[strikethrough]] 1. [[/strikethrough]] Each contribution will be recognized by a formal written acknowledgment from the Director. [[strikethrough]] 2. [[/strikethrough]] Each contribution will be published in the annual reports of Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum; and in the catalogues and other publications of these establishments in which the objects contributed may be alluded to, the name of the contributor will always be given. [[strikethroghu]] 3. [[/strikethrough]] On the label, which is invariably attached to every object, the name of the contributor will be conspicuously printed. In the case of donations the form will be "Gift of [[2 lines denoting blank space]]," and where the objects have been obtained by special exertions of a friend of the Museum, who, however, is not their donor, the form will be "Obtained by [[2 lines denoting blank space]]," or "Collected by [[2 lines denoting blank space]]." [[Image: horizontal line, colophon character, horizontal line]]
1 Reports Curators File Jan. - June, 1889 [[/underline]] REPORT UPON THE SECTIONS OF FOOD AND TEXTILES, IN THE U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1889. [[/underline]] BY [[/underline]] ROMYN HITCHCOCK, ACTING CURATOR. EXAMINED BY MR. RATHBUN MARCH 1913 The time covered by this report is from the middle of January of the present year to the middle of June. A review of the work of these six months would be merely a record of routine in restoring order out of the chaotic condition in which the section was found on my return from Japan. I am happy to state that at the present time the material in my charge is all accessible and arranged with some system. This applies to material belonging to the exhibition, reserve and study series, as well as to a large number of duplicates for exchanges In addition to the work of rearrangement of old specimens, which has involved the withdrawal of a great quantity of material from storage, new accessions have been cared for. [[strikethrough]] Among the more important of thses may be mentioned my own collection from Japan, which has been cared for. [[/strikethrough]] Among the more important of these may be mentioned my own collection from Japan, which has
^[[2]] 2. been temporarily installed in the cases along the west wall of the north hall. The record of accessions during the year has been quite small, doubtless owing to the long absence of the Curator. A box from Kew Gardens contained a valuable collection of fibers, foods, drugs and other articles. Valuable contributions or deposits are constantly being received from the Department of State, sent by the consular representatives of the government in various parts of the world. The Solway Process Co. of Syracuse has presented a very full line of products illustrating the manufacture of soda from common salt. Other valuable additions to the chemical collection have been promised and can be secured whenever they are desired. Two very valuable collections made by myself, among the Ainos of Japan, are on the way from that country, but owing to the delays in shipments they are not yet at hand. These will probably form the best Aino collection in the country. It is perhaps quite proper for me to state that the
3 character of the work I have been obliged to perform myself since my return, has rendered it impracticable for me to write up my Japanese and Aino notes for publication. The material to be cared for in the Museum has, in the absence of competent assistance, obliged me to devote all my time during office hours to a daily return which could as well be carried out by a clerk and preparator. I have, therefore, been quite constantly engaged at home on my Japanese writing, and in the next annual report I hope to include some notices of published articles of value. I may say that my travels in Yezo, during the summer of 1888, covered the distance of more than 800 miles, and led me through a portion of the country scarcely known to foreigners. My photograph ^[[ s ]] taken on the way, will effectually settle the question as to the hairy nature of the pure Aino stock, while the observations in the north-east coast cannot fail to be of interest. In Japan proper, in addition to observations on the customs and life of the people, I have given special study to their mythology and ancient burial. My travels were extended over many parts remote from large cities and towns, where the people have not been affect-
4 ed by foreign influences. I have a very valuable series of photographs, many of them taken to illustrate the religion of the people, and some to show the burial mounds, dolmens and rock-caves. In addition to these I have about 75 excellent negatives of choice Japanese paintings, all from originals by artists of note, and illustrating some of the most famous schools of native art. It is hoped that I can be relieved of the work that has thus far occupied my attention, in order that the valuable material thus briefly alluded to may be rendered available during the present year. I may also add, that on a small island off the coast of Yezo I found probably the last vestiges of the people still living in houses over pits, such as it is supposed were formerly common throughout Yezo. The remains of what are supposed to have been pit-dwellings are to be seen in many places in Yezo, but the evidence that they were inhabited is based mostly on Aino traditions. It was my good fortune not only to visit the pit-dwellings, but also to photograph them. In a few years they will doubtless disappear, as the small remnant of people is dying out.
5 [[double underline]]CHEMICALS, FOODS, GUMS, DYES ETC.[[/Double underline]] A statement of the number of specimens in the reserve, exhibition and duplicate series would be of no significance at present, for the reason that the numbers will be totally changed within a week of the time of writing. In order to properly arrange the exhibition series, it [[strikethrough]] wl [[/strikethrough]] will be necessary to withdraw all the specimens from the cases and classify them, for the reason that during my absence many changes and additions were made without much regard to the plan of classification. Another reason is that it is desirable to withdraw from exhibition entirely, certain series of specimens, to make room for others of a more generally interesting character. The space allotted to technological material is entirely too small for the display of the valuable interesting specimens which the Museum already pos ^[[s]]esses. The speci- ^[[mens]] must be preserved and held in expectation of finding place for them in future, and when the time for their installation comes, it will be found that the accumulated material is of far greater value than would be supposed from the present crowded condition of the cases and storage drawers.
[[centered]] 6: [[/centered]] [[centered]][[double underline]] TEXTILES. ^[[/Double underline]] [[/centered]] The number of specimens on exhibition on the N. E. Court of the Museum is 1,118. There are now mounted, for exhibition in the Museum as soon as sufficient space can be provided, 107 unit boxes of textile fibers and fabrics and five double unit boxes of fabrics. These are now prepared for storage. A very valuable set of type-specimens of wool, from the principal wool growing countries of the world, is also on storage. These specimens are very well mounted, and it is to be regretted that they cannot be shown in cases, or at leats placed where they can be examined when occasion requires. The same may be said of certain specimens of cotton. There are also on storage 27 unit boxes of mounted textiles which will not be required in the Museum, but as the specimens are all good and well prepared, it has been deemed best to preserve them ready for use whenever it becomes necessary for the Museum to take part in expositions elsewhere. The study series at present contains 390 specimens, principally of fibers, numerically arranged and ca ^[[talogued.]]
[[centered]] ^[[ [[underline]] 7 [[/underline]] ]] [[/centered]] [[centered]] CATALOGUES. [[/centered]] The last entry in the textiles catalogue June 1888 was 8139 June 1889 8217 In the food catalogue June 1888 876 June 1889 911 When I went to Japan, in 1886, I reserved a series of numbers in my register for my own use there, to avoid the necessity of remembering specimens on my return. These numbers began with 4501 and the last entry in June 1889, is 4761. These numbers apply only to the specimens collected by me in Japan. I have recently received from the Hon. Curator of Materia Medica, a catalogue of chemical compounds, in which however, some entries of drugs have been made. This book will hereafter be used for the chemical preparations that may be received. My own entries in the book now range from 78051 to 78067.
From here on keep as a separate paper
[[preprinted]] SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM ______________ [[/PREPRINTED]]
^[[ [[underline]] new page [[/underline]] ]][[centered]] [[double underline]] 8. [[/underline]] [[/centered]] ^[[ [[centered]] [[underline]] Plan for Chemical Exhibit. [[/underline]] ]] ^[[ [[centered]] By Roymn Hitchcock, 1889. [[/centered]] ]] In a communication addressed to you, dated February 8, of the present year, I suggested a plan for the chemical exhibit, which I proposed should be printed for circulation among chemists and manufacturers. At that time you were not prepared to act upon the matter, and the plan remain still to be considered. It seems to me that the time has come when the Museum may well undertake to build up a collection illustrating pure chemistry and the chemical industries, such as cannot now be found in any institutionin ^[[ vertical line separating the 2 previous words ]] the country. I therefore venture to present my provisional scheme once more for your consideration, not as an essential part of this report, but as an appendix, to be published with it should meet with your approval. I offer it, not as a well developed plan, but rather as a suggestive outline of what seems to me a practicable and desirable basis of work, to be added to the results of experience. [[Triple underline]] PROVISIONAL PLAN OF A COLLECTION TO ILLUSTRATE CHEMISTRY AND THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. BY ROMYN HITCHCOCK. [[/underline]] The scheme here roughly outlined is presented merely to indicate the character and objects of a collection
^[[ [[centered]] [[double underline]] 9 [[/underline]] [[/centered]] ]] to illustrate chemistry and the chemical industries in the United States National Museum. The arrangement proposed is only provisional, to serve as a basis for systematic work, subject to such additions and modifications as experience may suggest. [[centered]] General Divisions. [[/centered]] A. Chemical Physics. B. Pure Chemistry. C. Applied Chemistry. D. Analytical Chemistry and Research. A. Chemical Physics. 1. Conditions of Matter. Solid, Liquid, Gas. 2. Crystallization. 3. Chemical Theory Atoms, Molecules, Volume, Weight. 4. Vapor Density 5. Heat Specific, Atomic, Molecular, Combination 6. Apparatus for Physical Research. B. Pure Chemistry 1. Elements
^[[ [[centered]] [[underline]] 10. [[/underline]] [[/centered]] ]] 2. Inorganic Compounds. 3. Organic Compounds C. Applied Chemistry. Acids, Alkalis, Glass, Porcelain, Soap, Candles, Glycerin, Paints, Dyes, Coal-Tar Products, Fermentation, Distillation, etc. D. Analytical Chemistry and Research. Laboratory apparatus and special apparatus for research. B. Pure Chemistry. 1. Elements. – An excellent series of chemical elements is already on exhibition in the Museum, including specimens of Lithium, Rubidium, Caesium, ^[[Small line connecting the "a" and "e" ]] Thallium, ^[[ Indium, Gallium, Thorium, ]] Rhodium, Ruthenium and other rare metals. Other specimens can be obtained, and already Professor F. W. Clarke has promised a specimen of the new metal Gallium. It is proposed to keep the elements in a collection by themselves.
^[[ [[centered]] [[underline]] 11 [[/underline]] [[/centered]] ]] 2 – 3. Compounds. – A large number of compounds is now on exhibition, particularly belonging to the inorganic series.The ordinary preparations are easily obtained as required, but a feature of this exhibit will be products of special research, donated or deposited by investigators in chemistry.Several such compounds are already available for display, and it is hoped that chemists will regard this collection as the best repository and exhibition of the results of their investigations. C. Manufactures. – This division is a natural offshoot of all the others and naturally is, to some extent, included in them. It is intended to embrace only the greater manufacturing industries which, by reason of the special arrangement and space required by each, would break into the regular series of elements and compounds. In every case where an exhibit is made in this division it is intended to represent the processes of manufacture as fully as possible, by showing raw materials intermediate and by-products, and the principal grades of finished articles, with illustrative drawings or photographs when they can be obtained. Each article or series of articles will have its proper descriptive label
^[[ [[centered]] [[underline]] 12 [[/underline]] [[/centered]] ]] attached. Finished products alone will not, as a rule, be placed in this division, the main object being not to show products but processes, and it is necessary to impose this restriction in order that the division may not be overwhelmed with donations of specimens which do not meet [[strikethru]] with [[/strikethru]] with its requirements. The nucleus for this division is already at hand the latest accessoin being a series of 17 specimens illustrating the manufacture of soda by the Solway process. Fermentation and Distillation. – This will be a subdivision naturally including the manufacture of beer, wine, and other alcoholic preparations. It will afford opportunity to collect and exhibit various alcoholic beverages from distant parts of the world, most of which are only knownby ^[[ Vertical line separating the previous 2 words ]]name from accounts of travelers. D. Analytical Chemistry and Research. – This division will include principally various forms of appar ^[[ a ]] tus for special working analysis and research. It would aim to become a historical record of progress and would ensure recognition of priority of ^[[, ]] invention of improved [[strikethru]] illegible [[/strikethru]]
[[underline]] 13. [[/underline]] apparatus to those to whom it is due. The exhibition of improved forms of apparatus for [[underline]] special purposes [[/underline]] would be of great interest to chemists. [[underline]] Do not copy beyond this.[[/underline]] ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The following rules for the acknowledgement of specimens will be adhered to: Each comtribution will be recognized by a formal written acknowledgement from the Director. Each contribution will be published in the annual reports of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum; and in the catalogues and other publications of these establishments in which the objects contributed may be alluded to, the name of the contributor will always be given. On the label which is invariably attached to every object, the name of the contributor will be conspicuously printed. In the case of donations the form will be "Gift of ____ ____," and where the objects have been obtained by special exertions of a friend of the Museum, who, however, is not their donor, the form will be "Obtained by _____ _____," or "Collected by _____ _____."
[[strikethrough]] Dep file [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Jul. 1889 [[/underlined]] Copy [[underlined]] all [[/underlined]] Curators Rep. - Textiles R. Hitchcock Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Sm. Inst. Dear Sir:- In presenting my first monthly Report since my return, the record of work done is necessarily very short. It consists in the unpacking & arranging of the Japanese collection in the cases on the west side of the north hall, and such office-work as [[insertion]] has [[/insertion]] required attention from time to time. Much more could have been accomplished had my requisition for assistance been favorable acted upon; but working alone, there are not only many details that occupy valuable time but also numerous delays, which it has seemed impossible to anticipate by requisition or orders for work. However, you are already well aware of these facts, and I merely state them as matters of fact, in explanation
[[underlined]]2[[/underlined]] of my neglect of certain matters that seem deserving of immediate attention, but which involve far more work than one person can profitably carry on. I take this occasion, therefore, to present a report concerning what in my opinion should be done, for the proper preservation & utilization of the material in my charge. 1. [[underlined]] Food collections. [[/underlined]] - I do not know exactly in what relation I now stand to this collection. Nominally it is in my charge, but I believe Prof. Atwater is the Hon. Curator of Foods. Now, I would like to have my position defined. If Prof. Atwater is to assume active work upon the collections, apart from the chemical & purely scientific work which has hitherto alone been engaging his attention, I think the fact should be
3 stated. There is a difference between the work of Prof. Atwater, and the work of studying & arranging the foods of different countries & races of men for museum purposes. The collections are in good order - or at least they were so when I went away in 1886 - and a considerable number of labels can be furnished by revision of the [[?]] - a matter of a few hours. I will be pleased to hand the entire collection, labels, and all that pertains to it, to Prof. Atwater at any time. On the other hand, I am also quite willing to attend to the cataloguing & preservation of new specimens, & their installation also if desired, but in doing so I would wish to have my connection with the work recognized by a proper title. I should think that in a case like
4 this, Acting Curator would not serve well, but Associate Curator might be better. The more routine of cataloguing & mounting does not deserve the title of Curator, but if classifying & labeling are required such a title would only be proper, under the present circumstances. I respectfully offer the suggestions above, & request to have my position defined. [[underlined]] 2. Textiles Collection. [[/underlined]] - This collection embraces raw materials and manufactured fabrics. Before I went away I could refer in a moment to any specimen in the collection, whether on exhibition or elsewhere. During my absence the drawer of my desk was broken open, not by forcing the lock, but by more destructive means, which resulted in the complete disarrangement of my index-cards, the intermingling of
[[underlined]]5[[/underlined]] cards of different series, and I find it is impossible to rearrange them. First of all, then, I regard it as imperative, as the first step out of the confusion, to go over the entire collection of raw materials, and index them for reference. I presume the great value of the collection of textile fibres lies in their industrial uses. The exhibit may be interesting to visitors in a general way, but certainly its chief value will be to manufacturers of textiles, who will be glad to see the various fibres of the world, & their uses illustrated. As this exhibit becomes known it will attract visitors who wish to examine fibres from distant places. Without an index-catalogue it is impossible to find the fibre, unless the Curator happens to know where it is. Recently an officer of the museum wished to obtain a
[[underlined]]6[[/underlined]] specimen for experiment. I was unable to furnish it, although I am confident that we have an abundance of the material somewhere. A correspondent, through a congressman, recently desired an opinion concerning a sample of fibre. It was impossible to give it because my reference-series is on storage. Moreover, for all such questions a microscopical examination of the fibre is important. The great object of a textiles collection is lost to the people most interested - to the manufacturers of fabrics - by our inability to comply with requests such as the above. Moreover, it is not fair to the Curator in charge to refer to him questions which he should be able to answer, without affording him the facilities for acquiring the necessary information. I am aware that you
[[underlined]]7[[/underlined]] question the propriety of undertaking microscopical work in this department. All that has been done in the past, has been with my own microscope and accessories. This department has no microscope. Yet, it seems to me, we cannot do without such work. The museum must be prepared to answer questions - at least I think that is one of its purposes - and it is simply impossible to do so without apparatus for study - just as impossibly in the matter of fibres, as in entomology or lithology for examples. The next step would be to prepare an index to the reference-series of fibres. This series is a necessity, to afford readily available specimens for comparison & microscopical examination. It contains only well authenticated specimens, & is intended to represent every fibre
[[underlined]]8[[/underlined]] in use. It is already tolerably complete so far as our collections go, but, unfortunately, it is in storage, & perhaps very much disarranged. In order to put the textiles collection in order, all the material on storage must be unpacked, much of it will be rejected & thus considerable space freed at the Armory. But as it will be impossible to use all the mounted material in the museum, much of it must be returned to storage. This is sure to result in the destruction of specimens that are extremely valuable. Among these are, especially, specimens of wool, & woolen fabrics. The very valuable & complete series of wools form Mr. G. W. Bond, of Boston - a series especially valuable because of its completeness & accurate classifica -
[[underlined]]9[[/underlined]] tion - is likely to be ruined. I believe, however, that the unit-boxes, in which so much good material is mounted, could be placed, like drawers, in high frames or supports at the armory, so that they would be available for reference or inspection. The destruction of specimens would then be effectually prevented by occasional inspection, with great saving in storage space. Moreover, it would not then be necessary to say to a visitor - "Yes, we have it, but it is stored & cannot be shown."
10 3. [[underlined]] Chemical Collection. [[/underlined]] - A plan for the chemical collection was drawn up and presented to you during the month, but it is still in your hands. The more I have thought of this matter, the more feasible and attractive it seems. So far as I know it will be in several respects a new departure in chemical exhibits, & I trust the matter will receive your attention before long.
11 In conclusion, I would say that it is impossible for one person to carry on all this work, and to do it properly, that is also economically, I should have one person to write & do office work generally, and a laboring man to overhaul material, carry trays, etc. & to act also as a Preparator. I trust that it may be possible, in the near future to accord such assistance as the proper conduct of my work requires. The very small space I have for office & preparatory work, seems to render some provision for storage of catalogued & classified material absolutely necessary. It is impossible to store it in my rooms, & yet it must be stored. The plan of storage for unit boxes already mentioned seems to point the way out of the difficulty, and I am under the
12 impression that some such scheme will have to be adopted, in order that such specimens as fibres may be mounted in proper order, previous to their exhibition in the cases. Respectfully submitted Romyn Hitchcock Feb. 28th 1889.
Curators Reports Textiles. March 89 R. Hitchcock Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Sm. Inst. Dear Sir:- I herewith present my monthly report covering the work in my department for the month of March. The time ha been mostly occupied in overhauling the textiles that are in table cases, belonging mostly to duplicate and reserve series, preparatory to rearranging & classifying such as are of value, & discarding others. Mr. Earle has arranged to let me have the drawers in the small room next to my office, which will enable me to dispose of a considerable bulk of material until it can be mounted. Mr. S. C. Brown has offered me temporary use of some space in his store-rooms, where I shall be able to arrange unit boxes containing mounted specimens. I shall thus
be enabled to arrange my textiles in order and make them accessible for examination. There is, however, a superabundance of manufactured fabrics which must be reduced in some way, & I have thought this might be advantageously done by a system of mounting on uniform cards to be preserved in drawers for the inspection of visitors who may be interested. I have, therefore, already suggested to you such a scheme which has met with your approval, and I purpose adopting it next month.
During the month manuscript copy for 535 labels have been sent in, for the Government Printer. These labels were mostly written before I went away in 1886, but not being then complete, they have been revised & partly rewritten & are now desired for use in the museum. Among them are 265 for Indian Foods, & they will add very much to the interest of that valuable collection.
In connection with the chemical exhibits, a number of recent books are absolutily necessary in my sectional library. The processes of chemical manufacture are constantly changing, and not only are recent books of reference required, but several of the leading chemical journals should be on file in my office. A requisition for the purchase of several such books has been sent in, but I am not aware that it has been acted upon. I have prepared a few labels of chemicals to test the working of the plan already proposed for this exhibit in a letter which you have read. I find the plan quite practicable & open to further development Respectfully Mar 8 of 89 R Hitchcock
[[note in blue in top margin]] Copy all except this letter [[/note in blue in top margin]] Apr. 1889 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Smiths. Inst. Dear Sir:- I herewith enclose my report for the month of April 1889. I would especially request your perusal of the few words I have ventured to offer concerning the disposition of the Indian foods, which involve the principle that a Curator should work for the welfare of the museum as a whole rather than for a fine display in his own department. Yours very truly R Hitchcock April 30/89 file
1 The unit boxes containing textiles that have been on storage for some time, have been unpacked and examined. The contents of 42 unit boxes have been removed & the boxes returned to the Engineer of Property. The specimens thus removed were mounted for the New Orleans & other exhibitions, and are no longer of use. Twenty-seven unit boxes containing textile fabrics mounted for display are reserved, not for use in the museum, but to be in readiness for any call that may be received to take part in a future exhibition. Sixty-two unit boxes and five double-unit boxes of textiles are reserved for use in the museum when space permits. A list of contents of the boxes reserved is to be found in my office.
2 I would once more call your attention to the necessity that devolves upon me to spend a considerable part of my time in work which could as well be done by any person who can read and write. In order to get my collections in order such work must be done, and I am very unwillingly forced to so it myself, knowing that my time could be much more profitably employed. After long waiting there is a prospect that the drawers can be arranged in my [[underlined]] ante-room [[/underlined]] during the present week, when I shall be able to classify all the material in my charge, which will be done during the coming month, if there are no delays in withdrawing articles from storage. I deem it unfortunate that I am obliged to keep the E balcony in some disorder, but this will only continue until the work of classification is complete.
3 A collection from Kew was delivered to me early in the month, which I unpacked immediately, selected the material belonging to my sections and delivered the rest to the Registrar for distribution among the other curators. Three fine lots of Australian & New Zealand wools have been delivered to me, one of which has been arranged in boxes for ready reference. The other specimens remain in their original exhibition cases. Large collections of wools are undoubtedly of considerable value, but it is difficult to know how to care for them. If sealed up they are practically useless for examination, if not sealed they are liable to attacks of moths.
4 As the food collections are at present arranged those products which represent the foods of primitive peoples are shown in cases which, if the plan were carried out in detail, would eventually contain all the food products of the world. Such a collection might be of some interest; but it seems to me that the great value of these articles lies in their association with the people who use them. It may be said that uncivilized tribes utilize the natural products of the country in which they live & that therefore their foods are purely a matter of geographical position. This is undoubtedly true, and I have recognized this fact in arranging, for example, the foods of the Indians of North America by themselves. In my opinion, it would be quite impracticable to subdivide this collection so as to show the products used by different [[insertion]] nations or [[/insertion]] tribes of Indians, because it is only occasionally that such subdivision could be made that would have a characteristic value, and even then it would not represent anything more than an incidental fact, due to the varied resources of the country. Now, in my opinion, all
5 the Indian foods should be placed in the Ethnological Hall as a part of the Indian collections. I do not, indeed, propose that they should be transferred to the charge of the Curator of Ethnology. It would seem impossible that any individual could cover the whole field of Ethnology & properly study & describe every variety of the articles included therein. Cooperation among the Curators of different departments will become more or less necessary as the collections become more & more complete & comprehensive, and the interests of the individual must be subordinate to the necessities of proper display. In the particular case now under discussion, it seems to me, that the Curator of foods should retain the foods in charge, classify and label them; for the systematic arrangement and labelling of natural
[[centered]] 6 [[/centered]] products does not come within the range of Ethnology. Moreover, the card-catalogue and index-cards, and all information pertaining to foods, are properly to be found in the office of the curator of Foods, wherever the specimens may be. In connection with the food products, the grinding apparatus for preparing meal, winnowing and other devices, which are very properly in the ethnological collections, can be shown in their proper places, thus adding greatly to the interest of the collection. Thus only can articles which require to be studied by different persons in different sections of the Museum, be brought into their natural relations for exhibition.
7 As we pass from low to higher stages of civilization the conditions, as regards museum installation, gradually change. [[strikethrough]] As Agr [[/strikethrough]] Rude methods of agriculture lead to the improvement of the natural productions and perhaps to the introduction of new products. Artificial conditions result, and according to the industry and the ingenuity of the people, they have better food & better means of preparing it. At a certain point the food products become of greater interest as manufactured articles, and find their proper place in the department of Arts & Industries. Where the separation from the ethnological series should be made, becomes a matter of individual judgement. The question thus raised is met with constantly in connection with other specimens. Machinery for grinding meal or flour affords a good
[[centered]] 8 [[/centered]] example, also apparatus for weaving. On the one hand the stone grinders of savage peoples are interesting as showing from what the great mills of the present have originated. Nevertheless, I cannot think that a collection showing the progress of improvement in this division should be permitted to draw a single stone from the ethnological series, and so long as [[2 words, strikethrough ]] apparatus of any kind is intimately associated with the life of a people, or of the conditions or resources of a country, it should remain among those people in the museum.
[[centered]] 9 [[/centered]] Hitherto my work in this section has been mostly in the line of classification and installation of food products. The collections are now sufficiently advanced to justify a change in the character of the curator's work. All the valuable material on hand is catalogued and on exhibition, and much of it is labelled, or rather the labels for it are written. It is hoped that the opportunity has now come for illustrating the chemical composition of the more important foods and drinks, following the line of the work already so well begun by Prof. Atwater. With [[strikethrough]]in [[/strikethrough]] proper laboratory facilities this can be done in a manner to make the food collection[[strikethrough]]s [[/strikethrough]] a very interesting & attractive feature of the museum. Without such facilities the work involves an amount of labor & time out of all proportion to the results. Where it
[[centered]] 10[[/centered]] is considered that for every specimen a measurement requires to be made which involves a walk to the photographer's, or a weight which involves a call upon the ^[[resources]] [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] of the Survey Laboratory, and that there is not a single article of apparatus furnished by the Museum to facilitate such work, it may be understood that the curator who undertakes such work has but little encouragement. Finally, although it is my desire to make an attractive [[scribble]] display of the specimens in my charge, it is not only impossible to do so in the space at my disposal, but I am reduced to the necessity of removing the whole series of Indian foods from exhibition, to make space for other things. Your own suggestion to store the Indian foods in boxes involves considerable risk to the specimens, and necessarily destroys the classification, which
11 making it practically impossible to get access to any particular article that may be required. I have, therefore, proposed an alternative scheme & suggested that the collection be put in drawers in quarter-unit tables placed in the galleries around the fountain. Very respectfully yours R Hitchcock Curater of Textiles Foods etc April 30/89
^[[July 1889]] ^[[Curators' Reports file Foods and Textiles R. Hitchcock July-November 1889-90]] ^[[Copy all]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Sections of Textiles an Foods Report for the Month of July 1889. At the beginning of the month the east balcony was in the condition of great confusion, being the only place available for the unpacking and arrangement of a large number of specimens recently withdrawn from storage. The entire month was occupied in the work of examining & classifying these specimens. A very large number had been ruined or greatly damaged in storage, others had no labels & could not be identified, and some were not regarded as of any value in the
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 2 collection, for various reasons. A committee on condemnation, which had been appointed in the month of May to examine such articles, made a report on July 5th recommending the condemnation of much of this material. On the approval of this report by the Assistant Secretary, expressed in a letter from the Chief Clerk, July 10th, the material was transferred to the Superintendent of Buildings. The specimens remaining were then divided into different classes, as textiles, foods, oils, gums, resins, chemical products etc., and so far as
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] [[underline]] 3 [[/underline]] possible, systematically arranged in drawers of table-cases, the textiles in the N. E. Court, the other specimens in the S. E. Range. Some specimens of textiles were also mounted in unit boxes for exhibition, but they are stored on the balcony, there being no space for them on the floor of the museum. A large number of duplicates was selected & made up into sets for exchanges. Four boxes containing more than 250 specimens were packed ready for shipment and a memorandum to that effect sent to you on the 22d inst. in response to which you
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] [[underline]] 4 [[/underline]] directing the boxes to be sent to [[Gibby??]] College Cornell University. The list of contents was accordingly proposed & the boxes were sent to the Registrar. Respectfully submitted R. Hitchcock Cur. Textile & c
^[[Aug. 1889]] [[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] Sections of Textiles & Foods Report for the month of August, 1889 The work of clearing up the East balcony was continued and completed. A box of duplicate specimens was prepared for exchange, and a letter was written to Dr. Wittmarch, of Berlin, advising him of the contents therof, & asking if it should be sent to him. This box still remains awaiting his reply. Considerable time was occupied in revising the MS. of labels of Indian food substances, which was then sent to the printer. The percentages composition of
[[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] [[underlined]] 2 [[/underlined]] certain food substances was carefully laid off on a chart for coloring. A series of labels of Japanese lacquer was prepared for the printer, & some attention given to the preparation of labels for the chemical collections. It may now be said that all the technological material in my charge is withdrawn from storage (except such as is mounted in unit boxes ready for exhibition, and some specimens of mounted wools, for which there is no space in the museum.), and is accessible at any time. The arrangement of
[[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] [[underlined]] 3 [[/underlined]] the specimens in groups, however, is only imperfectly carried out, owing to the haste with which it was necessary to distribute them from the balcony, & the limited space available for their storage. Respectfully Submitted R Hitchcock Cur. Textiles &c.
^[[Sep. 1889]] [[pre-printed]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/pre-printed]] Sections of Textiles and Foods Report for the Month of September, 1889. The curator was absent for one month from August 26th, in attendance upon the meeting of the A.A.A.S. at Toronto, and otherwise engaged. Mr. Hargrove was busy for nearly three weeks during my absence in arranging the study series of textiles, cleaning the case illustrating the composition of the human body and reviewing some of the specimens, and in making repairs to the large loom in the Textiles Hall. On my return work was immediately begun on the new collection
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 2 just received from the Ainos of Yezo, Japan. The collection was first catalogued & found to include 135 specimens. The entire collection of Aino articles is not yet at hand. The specimens were temporarily installed in a case in the N. Hall. Respectfully submitted R Hitchcock Curator Textile &c
^[[Oct. 1889]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Sections of Textiles & Foods. Report for the Month of October 1889 The time has been mostly occupied during this month in a careful examination of the Aino collection preparatory to making a report for the next volume of the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. Work upon the report itself was begun early in the month, and carried on as steadily as possible. Some of the specimens were photographed for illustrating the report. Mr. Hargrove has been fully occupied in cleaning & looking over specimens on exhibition, some of
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 2 which was found to be suffering from the attacks of insects. He has also compiled, from various sources, a list of Japanese food-plants, alphabetically arranged under the Japanese names. This list is very useful, containing nearly 1000 names. Respectfully submitted R Hitchcock Curr. Textiles &c
^[[Nov 1889]]\[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Sections of Textiles & Foods Report for the Month of November 1889 On the 5th of November the office of the Curator was removed from the East Balcony to the South-West Pavillion, the smaller office on the East Balcony being reserved for work of a preparatory character & the preservation of specimens not on exhibition. Mr. Luscombe completed a model representing an Aino house, storehouse, bear cage and "sacred hedge" which is an excellent representation of such a house & its surroundings. This model was made from photographs and measurements
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 2 of my own. Paymaster H.R. Smith, U.S.N., who was recently in Japan, has kindly loaned two dozen of his negatives to the Curator, in order that prints may be made from them for use in the Museum. It is proposed to make also transparencies from the negatives, from which other negatives can be reproduced if necessary. The Curator's time has been mostly occupied with work on the Aino collection Respectfully submitted R Hitchcock Cur Textiles &c.
^[[Curator Report Foods & Textiles Dec. 1889]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] [[stamp]] Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Insti in charge National Museum. [[/stamp]] [[stamp]] G.B.G. JAN 3 1890 [[/stamp]] Jan 3, 1890 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Dear Sir - I herewith enclose my report for the month of December, 1889. Respectfully yours R Hitchcock
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] Jan 2d 1890 Report for the Month of Dec. 1889 The work of December has been quite varied in character. A considerable number of labels of Indian foods were received early in the month. These were immediately attached to the specimens, &, in the usual manner, paper copies were pasted on the catalogue cards. A full set of Indian food labels was pasted on cards and sent to Prof. Mason, in connection with a series of ^[[other]] cards relative to Indian foods. Specimens illustrative of Japanese tea drinking, saki drinking, smoking etc. were transferred to a case in Prof. Mason's charge, and labels written
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 2 for some of them. The long-expected Aino collection from Sapporo, has been received & catalogued. The Sapporo Museum desires to receive something in exchange for these specimens. A model furnace for a Japanese silk-reel has been made by Mr. Luscombe, from my photographs, & the complete reel is now ready for exhibition; but there is no plan for it. All the specimens of foods & chemicals in the N.E.-court have been inspected & the cases cleaned out. Only a very few were found in bad condition,
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 3 showing that the method, adopted several years since, of mounting some of the larger articles in paper boxes with glass fronts, is entirely satisfactory as regards preservation of the specimens. Many of the Indian & Japanese foods are mounted in such boxes, bisulphide of carbon being freely used before closing the boxes to destroy all forms of insect life that may be present. The specimens in the reserve series have also been all inspected, and it was found that many of them had been ruined by insects and mildew. The loss is not serious, as
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 4 the specimens injured were not of much value. There is, however, a considerable quantity of very useful material among the reserves, but hitherto it has been impossible to tell what kind of specimens, or just where to find them, the classification being necessarily very imperfect. A [[strikethrough]] complete [[/strikethrough]] list of some of these specimens has been prepared on cards and it is now proposed, as time permits, to arrange them in such a manner that it can be known in a moment whether we have any particular article & also, if so, exactly where it is. Mr. Hargrove is now at work
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 5 upon this scheme. Considerable time has been devoted to [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] planning an exhibit to show the processes of manufacture and the composition of alcoholic beverages. It was thought that the necessary data for this exhibit could be readily found, but on investigation it appears that some of the [[strikethrough]] very important ? [[/strikethrough]] most essential data for this purpose are the most difficult to obtain. As an example I may cite the matter of the changes in grain during malting & mashing. Thus far I have been unable to find the necessary information to enable me to
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] [[underlined]] 6 [[/underlined]] illustrate the manufacture of beer, and I have been obliged to pass this by for the present. It is possible that this exhibit can only be prepared from the results of original analyses, which I suppose would be a legitimate part of the Curator's work. The trouble is not a lack of analyses in the books, but in the fact that recent chemical work has shown that the analyses generally quoted are wrong, & so much in error as to be quite useless & misleading for such work as I have laid out. This unfortunate circumstance has also prevented me from
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 7 undertaking work on the preparation of bread from flour, showing the chemistry of the rising of bread etc. It is hoped however, that in a short time I may receive the results of reliable analyses through private sources, which will enable me to go on with this important work. Meanwhile it has been possible to arrange two exhibits, the labels for which are prepared, although, for want of the necessary materials, all the specimens are not [[strikethrough]] quite [[/strikethrough]] ready, illustrating the composition of Lager Beer and of American Red Wines. Mr. Chr. Henrich has presented
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 8 specimens which will be used to illustrate the manufacture of beer, and has shown entire willingness to afford all desired information. It is proposed to show the composition of several distinct varieties of wine in this series, as their comparison in this manner will surely prove instructive to the visitor. For the present, however, the only place that seems available for their display is the office of the Curator. Fermentation & Distillation is a title for a section which can be made of very great interest. But in order to obtain the specimens in complete
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 9 series, it will be necessary for the Curator to visit the establishments where the work is carried on. I do not believe it will be possible to get them by correspondence. The manufacturers may be willing to furnish everything required, but on asking for certain products, unless one is on the spot, the specimens will not be sent "because they will not keep." There are difficulties about preserving such specimens, but, in my opinion, they can be overcome if we can get the specimens fresh. The Museum is indebted to Mr. P. Jaisohu, a Japanese, for kindly
[[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] 10 consenting to pose for a photograph to illustrate the style of eating in Japan. Such a photograph was made with the tables, dishes etc from the museum collections, & will be used in one of the cases. Respectfully R Hitchcock Cur.
^[[Jan. 1890]] [[stamped]] G.B.G. FEB 4 1890 [[/stamped]] ^[[ [[encircled]] ack'd [[/encircled]] ]] Report for January 1890 About the first of the month Mr. Luscombe finished a model of a pit dwelling such as are now occupied by a peculiar people on the island of Shikotan, Japan. The model is quite satisfactory, but it is not on exhibition for want of space. The entire Japanese collection in the exhibition cases has been gone over piece by piece, in order to enter upon the register the names of a considerable number of specimens which were only marked with the collector's numbers. Continuing the work begun
last month, on the composition of wines, etc., the amounts of the various constituents of sherry, port, claret & sweet muscatel have been calculated for one gallon of each, and the specimens to represent these have been prepared, with the exception of certain ones for which the material ordered has not yet come to hand. Labels for all of these have been written & will be ready for the printer in a few days. The work in this connection has been greatly delayed by the sickness of Mr. Hargrove who was absent much of the time. Mr. Hargrove has also been engaged in classifying and
indexing the technological material which is on storage in drawers. This work was begun last month, and will still require considerable time for its completion, but it seems very important that it should be well done. A series of dyed fabrics was loaned to Prof. F. W. Clarke who used them to illustrate a lecture on the chemistry of coal-tar colors & dying before the Franklin Institute. In accordance with the desire of Prof. Mason a microscopical examination of the fibre used in the feather cloak in his collection was undertaken. This led to a beginning of an investigation of the methods of disintegrating fibres
for microscopical examination which promises to lead to an improvement over those in present use, particularly for such fibres as those under examination which proved to be very difficult to separate. The chemical elements have been brought up to my office, partly to make room in the exhibition hall for the wine exhibit, which is now in the case, & partly that the whole series may be labelled. But there is very little encouragement to make any new display on the museum floor in the present crowded condition of the hall & in the want of suitable cases for the specimens. I am aware
that this condition of affairs is just now unavoidable. As soon as more space becomes available for my use it will be possible to make a display which will show that my collections are of much greater interest than they can possibly present now. It is perhaps proper to add that there are certain questions which have arisen of late which are of the greatest importance in connection with the chemistry of the transformation of grain by the action of diastase, but which, as it now appears, can only be settled by by a course of original research
in the laboratory. They would involve an extended course of investigation but the results would prove of great interest in connection with our food collection. So important are they, that I do not at present see my way clear to carry out my plan of illustrating the chemistry of malting & mashing without the information they would give. It is the want of just such information, which I have this far been unable to find in books, which has obliged me to suspend work on an exhibit which was begun last month. It would seem to be a legitimate part of my work to undertake such
studies, as other work depends so largely upon them. Nevertheless I would wish to be assured that it is so regarded by yourself, and I therefore present the subject at this time for your consideration, and await your instructions with interest. Respectfully submitted R. Hitchcock Curator of Textiles & c Jan 31. 1890.
^[[Enter & file]] ^[[Feb. 1890]] [[stamped]] G.B.G. MAR 2 1890 [[/stamped]] Report for the month of February 1890 The time this month has been devoted principally to cataloguing specimens and preparing labels. The specimens catalogued were mostly Japanese pigments & dyes, many of which had only Japanese numbers or marks, and required considerable time to identify. The collection is a good one & is now safely stored. The labels written include the entire Aino collection. Every specimen collected by me, has been through my hands during the month, a label written and the specimens with a few exceptions, transferred to the large
2 case in Prof. Mason's charge. The labels require to be revised and rewritten [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] for the printer. Other labels to the number of 50 were written and sent to the printer. The Aino figure made by Mr. Mills from one of my photographs has been placed in the case & looks very well, except that the hair & beard are not dark enough. Also the model of the Aino house & surroundings, by Mr. Luscombe, is in the same case. By your direction a list of the natural products indigenous to America was hastily prepared, and sent to you on the 12th inst.
3 Reports on specimens sent for examination were made as follows. Acc. 667. Phosphoric acid found in one specimen. Acc. 674. Chinese "Pow Fah", a mucilaginous wood used in hair dressing in China Acc. 22696 Tibet Wool. Worth in this country in the grease 13 cents, washed 20-25 cents per pound. A sample of "White pinot" wine from California was found to contain 9.3 per cent of alcohol. Dr. W.B. Taylor requested some statistical information about carpet manufacture in the U.S., which was furnished. The contents of our door-[[?screen]] case of
4 chemical compounds was removed form the N. E. court to the office on the E. balcony, to make room for other exhibits. Mr Hargrove has completed a set of index cards to the reserves of textiles in table cases, and is now preparing a similar index to the specimens on exhibition. Respectfully submitted R Hitchcock Curator
^[[Mar. 1890]] [[stamp]] G.B.G. APR 2 1890 [[/stamp]] ^[[Foods. Curators reports file.]] Report for the month of March. '90 A list of photographs of the Aino & scenes in Yezo was prepared with appropriate labels, intended to accompany my report, on the Ainos, and to serve as labels for prints in folding screens. This, I believe, completes the record of the Aino collection, and renders it available for installation by any person. Mr. Hargrove has given some assistance to Mr. Sweeney in the work of installation in a large case in the West hall. Work upon the chemical products was taken up early in the month, beginning with the elements, all
2 of which has passed though my hands. A full set of labels has been written for the elements, the preparation of which has involved an unexpectedly long time, but it is thought the labels will prove quite satisfactory. The descriptions are necessarily very much condensed, owing to the size of card used. The series has been enriched by two very valuable contributions; the first from Prof. F.W. Clarke, who presented a specimen of the metal Germanium, discovered by C. Winkler in 1886, prepared by the discoverer; the second from Dr. W. F. Hillebrand, who presented specimens of
3 the metals Cerium, Lanthanium ^[[Lanthanium]] & Didymium ^[[Didymium]] prepared by Hillebrand & Norton in the course of their investigations of those metals in 1875. The series of elements is a good one, but some of the specimens require to be remounted, as they have changed more or less by long keeping. A scheme for exhibiting the elements in accordance with the latest views of chemists concerning their relations to each other, has been prepared, but it cannot be properly carried out in practice until a case can be arranged for the purpose. The plan proposed
[[underlined]] 4 [[/underlined]] will show the gaps in the series which theory indicates should be filled with elements not yet discovered. Mr. Hargrove has prepared index-cards to all the chemical compounds which are now stored on shelves in the E. balcony room. Also similar cards of textiles on exhibition & of other specimens not previously recorded. It may therefore be said that all the material in my charge in the museum building is indexed in such a way that any specimen can be immediately found. The different series of index-
[[underlined]] 5 [[/underlined]] cards are as follows: 1. Textiles on exhibition. 2. Textiles, reserves & duplicates. 3. A list of food-plants of Japan, alphabetically arranged under botanical, native & English names. 4. Textiles, study series. 5. Foods & Drinks, on exhibition 6. Foods etc. in reserve. 7. Chemical compounds, in reserve. 8. Chemical manufactures, in reserve. 9. Oils, in reserve 10. Paints, in reserve 11. Dyes, in reserve. 12. Gums, Resins, Waxes, etc. 13. Indian foods, duplicates.
[[underlined]] 6 [[/underlined]] An outline of [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] a plan for a chemical exhibit by the museum at the World's Fair was presented during the month, at your request. In anticipation of that event I have carefully considered various plans for [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] an exhibit of a series of chemical compounds. A systematic arrangement of the inorganic compounds can be carried out without much consideration. But in organic chemistry the case is different, and a well considered scheme must be adopted at the outset. It will require considerable time and study to prepare this, and if
[[underlined]] 7 [[/underlined]] possible it should be perfected before the active work of preparing for the world's fair begins, & indeed, I think it would be well to have the scheme published at an early day, to show that we have a place for everything. I say this now because the time is near when such a scheme will be required for the museum if not for the world's fair, and it is simply impossible to lay one out satisfactorily with the books I have at hand. Indeed for much of the work I have done in chemistry during the past month, I have been obliged to
[[underlined]] 8 [[/underlined]] refer to the library of the Geol. Survey laboratory, & this is not only inconvenient, but it takes extra time. The same plan of classification will doubtless be found available, in a condensed form, for the Materia Medica collection of organic compounds. I trust it will be possible to purchase the necessary books for this purpose at an early day, particularly Beilstein's Chemistry, which I have twice asked for within the past year. The advances in chemistry have been so rapid during the last
[[underlined]] 9 [[/underlined]] few years, that old books will not serve my purpose, & even if they would, the only useful books in my sectional library on organic chemistry & on chemical manufactures are from my private library, & they are not sufficient for the requirements of the museum work. Respectfully R Hitchcock Cur. Apr. 1. 1890
^[[Ack.'d]] ^[[Apr. 1890]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] May 2/90 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Dear Sir - I herewith send you my report for the month of April 1890. Respectfully yours R Hitchcock
1 Report for the month of April The first few days of the month were devoted to the preparation of a Report on my observations of the Pit-Dwellers of Yezo. This report is now ready for publication. A series of fibres for microscopical examination was prepared and sent to C. S. Crandale, of Michican Agricultural College, at his request. An apparatus was arranged for sealing up metallic elements in glass tubes, in a manner to preserve their color & lustre, and two experiments were made with tolerably satisfactory results. But it is a very difficult matter to preserve
[[underlined]] 2 [[/underlined]] the lustre and color of such metals as calcium & cerium for example, upon which the experiments were made. At the present moment both those metals retain their lustre fairly well, but not so perfectly as it is to be seen on freshly cut surfaces. It seems very desirable to show all of the metals as brilliant & perfect as possible, & additional apparatus is now being constructed in the hope of improving upon the method. If the purpose can be successfully accomplished, we shall have a collection of metallic elements such as is not to be seen elsewhere. Some of the Japanese specimens
3 were taken from the wall-cases in the north hall & placed in a case provided by Prof. Mason. The remaining specimens in the north hall ought to be removed & placed in cases by themselves. They are now too much scattered, and have no particular significance. It was my hope that this collection might be permanently installed as a single complete exhibit of Japanese life, but it is now so much broken up that it has lost much of its interest. I hope it can be brought together again and that the specimens can be labelled. The exhibit of the constituents
4 of wines, now in a case in the N.E. court, is of considerable interest, but it is hidden away among "animal products" where it is not likely to be seen. Four specimens of alcohol, representing the quantity of alcohol in a glass of beer, sherry, port & claret respectively, have been sealed up in tubes & added to the collection. It should be said, however, that these specimens are not entirely satisfactory for the reason that the tubes are not all of the same diameter. They are the best we had in stock at the time, but eventually the specimens should be replaced by others.
5 Most of my time during the month has been given to arranging a system of classification of organic compounds. The general plan for a comprehensive series of compounds has been decided upon, after numerous modifications of the original scheme, and some progress has been made in the classification of the paraffin hydrocarbons & their derivatives as far as the fatty acids. In consideration of the active work soon to begin in connection with the world's fair, I have given much thought to the scheme for a chemical display, and several
6 very suggestive exhibits have been planned in a general way. Among these may be mentioned one exhibit showing the products of the distillation of a given weight of coal, the product of a given quantity of coal tar, & finally the dyes obtained from a ton of coal & the dyeing power of the same. The preparation of this exhibit will involve considerable laboratory work. Another exhibit is proposed to demonstrate the calorific power of coal & the enormous waste of heat in domestic stoves. The data for this must be obtained by practical experiments, and it is proposed to
7 begin this work during the present month. It is believed that the results will be of value in affording ocular demonstration of facts which, however well known to the scientific man, are not generally understood. Mr. Hargrove has been well engaged upon the collections generally. Specimens stored on the east balcony have been removed, some placed in drawers, others on exhibition. Specimens on exhibition have been withdrawn to make room for a more satisfactory display of others, and still others are now being prepared for exhibition when
8, space is available. Respectfully R Hitchcock Cur May 2d/90
^[[May. 1890]] ^[[May file]] ^[[Ack'd & used]] [[preprinted]] UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM UNDER DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON [[/preprinted]] June 3/90 Mr. G. Brown Goode Assistant Secretary Dear Sir - I herewith send you my report for the month of May 1890. Very respectfully yours R Hitchcock Cur. Textiles etc.
Report for the Month of May. The catalogue cards of all the Japanese and Aino ethnological material collected by me were transferred to Prof. Mason early in the month. Prof. Mason has substituted his own catalogue numbers for mine, and reentered the specimens in his register. The specimens, however, all bear my own numbers. I have entered Prof. Mason's numbers upon my catalogue, so that there is not likely to be any confusion on account of the changes. All the Japanese
2 and Aino ethnological material which appears charged against me, on the Registrar's books, is now in Prof. Mason's hands. I only retain specimens which [[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] obviously pertain to technology - fibres, foods, colors, dyes etc. Miss MacFarland was assigned to duty as copyist in my office on the 3rd inst. She has been steadily engaged copying from books & Mss. and in writing up catalogues, and also bringing up the alphabetical index of textile fibres to date.
3 It would certainly be a great convenience to have a [[strikethrough]] ? index [[/strikethrough]] catalogue of all the textile fibres mentioned in the books and pamphlets in the library, with botanical & vernacular names. I think we are in a position to make such a catalogue which would be tolerably complete. But without the permanent assignment of a copyist to this office, it would be folly to begin such an extensive work. A considerable number of pamphlets, many of them my own, has accumulated
4 in my office, but they have not hitherto been available for reference because I have never been able to spare the time to classify them. With Miss MacFarland's assistance they are now arranged in the section library, and this work has taken up considerable time. In arranging apparatus for preserving chemical elements etc. in tubes, it has been found necessary to purify all the mercury in the laboratory [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] by distillation. Through the kindness of Dr.
[[underlined]] 5 [[/underlined]] Barns I have been able to obtain the necessary apparatus for the purpose, without expense. This, however, has delayed the work of mounting some of our recent & valuable accessions. All the dyes & paints in reserves have been mounted, & prepared for exhibition in cases. The tobaccos also have nearly all been mounted & some of them are now on exhibition, others held in reserve. Mr. Hargrove had just begun to prepare the gums &
[[underlined]] 6 [[/underlined]] resins when he was obliged to leave on account of sickness at the end of the month. A valuable and interesting donation was received from Mr. W. M. Burton, of Cleveland, consisting of three specimens of distilled zinc & magnesium, used in recent redetermination of the atomic weights of those metals. I was called upon by the Treasury Dept. to examine two stained five-dollar bills, as you will recollect. Not feeling at liberty to freely treat the stains with chemicals, I
[[underlined]] 7 [[/underlined]] made a few experiments with one of the marginal stains and verbally reported that if the matter were of sufficient importance to require a careful examination, the nature of the coloring matter could [[underlined]] probably [[/underlined]] be determined & offering my services should they be required. An experiment was made to determine the amount of coal consumed in preparing breakfast in an ordinary household. This is the beginning of a series of experiments [[strikethrough]] that [[/strikethrough]] intended to demonstrate
8 the enormous waste of heat in domestic life. An investigation of the properties of pure albumen has been undertaken, with the expectation of verifying the molecular weight by means of the boiling point. Proofs of labels for the chemical elements were read this month. Respectfully R Hitchcock Cur Text. etc.
[[preprinted]] Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Memorandum [[/preprinted]] Art & Industry Dep't Collection of Historical and Personal Relics, Coins, medals, portraits, etc A. Howard Clark, Curator first catalogue entry in fiscal year beginning July 1, 1887 125,336 last entry June 30, 1888 125,887 ------- No of entries 552 representing 1016 specimens. About 2000 specimens on hand not catalogued
[[note in top margin]] [[underline]] year ending June 30, 1888 [[/underline]] [[/note in top margin]] [[strikethrough]] Art Industry Dept Collections of Historical & Personal Relics, coins, medals, [[/strikethrough]] & & A. Howard Clerk Curator Among the principal accessions may be noted [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] the War saddle of General Grant, deposited by General [[double underline]] A. H. Markland. [[/double underline]]. This was used by General Grant in all of the battles in which he participated from February 1862 to April 1865. [[strikethrough]] This [[/strikethrough]] It is a valuable addition to the large collection of Grant relics received last year. [[strikethrough]] Other accessions [[/strikethrough]] From the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was received a series of proofs on India paper, showing the backs and faces of all the [[strikethrough]] [[illegible]] [[/strikethrough]] current bonds and currency notes issued by the United States, illustrating each denomination of the Treasury notes and gold and silver certificates from one dollar to ten thousand dollars and coupon and registered bonds from ten dollars to fifty thousand dollars. [[strikethrough]] These are deposited by ^[[were [[illegible]] ]] the Bureau of Engraving & Printing [[/strikethrough]]
One of the most important additions to the [[strikethrough]] Historical Relics [[/strikethrough]] collection of National Relics was deposited by mr. Etting (accession 20719). It is one of the thirteen original pamphlets signed by [[insertion]] ^ George [[/insertion]] Washington, ^ [[insertion]] John Adams [[/insertion]] and other colonial delegates entitled "Original Association of Congress October 20, 1774". By this Association the delegates pledge [[crossed out]] the colonies not to import British merchandize after December 1, 1774 and [[crossed out]] organized Committees of Independence in the several colonies etc The pamphlet consists of nine printed papers [[crossed out]] with two pages and part of a third containing the autograph signatures of the delegates.
Several collections of [[strikethrough]] rare [[/strikethrough]] ancient and modern coins from Mr. W. Graves, Hartford, Conn., Mr. Thomas Wilson, Washington, and others. A beginning has been made in the exhibit of coins toward illustrating the money of Bible times by showing the coins of kings, countries, and cities mentioned in the Bibles and specimens of the Widow's Mite, the Skekel, & denarius & etc. Many additions have been made to the collection of military decorations, medals, and badges of civic societies including [[strikethrough]] the decorations [[/strikethrough]] original decorations of the order of the Iron Cross of Germany, the Legion of Honor of France and other European Orders.
[[strikethrough]] Mr. Stephen Vail deposited [[/strikethrough]] From Mr. Stephen Vail was received a piece of the original wire over which one of the very first intelligible telegraphic messages was transmitted during the [[strikethrough]] and experiments with the Morse instruments the speedwell from Morses [[/strikethrough]] experiments by Prof. Morse with his telegraph instrument at the Speedwell Iron Works, New Jersey about the year 1840. From the widow of Prof. Baird was received a valuable collection [[strikethrough]] 1733 [[/strikethrough]] nearly 1800 [[strikethrough]] spec [[/strikethrough]] foreign and American postage stamps [[strikethrough]] collec [[/strikethrough]] gathered by Prof. Baird. [[strikethrough]] during a [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] From t [[/strikethrough]] The Ordnance Department U.S. Army transferred to [[strikethrough]] was received a number of articles [[/strikethrough]] the National Museum a number of [[strikethrough]] valuable [[/strikethrough]] interesting war relics including a ^[[large]] section of ^[[an]] oak tree riddled with bullets on the battle field at Appomattox Court House. To the collections of autograph letters and documents were added commissions [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] signed by [[strikethrough]] all [[/strikethrough]] each of the Presidents of the United States and deeds and letters with autographs of many eminent men.
Original plaster model of bronze statue ^[[of George Washington [[strikethrough]] Commemorative of Peace) [[/strikethrough]] designed by William Rudolf O'Donovan in 1887, erected at Washington's Headquarters, Newburgh, New York, according to Act of Congress of June - 1886. [[strikethrough]] The attitude figure of Commemorative of Peace Washington [[/strikethrough]] The attitude is commemorative of Peace representing Washington in the act of sheathing his sword at the close of the Revolutionary War. Accompanying the statue is the certificate of the sculptor in which he says: "This statue is the size of life and in the matter of facts of proportion, is correct; Having the small head.
the long body, the narrow shoulders and broad hips of the three full length portraits by Trumbull and of the statue by Houdon in the State House at Richmond. The head is from the life [[strikethrough]]size[[/strikethrough]] cast made by Houdon at Mount Vernon in 1785 which has been little known to [[strikethrough]] artists, the [[/strikethrough]] artists and not ^[[at]] all to the public until within the last ten years and has not been used save by Mr. O'Donovan in the making of this statue"
The Smithsonian Institution during the year transferred to the Museum its collection of portraits of [[strikethrough]] ancient and [[/strikethrough]] American and foreign scientists and men prominent in political or civil life. This series nearly 2500 engravings and photographs [[strikethrough]] which will be and will [[/strikethrough]] and will be a valuable nucleus for the formation of a National Gallery of portraits of representative men.
A pair of silver-mounted flint-lock pistols once the property of General Lafayette have been deposited by Mr. William Burnett. [[strikethrough]] Among the politi [[/strikethrough]]
[[pre-printed]] Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Memorandum[[/pre-printed]] Report on the Section of Historical Relics, Coins, Medals etc., in the U.S. National Museum, 1888. By [[double underline]] A. Howard Clerk, [[/double underline]] [[underline]] Curator [[/underline]] [[Blue box]] Annual Report Hist. Relics 87-88 [[/blue box]]
Ack'd. Monthly Report - Historical Collection [[underline]] March 1890 [[/underline]] The accessions received during March include - No. 22968 J.P. Klinges, Philadelphia. Some Confederate States postage stamps. No. 22971 N.V.D. Millar. Reprints of Vicksburg Daily Citizen July 2 1863, on wall paper; reprint of Ulster County Gazette Jan 4, 1800 No. 23004 Gen. W.S. Payne, Fostoria, Ohio. Badges of the Sons of Veterans. No. 23009 Geo. L. Eckert, Washington. Mexican copper coin, 1/4 real. No. 23015 A.F. Wooster, Norfolk, Conn. Spanish Republic Coin of 1870.
Among the additional objects placed on exhibition during the month are the Harvey relics received from Mrs. Harvey in February and the silvered copper electrotype copy of the "Bryant Vase" received from Tiffany & Co. A copy of the "Weekly Post Boy" May 12, 1755 and some newspapers printed [[strikethrough]] all [[/strikethrough]] in Mexico [[strikethrough]] during [[/strikethrough]] in 1846 were received from R.H. Cressingham, New York City and transferred to the collection illustrating "Journalism" in charge of Mr. Noah.
My time has been so fully occupied with Publications and Labels during the month that little attention has been given to the Historical collections. A. Howard Clark
^[[E]] ^[[Ack'd & use'd]] ^[[file]] Report on Historical Collection for Months of April and May 1890 A. Howard Clark, Curator The accessions of objects to the Historical Collections during April and May include the following: [[underlined]] Dr. W.S. Overton [[/underlined]] (23067) - Soldier pardon for "taking part in the late rebellion", dated July 5 1866 and signed by W.H. Seward Secretary of State. [[underlined]] Charles Abert [[/underlined]] (23089) Marble bust of Benjamin Franklin executed by "Coracchi". Deposited.
[[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Guildhall Library Committee of City of London [[/underlined]] (23093). Fourteen bronze medals struck by order of the Corporation of London to commemorate various events from 1849 to 1887. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Joseph A. Donahue [[/underlined]] (23114) "Comet Medal", in bronze, of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, to be given to discoverers of comets. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Arthur E. Scarff [[/underlined]] (23148) Copper coins of Siam and of the Argentine Republic. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Rev. A.K. Glover [[/underlined]] (23149) Copper cents ^[[and half cents]] of the United States 1793 to 1798, and pattern cents of 1783, 1784.
[[checkmark]] [[underlined]] J.S. Billopp [[/underlined]] (23150) Virginia half-penny, George III, 1773. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] William M. Haley [[/underlined]] (23151) German Bible printed in Halle in 1765; and German passport issued to K. Land in 1837. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Nathan Appleton [[/underlined]] (23201) Gun carriage from the Citadel of Santa Domingo City. Made of Mahogony by the Spaniards during their early possession of the island. [[checkmark]] [[underlined]] Nathan Appleton [[/underlined]] (23206) Photograph of the Council of Sitting Bull and other Indians at Standing Rock. Photograph of ^[[Gen. Custer]] monument erected in battlefield where Gen Custer's remains were found.
[[checkmark]] Joseph Francis (23240). Gold medal presented to Mr. Francis in accordance with act of Congress. Also gold box presented to Mr. Francis by Napoleon III. These objects are an absolute gift to the National Museum as per formal deed date May 26, 1890 (filed with accession papers). [[strikethrough]] A copy of [[/strikethrough]] The labels accompanying these objects written by Mr. Francis read as follows:
[[printed clipping]] JOSEPH FRANCIS. GOLD MEDAL. - Presented to Joseph Francis in the blue room of the Executive Mansion, by the President, on April 12, 1890. Joint resolution in recognition of the services of Joseph Francis. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in view of the life-long services to humanity and to his country of the now venerable Joseph Francis, in the construction and perfection of life-saving appliances by which many thousands of lives have been saved, the Director of the Mint is hereby authorized and required to strike a gold medal, with a suitable device and inscription, prepared under the direction of the Joint Committee on the Library, to be presented by the President of the United States to Mr. Francis, in recognition of his eminent services. SEC. 2. That a sufficient sum of money to carry this resolution into effect is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. Approved, August 27, 1888. JOSEPH FRANCIS. GOLD AND DIAMOND BOX. - Presented to Joseph Francis by Napoleon III, Emperor of France, on February 4, 1856, in recognition of his life-saving appliances. [[/printed clipping]]
The work on the collection has been the better arrangement of many of the objects and the installation of the interesting collections recently received. The public interest in this department of the Museum is constantly growing [[strikethrough]] with the [[/strikethrough]] ^[[and many]] additional objects in reserve could be exhibited did the space permit. [[strikethrough]] A Howard Clark Curator [[/strikethrough]]
For reference in preparing labels and for the benefit of visitors who are constantly applying to the Curator for information concerning historic events and persons, quite a number of books on historical topics and now retained in my office. In addition to the regular Museum work there has been considerable correspondence in connection with my duties as Curator of the American Historical Association. No objects for exhibition have yet been
received from members of the Association, but we have received numbers of publications, [[strikethrough]] that may [[/strikethrough]] the nucleus of an historical library. The recent formation of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution of which several officers of the Museum are Members has [[strikethrough]] excited a patriotic [[/strikethrough]] ^[[aroused]] much latent patriotism and will no doubt result in good to the Museum. Already several prominent persons have become ^[[specially]] interested in our Historical Collections and will doubtless
hereafter contribute substantial influence in the cause of preserving relics ^[[illustrative]] of American History. A Howard Clark Curator
^[[1 8 vo copy]] ^[[Copy made]] ^[[Curators report - file]] ^[[Historical relics A H Clark]] Collection of Historical & Personal Relics, Coins, Medals & By A. Howard Clark Assistant Curator, Art & Industry Department The transfer of the Washington relics to the National Museum by the Department of the Interior in 1883 was the first step in the Museum toward the formation of a special collection of relics of important national events or persons prominent in the history of our country. During the past year the receipt and installation of a large [[strikethrough] collection [[/strikethrough]] number of relics of General
(2) Grant has added very greatly to the popular interest of these collections. A list of the Grant relics is given in a [[strikethrough]] subject [[/strikethrough]] subsequent chapter of this volume ^[[under Accession 18528.]] The collection of personal relics now on exhibition includes autograph letters [[strikethrough]] or [[/strikethrough]] and personal effects of many of the Presidents of the United States and of many prominent statesmen and soldiers. Several groups of war relics and of relics commemorating Arctic expeditions and [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] events of national interest in the history of our country, have been [[strikethrough]] arranged [[/strikethrough]] installed and attract much attention. During the year much work has
been accomplished in labeling the thousands of [[strikethrough]] sp [[/strikethrough]] objects in these collections. It is intended that the label [[strikethrough]] should [[/strikethrough]] be [[strikethrough]] made [[/strikethrough]] rendered instructive by giving a short biography of the person concerned or a brief history of the event. [[strikethrough]] The collection of copies of [[/strikethrough]] The collection of bronze copies of all the medals made at the United States Mint under Acts of Congress during the last hundred years has ^[[thus]] been made of historic and [[strikethrough]] proper [[/strikethrough]] popular interest by instructive labels. During the year some efforts have been taken toward the
formation of a national collection of monies of the world including both metallic and paper money in use at the present time and the monies of the Ancient World. Several thousand specimens have been received by gifts and loans and [[strikethrough]] as fast as space with the cases has been [[/strikethrough]] a considerable number of them have been put on exhibition. An effort is made in this exhibit to show [[strikethrough]] that [[/strikethrough]] the monetary standard of different nations and to give ^[[on the labels the]] [[strikethrough]] ^[[history]] the history comparisons in nation history of the monies [[/strikethrough]] origin of each denomination.
The ^[[following]] copies of labels will show the manner of exhibiting [[strikethrough]] objects speci [[/strikethrough]] objects in this collection: ^[[Labels transferred to copy]]
^[[Curators Reports file]] ^[[used]] ^[[?CK n to S]] [[stamp]] G.B.G. July 5 1890 [[/stamp]] Report on Historical Collections for month of June 1890 By A. Howard Clark, Curator The only accessions of importance during the month were a history Professor Huxley received from Mr. W.T. Hornaday, and a Captain's Commission signed by President Pierce and by Jefferson Davis Secretary of War. No entries were made in the catalogue. This work is very much in arrears though the general [[strikethrough]] entry [[/strikethrough]] ^[[record]] by accession cards is carefully kept.
A re-arrangement of some of the Washington relics has resulted in a much more attractive installation than heretofore. As ^[[Assistant Secretary and]] Curator of the American Historical Association I [[strikethrough]] have [[/strikethrough]] received ^[[from Secretary Adams]] [[/strikethrough]] during [[/strikethrough]] in June the Annual Report of the Proceedings of the Association and papers in the condition of Historical Study in America. The report has been transmitted to Congress [[strikethrough]] in accordance [[/strikethrough]] by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in accordance with the Act of Incorporation of the
Association and the Manuscript is now in the hands of the Public Printer as Senate Miscellaneous Document No.170. A concurrent resolution to print 4500 extra copies of the report was ^[[at my personal request]] introduced [[strikethrough]] at the [[/strikethrough]] by Senator Hoar and referred to the Committee in Printing. The Manuscript of the report was referred to the Senate Committee in the Library and by that Committee sent to the Printer. A. Howard Clark Curator
^[[Copied]] ^[[file]] Copy. Report on the Historical Collections in the U.S. National Museum, 1890. By A. Howard Clark, Curator. The transfer of a large collection of relics of Gen^[[eral]] Washington from the patent office to the National Museum in 1883, was [[strikethrough]] practically [[/strikethrough]] the beginning of a separate section devoted to historical collections. With the Washington relics were grouped many objects heretofore exhibited in other departments of the Museum, but which are of more interest as personal relics of representative men or memorials of events or places of historic importance. Here were brought together various gifts from foreign governments to Presidents Jefferson, Adams, Van Buren, Commodore Perry and other high officials of the United States. [[strikethrough]] In November 1886 the large collection of relics of Gen. Grant were [[/strikethrough]] Besides relics of Benjamin Franklin, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, General Ripley, Commodore Elliott, Commodore Biddle and many other eminent American statesmen and soldiers; as well as numerous manuscripts, and relics pertaining to the colonial and revolutionary war period of our country [[strikethrough]] as well as [[/strikethrough]] ^[[and]] mementoes of ^[[Sir John Franklin,]] Kane, Hayes, ^[[Hall]], deLong ^[[and other Arctic explorers]]
2 ^[[In November 1886 the large collection of relics of General Grant were]] received and added very greatly to the popular interest in this section of the Museum.* ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- *A list of these relics is given in the Annual Report for 1887. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The growth of the ^[[historical]] collections in the past three years has been very rapid and the space devoted to this class of exhibits is found far too limited for their display to [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] visitors.
3 The accessions during the year were as follows: From Charles Abert, Homewood, Md., a marble bust of Benjamin Franklin, sculptured by Coracchi, in Italian marble. From Nathan Appleton, Boston, Massachusetts, a gun carriage from the citadel of Santo Domingo City, made of mahogany, probably by the Spaniards during the early days of their possession of the island. Also photograph of "Sitting Bull" and other Indians at Standing Rock, and photograph of the General Custer Monument on the battle field at Little Big-horn River, Montana. Only one officer's remains were buried on the battlefield/ young Lieutenant Crittenden. His father, General Crittenden, said "Bury him where he fell in the field of battle". From Fred J. Adams, Grand Rapids, Mich., badge of the Michigan Press Association at their session in Grand Rapids in July, 1889.
The collection illustrating the moneys of the world in all ages and countries has been an addition of popular interest as is evidenced by the many valuable loan collections of ancient and modern pieces. This collection is not limited to metallic currency, but includes paper [[strikethrough]] money [[/strikethrough]] ^[[currency]] and ^[[various]] substitutes for money. The entries in the catalogue during the year aggregate 645, representing about a thousand specimens. Upwards of 3000 additions have been made to the card catalogue which now numbers about 10000 cards. There are yet many objects not catalogued in detail though accession cards and lists are preserved.
5 From W.S. Baker, Philadelphia, Pa., four volumes on engraved, medallic and character portraits of Washington, "Bibliotheca Washingtoniana", and "History of a rare Washington Print". From F. N. Barrett, New York City, portrait of M. Appert, inventor of the art of preserving food by hermetic sealing. From Miss H.H. Berger, Brooklyn, N.Y., copper and silver coins of Finland. From Paul Beckwith, Washington, D.C., badge of Union Veterans Union, Good Templars, Knights of Pythias and Knights of Golden Eagle, also one book "The Spellbinders Souvenir", and medals commenorating the Unveiling of General Meade Statue, 1887, and the organization of 1st. Reg't N.G. Pass 1861. From Dr. E. G. Betty, Cincinnati, Ohio, Medals of Ohio Valley Centennial Exposition, and rare silver, copper and nickel coins of the United States.
From J.S. Billopp, Glenn Dale, Md., half-penny of Virginia, George III, 1773. From H.P. Branham, glass flute, silver mounted, made by Laurent of Paris, and used for many years by Judge A.B. Longstreet of Georgia, author of history of Georgia, etc., From the British Museum, London, a large series of electrotypes of Greek coins, the types of coins used prior to 100 A.D. From F. E. Brownell, Washington, D.C., shot gun and rifle, relics of Col. E.E. Ellsworth. From Mrs. J.G. Bruff, Washington, D.C., collection of 1129 silver and copper coins of the United States and foreign countries, 171 examples of paper currency, 29 medals and some numismatic books. From Harriet W. Carey, Napoleon, Ohio, a looking glass, relic of James Mason of the Plymouth Colony. From Mrs. S.S. Cox, New York City, decorations of the Turkish Order of the Mjidieh and The Shefaket.
6 From William Ellory Curtis, Washington, D.C., Album of portraits of the officers and members of the International American Conference held at Washington in 1889-90. From Joseph A. Donahoe, San Francisco, Cal., comet medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, given to discoverers of comets. From Leon G. Duchesne, Natchez, Miss., paper money of the city of Natchez, November 1862. From R. Edward Earll, Washington, D.C., six-krentzer coin of the Rhenish Palatinate dated 1808. From George L. Eckert, Washington, D.C., copper coin of State of Chihuahua, Mexico. From St. Julian Fillette, Washington, D.C., photographs of United States war ships "Trenton", "Vandalia", and Nipsic and the war ship "Ogla", showing view of the harbor of Apia, Samoan Islands, taken after the hurricane of Saturday, March 16, 1889. From Charles F. Fish, Fall River, Mass., photographs of the Old Stone Mill at Newport and of an old windmill at Portsmouth, R.I.
7 From Joseph Francis, Minneapolis, Minn., large gold medal presented to Mr. Francis by President Harrison, Arpil 1889, in accordance with Act of the Congress of the United States for his invention of life boats, etc. Gold snuff box, diamond mounted, presented to Mr. Francis by Napoleon III. From James M. Gleason, Boston, Mass., bronze medals commemorative of the visit of the Boston Commandery to the 24th Triennal Conclave of Knights Templar, Washington City, Oct. 8, 1889. From Rev. A.K. Glover, Grand Haven, Mich., copper coins of the United States from 1783 to 1826. From Guildhall Library Committee of London, England, bronze medals struck by order of the Corporation of London from 1849 to 1887 to commemorate various historic events. From William M. Haley, San Francisco, German Bible printed in Halle in 1765; and German passport issued to K. Land in May 1837.
8 From William Hall, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Knight Templar badge and card. From Mrs. W.S. Hancock, Washington, D.C., cane presented to General Hancock by Citizens of Brooklyn in 1884, sword voted to him at the Sanitary Fair in St. Louis in 1864, and regulation sword carried by him throughout the War of the Rebellion. From Mrs. Mary Harney, Washington, D.C., Mexican saddle and harness, military cap and chapeau, epaulettes, revolver and two rifles, personal relics of Gen. W.S. Harney. From W.T. Hornaday, Buffalo, N.Y., plaster bust of Professor Huxley. From C.P. Jacobs, Indianapolis, Indiana, programs, invitation cards, badges, and other relics of the funeral of President Abraham Lincoln. From Philip Jaisohn, Washington, D.C., Japanese 20 sen silver coin.
9 From Lewis Johnson & Co., Washington, D.C., Hungarian paper money, issued at BudaPest, September 1, 1848. From J.P. Klinges, Philadelphia, Pa., postage stamps of the Confederate States. From Oliver S. League, Annapolis, Md., cross-bow found under the floor of Col. Wilmot's house in Annapolis, built in the 17th century. From Thomas Marron, Washington, D.C., autograph letter of Postmaster General Amos Kendall, October 26, 1838. From Col. Marshall McDonald, Washington, D.C., military publications and manuscript records pertaining to Confederate States. From Mrs. N.V.D. Miller, reprints of wall-paper edition of Vicksburg Daily Citizen, July 2-4, 1863, and reprint of Ulster County Gazette, January 4, 1800. From Theodore A. Mills, Washington, D.C., Commission of Clark Mills as Lieutenant of Cavalry in 1853 signed by President Franklin Pierce and Sec-
10 Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. Cast of face of Abraham Lincoln, from original mold made by Clark Mills in February, 1865, about sixty days before the President's death. From W.C. Mason, Washington, D.C., Chinese copper coins. From John M. Noah, Washington, D.C., original printed copy of Carrier's address to the patrons of the "National Advocate", New York City, January 1, 1817. Badge of Knights Templar. From Wm. S. Overton, Stoney Creek, Va., pardon for rebel soldier signed by W.H. Seward, Secretary of State. July 5, 1866. From Gen. Walter S. Payne, Fostoria, Ohio, badge of the Sons of Veterans. From Thomas G. Reames, Jacksonville, Oregon, twenty-dollar gold coin of the United States found in a cow's stomach. Badge of Knights Templar. From J.T. Richards, Philadelphia, Pa., brick from foundation of Fort Duquesne at Pittsburgh, built prior to 1753.
11 From W.W. Rockhill, Washington, D.C., Chinese paper money, including a National bank note, the only issue by the present dynasty, and New Year's Day and ordinary 100 cash paper currency of the city of Pekin. From Arthur E. Scarff, Kalamazoo, Mich., Siamese copper coin; and copper coin, dos centavos, of Argentine Republic, 1884. From Henry L. Sheldon, Middlebury, Vt., paper money of Vermont Glass Company 1814, and fractional currency of H.A. Sheldon, 1862. From Felix Speyer, Franklin, Pa., copper coin of Portugal, 20 Reis, 1866. From Dr. H.R. Storer, Newport, R.I., mould of medals of historic interest. From Tiffany & Co., New York City, silvered copper electrotype of the large vase presented to William Cullen Bryant, by the citizens of New York in 1875.
12 From James Todd, Pittsburgh, Pa., silver watch and chain with seal and pendant, captured from a British soldier at Battle of Lexington, 1775, by Lieut. James Todd, of Boston. From War Department, two swords presented to Gen. James Shields by State of Illinois and State of South Carolina, for gallant services during the Mexican War. From W.J. Winter, Denver, Colorado, ribbon badge of the Cowboy Club of Denver, Colorado. From A.F. Wooster, Norfolk, Conn., copper coin of Republic of Spain, 1870.
13 The morning sessions of the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, were held in the Lecture Hall of the National Museum, December 28 to 31, 1889. There was a large attendance of members of the Association and much interest manifested in the Museum collections. This Association was incorporated by act of Congress approved January 4, 1889, and by this act is directed to report annually to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution concerning its proceedings and the condition of historical study in America. The Regents of the Smithsonian Institution are authorized to permit the Association to deposit its collections, manuscripts, books, pamphlets and other material for history in the Smithsonian Institution or in the National Museum. Under this act some books and pamphlets have been deposited in the Museum and placed in charge of the Curator of Historical Collections who has been elected Assistant Secretary and Curator of the Association.
14 Among the papers read at the meetings were the following: "The Literature of Witchcraft", by Prof. George L. Burr of Cornell University. "A Catechism of Political Reaction" by Ex-President Andrew D. White. "The French Revolution in San Domingo," by Herbert Elmer Mills of Cornell University. "On a newly discovered manuscript called Reminiscences of the American War of Independence, by Ludwig Baron von Closen, Aid to the Count de Rochambeau", by Clarence W. Bowen of New York City. "Recent Historical Work in the Colleges and Universities of Europe and America", by President Charles Kendall Adams. "The Origin and Early History of our National Scientific Institutions", by Dr. G. Brown Goode. "The Development of International Law as to Newly Discovered Territory", by Dr. Walter B. Scaife of Johns Hopkins University. "The Impeachment and Trial of Prest. Johnson",
15 by Dr. Wm. A. Dunning, of Columbia University, New York City. "The Trial and Execution of John Brown", by General Marcus J. Wright. "A Defence of Congressional Government", by Dr. Freeman Snow of Howard University. "The Economic and Social History of New England 1620-1789", by William B. Weeden, of Providence. "The Correspondence of the Pelham Family and the Loss of Oswego to the British", by William Henry Smith, President of the Associated Press. "The early History of the Ballot in Connecticut" by Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin of Yale University. "Certain Phases of the Western Movement during the Revolutionary War", by Theodore Roosevelt. "The Concentration of the Flathead Indians upon the Jocko Reservation", by General Henry B. Carrington. "The Constitutional Aspect of Kentucky's Struggle for Autonomy, 1784-'92", by Ethelbert D. Warfield, President of Miami University. "Some Historical Facts from the Records of William and Mary College", by President Lyon G.. Tyler.
16 "Materials for the Study of the Government of the Confederate States", by John Osborne Sumner. "Notes on the Outlook for Historical Studies in the Southern States", by Prof. William P. Trent, of the University of the South. "The Relations of History to Ethnology", by Prof. O.T. Mason, of the National Museum. "The Present Condition of Historical Studies in Canada", by George Stewart, Jr., D.C.L., LL.D., of Quebec. "The Spirit of Historical Research", by James Schowler of Boston. "The Perils of Historical Study", by Justin Winsor. "The Government as a Guardian of American History", by Worthington C. Ford. A full report of the proceedings of the meeting will be printed in the Annual Report of the [[strikethrough]] American [[/strikethrough]] Association to be published [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] ^[[as]] a Congressional Document.
17 The [[strikethrough]] historical [[/strikethrough]] collections exhibited in the North Hall have been partially re-arranged and many new objects have been installed during the year. Labels have been written for all objects shown. There are now in reserve many hundreds of objects that might be exhibited, if space permitted. A beginning has been made on a collection of postage stamps of all nations, about sixteen hundred specimens gathered by Prof. Baird forming the nucleus of this collection. The collection of portraits of representative men of the world has increased considerably in number during the year, but is yet very incomplete. There have been put on exhibition engraved and photographic portraits of some of the most eminent scientists, and an interesting collection of portraits of the medical men of the world deposited by Dr. [[strikethrough]] John [[/strikethrough]] ^[[J.M.]] Toner.
1890 Curators Report on [[underlined]] Historical Collections [[/underlined]] for January ^[[Curators Reports Historical Collection Jan. 1890 A.H. Clark]] [[stamp]] G.B.G. FEB 7 1890 [[/stamp]] National Museum Feb 1 '90 Dr. G. Brown Goode Ass't Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, in charge of National Museum Sir - I have to report as follows concerning the operation of the department of Historical Collections during the month of January, 1890. During the closing days of December the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association was held in the Lecture Hall of the Museum. A printed account of the Proceedings of the meeting, from "The Independent" of January 9, is appended. A report will also be found in the February number of the "Magazine of American History".
For the [[strikethrough]] well [[/strikethrough]] benefit of the members of the Association and visitors there was placed in the Lecture Hall during the progress of the meeting a number of cases filled with objects of historic interest including a collection of manuscripts, maps, books and pamphlets relating to American history and to the history of Scientific institutions in the United States. Part of the collection consisted of curious and historic books [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] &c kindly [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] lent for the occasion by W.H. Lowderville & Co and Mr. Lewis Hayden of Washington; these loans were returned to the owners early in January.
During January there was some correspondence between the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the Secretary of the Association concerning the conditions under which the Association may transfer to the care of the Institution its collection of books, pamphlets, and other historic objects. Such transfer having been authorized by Act of Congress Jan 4 1889 and by resolution of the Board of Regents of the Institution Jan 9 1889, the Sectary has decided that the Collection when deposited here shall be in charge of the Curator of the Historical Collections in the Museum [[strikethrough]] he having [[/strikethrough]] ^[[who has]] been elected Assistant Secretary
and Curator of the Association. It is hoped that the relations now existing between the Institution and the Association will result in greatly [[strikethrough]] increasing [[/strikethrough]] ^[[benefit]] the interests of this department. The ^[[recorded]] accessions to the Historical Collections during the month were as follows: 22777 Lewis Johnson & Co. Paper money of Hungary. 22778 W.W. Rockhill. Chinese paper money. 22817 H.P. Branham. Glass flute, silver-mounted, used for many years by Judge Longstreet of Georgia. 22825 Thomas Marron. Autograph letter of Ex-Postmaster General Amos Kendall.
22830 L.C. Duchesne. Confederate States paper money, local, city of Natchez, 1862. 22831 J.M. Noah. Cards of admission to ceremonies at ^[[the]] Capital Dec. 11, 1889 in commemoration of President Washington's inauguration in 1789. 22833 Photograph of J.G. Swan, Vice President of Pioneer Society of Washington Territory [[strikethrough]] on occasion of [[/strikethrough]]. The special work on the collection in January has been to place some additional objects on exhibition including an interesting terra cotta medal of Benjamin Franklin, and an account book of Washingtons personal
and household expenses from 1793 to 1797, and to replace many temporary labels by permanent ones. The card catalogue of collections has been re-arranged and is now nearly perfect. For convenience of reference the [[strikethrough]] card [[/strikethrough]] catalogue which consists of several thousand cards has been made into five principal divisions as follows: A. Personal relics of eminent men. B. Relics, medals, and other objects illustrative or commemorative of historic events &c C. Money, including coins, paper money, and substitutes for money.
D. Badges, medals &c of civic, military, benevolent, and other organizations. E. Portraits, busts, &c. The collection of medals, [[strikethrough]] shown [[strikethrough]] ^[[exhibited]] simply [[underlined]] as medals [[underline]] has been found of comparatively little interest, and most [[strikethrough]] have [[strikethrough]] ^[[of them have]] been withdrawn from exhibition to be shown in connection with other objects to which they relate. The money collection has very greatly increased in number of specimens [[strikethrough]] and [[strikethrough]] ^[[but there is room in the cases for]] not more than half of the series intended for exhibition. [[strikethrough]] has been put in the cases which [[strikethrough]] This collection has been partly
overhanded during the month and something has been done [[strikethrough]] in [[strikethrough]] ^[[toward]] the identification of several hundred ancient [[strikethrough]] pie [[strikethrough]] coins. There is an increasing correspondence with persons asking information concerning the identity and value of coins medals and objects supposed to be [[strikethrough]] of [[strikethrough]] valuable because of ^[[their]] historic association. Very respectfully A. Howard Clark Curator of Historical Collections.
^[[Enter & file]] [[stamp]] G.B.G. MAR 3 1890 [[/stamp]] Monthly Report - Historical Collections February 1890. The additions to the Collections during the month include a series of medals of the [[strikethrough]] Cin [[/strikethrough]] Ohio Valley Centennial Exposition and a number of silver and nickel coins received from Dr. E.G. Betty of Cincinnati; [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] some personal relics of General W.S. Harney, (Mexican saddle and harness, chapeau, epaulettes, pistol and rifles) deposited by Mrs. Harney; and two gold and jewel mounted swords, presented to General James Shields by the States of Illinois and South Carolina; deposited ^[[in the Museum]] by the War Department
Very few changes were made in the exhibition series. [[strikethrough]] In [[/strikethrough]] ^[[To]] the collection of Washington relics was added a set of twenty volumes of a work entitled "Histoire Generale du Voyages" & printed 1746-1789 and with the monogram GW on the cover of each volume. On the fly leaf of the first volume is written "Was intended for General Washington by the Marquis Rochambeau but a British Cruiser saved it for me - A.D.". This work is a temporary loan from Dr. G. Brown Goode. Some official orders and other papers pertaining to the funeral of President Lincoln in Indiana and Illinois, [[strikethrough]] were [[/strikethrough]] ^[[received]] from Mr. C.P. Jacobs, were
placed in a case adjacent to the "Lincoln mask". There has been some inquiry for relics of Columbus. The very authentic relics we have on some chips of wood from the mortised beam to which Columbus was chained during his imprisonment at San Domingo - also a piece of an iron bolt from the same prison. Dr. Storer of Newport, R.I., has [[strikethrough]] sent [[/strikethrough]] ^[[lent]] to the Museum a collection of moulds (in horn) of 126 interesting historic medals ^[[from]] which it is desirable ^[[casts]] should be made at an early day.
About a dozen letters were written during the month in answer to inquiries as to identity and value of coins. [[underlined]] American Historical Association. [[/underlined]] About thirty books and pamphlets have been received during the month from various Historical Societies in response to a request [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] ^[[in a]] circular letter. [[strikethrough]] of which [[/strikethrough]] Fifty-seven of these circulars were sent to the more important Historical Societies of the [[strikethrough]] United [[/strikethrough]] several States. [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] A copy of the circular is appended. A. Howard Clark
[[page from newspaper]] January 9, 1890.] THE INDEPENDENT. (37) 5 melted into thin air. But the most ardent advocate of the national idea must concede that it was a strong appreciation of State prerogatives that could fix upon the nation its name of plural form which allows no derivative name for its citizens. But whether the United States was a nation in the fullest sense from the first or not, the South agrees with the North in declaring that it is so now. In this section of the country the pride of nationality is growing fast. By its Memorial Day the South asked the North to concede that these governmental relations had to be an open question until they had been settled by war. In the words of one of its sons it declares: "You Northerners are bound to believe that the South was honest in its opinions." It asks that its people be vindicated from the charge of treason, and that they be regarded, not as pardoned criminals, but as brethren in the fullest sense. It also asserts its believe that the whole country will be the freer through future years, because of the stand which the South took in defense of the reserved powers of the States and the right of local self-government. It is true that one often hears in the South bitter complaints which far exceed all proper demands for justice. The South is to-day a theater of exciting discussions of past, present and future issues. The widest differences find expression in private conversation. The solidity of the South seems much like that of the solid lake over which the spring winds have been freely blowing. The public press is for the most part in the rear of the advance of thought among the real leaders. Perhaps it is forced to be. It is hard to adjust the thought of vast communities to the changed conditions of a new era. There is so much of the inertia of prejudice to overcome, that pronounced utterances would perhaps defeat the end aimed at. In great transitions of thought it is probably necessary to "make haste slowly." But tho the South is still over-sensitive and sore over old issues, yet surely upon the North, as victor in the great struggle, rests the larger obligation for magnanimity and the exercise of fraternal charity. To-day the best South, the liberal and enlightened South, declares: "We have conceded much; far more than you of the North realize. We are struggling with a might problem which has never been solved in the world's experience, the problem of two most unlike races trying to live together in nearly equal numbers on the same soil. In other race collisions numbers have been unequal and the weaker race has usually gone to the wall, or remained servile to the other. We are trying to solve the problem aright. Under the friction of local conditions we have not yet been able always to enforce those ideal principles which the North from its remoter standpoint would have us apply to these questions. But we are meeting the issue with courage, and we will never cease our efforts until these relations are settled on principles as broad as Christianity itself. But you owe to us in our difficult task that kindly judgement which shows appreciation of grave conditions and which 'thinketh no evil.'" It is the voice of the best part of the white South that says this: There is another South whose voice will be heard more and more distinctly as time goes on. The question before the country is not so much, What shall be done with the Negro? as, What will the Negro do with himself? Each of these voices of the South claims its right to be heard. But it was the White South that spoke through the memorial pageant of December 11th. Among those who gave public eulogies on that occasion were some who are making it their life-work to uplift and educate the Negro race. They are loyal sons of the South, and while not blind to the faults of their section, they have faith in the future of both races and in the triumph of Christian principle. They are saying to the North: "Wait for us as well as for the Negro, and touch not your liberties and ours by hasty or partisan action that is founded on distrust of your brethren." Twenty-nine years ago the Convention that cast the die in the history of secession gathered in this city. An epidemic of small-pox caused the adjournment of the Convention to Charleston, where the document was signed. I was once shown a silver memorial goblet bearing the inscription "Independence Day, Dec. 20, 1860." The Citizens of South Carolina have ceased to glory in that "Independence Day." Its results were too costly. As one reviews the troublous events that took place on this soil during the twelve years that followed the close of the War, one wonders what would be the actions of the Government if the same questions had to be decided over again in the light of to-day. It was a condition of things for which history gave no precedent. Any step forward was like a leap into the dark. Indeed, now that nearly a score of years have passed, the conclusion as to what ought to have been done must still be much like that of the old darky who said: "Dey's jus' two ways froo dis yere woods, massa; an' whichsomeber way yo' goes, yo' is might sorry yo' didn' take de udder." Daniel Webster once said that a strong conviction that something must be done is the parent of many bad measures. The South to-day asked the nation to pay just heed to the words of Massachusetts' gifted statesman. Even in her desperate struggle with illiteracy she would feel safer to fight it out alone rather than to accept much-needed help from the nation if there were danger that the national action could afterward be used to wound the self-respect of her people. On that Sunday when the cold form of Jefferson Davis was lying in state in New Orleans, the pastor of a great congregation in this capital city which was the "cradle of secession," voiced the wish of thousands of other congregations, both North and South, in the petition that every vestige of sectional bitterness might be buried forever in this grave. As I write these words on the anniversary of the day when the first decisive step was taken in that great tragedy, suggestions of Christmastide are calling the multitudes of both North and South to "Hush the noise, ye men of strife, And hear the angels sing." In the perfecting of fraternal relations among sections once at strife, the proud State of Massachusetts, which has so often joined combat with the proud State of South Carolina on questions of the hour, but whose large-hearted generosity toward Southern needs found its culmination in the magnificent gift of George Peabody to Southern education - ought to be first and foremost in the exercise of that charity in judgement which shall hasten the day of universal "peace, good-will and glory." COLUMBIA, S.C. OUR WASHINGTON LETTER BY KATE FOOTE. THE New Year 1890 - the rounding of a century, since the first New Year of the first President of the United States - and just one hundred New Year Days. How much the New Year Day means to the people - not much to the officials who make the pageant at the White House - but to the people who make the officials, and who make the history - a new page of it each New Year Day. President Harrison's first New Year was wet. It was drizzling. It was his inauguration weather over again, with perhaps a trifle less of it. But the White House, by contrast, was the brighter and more attractive. The big East Room had the massive setting, as became it, of tall palms and dashes of scarlet poinsettas. Blooming azalea trees were a background in the oval windows of the Blue Room. Everywhere was the sweetness of cut flowers, over all the sparkling gas-lights, and with all, the festive music of the red-coated Marine Band. The reception began at the usual hour of eleven o'clock. Before that hour the Diplomatic Corps had turned out of the long line of dripping carriages, flashed in, and added a wealth of gorgeous color and jewel decorations to the brilliant scene. A second line of dripping carriages, and the foreign congresses, the Pan American and Maritime, turned out a second dazzling flash of gold lace, ribbons and clanking swords. By this time the Red Room was pretty full of many nations' representatives - the Italian, German, Russian and British Ministers, among the diplomats, by all odds the most striking figures. Baron Fava, very tall, very black-eyed, very white-haired, tho Italian, is an old portrait of Louis Fourteenth age. Count von Arco-Valley, is the German soldier, of splendid physique and military bearing. Sir Julian Pauncefote, large and fine, is the well groomed, perfect-mannered Briton. Baron de Struve, from the frozen clime of the only autocrat on earth, is also large and fine, and one of the most courtly, genial of men. It was the Orientals, of course, who gave the picturesque - the Chinese and Koreans. But it was the little Korean ladies, Mrs. Ye Wan Yong and Mrs. Ye Cha Yun, who received the greatest attention - that is, if curiosity may be put into the more polite word. Mrs. Ye Wan Yong is a pretty woman - a dainty figure, skin smooth and ivory white, regular features, perfect teeth, hair soft, black and shining as silk, a simplicity and sweetness of expression that gives her the Madonna type of face. Is it any wonder that Mrs. Ye Wan Yong is a fascinating woman? It was their first New Year at the White House: and if they did not understand what it was all about, they looked on with demure interest and made no mistakes. It was something of a debut - a "coming out" party. As for their husbands, Mr. Ye Wan Yong and Mr. Ye Cha Yun, their beaming faces showed proud delight over the impression made by their wives. That they are disposed to give "full swing" to American customs is quite evident, and in all things save dress they are quickly falling into American ways. But let us hope they will hold to their flowing brocades of many hues and their indescribable head-covering, for they would not be half as interesting in other than their native attire. "Hail to the Chief" will never grow old. It renews its youth every New Year's Day, and after a hundred plunges in the fountain was as new, inspiring and delightfully starting as ever. With the first strain, the first note rather, it starts the President and receiving ladies to the Blue Room, and at the same instant starts everybody else - to look at them. Right here is one of the most democratic features - in the taking, as a matter of course, the privilege of looking at the President, and out of which no harm comes - nothing more unpleasant than a little elbowing and crowding, and the craning heads always coming out on top. When the President appeared with Mrs. McKee on his arm, there was no stir, not a ripple of the previous agitation over the official program naming the President's daughter as the representative of the President's wife. The President's personal feeling was one thing; the question of official etiquet was another. Yes, it was quite another, and, as a matter of fact, had been quite sufficient cause for agitation. The wife takes her tank from her husband, and not from her father. Mrs. McKee is the wife of a private citizen, and therefore has no official status. In the event of the President not being able to perform his duties, would his son, who has no official rank, represent him, or would the Vice-President? The question could admit of but the one answer. If the President's wife, then, is not able to appear on official occasions, and more particularly on New Year's Day, would her daughter, who has no official status, represent her, or would the Vice-President's wife? The question could admit of but the one answer. This is the gist of the talk in official circles, always winding up with "Oh, the President's personal feeling is one thing. The question of official etiquet is quite another thing." And so it is, to be sure. One voluble writer proceeded to pour oil on the troubled waters, by citing former Presidents, who had asked nieces, sisters or other relatives to preside over the White House. And why not, when in every instance given, the President was a widower or bachelor. When President Jefferson's niece, President Buchanan's niece, President Arthur's sister, and President Cleveland's sister for the first part of his term, presided over the White House, it was by right of a correctly observed official etiquet. Therefore, the fact that a bachelor or widower President made his niece, his sister, even his "cousin or his aunt," mistress of the White House, has nothing to do with the present question, say the ladies of the Cabinet circle. The troubled waters remain troubled; but happily for the New Year reception it was all on the surface. And so, with smiling faces, while the music rose above the undertoned "Ahs" and "Ohs" they walked on through the corridor, arm-in-arm, to the Blue Room - the President and Mrs. McKee, the Vice-President and Mrs. Morton, Secretary and Mrs. Windom, Attorney-General and Mrs. Miller, Postmaster-General and Mrs. Wanamaker, Secretary and Mrs. Tracy, Secretary and Mrs. Noble, Secretary and Mrs. Rusk. All of the ladies were in the line, except the wife of the Secretary of State, and the wife of the Secretary of War. A double sorrow had fallen on the Blaine household in the very recent death of Mrs. Blaine's sister, and a few days after, the death of Mr. Blaine's brother. Mrs. Proctor's ill health kept her from the White House, and prevented her from receiving later in her own home. A glance down the line of handsomely gowned women showed another "departure" in the precedence given the wife of the Attorney-General over the wife of the Secretary of the Navy. What old agitations it recalled, and struggles, that were well-night feuds, forever breaking out at the most inopportune times, and at last fairly threatening to break up the social structure of one Administration. Under the Arthur regime, the beautiful wife of the Attorney-General maintained that her place in the line should be above that of the wife of the Secretary of the Navy. On the other hand the clever wife of the Secretary of the Navy held the place, declaring that the Navy and Army should stand side by side. The Blue Room was sometimes very warm, and often uncomfortably warm for the rest of the line. The disputed precedence was never settled, however. President Cleveland's Attorney-General was a widower, and the peace of the Blue Room was not in his day disturbed by this question. There would seem to be but one law by which to determine the order of precedence in the Blue Room, when the wives of Cabinet officers form the receiving line. Whatever determined the President in giving to Mrs. McKee the first place, he has availed himself of the one law, giving to the wives of the Cabinet officers their rightful places. No matter if self-defense compelled him to work of re-organization, the precedence is fixed for the present Administration anyhow. It is on the law of dates, the time when each Cabinet department was created by an Act of Congress - in other words, the law of seniority. In the following order the Blue Room line will represent the departments of State, War, Treasury, Justice, Post-office, Navy, Interior and Agriculture. This would be the seniority law. But the importance of the Treasury may take precedence over the War Department. The same date would make a tie between the Treasury and department of Justice, as both were created on September 2d, 1789. But again, the importance of the Treasury would take precedence. However, as the one thing to be desired is the harmony of the Blue Room, let us hope the President has solved the precedence problem, and that at least the Cabinet end of the line was happy. It was also a sensible step, and an improvement on the former custom of "pairing off," many said, when husbands and wives went in together. Here again President Harrison "steered clear of breakers," by avoiding another vexing question of precedence. These things all seem the minutest trifles. But atoms make the earth, and trifles make the world of official society. The gorgeous diplomats were followed by the somber shades of the Supreme Court Justices, and then the Senators and Representatives, not in the time of the official program but in the old time bringing them in with the
[[page from newspaper]] ^[[2 3]] 6 (38) THE INDEPENDENT |January 9, 1890. Justices. There is no use denying that the Senators were ahead of time, and their too early presence caused some embarrassment and confusion. The program gave the first time to the foreign visitors, the second to all of the courts, including the District, and the third to Senators and Representatives in Congress. Heretofore the United States legislators had entered close on the heels of the United States Supreme Court Justices, and their prompt appearance now was evidence that they preferred the old time to the new. The Army and Naval officers brought in bright color again; but after the first hour the glitter of uniforms had vanished, and the dreary weather began to show itself, in the processions of civil bodies marching through the rain. The crowd of ladies in reception toilets, asked to assist back of the line thinned out, the line itself dwindled away; and when the public reception began at 12:30 the Blue Room had changed from a scene of warmth and brilliancy, to one of coldness and half desertion. When the people stand patiently in the rain for hours that they may pay respects to the President, the President could receive no greater compliment, than their good wishes on New Year's Day. But the deserted Blue Room was no return for the peoples compliment. And it must be added that it was in marked contrast to the consideration shown the people under the last Administration, when President Cleveland's personal request was a command to his assistants to remain through the public reception. And what of the Vice-President's wife? the first Vice-President's wife in the White House on New Year's Day since twenty years. But more, a woman of handsome presence, graceful assurance, magnetism, and, above all, a tact amounting to finished diplomacy. "Mrs. Morton," said a visitor looking on, "makes the place; the place does not make Mrs. Morton." So it seemed, when little short of the first hour the Vice-President's wife withdrew to go home, where she held a reception during the afternoon, that was even more brilliant than the official part of the White House line. The Vice-President's official program was similar to that of the President's, except that Senators and Representatives and the Army and Navy were given precedence over District of Columbia officials. From 12 till 2 was given to official visitors, and from 2 till 3 to a public reception. Mrs. Morton received in the superb gown she wore at the White House, and she was assisted by at least a dozen attractive women in handsome toilets. The Vice-President's house has one of the most beautiful interiors in Washington, the new dining-room especially being spacious, and on New Year's Day opened to visitors. And now how will it all end? What will be the sequel of the President's and the Vice-President's first New Year's reception? Are we to have two "Courts" at the Capital? It would have been a graceful and gracious courtesy had the President's wife asked the Vice-President's wife to be her representative at the White House, people say. But she did not - and now why should not the Vice-President's wife hold her own little court? Why indeed, should she not? In the mean time official society is holding its breath while awaiting results. THE NATIONAL HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. BY HERBERT B. ADAMS, PH.D., SECRETARY OF THE ASSOCIATION AND PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION was organized at Saratoga, in 1884, with only forty members, for the promotion of historical studies. In six years this society has grown by a process of historical selection to a membership of 620 with one hundred life members. At the sixth annual meeting which was held in Washington, D.C., from the 28th to the 31st of December, 1889, there were present eight-nine members, the largest attendance in the history of the Association. The following is an alphabetical list of members present: Charles Kendall Adams, President; Herbert B. Adams, Secretary; Prof. H.C. Adams, Ann Arbor; Dr. Cyrus Adler, of Baltimore; Miss Maria Weed Alden, New York; Dr. Charles M. Andrews, Bryn Mawr; Dr. W.G. Andrews, Guilford, Conn; Dr. E.M. Avery, Cleveland; Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven; Dr. Frederick A. Bancroft, Librarian of the State Department; George Bancroft, ex-President of the Association; Gen. William Birney, Washington; Prof. Edward S. Bourne, Adelbert College, Cleveland Henry E Bourne, Norwich Academy; Dr. Clarence W. Bowen, New York; Dr. Jeffrey R. Brackett, Baltimore; Prof. George L. Burr, Cornell University; Prof. Howard W. Caldwell, University of Nebraska; Gen. Henry B. Carrington, of Boston; Judge Mellen Chamberlain, of Boston; the Ref. Thomas S. Childs, D.D., Washington; A. Howard Clark, National Museum; Mendes Cohen, Secretary of the Maryland Historical Society; W.V. Cox, U.S. National Museum; Major-Gen. George W. Cullum, U.S.A., New York; Prof. R.H. Darling, Secretary of the Oneida Historical Society; Llewellyn Deane, Washington; Dr. Wm. A. Dunning, Columbia College; Paul Leicester Ford, Brooklyn; Mrs. Olivia M. Ford, Washington; George Fox, Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven; Dr. E.M. Gallaudet, President National Deaf-Mute College; Dr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; A.A. Graham, State Historical Society, Columbus; Judge Alexander B. Hagner, Washington; Charles H. Haskins, Baltimore; Prof. Paul Haupt, Baltimore; Gen. Joseph Hawley, U.S. Senate; Col. John Hay, Washington; Hon. Wm. Wirt Henry, Richmond, Vice-President of the Association; Hon. George F. Hoar, U.S. Senate; Prof. F.H. Hodder, Cornell University; Roswell Randall Hoes, U.S.N.; Hon. John Jay, Vice-President of the Association; Rear-Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins, U.S. Navy, Washington; Miss Elizabeth Bryant Johnston, Washington; Hon. Horatio King, Washington; John A. King, President New York Historical Society; Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, Editor of Magazine of American History; Edward G. Mason, President Chicago Historical Society; Prof. O.T. Mason, U.S. National Museum; John H.T. McPherson, Baltimore; Gen. R.D. Mussey, Washington; Judge Charles A. Peabody, New York; Prof. John Pollard, Richmond; Dr. William F. Poole, Librarian Newberry Library, Chicago; the Rev. J.E. Rankin, D.D., President Howard University; James F. Rhodes, Esq., Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Civil Service Commission, Washington; Gen. Rufus Saxton, Washington; Dr. Walter B. Scaife, Baltimore; James Schouler, Esq., Boston; Prof. Austin Scott, Rutgers College; Wm. Henry Smith, President Associated Press, New York; Dr. Freeman Snow, Harvard University; A.R. Spofford, Library of Congress; Dr. Charles J. Stille, Philadelphia; Henry Stockbridge, Esq. Baltimore; George H. Stone, Esq., Cleveland; Henry Strong, Esq., Washington; John Osborne Sumner, Harvard University; Dr. William C. Teichmann, Washington; Dr. Joseph Meredith Toner, Library of Congress; Prof. Wm. P. Trent, University of the South; President Lyon G. Gyler, William and Mary College; John Martin Vincent, Johns Hopkins University; Mrs. Ellen Harden Walworth, Washington; Pres. Ethelbert D. Warfield, Miami University; J.E. Watkins, U.S. National Museum; Wm. B. Weeded, President Historical Association, Brown University; Pres. James C. Welling, Columbian University; ex-President Andrew D. White, Cornell University; W.W. Whilloughby, Johns Hopkins University; Gen. James Grant Wilson, New York; Prof. Thomas Wilson, U.S. National Museum; James A. Woodburn, Johns Hopkins University; Gen. Marcus J. Wright, War Records Office, Washington. The headquarters of the Association in Washington were at the Arlington Hotel. Three morning sessions, Saturday, Monday and Tuesday, were held from 10:30 to 1 o'clock at the National Museum by permission of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and three evening sessions on the same days, from 8 to 10 P.M. in the large lecture hall of the Columbian University, by invitation of Pres. James C. Welling. Sunday and the afternoon hours were free for social purposes. On Monday, from 4 to 7 o'clock, a tea was given to the members of the Association and their friends by Mr. and Mrs. Horatio King, 707 H Street, and on Tuesday afternoon, at the same hours, Mrs. Walworth extended to the Association a like courtesy at her new home 1300 L Street. By invitation of the board of management our members enjoyed the privileges of the Cosmos Club during the four days sojourn in Washington. Every evening after adjournment of the formal session of the Association at the Columbian University there was a social re-union at the Cosmos Club. On Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning, by invitation of the librarian, Dr. Bancroft, parties of historical students and specialists visited the State Department for an examination of the interesting archives there preserved. The Convention opened Saturday morning, December 28th, in the large lecture hall of the National Museum. The walls were decorated with the Catlin collection of Indian portraits, with pictures of Pueblos and Cliff dwellers, and with the busts of American statesmen. The room was admirably suited to the purposes of the Association. The curators of the Museum had introduced a number of cases for the display of interesting historical relics, books, manuscripts, etc., which attracted great attention on the part of the members as they entered or left the hall. The first paper presented at the morning session was by Prof. George L. Burr, of Cornell University, who has in his immediate charge the excellent historical library of ex-President Andrew D. White. The subject of Mr. Burr's paper was the Literature of Witchcraft, for the illustration of which ample materials had been found in Mr. White's library. The Literature of Witchcraft includes perhaps a thousand volumes. The earliest were written in the fifteenth century and their authors were Dominicans of the Inquisition. They regarded the subject as an old one. Indeed, the Church had always fought against magic. She had taught that the gods of the pagans were devils and that those who worshiped them were sorcerers. The belief in Satan was developed by medieval monks and the Church fathers, reinforced by Byzantine speculation. Belief in the Devil's activity in this world was elaborated by scholasticism into a system, of which the whole literature of witchcraft is but a broken reflection. To detect and punish the servants of Satan was the work of the Inquisition and the persecutors of witchcraft in England and New England. The second paper of Saturday morning's session was a Catechism of Political Reaction, by ex-President Andrew D. White. In his preface to this paper Mr. White called attention to the fact that while studies of the French Revolution in Europe have been developed to an enormous extent, there has been no corresponding treatment, indeed no adequate study of the reaction after the various revolutions. Mr. White's paper was a contribution to such a history. His essay was based upon a very rare and curious little book which he obtained at Sorrento three years ago. The book was a wonderfully well-argued and well written catechism by the Archbishop of Sorrento, who was placed by the King of the two Sicilies, about 1850, at the head of the Department of Public Instruction at Naples, and also made the tutor of the young prince. It contains the most amazing declarations of war against modern civilization, and indeed against nearly everything moral, political, or social, which the nineteenth century regards as a landmark of progress. It argues with wonderful force that the King is not bound by any oath that he may have sworn to maintain a constitution, and urges with extreme cleverness all the arguments in support of absolute government. Mr. White took up several chapters of this remarkable catechism and gave in detail the argument in each. The third paper was by Herbert Elmer Mills, Instructor in History, Cornell University, on the French Revolution in San Domingo. In 1789, San Domingo was by far the most important of the colonies of France. Commercially it was prosperous, but its population was divided into the Creole planters, the free "people of color," and the slaves, by far the most numerous class. Government was in the hands of the French Minister of Marine, and was administered by a Governor and an Intendant. The people had no political privileges, and this fact had long irritated the Creoles. At the first announcement of the approaching meeting of the States-General in France, the people in San Domingo took measures to secure representation, hoping thereby to win for themselves the control of the island. Delegates were chosen, but a careful study shows that the assemblies which elected them were widely scattered and by no means represented the entire body of the planters. At first the representatives were given a seat but not a voice among the Third Estate; but before the end of 1789 they had won recognition as entitled to six votes in the National Assembly. Meantime the free people of color in San Domingo had not been idle. Their representatives also appeared at the National Assembly and claimed seats. It has been assumed by historians that these representatives were actually elected in the Island and sent to Paris, but the truth is that they were chosen merely by members of this caste who were residents of Paris. No place was granted them in the National Assembly. Of course neither emancipation nor representation of the servile class was thought of either by the whites or the free people of color in San Domingo. The last paper of the morning session was read by Clarence W. Bowen on a newly discovered manuscript called Reminiscences of the American War of Independence, by Ludwig Baron von Closen, Aid to Count de Rochambeau. This manuscript was found in the early part of the year 1889 among the archives of the Von Closen family in their castle in Bavaria. A translation was sent to Mr. Bowen, who read brief extracts. Ludwig Baron von Closen, the author, was born August 14th, 1755, and in his early years entered the French military service. On the arrival of the French Expedition in Newport, R.I., in 1780, he was made Aid to Count de Rochambeau, commander of the expedition. Previously he had been captain in the regiment Royal Deux Ponts. On returning to France in 1783, Von Closen received from Louis XVI the order of Legion of Honor and the Order for Merit and, in 1792, was informed of his election with the permission of the King of France to the Order of the Cincinnati. He died in 1830. In his reminiscences he speaks of his visits to John Hancock of Massachusetts, Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut, and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. He conducted Washington from the Hudson River to Rochambeau at Newport. He reports the conferences between Washington, Rochambeau, Lafayette, and De Grasse near Yorktown. His visit to Mrs. Washington at Mount Vernon, a ball he gave at Baltimore, and visits to other sections of the country are described by Von Closen in the most charming manner. His reminiscences are full of historical interest and are an important addition to the literature of the French in America during the Revolutionary War. The evening session on Saturday began promptly at eight o'clock at Columbian University, with the Hon. John Jay, of New York, presiding. In a brief but comprehensive sketch Mr. Jay reviewed the work of the morning session and then introduced President Adams, who delivered an interesting Inaugural Address upon the Recent Historical Work of the Universities. He said that the first distinct professorship of history was established at Harvard University in 1839 for Jared Sparks. At Yale, as at other American colleges, history was long taught by means of text-books without much real enthusiasm. A real advance was made when Andrew D. White, fresh from original studies in France and Germany, entered upon an historical professorship in 1857 at the University of Michigan. From that institution President White's influence was transmitted to Cornell University, which developed the first distinct professorship of American history. Senator Hoar, after President Adam's address, called attention to the fact that Jared Sparks's lectures at Harvard University were largely upon American subjects and were at the same time original contributions to American history. Mr. Adams reviewed the progress of historical science in the various countries of Europe, including Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany and France. His conclusion was that the best advantages for historical study are now to be found in the schools of Paris, and that before the achievements of European Universities American scholars find more to encourage humility than pride. Remarks were made upon President Adams's paper by President White. Prof. Austin Scott, of Rutgers College, justly called attention to the works of the smaller colleges in America and to the services of the late Professor Allen, of the University of Wisconsin, who was one of the most critical scholars and ablest teachers of history in this country. After the Inaugural address, Mendes Cohen, Corresponding Secretary of the Maryland Historical Society, gave an interesting account of the discovery of the Calvert papers in England, and of their recent publication in Baltimore. He exhibited to the Association the first volume, which has just appeared from the press. Mr. Cohen's statement of the progress of an important work undertaken by a State Historical Society perhaps foreshadows similar reports that may be presented at future meetings by delegates from the various historical societies of the United States and of Canada. The Association re-assembled Monday morning, December 30th, at half-past ten, in the National Museum, President Adams in the chair. The first paper was on the Origin and Early History of our National Scientific Institutions, by Dr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Goode reviewed the entire history of scientific and philosophical societies in this country, and gave special attention to the development of literary and scientific institutions in the city of Washington. He called attention to the fact that, as early as 1775, when Washington was in his camp at Cambridge, Major Blodgett said to him that a national university ought to be erected
[[page from newspaper]] [[three columns annotated 4 5 and 6]] January 9, 1890.] THE INDEPENDENT (39) 7 in which the youth of the whole country might receive instruction. Washington replied: "Young man, you are a prophet, inspired to speak what I am confident will one day be realized." Dr. Goode pointed out the various tendencies toward the development of a larger scientific and intellectual life in the Federal City. He traced the history of its various institutions of learning, including the Columbian University, the American Academy of Sciences, and the Smithsonian Institution, with which latter the American Historical Association was allied by Act of Congress approved January 4th, 1889. The next paper was on the Development of International Law as to newly discovered Territory, by Dr. Walter B. Scaife, Reader on Historical Geography in the Johns Hopkins University. His paper opened with a brief sketch of the policy of the Roman See as the arbiter of Europe, from the eleventh to the fifteenth century. Dr. Scaife showed that the Bulls of Alexander VI, divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal, were not manifestations of an unheard of presumption, but were the natural out-growth of precedent conditions. But this authority was now rejected, and was replaced by the rule of force. Meantime, International Law had started on its career to try to persuade men to be govered by reason rather than by force; and ever striving toward the ideal, but keeping the practical in mind, it advanced in the course of two centuries and a half to the formulation of rules of action, high in their aim and still practicable in their application. During this time the practice of nations was undergoing also modifications. Spain, finding the Pope's authority rejected by other Powers, set up the right of possession by discovery; but in this England was at least her equal inasmuch as her representative had seen the mainland of the Western Continent before any Spaniard. England advanced also this theory as long as it answered her purpose, then turned to another, viz., that actual occupation is necessary to effect a complete title. Finally, during the present decade, a union has been made of practice and theory in the formation of the Congo State; and rules have been formulated and adopted by the Great Powers for the future regulation of national action in the matter. The whole subject goes to show the value of forming correct scientific theories as to the affairs of men, even when apparently there is the least hope of their ever being realized; that they do have effect on the practices of mankind, and that a time will come when they will be recognized as the true standard of action. An important contribution to post bellum historical literature was a paper on the Impeachment and Trial of President Johnson, by Dr. Wm. A. Dunning, of Columbia University, New York. The points which he considered were three: first, the causes contribution to the impeachment proceedings; second, the issues involved in the impeachment by the House; and third, the issue involved in the trial by the Senate. The causes which seem to have been peculiarly efficient were the personality of Johnson and his theory of reconstruction. There were three different attempts at impeachment in the House. It was the President's removal of Stanton in apparent defiance of the tenure-of-office act that precipitated the final impeachment. Before the Senate the most important question really answered was, whether the Senate could be viewed as a court proper or not. The radicals said no. The Senate's action, however, favored the contrary opinion. With this divided sentiment, conviction on any of the numerous charges was practically impossible. Article XI, involving the President's resistance to reconstruction, was most likely to prove successful, but failure to obtain a two-thirds vote on this matter was the knell of all impeachment proceedings. Dr. Dunning concluded that the framers of our Constitution built strongly in co-ordinating the various departments of our Government. No circumstances more favorable to removing a President from office are likely to arise in the future, and the result of the Johnson impeachment was a confirmation of the principle asserted by the fathers of the Republic. The subject of the next paper was the Trial and Execution of John Brown, by Gen. Marcus J. Wright, of the War Records Office, Washington, D.C. The paper was substantially an answer to Dr. H. von Holst's charges that John Brown did not receive a fair trial. General Wright reviewed the whole matter from notes and evidences taken at the time, and clearly established his thesis that everything was done which the law required. The concluding paper of the morning session was a Defense of Congressional Government, by Dr. Freeman Snow, of Harvard University. Dr. Snow said that Americans are now engaged in drawing comparisons between the English and the American Constitutions, and, like Mr. Bagehot, they find nearly all the advantages on the side of the English. The multitude, it is said, needs leadership. Hence, if we would save our society from disintegration, we must adopt the English system of responsible leadership. The error of this view, Mr. Snow contended, lies in looking too intently at the mere machinery of government, and not at society as a whole. The effect of obeying leaders is to take away from the masses the habit of thinking for themselves. If our Government is at any time less efficient or less orderly, it is the safest in the long run, for it develops the capacity for self-government among the people. Dependence upon leaders, as in the English system, has the opposite effect. Too much is expected of popular government. We should not expect perfection from an imperfect people. If we want more efficient legislation, we must send men to Washington for just that purpose. The present condition of our politics is largely a legacy left us by the slavery struggle and the Civil War. It is an abnormal condition of things and will pass away. It is even now on the wane. The evening session of Monday was at the Columbian University, Judge Chamberlain presiding. The papers were devoted to New England and the West. This feature of grouping contributions by large subjects, such as European History, National History, the North, the West, the South and Historical Science, was generally recognized as a great improvement in the arrangement of historical material. The first paper of the evening was on the Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, by Wm. B. Weedon, of Providence. New England communities were found on freehold land tenure; on a meeting, the local and social expression of religious life and family culture; and on a representative, democratic gathering corresponding to the old folk-mote of the Germanic race. Economically New England settlers profited by trade with the Indians through wampum. These beads were both jewelry and currency. As currency they were redeemable in beaver. When immigration was checked in 1640, the colonists built ships and bartered their own products among themselves. Vessels were loaded with fish and sailed for the West Indies or Europe. Returning they brought iron, cordage, and all the goods needed by the new settlements. In this commerce the Puritans prayed, labored and traded. Stephen Winthrop wrote to his father after having sold his wine: "Blessed be God, well sold"! Commerce and the fisheries were nourished by home products. The New England whale fishery began in boats from the shore, and finally extended into every sea. The slave trade and the making of rum were important factors in the industrial life of the eighteenth century. Even the founder of Faneuil Hall helped forward this form of commercial intercourse. Economic history is the basis of political life. No grand theory of government caused our American colonies to form a republic. The economic resistance of strong citizens to stamp acts and other economic grievances won us our magnificent rights of freedom as truly as the charters of medieval cities were obtained by purchase. Mr. William Henry Smith, President of the Associated Press, New York, then read a valuable paper on the Correspondence of the Pelham Family and the Loss of Oswego to the British. Mr. Smith said that the President of the Association one year ago forcibly presented the importance of Governmental aid in the collection of historical records and commended the example of Canada to the attention of our legislators. If that admirable address by Dr. Poole penetrated to the interior of the Capital, it would seem to have been confined to the subterranean vaults, or buried beneath innumerable applications for office. The patriotic work of the Dominion of Canada should claim the attention of our great Republic. Mr. Smith said he was disposed to favor an extension of the Canadian Government over the United States long enough to inspire our legislators with sufficient patriotism to secure the collection and preservation of historical manuscripts relating to America. He then proceeded to illustrate the value of the papers of the Pelham family which are now accessible, and relate largely to American affairs. The entire collection comprises 522 volumes, 305 of which contain the official correspondence preserved by Thomas Pelham. It is arranged chronologically from 1697-1768, and is especially rich in diplomatic papers relating to this country. Mr. Smith's paper will be published in full in the proceedings of the Association, and will doubtless be highly suggesting to students of American history. The next paper was on the Early History of the Ballot in Connecticut, by Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin, of the Law Department of Yale University. The paper was read in an impressive manner and held attention. The professor said that election by ballot first appears in American history as a constitutional provision, in the Constitution of Connecticut of 1639. It was coupled with a system of prior official nominations; as regards the "magistrates," or those who came to form the upper house of the legislature. Twenty were annually nominated, of whom twelve only could be elected. The list was arranged by the legislature, on the basis of a previous popular vote, and the present incumbents were always put first, in the order of their official seniority. Only as these died or refused a renomination, was there practically any chance for the election of any of the last eight. The first name on the official ticket was always voted on first, and so on; no one being allowed to vote for more than twelve. This gave great stability to legislation, and was what kept Connecticut so long subject to a Church establishment. When the power of the Federalists had declined everywhere else, it was a strong as ever in the upper house. The representatives elected semi-annually shared the feeling of the day; but the councilors, or "assistants," stood for that of ten or twenty years before. From 1783 to 1801, only one was dropped without his consent; and it took a struggle of seventeen years longer to give a majority to the "Tolerationists" and Jeffersonians. Congressmen were elected in a similar manner, and with similar results, down to 1818. The legislature published the nominations (twice as many as there were places to fill), and arranged them so that the first half - those already in office - were almost invariably re-elected. The Colonial charter of 1662 made no mention of the ballot, or of an official ticket, but both had become so firmly imbedded in use, that they were read into it, between the lines, and stood as fundamental institutions of the commonwealth for nearly two hundred years. At the close of the evening session, Theodore Roosevelt, of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, gave an ex-tempore address upon Certain Phases of the Westward Movement during the Revolutionary War. He deplored the ignorance of Western history shown by Eastern historians. He likened this ignorance to that of the English regarding American history in general. Those who find American or Western history uninteresting and unpicturesque, have only themselves to blame; for the fault lies in the critics, and not in the subject-matter, which is as heroic and inspiring as any great chapter in the history of the world. Mr. Roosevelt said the great West was won in the midst of war and revolution. He gave a graphic picture of the westward movement of the pioneers and the conquest of the Western country from the French and Indians. The motives of the first settlers were adventure, better lands and the improvement of material conditions in life. Daniel Boone and his followers were jointed by various parties of hunters. The region of Kentucky, that old hunting-ground of Northern and Southern Indians, was successfully occupied, but only after Lord Dunmore's war. There was but one route to the West, and that lay through the Cumberland Gap, which the frontiersman had to protect. The conquest of the Illinois country was achieved by the expedition of George Rogers Clark and the Virginians. Few Revolutionary heroes deserve more credit than this bold and aggressive military leader, who conquered the West for the American Republic. Mr. Roosevelt described how government was organized in that Western country upon the basis of English institutions, with which the settlers were familiar. The reproduction of the old English military system and of representation based on military districts, with palisaded villages as the primary seats of self-government, is most curious and instructive. The county-type of organization was naturally copied by settlers who had come from Virginia and the South. The foundation of this great Federal Republic was laid by backwoodsmen, who conquered and held the land west of the Alleghanies, and thus prepared the way for the continental dominion of the English race in America. The westward movement of the early pioneers can be best understood in the light of the westward march of immigration in our own time. A lively discussion followed Mr. Roosevelt's spirited presentation of his subject, and exceptions were taken to his statement that there were no permanent settlements beyond the Alleghanies until after the Revolution. Dr. Toner, of the Congressional Library, made a plea for the early settlers of the Ohio Valley, and Dr. Stille, of Philadelphia, and Dr. Poole, of Chicago, entered the lists in behalf of numerous local settlements beyond the mountains. Mr. Roosevelt defended his thesis as a general proposition, and Mr. Edward G. Mason, President of the Chicago Historical Society, sustained him. Tuesday morning the Convention met once more in the National Museum, with a large and enthusiastic audience, to listen to a series of papers upon Southern history. In place of Edward Eggleston's paper on Bacon's Rebellion, which he was prevented from giving, General Henry B. Carrington, who had just returned from Montana, spoke of the Concentration of the Flathead Indians upon the Jocko Reservation, as betokening a better future for a tribe which, since the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1805, has been uniformly friendly to the whites. Chief Carlos and every member of the tribe had consented to the movement. Their lands in the Bitter Root Valley are to be sold for the benefit of the Indians to the highest bidder. General Carrington maintained that the history of this tribe shows that Christianity must precede civilization and is essential to Indian development. The Constitutional Aspects of Kentucky's Struggle for Autonomy, 1784-92, by Ethelbert D. Warfield, President of Miami University, Oxford, O., was the next theme of discussion. As early as 1776 Kentucky began to feel the necessity of self-government. In that year George Rogers Clark made the first demand for the separation of that region from Virginia. The mother colony allowed the institution of the county of Kentucky, which concession for the time allayed agitation. It broke out again in 1780, and soon became chronic. From the year 1784 to 1792, when Kentucky was admitted to the Union, no less than ten regular conventions were held and several irregular assemblies besides, in the interest of self-government for Kentucky. The history of the time is one of constant turmoil. Threats of violent separation, both from Virginia and the Union, were frequent; and yet not one action of an unconstitutional character stains the records of these various conventions. The conservative element was largely Scotch-Irish Presbyterian, and it held the balance of power, which was always exerted on the side of law and order. When the Constitution of the United States came before the Virginia Convention, the District of Kentucky voted, eleven to three, against adoption. And yet when their own convention finally drew up a constitution, it leaned strongly toward the federal instrument Kentucky shares with Vermont the honor of first insisting on manhood suffrage. The period known as that of the Separatist Movements is one of singular self-restraint when viewed on the constitutional side. The next paper was by President Lyon G. Tyler, of Williamsburg, Va., who presented some historical facts from the records of William and Mary College, the oldest institution of higher education at the South. Mr. Tyler called attention to the fact that this venerable institution had lately been brought to life by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, which appropriates ten thousand a year to the surport of the college. He traced the historic influence of the college upon the unive