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Record Unit 70,  Exposition Records of the Smithsonian Institution and the United States National Museum, 1867-1940

Repository: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Contact us at osiaref@si.edu.
Creator:
Title: Exposition Records of the Smithsonian Institution and the United States National Museum
Dates: 1867-1940
Quantity: 13.1 linear meters and oversize.
Collection: Record Unit 70
Language of Materials: English
Summary:

The Centennial Exposition itself is poorly represented here, but it is documented in Baird's official and personal papers. The preservation of other records has been uneven and is not proportional to the importance of the exposition. There are far more records for the Southern Exposition, Louisville, 1883; the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1884; and the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, New Orleans, 1884-1885, than for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, for instance, though the latter was surely more noteworthy.

The most extensive exposition records in the Archives are those for the Louisville-Cincinnati-New Orleans Expositions, 1883 to 1885; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1892 to 1894 in Chicago; the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, 1895; the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, New York,1901; the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, 1904; the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, 1915; and the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, 1916. Among the less well documented expositions are the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876; the Tennessee Centennial at Nashville, 1897; the Omaha, Trans-Mississippi, and International Exposition, 1898; the Lewis and Clark Exposition, 1905, in Portland, Oregon; the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, 1933; the California Pacific International Exposition in San Diego, 1935; the Texas Centennial Exposition in Dallas, 1936; the Great Lakes Exposition in Cleveland, 1936-1937; the International Exposition of Art and Technique in Modern Life, Paris, 1937; the Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco, 1939; the Seventh World's Poultry Congress and Exposition, Cleveland, 1939; and the New York World's Fair, 1939.

The records of foreign expositions are less fully preserved than domestic ones. Exceptions are the Berlin International Fisheries Exposition of 1880 and, to a lesser degree, the London International Fisheries Exposition of 1883 and Columbian Historical Exposition at Madrid in 1892.

These records document the fiscal and technical aspects of exposition planning and, to some extent, museum practice in the nineteenth century. The volume of records varies from exposition to exposition. In some cases it is possible to follow planning, development, and operation of an exhibition virtually from inception to closing. The records include incoming and outgoing correspondence between Washington and the field agent; negotiations with suppliers and shippers -- including invoices, bills, and vouchers; plans, sketches, and photographs of exhibits; and publications. Many announcements, certificates, and photographs are in oversize.

Also included are Government Board records and Smithsonian Exposition records of William deC. Ravenel, who was Administrative Assistant at the Museum. Between 1907 and 1919 he served as the Smithsonian's official representative to six expositions. At the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915 and the Panama-California International Exposition in San Diego in 1916, he also served as Secretary of the Government Board of Management.

Historical Note

After the success of the London Crystal Palace Exposition of 1851, expositions became increasingly popular in both the United States and in Europe. However, serious participation by the federal government did not commence until the International Exposition in Philadelphia, known as the Centennial Exposition of 1876. Government involvement in expositions was authorized by an Act of Congress. The purpose of the government exhibits was generally to set forth the nature of American institutions and various aspects of the life of the citizenry, and to illustrate the nation's military power. The act usually created a Government Board of Management or Government Exhibit Board, which would be composed of representatives from the executive departments, the Smithsonian, and the United States Fish Commission. This board was in charge of appropriations, organization, preparation, installation, and management of government exhibits.

The Smithsonian representative on the Board was in charge of the Institution's exhibit and might be asked to act in some capacity for the Board as well. Spencer F. Baird, George Brown Goode, Frederick W. True, and William deC. Ravenel served as representatives of the Institution from 1876 to 1916. Other Smithsonian staff members produced exhibits in their respective fields. They included Otis T. Mason, George P. Merrill, William H. Holmes, Leonhard Stejneger, and others.

During this period it was customary to differentiate between the exhibits prepared by the Smithsonian Institution proper--the "parent institution," as it was called--and those prepared by the United States National Museum. An effort was made to represent the work of the entire organization in these exhibits. However, the work of the main departments of the National Museum, Geology, Anthropology (including the Bureau of American Ethnology), and Biology lent itself to more vivid illustration; and it is not surprising that in practice the exhibits emphasized their work.

The Institution staff frequently found itself coping with gains and losses arising from participation in expositions. The chief benefit, and it was considerable, was that the Smithsonian received many accessions, especially from foreign exhibitors. It was also able to purchase specimens from government exposition appropriations, which it could add to the National Museum's collection when an exposition ended. Finally, the Institution was pleased to have the publicity which the expositions generated. Despite these undoubted benefits, there were decided disadvantages as well. Often Congress would not make an appropriation for an exposition until very near the time it was to open, which meant the Smithsonian staff had to create exhibits at short notice. Because of this circumstance, it was sometimes necessary to remove exhibit materials from the National Museum in an effort to prepare a creditable production. Moreover, staff members often had to be diverted from their regular duties to help make necessary preparations. This had the effect of removing Museum staff members from their duties in Washington for assignments at an exposition, which obliged those removed to delay work begun in the Museum. Despite these difficulties, the expositions were useful to the Smithsonian, which made effective use of them from 1876 until about World War I.

Descriptive Entry

The exposition records of this collection provide an account of the Smithsonian's involvement in twenty-two domestic and foreign expositions between 1876 and 1908. The depth of coverage in the records is uneven, but they still convey a wealth of information about Smithsonian participation in expositions, chiefly during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

The most significant material in this collection is undoubtedly the correspondence of the Smithsonian representative and the delegate to the Government Board, who were usually the same person. From the correspondence one can trace all the activities which went into making exhibits for expositions. Depending on the depth of coverage for an exposition, it is possible to trace its history from planning work in Washington, to hiring personnel and assembling or buying material for exhibits, to observe the operating routines at the exposition, and, finally, to track the return of personnel and materials to the Smithsonian. All these activities are documented in the correspondence of the representative-delegate and the special agent, who acted as the representative's deputy.

Curators from the National Museum greatly assisted the representative in preparation of the exhibits. The correspondence and records of curators and their particular exhibits present detailed information on the preparation, installation, and administration of the exhibit. Correspondence concerning efforts to collect specimens may be of interest as well.

Researchers should also consult Record Units 95 and 192 in the Smithsonian Archives. The former contains numerous photographs of expositions, though the coverage is uneven. The latter contains records documenting Smithsonian and National Museum participation in expositions, circa 1900-1940.

Researchers should also consult the Smithsonian Institution Library, which has a large collection of exposition catalogues. There is, moreover, a splendid interpretive essay on American expositions, Robert W. Rydell's All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at International Expositions, 1876-1916 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).

This collection is indexed under the following access terms. These are links to collections with related topics, persons or places.

Name

Subject

Co-Creator

Physical Characteristics of Materials in the Collection

Preferred Citation

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 70, , Exposition Records of the Smithsonian Institution and the United States National Museum

Container List

Series 1

International Exhibition (Centennial Exhibition of 1876, Philadelphia), 1873-1878, 1882.

On March 3, 1871, Congress sanctioned the International Exhibition, known as the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, to celebrate ". . . the one hundredth anniversary of American independence by holding an international exhibition of arts, manufactures, and products of the soil and mine. . . ." Major government buildings constructed to house exhibits at Philadelphia included the Main Building (which covered twenty-two acres), the Machinery Hall, the Agricultural Hall, the Horticultural Hall, and the Memorial Hall. The Centennial Exhibition opened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1876, and closed November 10, 1876.

In 1874, the President created a Board of Executive Departments to prepare a collective exhibition, to ". . . illustrate the functions and administrative faculties of the Government in time of peace and its resources as a war power and thereby serve to demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptation to the wants of the people." The Smithsonian appropriation was $67,000, and the U.S. Fish Commission received $5,000. A later appropriation in 1876 provided the necessary funds for transportation, maintenance, and return of the exhibits.

The Smithsonian exhibition attempted to illustrate the activities of the Institution. The displays of mineral and animal resources were extensive and included a special fisheries exhibit. The anthropology exhibit, a combined effort with the Indian Bureau, represented manners and customs of the American aborigines, past and present. The government exhibit was praised by visitors as the most interesting and important at the Centennial. Material collected for the government exhibits and donations from both foreign and domestic exhibitors was transferred to the Smithsonian at the close of the exhibition. This very large accession, combined with the specimens and objects already on hand, necessitated the construction of a new building, and the National Museum occupied its own building in 1881, when what is now the Arts and Industries Building opened for the first time.

Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, appointed Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary in charge of the United States National Museum, as representative of the Smithsonian Institution to the Government Board for the Centennial Exposition. Baird also represented the U.S. Fish Commission. Charles Rau directed the preparation of the exhibits. William P. Blake organized and directed the mineral resource exhibit. George Brown Goode prepared the animal division display, which also included the fisheries exhibit. James G. Swan was active in securing many natural history specimens for use in the exhibits.

This series provides only partial documentation of the Smithsonian's involvement in the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. The records, which were primarily created in 1875 and 1876, include five bound volumes containing records of the U.S. Centennial Commission, the Government Board of Executive Departments, and correspondence of Spencer F. Baird; correspondence, financial records, and other materials concerning W. P. Blake and his work on the mineral exhibit; financial records; miscellaneous correspondence; and photographs. Of special interest is correspondence of James G. Swan reflecting his work collecting specimens for exhibition at Philadelphia.

Box 1

COLLECTED RECORDS OF THE UNITED STATES CENTENNIAL COMMISSION, GOVERNMENT BOARD OF EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS, AND THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1873-1878

These records consist of five bound volumes labeled "U.S. Centennial Commission," a commission of representatives of states and territories created in 1871 to manage the Exhibition. These volumes also contain materials related to the Government Board of Executive Departments, as well as incoming and outgoing correspondence of Spencer F. Baird concerning the Smithsonian and U.S. Fish Commission exhibits. Other records include circulars, reports, bulletins, maps, and other miscellaneous items.

Folder 1 Centennial circulars, 1875-1878. Bound volume including estimates and contracts for glass and cases; correspondence concerning Dr. Du Hamel; and diagrams, maps, plans, and news clippings related to government exhibits.

Box 1 of 95

Folder 2 Laws, 1873-1876. Bound volume including laws, documents, circulars, reports, bulletins, and resolutions.

Box 1 of 95

Box 2

Folder 1 Duplicate circulars, 1873-1876

Box 2 of 95

Folder 2 Correspondence, 1875-1877. Bound volume made up mostly of Spencer F. Baird's incoming correspondence, arranged alphabetically.

Box 2 of 95

Box 3

CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED RECORDS OF THE MINERAL EXHIBIT, 1875-1876

Folder 1 Correspondence and related records, 1875-1876. The Smithsonian's exhibit at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 included a display of the mineral resources of the United States. William P. Blake directed the organization, collection, and preparation of this exhibit. In addition to his correspondence with Spencer F. Baird, the records consist of published material, invoices, and shipping information. Bound in one volume. For related material see Box 1.

Box 3 of 95

Box 4

Folders 1-3 Blake, William P., correspondence, 1875-1876. Consists of Blake's correspondence on the mineral exhibit. Arranged alphabetically.

Box 4 of 95

Folder 4 Ore and metal market reports, 1876

Box 4 of 95

Folder 5 Invoice records, 1875-1876. Includes invoices of specimens collected and shipment records.

Box 4 of 95

Folders 6-7 Official classification of mineral collection at the Centennial Exhibition, 1875-1876 [folder 7, item 50 removed to oversize]

Box 4 of 95

Box 5

ADDITIONAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS, 1875-1876, 1882

Folder 1 Report on Smithsonian participation in the Centennial Exhibition, 1876-1877. Includes a letter to Henry from Baird related to the exhibition collections and the need for a new Smithsonian building.

Box 5 of 95

Folders 2-3 Lists of people invited to the opening of the Centennial, 1876

Box 5 of 95

Folder 4 Xerox copies of awards received by the Smithsonian, 1877. Originals removed to oversize housing.

Box 5 of 95

Folder 5 James G. Swan correspondence, 1875-1876. Concerns collections for Smithsonian exhibit.

Box 5 of 95

Folder 6 Labels for Fisheries Exhibit

Box 5 of 95

Folder 7 Foreign box register. Concerns accessions from foreign exhibitors at the exhibition.

Box 5 of 95

Folder 8 Diagrams, maps, letter drafts. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

Box 5 of 95

Box 6

FINANCIAL RECORDS AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1875-1876, 1878

Folder 1 Financial statements, receipts, and invoices, 1875-1878. Includes Smithsonian expenditures, receipts for Montana cases, and invoices.

Box 6 of 95

Folder 2 Indian Bureau expenditures, 1875-1876

Box 6 of 95

Folder 3 Day Book, 1875-1877. Includes detailed vouchers for the Smithsonian Institution and U.S. Commission of Food Fishes.

Box 6 of 95

Folder 4 Ledger, 1875

Box 6 of 95

Box 6A

Folder 1 Shipping records, 1876-1877

Box 6A of 95

Box 7

Folder 1 Shipping records, 1876-1877

Box 7 of 95

Folder 2 Samples of exhibition forms

Box 7 of 95

Folder 3 Plans of government buildings, pass lists, circulars, 1875-1876

Box 7 of 95

Boxes 7A-7B

Box 7 of 95

Bureau of Installation records, 1876. Includes photographs of the U.S. Government building and detail views of the War Department exhibit.

Box 7 of 95

Series 2

International Fishery Exhibition (Berlin, Germany, 1880), 1880.

An Act of Congress appropriated $20,000 to enable the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries to exhibit ". . . a fair and full collection of the different specimens of American food fishes, casts thereof, models of implements, etc., used in the prosecution of American fisheries." The International Fishery Exhibition in Berlin, Germany, was held from April 20 to July 1, 1880.

The Fish Commission exhibit combined National Museum materials with privately donated articles for a collective exhibit illustrating the fishery resources, the fisheries, and the fish-culture of the country. The exhibit won the grand prize for the best display. Spencer F. Baird was the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, as well as Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in the 1880s. He spoke before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in support of participation at the Exhibition. George Brown Goode, curator of the U.S. National Museum, was appointed deputy commissioner in charge of preparations, installation, and management of the exhibit. Goode was assisted by Frederick William True and others.

This series consists of incoming correspondence addressed to Spencer F. Baird and George Brown Goode concerning preparation of exhibits for the exhibition, including correspondence with private companies. Other materials include shipment lists, collection lists, invoices, financial records, and miscellaneous brochures and printed materials.

For a photograph of the Grand Prize Vase, see Record Unit 95, Series 7.

Box 8

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF GEORGE BROWN GOODE AND SPENCER F. BAIRD

These records consist mostly of correspondence directed to George Brown Goode and Spencer F. Baird. They include letters and telegrams concerning preparation, maintenance, and return of the fisheries exhibit. Much of the correspondence is from private companies inquiring about displaying articles at the exposition or in response to requests about possible displays.

Folders 1-6 Incoming correspondence, A-Z. Consists of the incoming correspondence of Spencer F. Baird and George Brown Goode, 1880, arranged alphabetically.

Box 8 of 95

Box 9

Folders 1-2 Financial records, 1880

Box 9 of 95

Folder 3 United States Fish Commission lists of specimens and objects collected for the exhibition, 1880

Box 9 of 95

Folder 4 Brochures, advertisements, business cards

Box 9 of 95

Folder 5 Letter of introduction for George Brown Goode, 1880

Box 9 of 95

Folder 6 Catalogues and lists of specimens to be supplied by the U.S. National Museum and private firms, 1880

Box 9 of 95

Series 3

Great International Fisheries Exhibition (London, 1883), 1880-1886.

The Great International Fisheries Exhibition was held in London and ran from May 12 to October 30, 1883. The exhibition was intended ". . . to include all kinds of specimens of fish life and to illustrate all the modes by which the Marine and Fresh water animals of economic value are captured and utilized, together with the commercial, scientific, social, historic, and legislative aspects of such fisheries . . ."

Congress appropriated $50,000 to enable the United States Fish Commission to prepare a complete and systematic representative exhibition of the fisheries of the United States. The United States National Museum provided much of the material, a large part of it previously collected for the Philadelphia and Berlin Exhibitions. Private individuals and companies contributed as well. After the close of the exhibition, the Smithsonian received significant accessions from donations by foreign and domestic exhibitors.

Secretary Spencer F. Baird led the Institution's contingent at the Exhibition. George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary in charge of the National Museum, was appointed Commissioner to the Exhibition. The executive staff consisted of R. Edward Earll, Tarleton H. Bean, Joseph W. Collins, A. Howard Clark, William V. Cox, and other representatives of the National Museum and Fish Commission.

This series provides a detailed account of the collection and preparation of the Fish Commission exhibit. Most of the correspondence is administrative material related to individuals and companies participating in the exposition, transfer of materials, awards received, and other related topics. Official forms, newspaper clippings, and advertisements are also included.

Box 10

INCOMING CORRESPONDENCE, 1880-1885

Folder 1 A, 1880-1884. Correspondents include Alexander Agassiz and Wilbur O. Atwater.

Box 10 of 95

Folder 2 Bache - Bogart, 1882-1884. Correspondents include Tarleton H. Bean, Edward Birkbeck, E. G. Blackford.

Box 10 of 95

Folder 3 Booth - Burton, 1882-1884

Box 10 of 95

Folder 4 C, 1881-1884

Box 10 of 95

Folder 5 Collins, Joseph W., 1880, 1882-1884

Box 10 of 95

Box 11

Folder 1 D, 1882-1885. Correspondents include Thomas Donaldson.

Box 11 of 95

Folder 2 E, 1880-1884. Correspondents include R. Edward Earll and Henry W. Elliott.

Box 11 of 95

Folder 3 F, 1882-1884. Correspondents include Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, Secretary of State, with attached letter from Spencer F. Baird concerning U.S. exhibit.

Box 11 of 95

Folder 4 G, 1883-1884. Correspondents include Randolph I. Geare, S. Goodale, and C. E. Gorham.

Box 11 of 95

Folder 5 H, 1882-1884. Includes circular of regulations and classification of exhibition; correspondence of Julius E. Hilgard of U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Romyn Hitchcock, and William H. Holmes. [item 54 removed to oversize]

Box 11 of 95

Box 12

Folder 1 I-K, 1883-1885. Correspondents include David Starr Jordan.

Box 12 of 95

Folder 2 L, 1882-1884. Includes Lighthouse Board correspondence. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

Box 12 of 95

Folder 3 Ma-Mc, 1882-1885. Includes Fred Mather correspondence.

Box 12 of 95

Folder 4 Me-My, 1882-1885. Includes lists of American awards and correspondence from J. W. Mollett, Secretary of the Exhibition Commission.

Box 12 of 95

Folder 5 N-O, 1882-1884. Includes correspondence of Edward Condliffe-Owen, secretary to the chairman of the Exhibition Commission.

Box 12 of 95

Folder 6 P, 1882-1884

Box 12 of 95

Folder 7 Patton, Vickers and Co., 1883-1884. Includes correspondence and records related to shipment of exhibit.

Box 12 of 95

Box 13

Folder 1 Q-R, 1882-1884. Includes information on International Forestry Exhibition.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 2 Sa-Sta, 1882-1884. Includes correspondence of Signal Office.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 3 Ste-To, 1882-1884. Correspondents include James G. Swan.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 4 Tr-V, 1882-1885. Includes correspondence of A. J. R. Trendell concerning Exhibition catalogue.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 5 Wa-Wh, 1882-1883. Correspondents include William Wesley, London agent for the Smithsonian.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 6 Wi, 1882-1884. Includes correspondence of W. A. Wilcox, Secretary of Boston Fish Bureau, as the New England agent for receipt of goods to be exhibited.

Box 13 of 95

Folder 7 Wo-Z, 1883-1885

Box 13 of 95

Box 14

OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1882-1885

These records consist of indexed outgoing letterpress books pertaining to the U.S. Fish Commission's participation in the Fisheries Exhibition. The correspondence is mostly George Brown Goode's, but includes letters from Spencer F. Baird, Randolph I. Geare, William V. Cox, Frederick W. True, and R. Edward Earll. Some of the correspondence is from London. Contains miscellaneous correspondence related to Cincinnati, Louisville, and New Orleans Expositions as well.

Folders 1-4 Outgoing correspondence, 1882-1885

Box 14 of 95

Box 15

Folder 1 Index for books 1 through 4 of the correspondence in Box 14

Box 15 of 95

Folder 2 Outgoing correspondence from London, 1883-1884. Includes correspondence of William V. Cox, George Brown Goode, and R. Edward Earll.

Box 15 of 95

Folder 3 Outgoing correspondence of R. Edward Earll, 1884-1885. Includes some letters related to the 1884 New Orleans, Cincinnati, and Louisville Expositions.

Box 15 of 95

Box 16

FINANCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1882-1885

These records consist of correspondence, records, and other related materials pertaining to the U.S. Fish Commission's financial records from the exhibition. General correspondence is primarily between William V. Cox and Herbert A. Gill, but includes correspondence of George Brown Goode and Spencer F. Baird. The records include voucher lists, invoices, expense accounts, receipts, disbursement statements, and other related materials.

Folder 1 A-B, 1882-1884

Box 16 of 95

Folder 2 C-F, 1882-1885. Includes list of persons sent to London from Smithsonian.

Box 16 of 95

Folder 3 Gill, Herbert A., 1882-1885

Box 16 of 95

Folder 4 G-I, 1882-1885. Includes list of awards by juries, arranged by nationality of winners.

Box 16 of 95

Folder 5 J-R, 1883-1884

Box 16 of 95

Folder 6 S-Z, 1883-1885

Box 16 of 95

Box 17

REPORTS, DOCUMENTS, PUBLICATIONS, AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1882-1884, 1886

These records consist of excerpts from the Congressional Record and Smithsonian Annual Reports; congressional documents; publications; and American and British official prospectuses and forms related to the exhibition. Of special interest is a letter, possibly written by Baird, in support of participation in the exhibition.

Folder 1 Documents and reports, 1882-1884, 1896. Includes congressional documents; excerpts from the Congressional Record and Smithsonian Annual Reports; statement thought to be written by Baird concerning participation in exposition; 1883 preliminary report by George Brown Goode; report on meteorological exhibits by James Mitchell, Signal Office.

Box 17 of 95

Folder 2 Official prospectus, forms, classification plan for exhibits. Includes official prospectus and classification of Fisheries Exhibition; U.S. Fish Commission planning forms for exhibits, 1882-1883.

Box 17 of 95

Folder 3 Publications. Includes Report of the Zoological Society of London; The Fish in Denmark (written in German); Indian Fish and Fishing; and catalogue of Indian section exhibits.

Box 17 of 95

Folder 4 U.S. National Museum Bulletin 27: A Descriptive Catalogue Constituting a Report upon the Exhibit of the Fisheries and Fish Culture of the U.S.A., made at the London Fisheries Exhibition, 1883

Box 17 of 95

Box 18

MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS AND RELATED MATERIAL, 1883-1885

Includes shipment lists, correspondence, and records pertaining to awards, newspaper clippings, advertisements, and other miscellaneous materials.

Folder 1 Shipment lists, 1883. Includes shipment list of U.S. Fish Commission articles to and from London.

Box 18 of 95

Folder 2 Correspondence about prize awards, 1885. Includes list of diplomas, awards, and medals received by U.S. exhibitions.

Box 18 of 95

Folder 3 Receipt for diplomas awarded at the exhibition, 1885

Box 18 of 95

Folders 4-5 Collected records, notes, memoranda, and related materials, 1883-1885. Includes specifications for oyster-float patent; directions in mounting U.S. beacon light, with photograph; partial plans for Penobscot station and Schoodic station by C. G. Atkins; labels, charts, notes, blueprints, and other materials. Oversized material removed to other housing; folders contain copies of these materials. [folder 4, items 5 and 6 removed to oversize]

Box 18 of 95

Folder 6 Advertisements, 1883-1885 [item 6 removed to oversize]

Box 18 of 95

Folder 7 Newspaper clippings, 1883-1884

Box 18 of 95

Folder 8 Spencer Baird's Season Ticket (Accession 11-177)

Box 18 of 95

Box 18A

Fish Traders Gazette: May 26, 1883-July 14, 1884 (not inclusive)

Box 18A of 95

Box 18B

The Salmon: Its Natural Propagation and Protection Ashore or Afloat: July 6, 1883-October 26, 1883

Box 18B of 95

Series 4

Southern Exposition (Louisville, 1884), 1884-1885.

The Southern Exposition in Louisville, Kentucky, was conceived by a privately incorporated group first organized in 1882. In 1883 the organization erected a permanent building and held an exposition for three months. In 1884, this same group held the Southern Exposition, which operated from September 3 until October 4. It should not be confused with another Southern Exposition, held in Louisville in 1886. For records of that exposition, see Series 7 in this finding aid.

In July 1884 Congress authorized government participation in three expositions: the Southern Exposition, the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, and the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial at New Orleans. Congress had previously authorized the loan of duplicate specimens from the National Museum for the 1883 Southern Exposition, but at no expense to the government. Congress allotted $2,500 to the Smithsonian Institution for the 1884 term of the exposition. The exhibits were primarily educational, and most were sent to the New Orleans exposition when the Southern Exposition closed.

The series consists of correspondence, reports, and financial records regarding Smithsonian participation in the 1884 exposition, including records of George Brown Goode as representative of the U.S. Fish Commission and the Smithsonian Institution. However, the records for this exposition are very incomplete.

For other records concerning this exposition, see Series 6, World's Cotton and Industrial Exposition; Series 5, Cincinnati Industrial Exposition; and Series 2, London Fisheries Exhibition.

Box 19

Folder 1 Correspondence, financial records, and related materials, 1884-1885

Box 19 of 95

Series 5

Cincinnati Industrial Exposition (1884), 1884-1885.

The Cincinnati Industrial Exposition was a well-established institution, held annually since 1873 within a permanent building. In 1884, the exposition opened August 16 and closed October 23.

In July 1884 Congress authorized government participation for three expositions: the Southern Exposition in Louisville; the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial in New Orleans; and the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition. The Smithsonian Institution received $2,300 for its exhibit at the Cincinnati Exposition. Because passage of the appropriation was delayed, the Institution was not able to prepare as complete an exhibit as would have been desirable. The majority of the exhibits were sent to New Orleans when the exposition closed.

George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian in charge of the National Museum, represented the Smithsonian Institution at this exposition. R. Edward Earll was the executive officer in charge of preparation of exhibits.

This series consists of correspondence, reports, and financial records, but it is incomplete. For other records concerning this exposition, see Series 3, London Fisheries Exhibition; Series 4, Southern Exposition; and Series 6, World's Cotton and Industrial Exposition.

Box 19

Folder 2 Correspondence, financial records, and related materials, 1884-1885. Includes lists of mammals desired by Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Box 19 of 95

Series 6

World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition (New Orleans, 1884-1885), 1884-1888, 1893.

The World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition celebrated the 100th anniversary of the production, manufacture, and commerce of cotton. Held in New Orleans, it opened on December 16, 1884, and continued until May 31, 1885.

An Act of Congress provided for the participation of the executive departments of the government and the Smithsonian Institution in this exposition. From an appropriation of $75,000, the Smithsonian presented an exhibit at the New Orleans exposition which was much more elaborate than its smaller appropriations had permitted at the Cincinnati and Louisville Expositions. Exhibits from these two previous expositions were transferred to New Orleans. As in its 1876 exhibit at Philadelphia, the Smithsonian attempted to represent the ethnological, animal, and mineral resources of the United States, as well as adding a collection of the textile industries of the world. Curators from all the major departments of the National Museum were involved with the preparation of the exhibit, which required constructing a temporary building in Washington.

George Brown Goode was appointed to represent the Smithsonian and the U.S. Fish Commission. R. Edward Earll was the executive officer in charge of preparation of exhibits. William V. Cox was the financial clerk.

The series provides a fairly comprehensive account of the Smithsonian involvement in the New Orleans Exposition. Correspondence related to the collection of specimens, preparation of the exhibits, and subsequent accessions is of special interest. The administrative, and especially the financial, records are particularly well represented in this series. Other materials include publications, shipment records, and reports.

For other records concerning this exhibition, see Series 3, London Fisheries Exposition; and Series 4, Southern Exposition.

Box 19

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF GEORGE BROWN GOODE AND SPENCER F. BAIRD, 1884-1886

These records consist mostly of incoming correspondence addressed to Spencer F. Baird and George Brown Goode. The correspondence pertains to selection, collection, and preparation of specimens and objects for the Smithsonian exhibit; subsequent acquisition of specimens from the exposition; and administrative matters. It includes letters from collecting expeditions, from curators of the National Museum, and R. Edward Earll's correspondence from New Orleans.

Folder 3 A, 1886

Box 19 of 95

Folder 4 Atwater, Wilbur O., 1884. Includes annotated partial list of proposed illustrative materials for food collection exhibit.

Box 19 of 95

Folder 5 B, 1884-1885. Includes correspondence of Tarleton A. Bean concerning collecting expedition; circular concerning the Society of American Taxidermists' exhibit.

Box 19 of 95

Folder 6 Brown, James T., 1884. Concerning expedition to coal regions; includes newspaper clippings; notes on photographing an anticlinal axis and the interior of a coal mine.

Box 19 of 95

Folder 7 C, 1884-1885. Includes correspondence concerning construction of temporary Smithsonian shed, with diagram by Spencer F. Baird; report on U.S. Fish Commission at New Orleans by Baird. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

Box 19 of 95

Folder 8 Collins, Joseph W., 1884. Correspondence from Gloucester, Massachusetts, pertaining to merchant marine collection. Includes list of boats and models for New Orleans Exposition; extract from article on early steam navigation.

Box 19 of 95

Folder 9 D, 1884-1886. Includes William A. DeCaindry correspondence, 1884-1886.

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Folder 10 Dewey, Fred P., 1884. Includes scheme for metallurgy exhibit at New Orleans Exposition.

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Folder 11 E, 1884

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Folder 12 Earll, R. Edward, 1884-1885. Includes correspondence from New Orleans.

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Folder 13 F-H, 1884-1885. Includes correspondence of Charles S. Hill, State Department representative; also Albert S. Hitchcock and Grove K. Gilbert concerning collections.

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Folder 14 I-L, 1884-1885. Includes letter concerning North Carolina "colored" exhibit; correspondence of David Starr Jordan concerning fish collections.

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Folder 15 M-Q, 1884-1885. Includes circular by Otis T. Mason on ethnological exhibit at New Orleans Exposition; petition to maintain phone in "Annex" building; cost estimates and discussion of collections by George P. Merrill, Edward Palmer, and S. F. Peekham.

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Folder 16 R, 1884-1885. Includes Charles Rau correspondence.

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Folder 17 Ridgway, Robert, 1884. Includes list of Arizona bird skins received from Edward W. Nelson; proposed plan for exhibit on North American Birds.

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Folder 18 S, 1884-1885. Includes list for proposed mollusca exhibit; James G. Swan correspondence concerning collections from Washington Territory.

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Folder 19 T-V, 1884. Includes proposed plan for collection of mammals; list and classification of the mounted specimens prepared for exhibit, submitted with sketch by William T. Hornaday.

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Folder 20 W-Y, 1884

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Box 20

Folder 1 Earll, R. Edward, 1885-1886. Letterpress books of his New Orleans correspondence.

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Folder 2 Goode, George Brown, 1884-1885. Letterpress book of his New Orleans correspondence.

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Box 21

GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1884-1888

These records consist mostly of the incoming and outgoing correspondence of R. Edward Earll, George Brown Goode, and William V. Cox pertaining to administrative and financial matters. The greater part is Earll's outgoing correspondence from New Orleans, including letters related to foreign and domestic accessions, particularly from Mexico.

Folder 1 A-B, 1884-1885. Includes collection purchases of Spencer F. Baird and remittance request of Wilbur O. Atwater.

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Folder 2 C, 1884-1885

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Folder 3 Cox, William V., 1884-1885

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Folder 4 D, 1884-1886. Includes circulars 1-6 of Department of Installation for New Orleans Exposition; letter from Treasury Department regarding appropriations.

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Folder 5 Earll, R. Edward, 1884-1885. Includes letters from New Orleans.

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Folder 6 F-G, 1884-1885

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Folder 7 Goode, George Brown, 1884-1885. Includes letter to Treasury Department concerning compensation for National Museum employees; memo concerning immediate staff positions.

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Folder 8 H, 1884-1886. Includes correspondence of Charles S. Hill, Albert S. Hitchcock, and William T. Hornaday.

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Folder 9 J-L, 1884-1888. Includes correspondence of David Starr Jordan.

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Folder 10 M-P, 1884-1885 [item 21 removed to oversize]

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Folder 11 R, 1884-1885

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Folder 12 S, 1884-1885

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Folder 13 Spofford, H. W., 1884

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Folder 14 Swan, James G., 1884. Includes Spencer F. Baird's correspondence regarding Swan's expenditures; invoice of Indian material collected by Swan.

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Folder 15 T-Z, 1884-1885

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Box 22

Folders 1-2 Cox, William V., 1884-1885. Outgoing correspondence, including some material on Cincinnati and Louisville expositions.

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Folder 3 Cox, William V., and George Brown Goode, 1885-1886

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Box 23

FREIGHT RECORDS, 1884-1886

This material consists of records and miscellaneous correspondence dealing with shipment of Smithsonian exhibits to and from New Orleans.

Folder 1 Freight shipments, 1884-1885. Includes some correspondence.

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Folder 2 Shipping statements, 1884-1885. Includes records to and from New Orleans.

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Folder 3 Freight invoices, 1884-1885

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Folder 4 Shipment book, 1885-1886. Includes foreign accessions sent to Washington.

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Folder 5 Shipping record, 1884

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Folder 6 Shipping invoices, 1884-1885 [item 21 removed to oversize]

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Box 24

FINANCIAL RECORDS, 1884-1885, 1893

These records consist of expenditure statements, voucher books, and payroll records. They include records related to the Cincinnati and Louisville expositions, the Cincinnati Exposition of 1888, and the World's Columbian Exposition and Madrid exposition in 1893.

Folder 1 Final expenditure statements, 1884-1885. Includes itemized departmental lists.

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Folder 2 Financial statements, 1884-1885 [item 8 removed to oversize]

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Folder 3 Payroll records, 1884-1885. Includes list of employees for Cincinnati, Louisville, and New Orleans expositions.

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Folder 4 Individual expenditure accounts, 1884-1885

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Folders 5-6 Voucher books, 1884-1885. Includes payrolls and expenditures for three expositions.

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Box 24A

Folder 1 Voucher record, 1884-1885

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Folder 2 Time book, 1884-1893. Includes records for the Cincinnati, World's Columbian, and Madrid expositions.

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Box 25

REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS

Folder 1 Reports and publications, 1884-1885. Includes official reports and publications; plan of space allotted to executive departments. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 2 Accessions, 1885-1886. Includes foreign accessions list; catalogue of Mexican and Aztec idols and relics collected between 1867 and 1878 in Mexico City.

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Folder 3 Congressional documents related to the exposition

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Folder 4 Specimen lists for coal exhibit

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Folder 5 Notes: minerals, plants

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Folder 6 Installation plan. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 7 Specimen lists

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Folders 8-10 Newspaper clippings

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Box 26

Folder 1 Newspaper clippings

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Series 7

Southern Exposition (Louisville, 1886), 1884-1886.

The Southern Exposition opened August 28, 1886, in Louisville, Kentucky. Congress authorized that exhibits by the National Museum and other government departments could only be provided if there was no cost to the government.

George Brown Goode appointed Austin H. Clark to be in charge of this exhibit, which consisted primarily of photographs.

This series contains miscellaneous correspondence and related legislative documents. It is not to be confused with an exposition of the same name held in Louisville in 1884. See Series 4 in this finding aid.

Box 26

Folder 2 Correspondence and documents, 1884-1886. Includes letters of J. W. Wright, president of the exposition, Spencer F. Baird, and A. Howard Clark's proposal for the exhibit.

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Series 8

Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), 1888-1889.

In 1887 the legislature of Ohio passed a resolution that ". . . the one hundredth anniversary of the 1st settlement of the North West Territory and the State of Ohio should be appropriately observed and celebrated in order that the progress of the century may be noted . . ." Industrial fairs had often been held at Cincinnati, beginning with the Ohio Mechanic Institute Fairs prior to the Civil War, and continuing with the Cincinnati Industrial Fairs, one of them treated in Series 5 of this finding aid. The Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, the culmination of the Cincinnati expositions, opened on July 4, 1888, and closed November 8, 1888. It was not until May 1888 that Congress provided for government participation in the exposition and appropriated $50,000 for the Smithsonian exhibits. The bill also required a final audit of the government exhibits at the Cincinnati Exposition, causing various difficulties for the Institution. Exhibits were prepared in anthropology, natural history, and arts and industries.

George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary in charge of the National Museum, was representative of the Smithsonian Institution to the Government Board of the Exposition, and directed the Smithsonian exhibits. R. Edward Earll served as Goode's deputy and administrator of the exhibits in Cincinnati. Curators Otis T. Mason, Thomas Wilson, Cyrus Adler, Robert Ridgway, and others participated in the preparation of departmental exhibits. William V. Cox served as the financial clerk.

The series consists of correspondence, records, and reports pertaining to Smithsonian involvement in the Centennial Exposition. It includes correspondence concerning collection and preparation of the exhibits and subsequent accessions to the Museum, as well as financial records. Of special interest are comments concerning the government exhibit audit; information on specific exhibits; and the mammal specimen lists collected and prepared for the exposition. Other materials include reports of the exposition, special papers prepared by the curators of particular exhibits, and various publications.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7. For related material, see Series 6, World's Industrial and Cotton Exposition.

Box 27

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF GEORGE BROWN GOODE AND R. EDWARD EARLL, 1888-1889

These records consist primarily of incoming and outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll. The material concerns administrative and financial matters, particularly regarding the government exhibit audit and subsequent difficulties. These records include some materials related to the preparation of the exhibits and later Smithsonian accessions from the exposition.

Folder 1 A-D, 1888-1889

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Folder 2 Cox, William V., 1888-1889

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Folder 3 E-G, 1888. Includes correspondence from Anthony Eickhoff, Treasury Department auditor of accounts for government exhibits at the Cincinnati Exposition.

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Folder 4 Earll, R. Edward, 1888-1889. Includes correspondence from Cincinnati.

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Folder 5 Goode, George Brown, 1888

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Folder 6 H-K, 1888

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Folder 7 Koehler, Sylvester R., 1888

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Folder 8 L-M, 1888. Includes copy of letter written by George Brown Goode to chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations concerning Smithsonian exhibit.

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Folder 9 R-T, 1888-1889

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Folder 10 W, 1888

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Folder 11 Goode, George Brown, outgoing letterpress book, 1888

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Folder 12 Earll, R. Edward, outgoing letterpress book, 1888-1889

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Box 28

SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS, 1888

This material consists of records and correspondence pertaining to the Smithsonian exhibits, arranged by departments, including correspondence of curators in charge (Cyrus Adler, Otis T. Mason, and others); checklist of materials needed for installation; miscellaneous materials on specimen collection; and preparation of exhibits.

Folder 1 Biblical archaeology, 1888. Includes annotated draft report on the Contribution of the Section of Oriental Antiquities to the Ohio Valley Centennial Exhibitions, by Cyrus Adler.

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Folder 2 Birds, 1888. Includes rough draft of plan for Bird Department exhibit.

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Folder 3 Bureau of Ethnology, 1888

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Folder 4 Botany and mineralogy, 1888

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Folder 5 Insects, 1888

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Folder 6 Graphic Arts, 1888

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Folder 7 Mammals, 1888. Includes correspondence by Frederick William True, William T. Hornaday; exhibit sketches by Hornaday.

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Folder 8 Mollusks and marine invertebrates, 1888

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Folder 9 Photography, 1888

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Folder 10 Prehistoric archaeology, 1888

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Folder 11 Transportation and Engineering, 1888. Includes annotated copy of Contribution of the Department of Transportation and Engineering to the Ohio Valley Centennial Exhibition 1888, by J. Elfreth Watkins.

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Folder 12 Miscellaneous exhibits. Includes letter from W. O. Atwater concerning food exhibit; proposal for chemical exhibit by Romyn Hitchcock; information on cases.

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Box 28

MAMMAL SPECIMEN LISTS AND RELATED MATERIALS

These records consist of mammal specimen lists compiled for mammal displays. They include some records and correspondence pertaining to purchase and mounting of the specimens, particularly with Ward's Natural Science Establishment.

Folder 13 List of representative species of genera and subgenera of North American mammals

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Folder 14 Mammal specimen lists

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Folder 15 Ward's Natural Science Establishment correspondence, 1888

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Box 29

MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS AND RELATED MATERIALS

This material consists of various documents, reports, and publications pertaining to the Centennial Exposition and Smithsonian involvement.

Folder 1 Official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, 1888

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Folder 2 Programs and tickets

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Folder 3 Legislation relating to the exposition

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Folder 4 Excerpts from Smithsonian reports on the exposition

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Folder 5 R. Edward Earll's report on Smithsonian exhibits at the exposition

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Folder 6 United States National Museum circulars. Include curators' reports of departmental exhibits at the Centennial Exposition.

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Box 29

FINANCIAL RECORDS

Folder 7 Property acquired by Smithsonian through the appropriation for the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, 1888. See also Series 5, New Orleans, oversize time book.

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Folder 8 Payroll voucher lists, 1888

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Folder 9 Expenditures, 1888

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Folder 10 Freight records, 1888

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Series 9

Columbian Historical Exposition (Madrid, 1892-1893), 1891-1896.

The Columbian Historical Exposition in Madrid, Spain, was part of an extensive celebration of the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America. In 1892, an Act of Congress authorized United States participation in this exposition. The United States Commission to the exposition included Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce, U.S.N., George Brown Goode of the Smithsonian Institution, and Dr. J. C. Welling, regent of the Smithsonian.

The Columbian Historical Exposition in Madrid consisted of two simultaneous expositions: the Exposicion Historica - Americana, and the Exposicion Historica - Europea. The Historic American Exposition illustrated the civilization of the New World in pre-Columbian and post-Columbian periods. Following this theme, the Smithsonian exhibit encompassed prehistoric, ethnographic, and historical topics. Most of the National Museum materials were displays already prepared for the World's Columbian Exposition, but supplemented by other collections. Walter Hough described the exposition as ". . . the greatest collection of Americana under one roof . . ."

Rear Admiral Luce was the Commissioner General of the U.S. Commission. George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary in charge of the National Museum, was in charge of Smithsonian exhibits. The commission designated Thomas Wilson and Walter Hough of the National Museum as custodians of archaeological collections and ethnological and historical collections. This exposition is not very well documented. It consists mostly of correspondence of George Brown Goode and Admiral Luce. The remaining material consists of miscellaneous records, documents, publications, and news clippings related to the exposition. The terms of this exposition and the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, discussed in the next series, overlapped to a degree, so far as American participation was concerned.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7; for related materials, see Series 6 in this finding aid, the World's Industrial and Cotton Exposition, oversize.

Box 30

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF U.S. COMMISSIONERS, 1891-1896

Most of this material consists of the outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode, although it contains some incoming correspondence directed to Admiral Luce.

Folder 1 Stephen B. Luce correspondence, 1891-1893. Includes letter from Alfred T. Mahan.

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Folders 2-3 George Brown Goode letterpress books, 1892-1896

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Folder 4 Excerpts from annual reports, 1892-1896

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Folder 5 Announcement circular of U.S. Commission, 1892

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Folder 6 Congressional documents related to exposition, 1890-1893

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Folder 7 Newspaper clippings, 1892

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Folder 8 Shipment record book to Madrid, 1892

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Series 10

World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893), 1886, 1890-1895.

On April 25, 1890, Congress approved ". . . An Act to provide for celebrating the 400th Anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures and the products of soil, mine and sea . . ." The exposition opened in Chicago, Illinois, on May 1, 1893, and closed October 31, 1893. Known as the 'White City,' its special effects included electric lighting of the buildings and the famed Midway Plaisance.

Preparations by the Smithsonian Institution began soon after the authorization of government exhibits in 1890. Complications concerning appropriations and expenditures caused some difficulties. By 1893, however, preparations for the exhibits had all but superseded regular operations at the Smithsonian. The displays encompassed most of the departments of the Museum, including a combined effort by the Bureau of Ethnology and Department of Anthropology. The Smithsonian also loaned materials to other U.S. government agencies and to the Woman's Pavilion.

The Government Board of Management, which controlled the government exhibits, was chaired by Edwin Williams, Assistant Secretary of the Department of Agriculture. George Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, represented the Smithsonian. R. Edward Earll assisted Goode as chief special agent and served as the executive officer to the exposition in Washington and Chicago. George P. Merrill, Robert Ridgway, Otis T. Mason, Frederick W. True, and other curators from the National Museum contributed substantially to preparations.

The series documents the Smithsonian Institution's participation in the World's Columbian Exposition. Correspondence between the Smithsonian Institution and the Government Board of Management is extensive. The majority of the collection consists of correspondence, records, and reports pertaining to the preparation of Smithsonian exhibits and subsequent acquisitions, including correspondence of Goode, Earll, and various curators. The collection reflects all phases of Smithsonian involvement, from the first exhibit proposals to the return of exhibits to Washington. Administrative records are also incorporated in the collection.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7. For related materials, see Series 6, World's Industrial and Cotton Exposition, oversize.

Box 31

U.S. GOVERNMENT BOARD OF MANAGEMENT CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS, 1890-1894

This material consists of Smithsonian correspondence and records relating to the Government Board of Management. The papers include administrative, financial, and legislative correspondence, mostly from F. T. Bickford, Secretary of the Board. Of particular interest are correspondence and reports between the Smithsonian, the Government Board, and Treasury Department pertaining to appropriation and expenditure problems.

Folders 1-2 Exposition design and planning, 1890-1893. Includes cost estimate for the Smithsonian exhibit by Samuel P. Langley and statements and proposals concerning board management.

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Folders 3-5 Financial records and correspondence, 1891-1893. Includes correspondence between the Smithsonian, the Board of Management, and the Treasury Department relating to appropriations and expenditure difficulties, as well as financial statements.

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Folder 6 Installation, 1892-1893. Includes blueprints of government buildings and allotted space for departments and a statement of departmental floor space for previous expositions. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials. [item 23 removed to oversize]

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Folder 7 Catalogue, 1892-1894. Includes official catalogue of exhibits in U.S. Government building.

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Box 32

Folder 1 Special Agent, 1892. Concerning committee of special agents of the exposition's Board of Managers.

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Folder 2 Adams, W. I., 1892-1894. Concerning his duties as disbursing officer of the Board.

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Folders 3-5 Bickford, F. T., 1891-1894. Concerning his duties as secretary of the Board.

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Box 33

GEORGE BROWN GOODE AND R. EDWARD EARLL CORRESPONDENCE, 1886, 1890-1895

These records consist primarily of correspondence of George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll pertaining to the exposition. The papers include both incoming and outgoing correspondence, 1890 to 1895, with related materials from 1886. The administrative papers concentrate on personnel matters and appointments. Most of the correspondence pertains to the organization, collection, preparation, and management of the Smithsonian exhibits during the course of the exposition. Other correspondence concerns the acquisition of foreign and domestic exhibits by the Smithsonian.

Folder 1 A, 1891-1894. Includes program of the International Congress of Anthropology.

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Folder 2 Adler, Cyrus, 1892-1893. Includes plan for a linguistic exhibit at the exposition.

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Folder 3 Akeley Co., 1892-1893

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Folder 4 Agriculture, Department of, 1891-1893. Includes 1893 pamphlet concerning Exhibit of Department of Agriculture by Edwin Willits and plans for botanical exhibit.

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Folder 5 Anderson, Captain Magnus, 1893. Concerns possible acquisition of "Viking" Ship.

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Folder 6 Awards, 1893-1895. Includes report on organization and management of Bureau of Awards and regulations governing awards (See also Box 36, Folder 11, John Boyd Thacher).

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Folder 7 B, 1891-1894. Includes scheme for economic chemistry exhibit by Marcus Benjamin.

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Folder 8 Baker, William T., 1891

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Folder 9 Barrie, George, 1893-1894

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Folder 10 Benedict, J. E., 1893. Includes cost list of collecting outfits for various National Museum departments.

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Folder 11 Bergmann, Carl F. W., 1892-1893

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Folder 12 Brown, Stephen C., 1892-1893

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Folder 13 Bulgaria, 1893. Concerns possible purchase of Bulgarian costumes.

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Folder 14 C, 1891-1894. Includes guidebook to Chinese Midway Plaisance exhibit, "Joss House."

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Folder 15 Clark, A. Howard, 1891-1893. Includes map of proposed New England route for collecting expedition.

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Folder 16 Collins, J. W., 1891-1893

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Folder 17 Cotton, G. P., 1893

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Folder 18 Cox, William V., 1891-1894

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Folder 19 D, 1893-1894

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Folder 20 Davis, George R., Director-General of the exposition, 1892-1893

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Folder 21 Devoe & Co., 1892

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Folder 22 Dorflinger and Son, 1892-1893

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Box 34

Folder 1 E, 1891-1894. Includes correspondence concerning formation of "The Egyptological Society;" correspondence of Henry Elliot.

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Folder 2 Earll, R. Edward, 1891-1894

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Folder 3 F, 1891-1894. Includes diagram and description of 'Fifie Boat.'

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Folder 4 Fisheries, 1891-1893. Includes pamphlet of classification; rules and information for potential Department of Fish exhibits.

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Folder 5 Fitz, H. W., 1893-1894

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Folder 6 Finsch, Dr. Otto, 1886-1892. Concerning purchase of ethnological collections.

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Folder 7 G, 1891-1894

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Folder 8 Geare, Randolph I., 1891-1894

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Folder 9 Germany, 1893. Includes annotations on ethnographic collection of Hagenbeck on Midway Plaisance.

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Folder 10 Goldsmith, James S., 1893

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Folder 11 Goodale, Charles J., 1891

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Folder 12 Goode, George Brown, 1891, 1893. Includes instructions to R. Edward Earll concerning arrangement of annual report.

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Folder 13 H, 1891-1894. Includes 1892 circular of Committee on Retrospective Art.

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Folder 14 Harris, W. H., 1893-1894. Concerning a collection of war medals of the British Army.

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Folder 15 Henshaw, H. W., 1891-1893

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Folder 16 Herran, Thomas, 1891-1892. Includes drawings of Colombian gold ornaments purchased by Smithsonian.

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Folder 17 Holmes, William Henry, 1892-1893

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Folder 18 Horan, Henry, 1891-1893

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Folder 19 I, 1891-1893. Includes list of Italian laces exhibited.

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Folder 20 J, 1892-1894. Includes correspondence regarding possible Japanese and Javanese purchases.

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Folder 21 Johnson, Edmund, 1893. Concerning collection of art reproductions.

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Box 35

Folder 1 K, 1892-1893

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Folder 2 Kaldenberg, F. R., 1892-1893. Includes catalogue of collection of oriental ivory carvings; photo of ivory bust 'Mignon'.

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Folder 3 Koehler, S. R., 1892-1893

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Folder 4 L, 1891-1894. Includes pamphlet pertaining to American antiquities at the exposition.

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Folder 5 Langley, Samuel P., 1892-1893. Includes annotated copy of 1890 report regarding cost estimate of the Smithsonian exhibit for the exposition.

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Folder 6 Lucas, Frederic A., 1893

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Folder 7 M, 1891-1894

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Folder 8 Mason, Otis T., 1891-1893

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Folder 9 Merrill, George P., 1891-1894. Includes 1892 field correspondence.

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Folder 10 Mooney, James, 1891-1893. Includes instructions from Otis T. Mason regarding Mooney's field work.

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Folder 11 N, 1891-1893

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Folder 12 O, 1890-1893

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Folder 13 P, 1891-1894. Includes "Palestine Exploration Fund" pamphlet; list of South Sea curios exhibited.

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Folder 14 Patents, Commissioner of, 1892

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Folder 15 Photography, 1892-1894. Includes labels to be used with commissioners' photographs.

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Folder 16 Pollard, Garland, 1891-1892

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Folder 17 Praetorius, Charles, 1893. Pertaining to reproductions of certain drawings in the British Museum.

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Box 36

Folder 1 R, 1891-1894

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Folder 2 Ridgway, Robert, 1892-1893 (For additional information, see Box 39, Folder 2, Department of Birds)

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Folder 3 Rodgers, J. L., 1892-1893

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Folder 4 Russian collections, 1893

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Folder 5 S, 1891-1893. Includes pamphlet on the Siamese exhibit; list of Indian articles collected by James G. Swan.

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Folder 6 Standard Oil Co., 1893

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Folder 7 Stejneger, Leonhard, 1892-1893

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Folder 8 Steuart, C. A., 1893

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Folder 9 Swedish Commission, 1893-1894

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Folder 10 T, 1891-1893. Includes price list of Indian and Burmese models of transportation by Tellery and Company.

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Folder 11 Thacher, John Boyd, 1893-1894

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Folder 12 Tiffany & Company, 1892-1894. Concerns loan of leather collection.

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Folder 13 Townsend, Charles H., 1891

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Folder 14 Treasury Department, 1892-1893

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Folder 15 True, Frederick W., 1891-1893 (See also box 39, Folder 5, mammal exhibit)

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Folder 16 V, 1891-1893

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Folder 17 W, 1891-1893. Includes blueprint of War Department section in U.S. Government Building.

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Folder 18 Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 1892-1893. Includes paper on proposed agricultural and food exhibit at exposition.

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Folder 19 Willits, Edwin, 1891-1894

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Folder 20 Wilson, Thomas, 1893-1896

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Folder 21 Y, 1892-1894

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Box 37

Folder 1 Outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode from Washington, 1890-1891. Includes correspondence to William C. Curtis concerning Latin America commission.

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Folders 2-4 Outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll, 1891-1893. Includes Earll correspondence from Chicago.

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Box 38

Folder 1 Outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode, R. Edward Earll, and Frederick William True, 1893-1895

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Folder 2 Outgoing correspondence of George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll, 1893-1895

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Box 39

CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS RELATED TO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION EXHIBITS AND ACCESSIONS, 1890-1894

These records consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence and records of the National Museum curators pertaining to collection and preparation of exhibits. Records usually include an exhibit proposal, reports, notes, memoranda, and labels. Of particular interest are materials concerning the Latin American exhibit, directed by W. E. Curtis, and records and correspondence concerning accessions before and after the exposition.

Folder 1 Geological Exhibit, 1891-1892. Includes outgoing correspondence of George P. Merrill.

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Folder 2 Department of Birds, 1891-1893. Includes outgoing correspondence of Robert Ridgway.

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Folders 3-4 Ethnology Exhibit, 1889-1892. Includes incoming and outgoing correspondence of Otis T. Mason and H. W. Henshaw; photographs of mounted cowboys and Piegan Indians; descriptions of paintings collected by W. E. Safford; also list of cases sent to Madrid Exposition.

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Folder 5 Mammal Exhibit, 1891-1893. Includes Frederick W. True correspondence; list of species; draft report on mammal exhibit.

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Folder 6 Graphic Arts Exhibit, 1891-1893. Includes outgoing correspondence of S. R. Koehler.

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Folders 7-8 Other exhibits, 1889-1893. Includes schemes and specimen lists for various exhibits; correspondence of various curators.

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Folder 9 Label collection

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Box 40

Folders 1-2 Latin American exhibit, 1890-1893. Includes correspondence regarding appropriations and authority for this exhibit; most is outgoing correspondence of William E. Curtis, in charge of Latin American Department; correspondence from Commissioners in various countries.

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Folder 3 List of collections loaned for exhibit, 1891-1893

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Folder 4 Foreign and domestic accessions, 1890-1894

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Box 41

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS, 1891-1893

This material consists of miscellaneous correspondence and records pertaining to administrative matters. Of particular interest is a copy of George Brown Goode's "First Draft of a System of Classification for the World's Columbian Exposition."

Folder 1 Miscellaneous file, 1891-1893

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Folder 2 Applications for positions, 1891-1893

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Folder 3 Specimens, 1891-1893. Includes descriptions of models and paintings by Henry Elliott.

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Folder 4 Floor plans. Includes cases loaned for Women's Building. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 5 Telegram file, 1899-1901

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Folder 6 Requests for payment of claims, 1892-1893

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Folder 7 Customs Service. Items exempt from duty 1890, 1893.

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Folder 8 Transportation, 1892-1893 [item 4, pp. 1-3 removed to oversize]

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Folder 9 Glass, 1892

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Folder 10 Furniture, 1892. Includes sketch of grating by C. H. Ourand.

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Folder 11 Excerpts: annual reports, 1888-1897. Includes G. Brown Goode's "First Draft of a System of Classification for the World's Columbian Exposition."

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Folder 12 Congressional documents and newspaper clippings, 1890-1900

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Box 42

Folder 1 Shipping list from Washington to Chicago, 1893

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Folder 2 Expenditures by departments at the World's Columbian Exposition

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Folder 3 Financial record, 1893. Includes letterpress correspondence of R. Edward Earll from Chicago.

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Folder 4 Allotment book, 1890-1893. Includes itemized vouchers and payroll register.

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Folder 5 R. Edward Earll allotment account, 1893

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Boxes 42A-42B

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Vouchers no. 13-699, 1891-1893 (not inclusive)

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Series 11

The Cotton States and International Exposition (Atlanta, 1895), 1894-1896, 1902.

The Cotton States and International Exposition opened in Atlanta, Georgia, on September 18, 1895, and closed December 31, 1895. Congress had, in 1894, supported this exposition by providing for government participation and also encouraged an exhibit featuring Black accomplishments.

The purpose of the Smithsonian exhibit was to explain and illustrate all phases of the activities of the Institution, especially the National Museum. However, due to limited appropriations, the preparation of the exhibit required the Museum to disturb its own exhibits and left the National Museum in a state of disrepair. The exhibits produced attempted to accomplish four goals: (1) To give as good an idea as possible of the character of the treasures which were preserved in the Museum by presenting an epitome of its contents, with contributions from every department; (2) To illustrate the methods by which science controls, classifies, and studies great accumulations of material objects, and uses these as a means for the discovery of truth; (3) To exhibit the manner in which collections are arranged, labeled, and displayed in a great museum; (4) To afford as much instruction and pleasure as possible to those who may visit the Atlanta Exposition, to impress them with the value of museums as agencies for public enlightenment, and thus to encourage the formation of public museums in the cities of the South.

George Brown Goode again represented the Smithsonian Institution on the Government Board for the Cotton States and International Exposition. R. Edward Earll served as the chief special agent in charge of exhibits, and William V. Cox was the chief clerk.

The series consists of correspondence of George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll concerning their respective duties. Of special interest is a list of suggestions made to curators about exhibits. Other materials include related publications, administrative correspondence, records, notes, and photographs.

Box 43

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1894-1896

The records consist of general correspondence concerning Smithsonian participation in the Cotton States Exposition. The material is primarily incoming correspondence to George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll. It covers general preparation and administrative aspects of the exhibit.

Folder 1 A, 1894-1896

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Folder 2 Adams, W. I., 1894-1896

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Folder 3 B, 1894-1895

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Folder 4 C-D, 1894-1896

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Folder 5 Cox, William V., 1895

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Folder 6 Earll, R. Edward, 1894-1896. Includes correspondence from Atlanta; list of mammals sent to Exposition; correspondence to Cyrus Adler about the Berlin Museum.

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Folder 7 G-J, 1895. Includes interesting letter by Government Board agent concerning misrepresentation of Smithsonian exhibit in newspaper relating to "colored;" photo of mounted buffalo and elk.

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Folder 8 L-M, 1895-1896

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Folder 9 O-P, 1895. Includes pamphlet on "Panoramic Cabinet."

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Folder 10 R. Includes correspondence of William deC. Ravenel concerning Fish Commission Exhibit.

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Folder 11 S-T, 1894-1895

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Folder 12 Treasury Department, 1894-1895

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Folder 13 U-W, 1894-1896

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Box 44

Folders 1-3 Outgoing letterpress correspondence books, 1894-1896. Mostly George Brown Goode and R. Edward Earll from Washington and Atlanta.

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Box 45

DEPARTMENTAL EXHIBIT LISTS AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1895

These records consist mostly of proposed exhibits suggested by Goode or by curators for use in the exposition, as well as correspondence, expense accounts, and notes on specific exhibits.

Folder 1 Clarke, Frank W., 1895

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Folder 2 Lucas, Frederic Augustus, undated

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Folder 3 Mason, Otis T., 1895. Includes correspondence pertaining to Woman's Exhibit; list of Franz Boas's group of Fort Ruppert Indians.

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Folder 4 Merrill, George P., undated

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Folder 5 Ridgway, Robert, undated

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Folder 6 Schuchert, Charles, undated

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Folder 7 Stejneger, Leonhard, undated

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Folder 8 True, Frederick W., undated

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Folder 9 Watkins, J. Elfreth, 1895

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Folder 10 Wilson, Thomas, undated. Includes suggestions for Department of Prehistoric Anthropology display.

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Folder 11 Zoological Park, undated

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Folder 12 Administration, 1895

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Box 45

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1894-1896

These records consist of correspondence and related records pertaining to the Atlanta Exposition. They include Government Board correspondence, notes, lists, newspaper clippings, and other miscellaneous material.

Folder 13 Awards, 1895-1896

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Folder 14 Calling cards

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Folder 15 Catalogue, 1895

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Folder 16 Clippings, 1894-1896

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Folder 17 Objects packed, undated

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Folder 18 Furniture, undated

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Folder 19 Installation, 1895

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Folder 20 Requiring attention, 1895

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Folder 21 Frederick W. True's plan for mammal exhibit, 1895

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Folder 22 Telegrams, 1895-1896

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Folder 23 Transportation, 1895-1896

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Box 46

RELATED MATERIALS AND PUBLICATIONS, 1894-1895

These records consist of various printed materials, primarily authored by the Exposition Committee, related to the Cotton States and International Exposition.

Folder 1 Exposition notes, 1895, including promotional sheets printed by the Exposition Publicity and Promotion Department

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Folder 2 Regulations, 1894. Rules on admission and on exhibits staged by foreign exhibitors, in English and Spanish.

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Folder 3 Classification of exposition, 1894

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Folder 4 Smithsonian Institution Exhibit Guide, 1895

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Folder 5 Report on Smithsonian Exhibit, 1898

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Folder 6 Excerpts from Smithsonian annual reports, 1894-1896

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Folder 7 Miscellaneous publications. Includes Department of Agriculture pamphlet, promotional publication printed in Spanish, official programs. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS, 1894-1896

Folder 8 Legislation, 1894-1895. Includes some Government Board correspondence.

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Folder 9 Lists of exhibits and specimens returned from the exposition

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Folder 10 Appointments forms, 1894-1896

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Folder 11 Exhibit cases, 1895. Includes information on cases for Smithsonian exhibits; photograph of Smithsonian space prior to arrival of articles.

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Folder 12 U.S. Government Building. Includes architectural drawings, floor plans. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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FINANCIAL RECORDS, 1894-1896

Folder 13 Smithsonian financial statements, 1894-1896

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Folder 14 Record of checks disbursed, 1894-1896

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Folder 15 Vouchers, payroll records, 1894-1896

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Folder 16 Receipts and miscellaneous financial records, 1894-1896

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Folder 17 Records of bills, 1894-1902

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Boxes 46A-46B

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PHOTOGRAPHS

Official views of the United States Government Exhibits, 1896, Part I and II. Record Unit 95, Series 7 should also be consulted.

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Series 12

Tennessee Centennial Exposition (Nashville, 1897), 1896-1898, 1901.

The purpose of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition was to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of Tennessee's admission into the Union. Housed in such neoclassical structures as the still-extant Parthenon, the exposition opened in Nashville, Tennessee, on May 1, 1897, and closed on October 30, 1897.

In 1897, Congress approved an act to assist the exposition by providing for government exhibits. Eighteen departments of the Smithsonian Institution prepared special exhibits. These exhibits were installed and oriented around the Bureau of Ethnology's miniature Kiowa camping circle in the Government Building.

Frederick W. True represented the Smithsonian on the Government Board for the Tennessee Exposition. William V. Cox was the chief special agent in charge of the exhibits, and was also appointed secretary to the Government Board of Management. This series consists of general correspondence and records of the Smithsonian Institution pertaining to the Tennessee Centennial Exposition. The major correspondents are Frederick W. True and William V. Cox. The documentation of the exhibits is limited. Of special interest are selected responses by curators to questions about deficiencies in their exhibitions. Other related materials include newspaper clippings, reports, documents, records, and specimen lists.

Box 47

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1896-1897

This correspondence consists of incoming and some outgoing correspondence relating to personnel matters. Most outgoing correspondence is by William V. Cox and deals with his position as special agent. Correspondence includes some exhibit preparation materials.

Folder 1 Adler, Cyrus, 1897. Includes tentative plans for Oriental Antiquities and Religious Ceremonial exhibits.

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Folder 2 B, 1897

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Folder 3 C, 1897

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Folder 4 Cox, William V. Includes labels for Kiowa camping circle exhibit.

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Folder 5 D, 1897. Includes list of articles packed for Tennessee.

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Folder 6 E-F, 1897

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Folder 7 G-H, 1897

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Folder 8 J-L, 1897

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Folder 9 M, 1897

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Folder 10 P, 1897. Includes letter from John Wesley Powell concerning Kiowa camping circle exhibit.

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Folder 11 R-S, 1897

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Folder 12 T, 1896-1897. Includes legislation pertaining to the exposition; list of mineral department exhibit by Wirt Tassin.

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Folder 13 W, 1897

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U.S. GOVERNMENT BOARD OF MANAGEMENT RECORDS, 1897

These records consist of miscellaneous correspondence, plans, notes, newspaper clippings, and documents pertaining to the U.S. Government Board of Management records for the Tennessee Centennial Exposition. The majority of incoming correspondence is to William V. Cox, Secretary of the Government Board.

Folder 14 Report of the U.S. Government Exhibit, 1897

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Folder 15 U.S. Government Board correspondence, 1897

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Folder 16 Decoration Committee, 1897

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Folder 17 Installation Committee, 1897

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Folder 18 Government Building window plans. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 19 Newspaper clippings, 1897. Includes articles on dispute between government and centennial guards.

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Folder 20 Congressional documents, 1896-1897

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MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS, 1896-1897

These records consist of Smithsonian reports on the Tennessee Centennial Exposition and other miscellaneous administrative and financial records. Of particular interest are curators' reports on deficiencies in their departmental exhibits.

Folder 21 Excerpts from Annual Reports, 1896-1901

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Folder 22 Draft Smithsonian submissions to the U.S. government's report

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Folder 23 Promotional materials, 1896-1897. Includes promotional pamphlets produced by exposition management.

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Folder 24 Principal departmental deficiencies, 1896. Includes curators' responses concerning the shortcomings of their exhibits.

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Box 48

Folder 1 Specimen lists, 1897

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Folder 2 Financial records, 1897

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Folder 3 Labels record book, 1897

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Folder 4 Time book, 1884-1897. Includes record of time worked by employees at exposition, plus some recorded at other expositions.

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Box 48A

OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1897-1898

These records consist of outgoing letterpress books. Correspondents include Frederick W. True, William V. Cox, and J. L. Willige.

Folder 1 True, Frederick W., correspondence, 1897-1898

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Folder 2 True, Frederick W.,William V. Cox, J. L. Willige correspondence, 1897-1898

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Folder 3 Cox, William V., correspondence, 1897-1898. Includes correspondence from Omaha and Nashville expositions.

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Box 48B

PHOTOGRAPHS

Oversize official views of the United States Government Building, 1898. (See also Record Unit 95, Series 7).

Series 13

Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (Omaha, 1898), 1896-1899.

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, held in Omaha, Nebraska, opened June 1, 1898, and continued until October 31, 1898. A visit from President McKinley and an exhibit featuring live Indians were the highlights of this exposition.

An Act of Congress authorized this exposition and intended it to illustrate the resources of the United States and to demonstrate the progress and civilization of the Western Hemisphere. The act appropriated $20,000 to the Smithsonian for its exhibit.

The exhibits concentrated on the three main departments of the National Museum--anthropology, biology and geology--though other bureaus were represented. The Smithsonian representative to the Government Board was Frederick W. True. True directed Smithsonian participation and also prepared the Biology Department exhibit. William V. Cox served as chief special agent in charge of the exhibits, and J. L. Willige was acting chief clerk at the Museum in the absence of Cox. William H. Holmes, head curator of the Anthropology Department, and George P. Merrill, curator of the Geology Department, prepared the exhibits for their respective departments.

This collection consists primarily of the correspondence of Frederick W. True and William V. Cox concerning their duties at the exposition, as well as miscellaneous financial records, reports, documents, newspaper clippings, and notes.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7. For other financial records, see Series 11, the Cotton States and International Exposition.

Box 49

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED MATERIALS, 1897-1899

These records consist mostly of the incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True, William V. Cox and J. L. Willige. The outgoing letterpress books contain Cox's correspondence from Omaha. Correspondents include William deC. Ravenel and Charles D. Walcott. The records also contain newspaper clippings, notes, memoranda, and pamphlets.

Folder 1 A, 1898

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Folder 2 B, 1897-1899

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Folder 3 Cox, William V., 1897-1899. Includes correspondence, news clippings, and memoranda.

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Folder 4 Cox, William V., telegrams, 1898

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Folder 5 C-D, 1898

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Folder 6 Walcott, Charles D., 1897-1898. Includes correspondence from William deC. Ravenel concerning U.S. Fish Commission exhibit; promotional exposition pamphlet.

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Box 50

Folders 1-3 Outgoing correspondence, 1897-1899. Includes outgoing indexed letterpress books of True, Cox, and Willige in Washington and Cox in Omaha.

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MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS, 1896-1899

Folder 4 Excerpts from annual reports, 1896-1899

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Folder 5 Congressional documents, 1896-1898

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Folder 6 Bills and vouchers, 1897-1899. Includes list of exhibits other than National Museum.

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Folder 7 Financial statements and estimates, 1898

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Folder 8 Newspaper clippings, 1897-1898 [item 1 removed to oversize]

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Box 50A

Bills of lading, 1898

Box 50A of 95

Series 14

Pan-American Exposition (Buffalo, New York, 1901), 1898-1903.

"To illustrate the marvelous development of the Western Hemisphere during the nineteenth century . . ." was the express purpose of the Pan-American Exposition. It concentrated primarily on the Western Hemisphere and relations between the American republics and the colonies, including a special Outlying Possessions Exhibit emphasizing the Philippines. Called the Rainbow City due to the color scheme of the buildings, the exposition opened on May 1, 1901, in Buffalo, New York, and closed November 2, 1901.

Congress allotted $50,000 for the Smithsonian in this exposition. The collection consisted of carefully prepared exhibits intended to present ". . . a display of the products of nature and the works of man in the Western Hemisphere . . ." The Department of Anthropology, in cooperation with the Bureau of Ethnology, presented clay figures of American aboriginal tribes and their dwellings. The Department of Biology concentrated on specimens of American vertebrates; and the Department of Geology exhibited a systematic collection of minerals, as well as some restorations of fossil vertebrate specimens.

The representative on the Government Board for the Smithsonian Institution was Frederick W. True. He also served as Chairman of the Special Committee on Outlying Possessions of this Board, as well as being head curator of the Department of Biology. William Henry Holmes was head curator of the Department of Anthropology, and George P. Merrill directed the Department of Geology. Leonhard Stejneger and Charles Richmond collected specimens in Puerto Rico. William Palmer and Joseph H. Riley collected in Cuba, W. J. McGee in Mexico. F. F. Hilder led the collecting expedition to the Philippine Islands for the Government Board's Outlying Possession Exhibit. Other Smithsonian representatives included William V. Cox as chief special agent to the exposition and secretary to the Government Board. J. E. Rockwell served as chief clerk of the National Museum in Cox's absence. William De Riemer was the assistant to William V. Cox.

This collection documents all phases of the Smithsonian's involvement in the Pan-American Exposition. The incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True pertains to the organization, preparation, and administration of the Smithsonian exhibits. Of special interest are True's correspondence and records related to the Outlying Possessions Exhibit of the Government Board, including F. F. Hilder correspondence. The correspondence of other Smithsonian officials deals with general administrative concerns. Of particular interest is the curators' correspondence concerning preparation and installation of exhibits. The series contains much information about Smithsonian involvement, such as reports, accession records, newspaper clippings, and extensive financial materials.

Financial records of this exposition can be found among those of the Cotton States and International Exposition, Series 11. For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7.

Box 51

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF FREDERICK W. TRUE, 1899-1903

This material consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True. The correspondence concerns the collection and preparation of specimens for exhibit as well as general administrative matters related to True's position on the U.S. Government Board.

Folder 1 A, 1899-1900. Includes proposal by Charles G. Abbot for an astrophysical exhibit.

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Folder 2 B, 1899-1901

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Folder 3 Brigham, J. H., 1899-1901

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Folder 4 C, 1899-1900

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Folder 5 Cox, William V., 1899-1902

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Folder 6 D-F, 1900-1904

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Folder 7 G-L, 1900-1903

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Folder 8 M, 1901

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Folder 9 McGee, W. J., 1899-1900. Concerning ethnological exhibits, including report on collecting expedition.

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Folder 10 P-Q, 1900-1902

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Folder 11 Periolat, C. F., 1899-1901

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Folder 12 R-S, 1899-1903

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Folder 13 Rockwell, J. E., 1900-1902

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Folder 14 T, 1899-1901. Includes information on government building.

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Folder 15 Thompson, John W., 1900

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Folder 16 W, 1899-1901

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Folder 17 Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 1900-1901

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Folder 18 Worthen, Charles K., 1900-1901

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Box 52

OUTLYING POSSESSIONS EXHIBIT, 1898-1902

In 1899 the Government Board created, at the suggestion of the exposition management, a special governmental display of exhibits from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Alaska, and the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands. These records consist primarily of F. W. True's correspondence relating to his duties as chairman of this special committee responsible for this exhibit. Of special interest are letters from the Philippine and other specimen-collecting expeditions.

Folder 1 Abbott, W. H., 1901

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Folder 2 B, 1899-1902. Includes list of books purchased from Philippine Islands.

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Folder 3 C, 1899-1901. Includes handwritten catalogue of Philippine Exhibit.

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Folder 4 Collecting expeditions, 1898-1900. Includes instructions and memoranda concerning the collection of ethnological specimens in the Philippines by William H. Holmes.

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Folder 5 Cox, William V., 1899-1903. Includes both incoming and outgoing correspondence concerning exhibit.

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Folder 6 De Riemer, William E., 1901-1902. Includes report of his detail to New York and Boston for Philippine commercial products.

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Folder 7 Diplomas, 1901-1902. Includes list of those who received awards.

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Folder 8 E-G, 1899-1901. Includes disbursing agents' reports; list of War Department Philippine Exhibit.

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Folder 9 Exhibits, 1900-1901. Includes list of Philippine articles in exhibit.

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Folder 10 Financial records, 1899-1902 [items 5 and 6 removed to oversize]

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Folder 11 Floor plan for Outlying Possessions Exhibit, 1901. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 12 H-J, 1900-1901

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Folder 13 K-M, 1898-1901

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Folder 14 N-Q, 1899-1901

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Folder 15 Palmer, William, 1899-1900

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Folder 16 Peabody Co., Henry W., 1900-1901

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Folder 17 Puerto Rico expedition, 1899, 1900-1902

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Folder 18 Richmond, Charles W., 1900-1901. Concerning Puerto Rico expedition.

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Folder 19 Rockwell, J. E., 1901

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Folder 20 S, 1899-1901

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Folder 21 Sherman, P. L., 1900-1902. Concerning Philippine expedition; correspondence to True from Manila.

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Folder 22 Steere, J. B., 1900-1901. Concerning South American specimens.

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Folder 23 True, Frederick W., 1901. Includes article written for Buffalo paper, April 1901.

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Folder 24 U-Z, 1899-1901

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Folder 25 U.S. Board of Management. Concerning Special Committee on Exhibits from Outlying Possessions, 1899-1900.

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Folder 26 Verrill, C. H., 1899-1900. Discussing plans for the Outlying Possessions Exhibit.

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Box 53

OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE, 1899-1903

These records consist primarily of the outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True as the Smithsonian Institution representative to the Pan-American Exposition. Other correspondents include William V. Cox, William De Riemer, and J. E. Rockwell. Correspondence is from Washington, D.C., except for a 1901 letterbook from Buffalo, New York.

Folders 1-3 True, Frederick W., and William V. Cox, 1899-1901

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Folder 4 Rockwell, J. E., Frederick W. True, and William V. Cox, 1901-1903

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Box 54

Folder 1 True, Frederick W., William V. Cox, and William De Riemer, 1901. Includes letters from Buffalo and Washington.

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Folders 2-3 True, Frederick W., and William V. Cox, 1901-1902

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Box 55

WILLIAM V. COX AND J. E. ROCKWELL CORRESPONDENCE, 1899-1902

William V. Cox was the chief clerk of the United States National Museum from 1885 to 1902. He served as the chief special agent for the Pan-American Exposition under Frederick W. True. Cox also held the position of secretary to the Government Board of Management for this exposition. J. E. Rockwell became acting chief clerk of the National Museum under Cox. Most of the correspondence is Rockwell's.

Folder 1 A-D, 1900-1901

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Folder 2 Baker, Frank, 1899-1901. Includes key to zoological park model.

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Folder 3 Benjamin, Marcus, 1901

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Folder 4 Cox, William V., 1901-1902

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Folder 5 De Riemer, W. E., 1901

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Folder 6 F-K, 1899-1901

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Folder 7 Gundlach, C., and Muller, 1900-1901

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Folder 8 L-P, 1900-1901. Includes letters of Otis T. Mason from Saratoga Sanitarium.

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Folder 9 R, 1900-1902

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Folder 10 Richmond, Charles W., 1901-1902

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Folder 11 Rockwell, J. E., 1900-May 1901

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Folder 12 Rockwell, J. E., June-October 1901

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Folder 13 S-Z, 1899-1901

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Folder 14 Stejneger, Leonhard, 1901

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Folder 15 Stone, R. L., 1901

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Folder 16 True, Frederick W., 1899-1901

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Box 56

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1899-1902

This material consists mostly of outgoing correspondence concerning the preparation of exhibits and general administrative and financial matters at the Pan American Exposition. Correspondents include Smithsonian Institution representatives, National Museum curators, and various collectors.

Folder 1 Bean, Barton A., 1900-1902. Concerns collecting expedition to Key West, Florida.

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Folders 2-3 De Riemer, William E., 1900-1902. Includes 1901 memoranda notebook.

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Folder 4 Geddes, W. M., 1900-1902

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Folder 5 Goldsmith, James S., 1899-1901

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Folder 6 Himrod, W. G., 1900-1901

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Folder 7 Holmes, William H., 1899-1901. Includes annotated draft of report on exhibit of the Department of Anthropology.

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Folder 8 Merrill, George P., 1900-1901. Includes proposals for Department of Geology exhibit.

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Folder 9 Rathbun, Richard, 1899-1901

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Folder 10 Richmond, Charles W., 1901

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Folder 11 Stejneger, Leonhard, 1900-1902. Includes letter concerning collecting expedition to Virgin Islands.

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Folders 12-13 Steuart, C. A., 1899-1901

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Folder 14 Turner, George B., 1899-1901

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Folder 15 Miscellaneous collectors, 1899-1901. Includes address cards.

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Box 57

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS AND CORRESPONDENCE, 1898-1902

These records consist of various administrative records and correspondence dealing with the Smithsonian's role at the Pan-American Exposition.

Folder 1 Accessions, 1900-1901. Includes list of mammals mounted for exhibit.

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Folder 2 Applications, 1899-1901

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Folder 3 Awards, 1901. Includes newspaper with list of prizes and a pamphlet summarizing the rules governing awards.

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Folder 4 Legislation, 1898-1902

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Folder 5 Newspaper clippings, 1899-1901 [items 1 and 2 removed to oversize]

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Folder 6 Shipment lists, 1901

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Folder 7 Stamp theft, 1901. Concerns theft of valuable postage stamps from Post Office Department in Government Building; includes documentation of investigation and testimony.

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Folder 8 U.S. Government Board of Management, 1899-1901. Includes by-laws of Board; descriptive sheets on U.S. Board and exhibits. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 9 U.S. Government Board of Management, Building Committee, 1900. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Box 58

SMITHSONIAN REPORTS ON THE PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION

This material consists of Smithsonian Institution and National Museum reports on the Pan-American Exposition. It includes drafts, preliminary and final reports, and excerpts from annual reports.

Folders 1-2 Reports on plans for Smithsonian exhibits at the exposition, 1899-1902

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Folder 3 Printed report on the exposition, 1901

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Folder 4 Printed excerpts referring to the exposition, 1898-1901

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FINANCIAL RECORDS AND RELATED CORRESPONDENCE, 1899-1902

Folder 5 Time accounts for payroll, 1900-1901

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Folder 6 Subsistence accounts, 1900-1901

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Folder 7 Requisitions, 1899-1901

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Folders 8-9 Expenditures, 1900-1901

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Folder 10 Disbursement report, 1902

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Box 59

Folder 1 Expenditure book and accounting records, 1900-1902

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Folder 2 Requisition book, 1899-1901

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Folder 3 De Riemer, William E., voucher book, 1900. Includes records of accessions and orders.

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Folder 4 Stone, R. T., voucher book, 1899-1902

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Folder 5 Outlying Possessions Exhibit, financial vouchers, 1900-1901

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Box 59A

Time books, 1900-1901

Box 59A of 95

Series 15

South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition (Charleston, 1901-1902), 1900-1903.

The South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition, held at Charleston, South Carolina, promoted the new industries and commerce of the South. Although Congress failed to provide appropriations for this exposition, President Roosevelt, at the request of Director General J. H. Averill of the exposition, directed the executive departments to transfer exhibits from the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo to the Charleston Exposition. This exposition opened December 1, 1901, and closed May 31, 1902.

The Smithsonian selected displays which could be transferred directly to Charleston and opened the collection to the public on January 13, 1902, using in this way about two thirds of the material from the recently concluded Pan-American Exposition.

Frederick W. True represented the Smithsonian Institution at the South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition. Charles W. Richmond managed the transfer and installation of the exhibit. William E. De Riemer became the special agent in charge of the Smithsonian and Philippine exhibit at the exposition.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7.

Box 60

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF FREDERICK W. TRUE, 1901-1903

These records consist mostly of incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True, representative of the Smithsonian Institution to the Charleston Exposition. Of special interest is the correspondence pertaining to the President's directive to transfer exhibits from the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo to the Charleston Exposition. Also of interest are letters from agents in charge of installation and maintenance of the exhibits. Other materials concern administrative and financial matters.

Folder 1 Averill, J. H., 1901-1902. Concerning request and transfer of exhibits from Buffalo to Charleston; includes letter to President Roosevelt and related correspondence of Smithsonian representatives (Samuel P. Langley, Frederick W. True).

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Folder 2 B, 1901-1902. Includes reports on Smithsonian exhibits by Marcus Benjamin.

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Folder 3 Cox, William V., 1901-1903

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Folder 4 De Riemer, William E., 1901-1903. Includes final report on Smithsonian exhibits.

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Folder 5 E-G, 1902. Includes return shipment list to Washington, D.C.

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Folder 6 H, 1900-1902

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Folder 7 Langley, Samuel P., 1900-1901

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Folder 8 R-W, 1901-1902

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Folder 9 Richmond, Charles W., 1901-1902

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Folder 10 Steuart, C. A., 1901

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Folder 11 See Box 60A

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Folder 12 True, Frederick W., 1901-1902. Includes annotated final report.

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MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS, 1901-1903

Folder 13 Excerpts from annual reports, 1902-1903. Concerning Smithsonian exhibits at Charleston Exposition.

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Folder 14 "The Exposition," April and May 1901. This publication was devoted to the happenings of the exposition.

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Folder 15 Exposition advertising pamphlet, undated

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Folder 16 Expenditure book, 1901-1902. Includes expenditures for Smithsonian and Philippine exhibits.

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Folder 17 Newspaper clippings, 1902 [items 12 and 55 removed to oversize]

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Box 60A

F. W. True, outgoing letterpress book.

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Series 16

Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis, 1904) 1901-1906.

To celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase, Congress sanctioned the Louisiana Purchase Exposition ". . . for exhibitions of arts, industries, manufactures, and products of soil, mine, forest, and sea." The exposition was held at St. Louis from April 30 to December 1, 1904. It encompassed 1,240 acres of indoor and outdoor exhibits, including an actual Philippine village. Foreign and domestic participants provided an "exposition of processes" including such divisions as electricity, transportation, anthropology, physical culture, and an International Congress of Arts and Science designed to be an "academic accompaniment" to the exposition.

In 1902 Congress appropriated $110,000 to the Smithsonian Institution for its exhibits, which took over two years to prepare, for ". . . no pains have been spared to make the display both interesting and noteworthy." The Smithsonian's display represented the Smithsonian Institution proper, including a reproduction of the Children's Room in the Smithsonian Building in Washington; the Bureau of International Exchange; and the Astrophysical Observatory. National Museum exhibits consisted of models of Aztec ruins from the Department of Anthropology and a cast and skeleton of a sulfur bottom whale from the Department of Biology. The Department of Geology provided restorations of the Stegosaurus and Triceratops as well as a collection of meteorites. Two outdoor exhibits were also provided--the National Zoological Park's flying bird cage and a coelostat from the Astrophysical Observatory. In 1905, as a direct result of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the National Museum increased its accessions more than at any other time except after the close of the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition.

The Smithsonian's participation was managed in what was by now the usual way. Secretary Langley appointed Frederick W. True as the Smithsonian representative to the U.S. Government Board of Management for the exposition. True also was chairman of the Installation and Decoration Committee. Dr. Marcus Lyon, Jr., was chief special agent in St. Louis during the exposition. William deC. Ravenel represented the U.S. Fish Commission on the Government Board of Management and was also administrative assistant to Richard Rathbun, the Assistant Secretary in charge of the U.S. National Museum. The U.S. National Museum's exhibits were prepared by specialists from its various branches. William H. Holmes, head of the Bureau of American Ethnology, collaborated with the Museum's Department of Anthropology to create the anthropology exhibit. Frederick W. True, acting in a dual capacity, planned the Department of Biology exhibit, assisted by Frederic A. Lucas. George P. Merrill, curator of the Department of Geology, directed plans for its exhibit.

This series includes both correspondence and administrative records pertaining to the Smithsonian Institution's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The records include correspondence concerning the collection, preparation, and management of the exhibits, and subsequent acquisitions. Other True correspondence relates to his position as chairman of the Installation and Decoration Committee for the Government Board. Correspondence between Richard Rathbun and William deC. Ravenel concerns desirable exhibits (both foreign and domestic) they hoped to obtain for the National Museum, including comments from Otis T. Mason, Paul Beckwith, Walter Hough, and others. The remainder of the series relates to administrative and financial records, including draft and final reports of Smithsonian participation in the exposition and lists of specimens exhibited.

For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7.

Box 61

MARCUS W. LYON, JR., CORRESPONDENCE, 1901-1906

These records consist primarily of incoming correspondence of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., chief special agent of the Smithsonian for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Much of the correspondence is addressed to Frederick W. True but apparently was transferred to Lyon. The correspondence concerns the collection, accession, and preparation of the exhibits for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and associated administrative details. An index of the correspondence is included.

Folder 1 A, 1903-1905. Includes box list of anthropological artifacts.

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Folder 2 Abbot, Charles G., 1902-1904. Exhibitions of astrophysical instruments; includes instructions for silvering glass surfaces.

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Folder 3 Adams, C. W., 1903-1904

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Folder 4 Adler, Cyrus, 1904

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Folder 5 Alaska Commercial Co., 1903. Concerning polar bear skin.

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Folder 6 Andrews, Byron, 1903-1904. Concerning blue fox skin.

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Folder 7 Applications for employment, 1901-1904

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Folder 8 B, 1903-1905. Includes appointment of Franz Boas as ethnologist at the exposition.

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Folder 9 Baker, Frank, 1903-1905. Concerning cage for flying birds.

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Folder 10 Bausch and Lomb, 1903

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Folder 11 Bean, Barton A., 1903

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Folder 12 Bean, Tarleton H., 1902-1904. Includes Department of Fish and Game Circular I.

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Folder 13 Benjamin, Marcus, 1904

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Folder 14 Bennitt, Mark, 1902-1903

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Folder 15 Boucard, A., 1903

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Folder 16 Bowsky, A., 1904. Concerning bleaching of polar bear skin.

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Folder 17 Brigham, J. H., 1901-1904

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Folder 18 Brimly, C. S., 1903-1904. Concerning reptile eggs.

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Folder 19 Brown, Stephen C., 1903-1904

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Folder 20 Buck, Archibald, 1903. Concerning carabao mounting.

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Folder 21 Buck, J. L., 1903

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Folder 22 Butler, A. L, 1902. Concerning African mammals from Sudan.

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Folder 23 C, 1903-1905. Includes list of standing committees of Government Board; Children of American Revolution exhibit list; U.S. Consul's certification of Newfoundland whale skeleton bound for the National Museum.

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Folder 24 Cabot, Roy M., 1903-1904. Concerning Olympic elk acquisition and subsequent litigation.

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Folder 25 Celluloid Company, 1903

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Folder 26 Closen, Baron von, 1904. Concerning his portrait.

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Folders 27-28 Cox, William V., 1902-1905. Concerning his duties on Government Board.

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Folder 29 D, 1903-1905

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Folder 30 Dawson, Edward M., 1903

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Folder 31 Denton, Sherman F., 1902-1903. Concerning fish specimens.

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Folder 32 De Riemer, William E., 1903-1905. Concerning duties as Smithsonian special agent.

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Folder 33 Deyrolle, Les Fils D'Emile, 1902-1903. Concerning birds of paradise.

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Folder 34 Drey and Kahn Glass Co., 1904

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Folder 35 Dolan, John J., 1903-1904

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Folder 36 Dumbolton, C. J., 1903

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Folder 37 E, 1904

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Folder 38 Eastern Landing and Forwarding Co., 1903. Concerning snake shipment.

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Folder 39 Evans, Richard, 1903

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Folder 40 Everette, Willis E., 1903

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Box 62

Folder 1 F, 1902-1905

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Folder 2 Farmer, James L., 1903-1904. Includes plan for education exhibit and research in agriculture and mechanic arts.

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Folder 3 Finances, 1904

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Folder 4 Freight, 1904-1905

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Folder 5 G, 1903-1904

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Folder 6 Geare, Randolph I., 1901-1904

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Folder 7 Geddes, W. M., 1903-1905. Includes a list of articles and property purchased by the Smithsonian, 1902-1904; list of articles specially collected or prepared for exhibits.

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Folder 8 Gerrard, Edward and Sons, 1903-1904. Concerning hippopotamus and zebra skins.

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Folder 9 Gladmon, Perry L., 1903-1904

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Folder 10 Goldsmith, James S., 1902-1905. Concerning his duties as superintendent of construction and labor; includes diagram by William H. Holmes for base of West Indies exhibit case.

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Folder 11 H, 1902-1904

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Folder 12 Hammerstein, H. L. and Co., 1903

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Folder 13 Harvey, James, 1903. Concerning cast of whale.

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Folder 14 Hills, Wallace H., 1902-1904

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Folder 15 Hodge, Frederick W., 1903-1904

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Folder 16 Holmes, William H., 1903-1905. Includes list of specimens purchased for anthropological exhibit; example of exhibit label.

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Folder 17 Hornaday, William T., 1903

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Folder 18 Hornblower and Marshall, 1903-1904. Includes description of booth construction for Smithsonian exhibits.

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Folder 19 J, 1903-1905

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Folder 20 K, 1903-1905

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Folder 21 Kny-Scheerer Co., 1903

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Folder 22 L, 1903-1904

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Folder 23 Labels required for exhibits, 1904

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Folder 24 Langley, Samuel P., 1901-1905. Includes suggestions and comments pertaining to proposed exhibits, particularly the astrophysical exhibit.

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Folder 25 Latham, Mrs. C. F., 1903. Concerning alligator specimen.

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Folder 26 Laws relating to Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1902-1904

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Folder 27 Lucas, Frederic A., 1903-1904. Concerning whale skeleton.

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Folder 28 Lyon, Marcus W., Jr., 1903-1905

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Box 63

Folder 1 M, 1903-1905

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Folder 2 Marshall, George, 1902-1903

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Folder 3 Mearns, Edgar A., 1902

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Folder 4 Merrill, George P., 1903-1905. Includes list of geological specimens purchased; itinerary for 1903 western trip.

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Folder 5 Milwaukee Papier Mache Works, 1903-1904. Concerning stegosaurus restoration.

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Folder 6 N, 1903-1904

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Folder 7 O, 1903-1904

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Folder 8 Officials and commissioners of Louisiana Purchase Exposition, foreign and domestic, arranged alphabetically by state or country.

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Folder 9 Osky, J., 1904. Concerning alligator skin.

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Folder 10 P, 1902-1905

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Folder 11 Palmer, T. S., 1903-1904. Includes U.S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin No. 180--game laws for 1903; Biological Survey circular No. 40; 1902 Directory of State Officials and Organizations concerned with the protection of birds and game.

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Folder 12 Palmer, William, 1903-1904. Concerning whale installation.

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Folder 13 Pawson and Nicholson, 1903-1904

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Folder 14 Peal, H. W., 1903. Concerning cobras.

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Folder 15 Periolat, C. F., 1904. Concerning western animal specimens.

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Folder 16 Photograph list. Concerning photographs of certain Smithsonian exhibits.

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Folder 17 Putnam, F. W., 1903. Concerning monolith cast.

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Folder 18 R, 1903-1904. Includes list of Smithsonian regents.

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Folders 19-20 Rathbun, Richard, 1902-1905

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Folders 21-22 Ravenel, William deC., 1901-1905. Includes notes on government building.

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Folder 23 Reilly, Hugh, 1904-1905

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Folder 24 Rental of buildings, 1901-1903

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Folder 25 Richardson, F. L. A., 1904-1905. Concerning stegosaurus restoration; includes photo (See also Milwaukee Papier Mache Works, Box 63, Folder 5).

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Folder 26 Riker, C. B., 1903-1904. Concerning insect specimens.

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Folder 27 Rising, Fred W., 1903-1904. Concerning western animal specimens.

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Box 64

Folder 1 S, 1902-1905

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Folder 2 Schluter, Wilhelm, 1902-1903

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Folder 3 Sexton, Robert H., 1903

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Folder 4 Specimen lists, 1905. Includes specimens purchased for anthropology and biology exhibits; specimens received from Royal Siamese Commission; specimens from Zoological Department, German section.

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Folder 5 Springmann, Edwin, 1904-1906

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Folder 6 Strickler, G. B., 1903-1904

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Folder 7 T, 1903-1904

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Folder 8 Taylor, Isaac S., 1903-1904

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Folder 9 Taylor, James Knox, 1902-1904

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Folders 10-12 True, Frederick W., 1902-1905

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Folder 13 Turner, George B., 1904

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Folder 14 U, 1902-1904

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Folder 15 V, 1902-1904

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Folder 16 W, 1903-1904

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Folder 17 Wallace, W. Seward, 1904

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Folder 18 Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 1903-1904. Concerning whale skeleton.

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Folder 19 Ward, Rowland, Ltd., 1903-1904. Concerning African specimens.

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Folder 20 Warmbath, J. S., 1903. Concerning musk ox skins.

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Folder 21 Wesley, William and Son, 1903-1904

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Folder 22 Wood, John Z., 1904

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Folder 23 Worthen, Charles K., 1903-1905

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Folder 24 Z, 1903

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Folder 25 Index of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., incoming correspondence, 1901-1903

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Box 65

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF FREDERICK W. TRUE, 1901-1906

These records consist mainly of the incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True in his capacity as the representative of the Smithsonian Institution to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The majority of the incoming correspondence is from Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., in St. Louis. The outgoing correspondence consists of letterpress books from 1901 to 1906, providing a chronological account of Smithsonian involvement. It also includes correspondence of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., from Washington and William E. De Riemer from St. Louis.

Folder 1 A, 1904-1906

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Folder 2 B, 1904-1905

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Folder 3 C, 1904

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Folder 4 Cox, William V., 1904-1906. Includes list of commemorative medals for Smithsonian exhibits and officials.

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Folder 5 D, 1903-1904. Includes a personal letter from William E. De Riemer describing a fire at the exposition.

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Folder 6 F, 1904

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Folder 7 G, 1904

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Folder 8 H, 1904

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Folder 9 Hills, Wallace H., 1904

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Folder 10 Holmes, William H., 1904

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Folder 11 Lucas, Frederic A., 1904

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Folders 12-14 Lyon, Marcus W., Jr., 1903-1905

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Folder 15 M-Q, 1904-1905

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Folder 16 R, 1904-1905

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Folder 17 Rathbun, Richard, 1904-1906

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Folder 18 Ravenel, William deC., 1904-1905. Includes request from President for report on government exhibits and expenditures.

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Folder 19 S, 1906

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Folder 20 T-V, 1904-1906

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Folder 21 True, Frederick W., diary, 1904

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Folder 22 W-Z, 1904

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Box 66

Folders 1-4 True, Frederick W., and Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., letterpress books, Washington and New Orleans, 1901-1906. Volume 4 also contains some correspondence of the Installation and Decoration Committee. (See also the following series.)

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Box 67

INSTALLATION AND DECORATION COMMITTEE CORRESPONDENCE, 1903-1905

These records consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True pertaining to his duties as Chairman of the Installation and Decoration Committee of the U.S. Government Board for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Of particular interest is correspondence concerning a replica of the statue "Armed Liberty."

Folder 1 A, 1904

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Folder 2 B, 1903-1904. Includes Bairston bid for replica of "Armed Liberty."

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Folder 3 C, 1902-1904

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Folder 4 Dawson, Edward M., 1903

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Folder 5 De Riemer, William E., 1904

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Folder 6 Dunbar, U. S. J., 1903

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Folder 7 Earley, James F., 1903

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Folder 8 F, 1903-1904

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Folder 9 Geddes, William M., 1904-1905

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Folder 10 H, 1903-1904

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Folder 11 K, 1903

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Folder 12 M, 1903-1904

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Folder 13 Nelson and Brother Co., John L., 1903-1904

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Folder 14 P, 1903-1904

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Folder 15 Ravenel, William deC., 1903

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Folder 16 Richter Manufacturing Co., 1904

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Folder 17 S, 1903-1904

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Folder 18 Strickler, G. B., 1903-1904

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Folder 19 Temple, Grace L., 1903-1904

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Folder 20 T, 1903

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Folder 21 True, Frederick W., 1903-1904. Includes bids received for reproducing "Armed Liberty."

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Folder 22 W, 1903-1904

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Folder 23 "Armed Liberty," 1903-1904. Includes blueprint for base; photographs. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 24 Brass railing, 1904-1905. Includes report on condition of installation and decoration fund, February 7, 1904.

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Folder 25 Burlap, 1904

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Folder 26 Color scheme, 1903-1904

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Folder 27 Flags, 1904. Includes design sketches by J. S. Goldsmith.

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Folder 28 Signs, 1904. Includes blueprint for signs for departments in government building. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 29 Decorative detail, 1903-1904

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Box 67A

Outgoing letterpress book, 1903-1905

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Box 68

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF RICHARD RATHBUN, 1903-1906

These records consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence and records of Richard Rathbun, assistant secretary of the Smithsonian in charge of the National Museum, pertaining to the acquisition of desirable exhibits from the exposition for the U.S. National Museum. The collection is separated into three divisions: incoming correspondence of Smithsonian representatives; both foreign and domestic correspondence; and outgoing correspondence.

Folder 1 Beckwith, Paul W., 1904

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Folder 2 Hough, Walter, 1904-1905. Includes newspaper clippings; notes on various collections.

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Folder 3 Hrdlicka, Ales, 1904

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Folder 4 Lewton, Frederick L., 1904. Includes list of desirable exhibits.

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Folder 5 Lyon, Marcus W., Jr., 1904

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Folder 6 Mason, Otis T., 1904

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Folder 7 Merrill, George P., 1904. Includes mineral shipping list.

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Folders 8-9 Ravenel, William deC., 1904-1905

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Folder 10 Schuchert, Charles, 1904. Concerning geology exhibits.

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Folder 11 True, Frederick W., 1904

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Folder 12 Domestic exhibits sought, 1904

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Folder 13 Foreign exhibits sought, 1904-1905. Includes accession list from Great Britain's commission; catalogue of Italian bronze reproductions.

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Folder 14 China, 1904

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Folder 15 Germany, 1904. Includes catalogues of traps; correspondence concerning J. D. Mollers collection of diatoms. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials. [item 15 removed to oversize]

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Folder 16 Japan, 1904. Includes list of gifts donated to National Museum.

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Folder 17 New Zealand exhibits, 1904

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Box 69

Folder 1 Philippine Exhibit correspondence, 1903-1906

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Folder 2 Lists of specimens and objects collected for the exhibit, 1903-1906

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Folder 3 Evaluations of foreign exhibits which might be acquired, 1904

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Box 69A

Rathbun, Richard, letterpress book, 1904-1905

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SMITHSONIAN REPORTS ON THE EXPOSITION, 1902-1905

These records concern reports on the Smithsonian exhibitions at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Of particular interest are the monthly operational reports of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., from 1902 to 1904, and reports on the National Museum departments of ethnology, anthropology, and geology.

Folder 4 Operational reports of Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., 1903-1904

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Box 70

Folders 1-2 Report on exhibits of the Department of Anthropology and the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1905

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Folder 3 Report of the Department of Geology, 1905

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Folder 4 Report of Smithsonian Institution representative, Frederick W. True, 1904. Includes annotated drafts and published report.

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Folder 5 Excerpts from annual reports, 1901-1905

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Folder 6 Report of the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 1904

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SPECIMEN LISTS, 1902-1904

These records concern specimens and objects exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Folders 7-9 List of specimens and objects, 1902-1904. Includes list of contents of exhibits, including articles and property purchased for such use.

Box 70 of 95

Box 71

FINANCIAL RECORDS, 1902-1905

This material consists of records and correspondence pertaining to the Smithsonian Institution's funding for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It includes financial statements, vouchers, expenditure lists, time books, and records of purchases. Of particular interest are tentative and approved plans of exhibits, which include correspondence from curators.

Folder 1 Approved and tentative plans for exhibits, 1902. Includes correspondence from curators concerning exhibits and cost estimates.

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Folder 2 Exhibit case construction, 1903. Includes correspondence on construction and cost estimates.

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Folder 3 Work appointments, 1902-1904

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Folder 4 Requisitions, 1904

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Folder 5 Tool purchase list, 1902-1904

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Folder 6 Memoranda of expenses, 1902-1904

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Folder 7 Statement of expenditures, 1902-1904. Includes detailed voucher accounts; payroll and per diem vouchers.

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Folder 8 Report of disbursements, 1902-1905

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Folders 9-10 Letter referral books, 1903-1905. Pertain to expenditures; also include Lewis and Clark Exposition.

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Folder 11 Time books, 1902-1905

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Box 72

Folders 1-3 Voucher books, 1902-1905

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Folder 4 Preliminary voucher record, 1902-1905

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Folder 5 Voucher record, Office of the Administrative Assistant, undated

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Box 73

Folders 1-4 Freight, 1902-1904. Includes 1902 correspondence on freight costs; shipping list of materials to and from St. Louis; also includes material from Lewis and Clark Exposition, Portland, Oregon.

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MISCELLANEOUS RELATED RECORDS, 1901-1904

Folder 5 Legislation, 1901-1904. Includes documents, bills, committee reports pertaining to Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

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Folder 6 Promotional literature, 1903-1904

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Folder 7 Newspaper clippings, 1902-1904

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Folder 8 Photographs of Regents, 1904. Includes list of regents to be photographed.

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Folder 9 Calling cards

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Folder 10 Record of label printing, 1904

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Box 73A

Folder 1 Souvenir guide to U.S. Government buildings

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Folder 2 Papers in Relation to the Purchase of Louisiana, undated

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Series 17

Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition (Portland, 1905), 1904-1906.

In 1903, the Oregon state legislature authorized a Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition "to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the exploration of the Oregon country by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in the years 1804, 1805, and 1806." In 1904 Congress provided for government participation in this exposition, stipulating that government exhibits from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition would be used to create the federal presence at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. A few additional displays were added, such as skeletons of the dodo bird, great auk, and piked whale, plus a reproduction of Charles Edward's dodo bird painting. The exposition opened June 1, 1905, and closed October 15, 1905, in Portland, Oregon.

Frederick W. True was representative for the Smithsonian at this exposition. Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., was again the chief special agent in charge of the exhibits. This collection consists primarily of general correspondence of Frederick W. True and Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., pertaining to administrative and financial matters. Since most of the exhibits were transferred from St. Louis (see previous series), documentation on the exhibits themselves is generally limited. Other related materials include specimen lists, reports, freight lists, and telegrams. For photographs, see Record Unit 95, Series 7.

Box 74

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF FREDERICK W. TRUE AND MARCUS W. LYON, JR., 1903-1906

These records consist of both the incoming and outgoing correspondence of Frederick W. True and Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., pertaining to their duties as Smithsonian representative and chief special agent, respectively, to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. Lyon's correspondence is written from Washington and Portland. Of particular interest is correspondence regarding preparation of new exhibits like the dodo bird painting reproduction and bird and whale skeletons. There is also correspondence concerning the "Oregon Meteorite."

Folder 1 Admissions, 1905

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Folder 2 Allotments, 1904-1906

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Folder 3 Applications, 1905

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Folder 4 Appointments, 1905-1906

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Folder 5 Committee assignments

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Folder 6 De Riemer, William E., 1905

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Folder 7 Dodo bird, 1904-1906. Concerning reproduction of Charles Edwards painting by H. Gronvold.

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Folder 8 Exhibits, 1904-1906. Includes exhibit proposal; draft report on Smithsonian exhibits at exposition; list of specimens to be exhibited by Mineralogy Department.

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Folder 9 Finances, 1905-1906

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Folder 10 Freight, 1905. Includes list of materials shipped from St. Louis to Portland; shipments from Portland; return distribution list.

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Folder 11 Geddes, William A., 1905-1906

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Folder 12 Hill, W. H., 1905-1906. Concerns U.S. Board of Management.

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Folder 13 Hotels, 1904-1905

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Folder 14 Labels, 1905

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Folder 15 Laws, 1903-1904

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Folder 16 Lyon, Marcus W., Jr., 1905. Includes correspondence to Frederick W. True from Portland.

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Folder 17 Meetings, 1904-1906

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Folder 18 U.S. Government Board, minutes, 1904-1905

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Folder 19 Passes, 1905

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Folder 20 Per diem allowance, 1904

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Folder 21 Railway rates, 1905

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Folder 22 Requests, 1904-1906

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Folder 23 Smithsonian representative, correspondence, 1904-1906

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Folder 24 Specimens, 1904-1905

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Folder 25 Telegrams, 1905

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Folder 26 Transportation of specimens, 1904-1906. Concerning transport and, in part, selection of specimens for Portland.

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Folder 27 Transportation of persons, 1904-1905. Concerning reduced fares negotiated for exposition staff traveling to Portland.

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Folder 28 Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 1905-1906

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Folder 29 Whale skeleton, 1905

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Box 75

Folder 1 True, Frederick W., and Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., outgoing correspondence, 1904-1906. Includes Lyon correspondence from Portland.

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Folder 2 True, Frederick W., outgoing correspondence, 1905-1906

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Box 75A

Folder 1 Excerpts from annual reports, 1904-1906

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Folder 2 Accession correspondence, 1905

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Folder 3 Shipments from Portland to Washington, D.C., 1905

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Box 76

FINANCIAL RECORDS

Folder 1 Disbursement statement, 1905-1906

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Folders 2-3 Voucher records, 1904-1906

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Folders 4-5 Order books, 1905

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Folder 6 Time book, 1905-1906

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Box 76A

Voucher Records, 1904-1906

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Series 18

Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition (Hampton Roads, Virginia, 1907), 1906-1909.

The Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition celebrated ". . . the birth of the American nation, the first permanent settlement of English speaking people in the western hemisphere . . ." This international naval, marine, and military celebration opened April 26, 1907, and closed November 30, 1907. It was held in and about Hampton Roads, Virginia.

In 1906 an Act of Congress provided appropriations for government participation in the exposition. This act also directed the Smithsonian to provide an exhibit of ". . . such articles and materials of an historical nature as would serve to impart a knowledge of our colonial and national history . . ." The major display was one of Captain John Smith trading for corn with the Powhatan Indians.

The Secretary of the Smithsonian, Charles D. Walcott, appointed William deC. Ravenel, administrative assistant of the National Museum, to the government board. He was assisted in the preparation of the exhibits by an advisory council made up of Cyrus Adler, William H. Holmes, and A. Howard Clark.

This series consists mainly of correspondence of William deC. Ravenel relating to the preparation of the exhibits for the exposition and other administrative matters. Also included are reports, catalogues, and other related materials.

Box 77

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED RECORDS OF WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, 1906-1909

These records consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence of William deC. Ravenel concerning preparation of the exhibits for the Jamestown Exhibition and other administrative matters. Includes miscellaneous printed materials, sketches, and cloth samples of costumes and other related materials.

Folder 1 A-D, 1906-1909. Includes article on James Wilson by Lucien Hugh Alexander; list of historic telephones for exhibit.

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Folder 2 E-F, 1906-1908. Includes correspondence of J. H. Edwards, chairman of the Government Board; list of manufacturers of threshers. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 3 G, 1906-1909. Includes correspondence of William M. Geddes, secretary of the Government Board.

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Folder 4 G-Jamestown Group, 1906. Includes sketches and description of costumes and exhibit on Captain John Smith by William H. Holmes; cloth samples.

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Folder 5 Costume drawings. Includes description and drawings of Dutch, English, and French group costumes; cloth samples.

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Folder 6 H-L, 1906-1909. Includes William H. Holmes correspondence.

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Folder 7 M-P, 1906-1908. Includes key to pictures of "The Marriage of Pocahontas" and "Washington's Farewell to the Army;" descriptions of costumes; cloth samples.

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Folders 8-9 R, 1906-1909. Includes correspondence between Richard Rathbun and William deC. Ravenel; biographical sketch of Ravenel; reports on exposition.

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Box 78

Ravenel, William deC., outgoing correspondence, 1906-1907

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Box 78A

Folder 1 See Box 78

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Folder 2 S-Z, 1906-1908

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Folder 3 Excerpts from Smithsonian annual reports, 1906-1908

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Folder 4 Congressional documents, 1906. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 5 Appointments, suggestions, receipts, 1906-1909

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Folder 6 Smithsonian exhibit catalogue, 1907

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Folder 7 Exposition prospectus and official directory, 1907

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Folder 8 Newspaper clippings, 1907 [items 8 and 10 removed to oversize]

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Series 19

International Maritime Exposition (Bordeaux, France, 1907), 1906-1909.

The International Maritime Exposition commemorated the centennial of steam navigation. Held in Bordeaux, France, the exposition was operated from May 1 to November 1, 1907.

At the request of the Secretary of State, the Smithsonian directed the preparation, installation, and management of the entire United States exhibit, which included other government departments besides the Smithsonian. William deC. Ravenel was placed in charge of the work.

The series consists primarily of correspondence of William deC. Ravenel pertaining to the organization of the government exhibit.

Box 79

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, 1906-1909

These records consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence of William deC. Ravenel, concerning the organization and shipment of materials to France. Major correspondents include D. I. Murphy, American Consul, Huntington Wilson, Third Assistant Secretary of State, and Robert Fulton Ludlow. The official correspondence discussing the question of American participation is especially interesting.

Folder 1 A, 1907-1908

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Folder 2 B, 1907-1909. Includes box record of materials sent from Bordeaux to the National Museum.

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Folder 3 C, 1907-1908. Includes list of the disposition of materials in Washington. [item 13 removed to oversize]

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Folder 4 Commerce and Labor, U.S. Department of, 1906-1908. Includes official correspondence and minutes concerning U.S. participation in the exposition.

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Folder 5 D, 1907-1909. Includes correspondence of S. A. Daudalin, Commissioner of the United States at the exposition.

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Folder 6 F, 1907-1908

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Folder 7 Fisheries, U.S. Bureau of, 1907-1908. Includes description of model of Clark hatching apparatus; fisheries statistics.

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Folder 8 H-J, 1907-1908

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Folder 9 Kripp and Sons, John C., 1907

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Folder 10 L, 1907-1909. Includes correspondence of R. Fulton Ludlow concerning loan of Robert Fulton's compass for exhibit. [item 56 removed to oversize]

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Box 80

Folder 1 M, 1907-1908. Includes correspondence of D. I. Murphy, American Consul at Bordeaux.

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Folder 2 Navy, Department of the, 1907-1908

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Folder 3 S, 1907-1908

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Folders 4-5 State, Department of, 1907. Includes correspondence of Huntington Wilson, Third Assistant Secretary of State.

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Folder 6 Tittman, O. H., 1907-1908. Concerning Coast and Geodetic Survey exhibit.

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OTHER EXPOSITION RECORDS, 1907-1908

Folder 7 Draft catalogue of the American exhibit, 1907

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Folder 8 Catalogue of the American Exhibit, 1907

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Folder 9 Plans and blueprints of the U.S. pavilion and grounds, 1907. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 10 Miscellaneous printed material, 1907

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Folder 11 Excerpts from Smithsonian annual report, 1907-1908

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Folder 12 Financial records, 1907

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Series 20

The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition (Seattle, Washington, 1908), 1905, 1908-1910.

The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition did not commemorate a single event, but rather the growth and development of the Pacific Northwest. Held in Seattle, Washington, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition opened June 1 and closed October 15, 1908.

In 1908, the act of Congress which authorized and funded government participation in this exposition directed that the Smithsonian exhibit include ". . . such articles and materials of a historical nature as will impart a knowledge of our national history, especially that of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands, and that part of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains . . ." Many materials were transferred from the Jamestown Exposition, but extensive additions were made to illustrate the western United States.

William deC. Ravenel, administrative assistant in the National Museum, directed the preparation and management of the Smithsonian exhibit, as well as serving on the Government Board at the Exposition.

This series consists of William deC. Ravenel's correspondence and records pertaining to the preparation, installation, and management of the Smithsonian exhibit. Of special interest is correspondence concerning new western exhibits.

Box 81

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE AND RELATED MATERIALS OF WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, 1908-1910

These records document William deC. Ravenel's work in the preparation and management of the Smithsonian exhibit. Of special interest is correspondence regarding new collections. Some financial records and newspaper clippings are also included.

Folder 1 A, 1908-1909. Includes staff appointments.

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Folder 2 B, 1908-1909

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Folder 3 Belote, Theodore T., 1909. Belote was in charge of assembling historical exhibits in Seattle.

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Folder 4 D, 1908-1909. Includes newspaper clippings from the "Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Daily."

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Folder 5 E, 1905-1909. Includes correspondence of N. B. Emerson regarding Hawaiian ethnological collection; catalogue list.

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Folder 6 Smithsonian exhibit. Includes proposal and description of exhibit.

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Folder 7 F, 1908-1909. Includes correspondence of James L. Farmer, Department of Interior.

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Folder 8 G, 1908-1910

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Folder 9 History Division, 1908-1909. Includes list of important men who played a part in the history of the Pacific Coast; plan of exhibit.

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Folder 10 James, George Wharton, 1909-1910

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Folder 11 K, 1908-1909. Includes correspondence of Rev. A. P. Kashevaroff, concerning Russian Orthodox Church exhibit.

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Folder 12 M, 1908-1909

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Folder 13 P, 1909

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Folder 14 R, 1908-1909

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Folder 15 S, 1909

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Folder 16 T, 1908-1910. Includes correspondence of O. F. Whitney concerning Latter Day Saints' exhibit.

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Folder 17 W, 1908-1909

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Folder 18 Excerpts from Smithsonian annual reports, 1908-1909

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Folder 19 Smithsonian Exhibit Catalogue, 1909. Includes note from William E. De Riemer concerning lost crucifix.

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Series 21

Panama-Pacific International Exposition (San Francisco, 1915), 1914-1917, 1926.

The Act of Congress which authorized funds for government participation in the Panama-Pacific Exposition provided that exhibits should be ". . . such articles and materials as illustrate the function and administrative faculty of the Government of the United States [and tend] to demonstrate the nature and growth of our institutions, their adaptation to the wants of the people, and the progress of the Nation in the arts of peace and war." The Smithsonian and the National Museum chose to focus their contributions on ethnological subjects.

Box 82

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, 1914-1917, 1926

These records comprise the incoming and outgoing correspondence of William deC. Ravenel in his capacity as Secretary of the Government Exhibit Board.

Folder 1 A, 1914-1917

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Folder 2 Awards, 1915-1917

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Folder 3 B, 1914-1915

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Folder 4 Baker, Asher C., 1914

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Folder 5 Banks, Howard A., 1914-1915

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Folder 6 Bicknell, Ernest P., 1914-1915

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Folder 7 Boggs, Major F. C., 1914-1915

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Folders 8-14 Boykin, J. C., 1914-1915

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Box 83

Folder 1 Butman, Carl H., 1915

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Folder 2 C, 1914-1916

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Folder 3 Capitol model, 1915-1916, 1926

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Folders 4-6 Catalogue for the government departments' exhibit, 1915. Consists of draft descriptions of the exhibits of the various elements of the federal government present at the exposition.

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Folder 7 Cottrell, Frederick G., 1916

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Folder 8 Comptroller's decision, 1914-1915

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Folder 9 D, 1914-1916

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Folder 10 Davis, Ben G., 1914-1915

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Folder 11 Doyle, John T., 1914-1915

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Folder 12 Duffy, E. M., 1916

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Folder 13 Dunlap, I. H., 1914-1915

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Folder 14 E, 1914-1915

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Folder 15 F, 1914-1917

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Folder 16 G, 1914-1916

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Folder 17 H, 1914-1915

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Folder 18 Hough, Walter, 1913-1915

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Box 84

Folder 1 I, 1914

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Folder 2 J, 1914-1916

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Folder 3 K, 1915

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Folder 4 L, 1915

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Folder 5 M, 1913-1915

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Folder 6 Mc, 1915-1916

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Folder 7 "Mars," 1916. Shipping lists for government exhibits shipped aboard the vessel.

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Folder 8 Miller, A. C., 1912-1915

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Folder 9 Minutes, 1913-1915. Meetings of the Government Exhibit Board.

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Folder 10 O, 1915

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Folder 11 P, 1914

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Folder 12 "Prometheus," 1916. Includes shipping list.

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Folder 13 R, 1914-1916

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Folder 14 Ravenel, William deC., 1913-1915

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Folder 15 Reichert, Anna, 1916

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Folder 16 S, 1913-1916

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Folder 17 Scofield, John C., 1914-1915

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Folder 18 Scribner, F. L., 1914-1915

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Box 85

Folder 1 Shannon, Robert E., 1914-1915

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Folder 2 Skiff, F. J. V., 1914

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Folder 3 Stratton, S. W., 1914-1915

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Folder 4 Taylor, Thomas J., 1914-1915

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Folder 5 Terminal charges, 1916

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Folder 6 Treasury Department, 1915-1921. Includes correspondence concerning San Diego Exposition.

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Folder 7 V, 1914-1915

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Folders 8-11 Ravenel-Boykin confidential correspondence, 1915

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Box 86

TRANSPORTATION AND CONSTRUCTION RECORDS, 1914-1916

These records consist chiefly of the correspondence of C. H. Carnow concerning his duties as transportation agent and superintendent of construction for the U.S. Government Exhibit Board. There are also records concerned with closing the exposition.

Folders 1-2 Transportation correspondence, December 1915-March 1916

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Folder 3 Telegrams, 1914-1916

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Folder 4 Correspondence with the Government Exhibit Board, 1914

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Folder 5 Correspondence with the Superintendent of Construction, 1914

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Folder 6 Exposition contracts, 1914

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Folder 7 Franz and Fisher, 1914

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Folder 8 Frasier and Frasier, 1914

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Folder 9 Brockhage Foley and Green, 1914

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Folder 10 Cramer Brothers, 1915

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Folder 11 Construction work to be done, 1914-1915

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Folder 12 Correspondence with contractors, 1914-1915

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Folder 13 Invitations to bid and specifications, 1914-1915

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Folder 14 Bids for wrecking and for sale of used goods, 1914-1915

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Box 87

Folder 1 Shipping order index, 1916. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 2 Checking slips for electric and other meters, 1915

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Folders 3-4 Bills of the National Museum at the exposition, 1914-1916

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Folder 5 Settlement of accounts, 1916

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Folder 6 Appointments made by the Government Board, undated; also includes some information on charges to the Board's accounts.

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Folder 7 Memoranda of Government Board transportation requests, 1915-1916

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Folder 8 Directory of the Officers and Employees of the United States Government Exhibit Board, 1915

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Folder 9 List of Government Exhibit Board employees, 1915

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Folder 10 Album of postcards made from exhibit scenes, 1914-1915

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Folder 10A Exhibition postcards

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Box 88

Folder 1 Exposition Terminal Railway Co., checking slips, 1915

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Folders 2-3 Correspondence concerning accounts outstanding, December 1915-March, July 1916. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 4 Transportation requests and receipted bills, 1914-1915 (sampled)

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Series 22

Panama-California International Exposition (San Diego, 1916), 1914-1918.

These records include the incoming and outgoing correspondence of William deC. Ravenel and other related materials pertaining to his administrative duties as Secretary of the Government Exhibit Board. There is extensive correspondence with J. C. Boykin, assistant to the Chairman of the Board. Of special interest are materials concerning the exposition's aquarium and photographs of exhibits.

Box 88

Folder 5 Appointments, 1916-1917

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Folder 6 Applications for appointments, 1915-1916

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Folder 7 Agriculture, Department of, 1915-1916

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Folders 8-10 San Diego Aquarium, 1915-1916

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Box 89

Folder 1 Blueprints of aquarium. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 2 Alexandria storage, 1917-1918

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Folder 3 Banks, Howard A., 1916

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Folder 4 Bills of lading, 1914-1916. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folders 5-8 Boykin, John C., 1915-1917

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Folder 9 Buildings, 1915-1916. Includes plan of Science and Education Building; ground plan of exposition. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Box 90

Folder 1 Bureau of Mines exhibit, 1916

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Folder 2 Department of Commerce, 1916-1917

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Folder 3 Curnow, C. H., 1916

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Folder 4 Davidson, G. A., 1915-1916

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Folder 5 Estimates, undated

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Folder 6 Other exhibits, 1916-1917

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Folder 7 Fisheries, 1915-1918

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Folders 8-9 Freight, 1915-1916

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Folder 10 Interior Department, 1915-1918

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Folder 11 Material shipped from San Francisco to San Diego, 1916

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Folder 12 Materials damaged in shipping, 1916

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Folder 13 Miller, A. C., 1915-1916

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Folder 14 Motion pictures, 1916-1919

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Box 91

Folder 1 Navy Department, 1916-1917

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Folder 2 Outstanding liabilities, 1916

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Folder 3 Requisitions for supplies, 1916

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Folder 4 Resolutions and minutes of Government Board, 1915-1916

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Folder 5 Return of exhibits to Washington, D.C., from San Diego, 1916-1918

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Folders 6-7 Sale of condemned material, 1916-1917

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Folder 8 San Diego photographs

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Folder 9 Scribner, F. Lamson, 1916

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Folder 10 Smith, Hugh M., 1916

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Folder 11 Smithsonian Institution, 1915-1916

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Folder 12 Swanson, Lieutenant E. A., 1916-1917

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Folder 13 Taylor, Thomas J., 1916-1917

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Folder 14 Travel orders and details, 1915-1916

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Box 92

Folder 1 Travel to San Diego by Ravenel

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Folder 2 Vouchers, 1917-1919

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Folder 3 Vouchers in process of settlement, 1916-1918

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Folder 4 War Department, 1915-1917

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Series 23

Minor American and International Expositions, 1867-1939.

The Smithsonian took part in some expositions, domestic and foreign, in only a minor way or declined to participate at all. A chronological list of these expositions and the few records available for them follows.

Box 92

Folders 5-6 Universal Exposition of 1867, Paris, France

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Folder 7 International Exhibition of 1873, London, England

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Folder 8 International Exposition, 1873, Vienna, Austria

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Folder 9 Melbourne International Exhibition, 1880, Melbourne, Australia

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Folder 10 International Exhibition of Electricity, 1881, Paris, France

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Folder 11 International Electric Exhibition, 1883, Vienna, Austria

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Folder 12 International Exhibition of Colonial Objects, 1883, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Folder 13 International Electrical Exhibition, 1884, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Folder 14 American Exhibition, 1887, London, England

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Folder 15 Minneapolis Industrial Exposition, 1887, Minneapolis, Minnesota [item 9 removed to oversize]

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Folder 16 Brussels International Exhibition, 1888, Brussels, Belgium

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Folder 17 Florida Sub-Tropical Exposition, 1888, Jacksonville, Florida

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Folder 18 International Exhibition, 1888, Barcelona, Spain

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Folder 19 Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, 1888, Melbourne, Australia

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Folder 20 National Exposition, 1888, Atlanta, Georgia

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Folder 21 Ohio Centennial, 1888, Columbus, Ohio

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Folder 22 Texas State Fair and Dallas Exposition, 1888, Dallas, Texas

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Folder 23 Third International Exhibition of the Fine Arts, 1888, Munich, Germany

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Folder 24 Virginia Agricultural, Mechanical, and Tobacco Exposition, 1888, Richmond, Virginia

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Box 93

Folder 1 International Exhibition, 1889, Paris, France. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Folder 2 International Exhibition of Arts and Sciences, 1892, New York, New York

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Folder 3 Exposition of the Three Americas, 1892, Washington, D.C.

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Folder 4 Antwerp International Exposition, 1894, Antwerp, Belgium

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Folder 5 Brussels International Exhibition, 1897, Brussels, Belgium

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Folder 6 Baltimore Centennial Exposition, 1897, Baltimore, Maryland

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Folder 7 International Fisheries Exposition, 1898, Bergen, Norway

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Folder 8 Melbourne Industrial Exhibition, 1899, Melbourne, Australia

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Folder 9 National Electric Light Exposition, 1899, New York, New York

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Folder 10 National Export Exposition, 1899, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Folder 11 New York Printing Exposition, 1900, New York, New York

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Folders 12-14 Paris Exposition, 1900, Paris, France

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Folder 15 Ohio Centennial and Northwest Territory Exposition, 1902-1903, Toledo, Ohio

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Folder 16 International Photographic Exhibition, 1909, Dresden, Germany

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Folder 17 Panama National Exposition, 1916, Panama City, Panama

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Box 94

Folders 1-3 Panama National Exposition, 1916, Panama City, Panama

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Folder 4 Mississippi Centennial Exposition, 1919, Gulfport, Mississippi

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Folder 5 Chicago Century of Progress Centennial, 1933, Chicago, Illinois

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Folder 6 California Pacific International Exposition, 1935, San Diego, California. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

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Box 94A

Folder 1 Texan Centennial Exposition, Dallas, 1936

Box 94A of 95

Folder 2 Great Lakes Exposition, Cleveland, 1936-1937

Box 94A of 95

Folders 3-4 International Exposition of Technical Art, 1937, Paris, France. Oversized material removed to other housing; folder contains copies of these materials.

Box 94A of 95

Folder 5 Golden Gate Exposition, 1937, San Francisco, California

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Box 95

Folders 1-3 World's Fair of 1939, New York, New York [folder 1, item 40 removed to oversize]

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Folder 4 World's Poultry Congress Exposition, 1939, Cleveland, Ohio

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Folder 5 Future expositions

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Series 24

Removed materials.

Oversize

Exposition materials removed from previous series (63 folders)

Oversize