Field notes : Mexico, 1949

ID: SIA RU007175

Creator: Mexico, 1949 : running notes

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1949

Citation: James A. Peters papers, and records of the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians : series 15, field notes, 1946-1965

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Abstract

In this bound notebook on his 1949 collecting trip to Mexico, Peters provides detailed, daily narratives of his excursion and specimens found. Entries cover from Feb. 24 to May 3, 1949. As in many of the field notes in this collection, Peters often includes information about the surrounding environment by describing local flora and giving weather conditions and elevations. Descriptions of reptilian and amphibian specimen collected are often included as a narrative, for example, "I found three sceloporus under a single piece of bark on a large log about 3 feet above ground [...]. The center of the belly is light orange in 2, greenish in the 3rd [...]" (from entry entitled, "Kilometer 46, M.C. -- Cuernavaca hgwy. Feb. 28, 1949"). An itinerary of dates and locations from Feb. 15-May 23, 1949 is listed on the last pages. Two sketches of bones and one of a horse and cart at the beginning. Some locations include volcanic areas.

Date Range

1949

Start Date

Feb 15, 1949

End Date

May 23, 1949

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.

Topic

Herpetologists

Place

  • Pátzcuaro, Lago de
  • Jalapa Enríquez
  • San Gabriel
  • Ciudad de México
  • Tamazunchale
  • Michoacán
  • Ciudad Guzmán
  • Córdoba
  • Linares
  • Autlán de Navarro
  • Mexico
  • Guadalajara
  • Veracruz
  • Jalisco
  • Mexico City

Form/Genre

  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007175

Collection name

James A. Peters papers, and records of the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians : series 15, field notes, 1946-1965

Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Sublocation

Box 49 Folder 6

Record
5255 7
[Pencil drawing of a horse and a carriage]
1 MEXICO, 1949 RUNNING NOTES
2 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 3 [[start page]] [[Image- a skull ventral view]] [[Image- a skull ventral view]] [[Image- a dorsal view of lower jaw]] [[end page]]
4 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 5 [[start page]] [[image]] PECTORAL GIRDLE [[image]] PELVIC GIRDLE [[end page]]
[[Start Page]] 6 [[End Page]] [[Start Page]] 7 Cañon Contreros, Feb. 24, 1949. We drove to 10,200 feet and collected in the fir woods there. The fir belt starts at 9,500 and continues as high as we went. Below the fir belt is pine, with a sprinkling of oak. This shows a gradual transition to much oak and little pine, and finally no pine. Small side cañons have streams fed by mt. springs. All stream beds + spring sources are quite rocky. Carla Wagner and I worked up a small stream, turning rocks in and on the edges of the stream. Nothing there. I tried rocks on the side of the hill, no luck till I got to the edge of a small wet area, fed by several springs. I found 3 Oedipus under rocks, the underside being fairly dry, or only damp. There were no salamanders in the very wet areas. I went down about 150 ft to a level area which had been used as a campsite, and which was damp all over, as a small stream crossed it. It was almost marshy. Again in the dryer part, I turned a rock and found a Hyla Lafrentzi. He did not try to get away. Helmut says he has never seen the species before. Cañon Contreras, Feb. 25, 1949. A.M. We arrived in the woods before the sun had fully come up, and the air and ground were quite chilly. I followed a small canyon, with what must be a fairly permanent waterflow. I found nothing, neither on the stream or in
8 any of the several springs to be found on the mountain side. To date I have worked on the Ajusco side of the cañon, which is the south side, and therefore gets less sun each day. It is quite wet in places. The Pedregal, Feb. 25, P.M. This is an area of heavy and extensive lava flow, with enormous clinkers all over the place. It is very, very dry; I saw no water in the whole place. There are many cacti and a few live oaks, the latter chiefly in hillsides. Pepper trees are common, and a few pine are on a higher hillside. I spent 3 hours here, and saw one lizard, 3 times. There were many scorpions, pill bugs, black widows and other spiders, and a few earthworms under rocks. The Sceloporus was a collared form, probably fellariperezi, which I couldn't get close to. Black back and tail, with a hint of chevron markings. I saw nothing else there. Cañon Contreras, Feb. 25, later P.M. Returned here for another try at the neotenic salamanders Wagner says he has collected in the mountain streams here. I found no salamanders, but I did see salamander eggs, attached to the under side of a rock in a mountain pool. They were individually attached. Each was about 3/4 inch in diameter, including gelatin. The eggs, in the neurula stage, were about 1/4 inch in diameter, longer than broad. [[end page]] 9 [[start page]] Cañon Contreras, Feb. 26, A.M. Crossed the cañon to the other side, where the sun strikes in early morning, and shines all day. This is the North Bank, with a southern exposure, on the slope of San Miguel. This side is considerably drier than the other, with little or no water. There were no streams where I worked. There were a few oak trees, with yucca, cactus, and maguey on the slope. I found a Sceloporus under a rock on this slope, of the same species as those on the houses in the city. I have seen them in Chapultepec Park and at the Los Angeles Court. Pedregal, Feb. 26, P.M. Returned with a gun to try again for the single Scelop, but I couldn't even find him. The heat of the afternoon is intense, and the lizards probably do no sunning then. Got nothing. [[end page]]
10 Kilometer 63, M.C.- Cuernavaca Hgwy, Feb 27, 1949. This is the type locality of Eumeces indubitus Taylor, so I stopped on the way to the Hoopers at Cuernavaca to see what we could find. It is in an area of heavy pine-oak forest, with many rocks and a few logs. We could find no lizards at all, although it was a perfect place for them. We turned one very large log, and Warner said he saw a "black lizard" run under. We could not relocate the beast, however. We spent only a few moments there as the Hoopers waited dinner on us. Kilometer 46, M.C.-Cuernavaca Hgwy, Feb. 28, 1949. This is an area of grasslands, with pines on the knolls. The grass is "Sacaton", a heavy bunch grass, which grows with exceedingly long blades. I found three Sceloporus [[space left blank]] under a single piece of bark on a large log about 3 feet above the ground, all 3 together. I saw several other scelops in the grass where it is impossible to catch them. The grass appears to be very dry, but at sunrise the dew is very heavy, and sufficient moisture is present for any lizard. My pants were soaked to the knee. The 3 scelops are most strikingly colored. The center of the belly is light orange in 2, greenish in the 3rd. This light area is bordered in all 3 by a very bright orange. The sides are black with greenish spots and stripes. They have more or less defined green dorsolateral lines. All have a narrow, incomplete [[end page]] 11 [[start page]] black nuchal collar. One has an orange throat, the second a light, fleshcolored throat, the third has a yellowish green throat. March 1, 1949. Today was spent preparing for the trip to Veracruz. I caught a single Sceloporus in the parking area of the Los Angeles courts. We drove to Puebla and spent the night. March 2, 1949 Left Puebla early, drove to Orizaba (MT.). The low land to the west of the mountain is exceedingly dry. There was no vegetation, and the volcanic dust lies thick all over. There was no water and no streams. We tried to climb it from the West, but all roads lie inches deep in dust, and the truck couldn't pull it. We then left the mountain and went north to Perote. We tried to climb the Cofre de Perote from the city of Perote, but the truck again stalled. We then continued around to the north, and went up from a small town named Sierra de Agua. We climbed to a small village, Los Pescados, and spent the night in a meadow slightly higher than the village. I found one Sceloporus under a log as we came up the mountain, but I am now highly uncertain as to which individual it is. This side of the Cofre has quite heavy pine cover, and we are camped near a small stream. There are springs in the mountains. [[end page]]
12 MARCH 3, 1949 WENT OUT ALONG THE SMALL STREAM BEFORE BREAKFAST, AND FOUND A SPRING A SHORT WAYS BELOW THE CAMP. I PICKED UP 5 SALAMANDERS HERE, 4 OF THEM UNDER THE SAME ROCK, HIGH ON THE SIDES. I ALSO GOT ONE SCELOPORUS HERE, AND WAGNER CAUGHT A SECOND. THEY WENT ALL UNDER ROCKS IN A DRY FIELD. WE BROKE CAMP AND WENT HIGHER AFTER BREAKFAST. WE FINALLY STOPPED IN AN ALPINE MEADOW AT ABOUT 10, 500 F. THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS IS JUST OVER THE MOUNTAIN ABOUT 1/2 MILE. THE PEAK OF COFRE IS CLEARLY VISIBLE DIRECTLY TO THE SOUTH OF OUR CAMP, IT IS AN ENORMOUS RECTANGLE, LOOKING LIKE A COFFIN, HIGH IN THE SKY. IT IS ABOUT 4,000 FEET ABOVE US. THE ALPINE MEADOW IN WHICH WE ARE CAMPED IS QUITE FLAT AND FULL OF LOGS. IT IS SURROUNDED BY FIR TREES, ALTHO THERE ARE PINE GROVES HIGHER YET. THE LOGS IN THE MEADOW ARE FULL OF SCELOPORUS, AND SEVERAL MEXICANS AND I BUILT UP A LARGE COLLECTION OF THEM. MACKINTOSH TURNED OVER A LOG AT THE EDGE OF A SMALL CREEK AND FOUND A CROTALUS TRISERIATUS. HE CALLED TO ME AND I CAUGHT IT. IT WAS VERY SMALL (MEASUREMENTS JUST BEFORE PRESERVING-DEAD: BODY 332 mm., TAIL (INC. RATTLE) 38 mm., TOTAL 370 mm. THE MEXICANS TURNED UP ANOTHER RATTLER ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE MEADOW IN A SEPARATE AREA, UNDER A LOG. BOTH OF THE SPECIMENS WERE IN QUITE DAMP AREAS. THE 2ND MEASURED: BODY 437 mm., TAIL 53 mm., TOTAL 490 mm. HE HAD A MICROTUS MEXICANUS IN ITS STOMACH. BOTH WERE FEMALES, I BELIEVE. A PINE GROVE, A LITTLE FARTHER DOWNSLOPE THAN THE CAMP, PRODUCED AN AMAZING VARIETY OF SALAMANDERS. ALL OF THE FOLLOWING WERE FOUND: [END PAGE] 13 [START PAGE] MARCH 3, 1949 (CONT) SALAMANDERS - 1ST SPECIES - SAME AS ON AJUSCO, IN BANON CONTRERAS. 2ND SPECIES - LARGER THAN REST, A FAIRLY UNIFORM LIGHT BROWN, WITH A IRREGULAR ROW OF SILVER FLECKS ALONG UPPER SIDE, ALMOST FORMING A GOOD DORSOLATERAL STRIPE. THE SIDES ARE THE SAME BROWN COLOR ABOUT HALFWAY DOWN, THEN THE SLIGHTLY DARKER BELLY COLOR GOES THE REST OF THE WAY AROUND. THE BROWN IS QUITE RICH, ALMOST A GOLDEN BROWN, OR COOL TAFFY. 3RD TYPE - THERE IS A STRONG DORSOLATERAL LINE SEPARATING THE BLACK OF THE SIDES FROM THE GREY OF THE BACK, THERE IS A FAINT BLACK VERTEBRAL LINE FORKING ON THE NAPE, TO EACH EYE. THE BACK IS GREY WITH TINY FAINT REDDISH ORANGE FLECKING. THE SIDES ARE BLACK WITH MUCH SILVER FLECKING. THE FLECKING IS ABESENT ON THE BELLY, WHICH IS SLIGHTLY LIGHTER BLACK. THE CHIN IS FLECKED WITH SILVER. 4TH TYPE - THIS IS MUCH SIMILAR TO THE 2ND TYPE, BUT IT HAS A DORSOLATERAL LINE OF GOLD, MADE OF THICKLY CONCENTRATED FLECKS. THIS LINE IS BORDERED BELOW WITH BLACK, WHICH FADES RAPIDLY INTO A BLUISH-GREY BELLY. THE BACK IS ABOUT THE SAME BROWN AS IN THE 2ND TYPE. ALL OF THESE WERE TAKEN IN A QUITE DRY PINE GROVE. ONE COULD BE CERTAIN THAT A SALAMANDER WOULD BE UNDER THE LOG, IF THERE WAS ANY SIGN OF DAMPNESS THERE. THE GROUND WAS HEAVILY COVERED WITH PINE NEEDLES. FALLEN LOGS WERE ABUNDANT, SOME QUITE DRY, OTHERS DAMP, NONE WET. THERE WAS NO GROUND WATER THAT I COULD SEE. ALL KINDS OF SALAMANDERS LISTED WERE TAKEN IN THE SAME PLACE, AND USUALLY SEVERAL OF THEM UNDER THE SAME
LOGS, USUALLY. THERE WAS NO ECOLOGICAL SEPARATION OF [[TAG&G?]] SPECIES OR INDIVIDUALS THAT I COULD SEE. 2 MEXICANS ARRIVED IN CAMP SHORTLY AFTER I, AND THEY HAD A BOTTLE WHICH, BY THEIR COUNT, CONTAINED 126 LIZARDS! WAGNER AND I COUNTED THEM, HOWEVER, AND THERE WERE 62 OF THEM, ALL OF THE SAME SPECIES. OF THESE WE DISCARDED 6 AS BEING TAILLESS, THEREFORE WE DON'T BUY THEM.I PRESERVED THE REMAINING 56. MARCH 4, 1949 COFRE DE PENOTE, 10,300 FT. SPENT MOST OF THE MORNING WORKING ON THE SPECIMENS COLLECTED YESTERDAY. AS SOON AS I FINISHED I WENT UP THE COFRE, AS FAR AS THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS. ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THIS VILLAGE WAS ANOTHER PINE GROVE, WITH HEAVY NEEDLE COVER; AND SOME LOGS. I FOUND ONE SALAMANDER OF TYPE 2 UNDER A WOOD CHIP. I FOUND A NEW TYPE OF SALAMANDER UNDER A LARGE LOG ALONGSIDE A VERY DRY, DUSTY ROAD. IT WAS NOT TOO DAMP UNDER THE LOG. IT WAS THE HIGHEST POINT AT WHICH I CAUGHT SALAMANDERS. IT IS ON THE SAME LEVEL AS THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS, WHICH I JUDGE IS ABOUT 10,500 FT. TYPE 5: A JET BLACK SALAMANDER WITH A DORSOLATERAL ROW OF GOLDEN FLECKS. THESE FLECKS TERMINATE IN A YELLOWISH-GOLDEN PATCH JUST BEHIND THE "EAR". THE LEGS ARE ALSO BLACK, MOTTLED WITH LICHEN-LIKE SILVER PARCHES. THE HEAD IS ENTIRELY BLACK, WITH THE LIPS FLECKED WITH SILVER. THE BELLY, CHIN, AND BOTTOM HALF OF THE TAIL ARE INKY BLACK, WITH JUST 2 OR 3 LIGHT SILVER SPECKS ON THE CHIN. THE SIDES ARE FLECKED WITH SILVER. THE DORSOLATERAL GOLDEN STRIPE CONTINUES ON THE TAIL TO THE TIP [[END PAGE]] [[START PAGE]] MARCH 5, 1949 SPENT THE A.M. TRYING TO GET SOME MORE OF THE SALAMANDERS FROM HIGHER UP. THIS PLACE IS A PINE SLOPE IN A FIR FOREST. THERE WERE PSEUDOEURYCEA LEPROSA IN BOTH THE PINES & FIRS, BUT MOST OF THE OTHER SALAMANDERS WERE PRACTICALLY RESTRICTED TO THE PINES. THE STRIPED SCELOPS WERE PRETTY MUCH EXCLUSIVELY FOREST. THE HALFCOLLARED SCGLOPS WERE MUCH MORE ABUNDANT IN OPEN PLACES, BUT THEY WERE ALSO PRESENT IN THE WOODS. I DIDN'T GET ANY MORE OF TYPE 5, BUT I DID PICK UP ANOTHER SUGARY ODD KIND-(ON THE NEXT PAGE). THIS ONE WAS UNDER AN ENORMOUS LOG, AND TWISTED HIS TAIL OFF IN MY HAD. AS USUAL, THE LOGS WERE QUITE DAMP UNDERNEATH, VOLCANO DUST AND SCELOPS LIE THICK ON TOP. WE LEFT THE FIRS ABOUT 1:00 P.M., AND STARTED DOWN THE COFRE. THE FIRS RUN DOWN TO ABOUT 10,000 FT, THEN IT IS [[?necy]] DING TO 8,500, WHERE THE [[?]] BEGIN. ONLY SIX [[?]] BELOW THIS ALTITUDE IS THE PLAINS, HOWEVER, AND THE ORIGINAL COVER CAN ONLY BE GUESSED. THE PINES ARE PRESENT TO SOME DEGREE IN ALL THE PARTS I HAVE SEEN. THE TEMPERATURE WHEN I GOT UP THIS A.M. (SUNRISE) WAS 30*F. I HAD ICE IN MY FIRING PANS. WHEN WE LEFT AT 1:00 P.M., IT WAS 62*F IN THE SHADE AND 88* IN THE SUN.
[[start page 16]] March 5, 1949. Cofre de Perote Type 6: This salamander is remarkable for the slimness of its body, and the long, thin legs. It is a unicolor animal, being a greyish brown all over. The legs are considerably lighter than the body. March 5, 1949, Las Vegas We went from Cofre to the village of Las Vegas, and then 2 miles further down the highway into a large Pedregal - a lava flow, long since solidified and cooled. Before we got located and settled it was 5 oclock, so I used the evening to fix the salamanders gotten that morning. March 6, 1949 - Las Vegas I started operations this morning on a small hill which had divided the lava flow, and had no lava on it, being as an isolated island. I turned hardly 3 logs before I found a Conopsis, deep in the rot of the log. It was very passive, and made no attempt to bite, but did try to burrow / found one of the striped Sceloporus under another log. This was all I found in the area outside the lava flow. The trees in the lava were heavily covered with bromeliads, all full of water, so I spent 2 hours tearing them apart, leaf by leaf. I didn't find a single thing. My experience with pedregal is that it is awfully short on reptile and amphibian life, at least at this season. The lava flow came down a small valley, and the hills were not covered. After much work [[end page]] [[start page 17]] in the pedregal, I went over to this uncovered hill. I found a Toluca and 2 striped Sceloporus under logs there. The Toluca was in the rot of the log, the Scelops merely under them. ^March 7, 1949^ [[inserted]] We went from here to [[insert handwritten note - ^after spending night in Valada^ ]] Plan del Rio, the lowest spot we have hit yet. It is about 800 ft. It is in fairly flat country, into which the rivers have cut quite deeply. These deep cuts have water, usually, and quite often verdant vegetation. Bananas are grown in the valleys. The hills are limestone, and the higher areas are very dry, with cacti and so on. I went directly to banana grove at the foot of the hill. Began for camp in the p.m. I saw several Sceloporus variabilis on the dusty limestone path down which I couldn't catch. The grove was full of fallen banana tree boles, and with good sized limestone rocks. One of the first rocks turned produced 3 Bufos [insert handwritten note - ^Engystomops^]] and a frog I think was an Eleutherodactylus - quite small. The bufos followed a huge tarantula down a short {{??}}, but they came out fairly rapidly. Next I found a large, fat Hyla under a banana bole, in a hollowed out spot. He gave quite a scream as I picked him up. I worked across the grove to a small spring on the opposite side of the valley, also limestone, and quite dense with vegetation. Rocks in the immediate vicinity of the spring produced 2 Rhadinaea [[insert handwritten note - ^Coniophanes^]], 1 oedipus (for lack of a better name), and a very large Cnemidophorus. I didn't get the latter. Another of the small Eleuths was under a rock here. [[end page]]
18 March 7, 1949- [[^Las Vegas^ Struck through]] Plan Del Rio (Cont.) I also saw a Leiolopisma that escaped me. This evening, after supper, I heard Bufo of some species calling very loudly down the hill. I took the flash and went down, but they were in terrain completely unknown to me, so I could not find them. I caught 10 string of fish for Bailey, and returned to camp. Mac said he knew how to reach the pond I wanted, so we went back again. He took me to the dam, but there was nothing there. I then followed the calls back aways; then had to wait a bit. I heard a new call while waiting- a sound exactly like the quacking of ducks. It starts slowly and picks up speed towards the end. I followed it to see what it was, and found a rather slow flowing section of the stream. This small pond had both the bufos and the quackers in it. I finally ran down the quacks, and it turned out to be a Hyla[[underlined]]- and I am certain it is Baudinii [[underlined]]. I got one clasping pair, and I found eggs deposited in the sack the next day- two masses. Therefore, Hyla Baudinii [both underlined] breeds in the early part of March- at least in this locality. I got 5 of them. I also finally got some of the Bufo. They look much like Compactilis [[underlined]] [[^Cristatus^ inserted ]] to me. Their call is to all intents and purposes exactly the same as that of B. americanus [[underlined]], I could detect no difference. MacIntosh saw a snake which was near the water, but we couldn't get it. It must have been a Geophis from the description, a good sized Rana carried on a guttural conversation all evening, but we couldn't get any. [[end page]] 19 [[start page]] March 8, 1949, Plan del Rio. Spent the morning collecting lizards with .22 dust shot. Collected a dozen or so. Both Cnemidophorus and Sceloporus were abundant in the limestone hills, in very dry places. There were many on the flat plain or prairie areas, but more were on the slopes, where the boulders form large crevices, and the sun doesn't shine quite so brightly and isn't so hot. I saw a very large lizard which stayed too far ahead of me. To get a shot at it, that got up on its hind legs and ran, bipedally. It was marked like an Ameiva(or Cnem.), although I've never heard of bipedal locomotion in these genera. The Sceloporus are always quick moving and make short dashes, moving rapidly and stopping. (They are all S. variabilis [[both underlined]] here, I believe). The Cnemidophorus, on the other hand, are slower, and are almost constantly in motion, crawling deliberately, apparently on the hunt. They drag their tails behind them, while the Scelops lift the tail high while moving. Cnemidophorus is very snakelike in its movements. We returned to the spring I found so productive yesterday to bathe, and I turned the rock again which had sheltered the large Cnemidophorus (all references to this genus at this collection point may be referable to Amgivia). He was back there, and this time he scuttled off up the limestone slope. I shot him easily. It was definitely the same beast, as I had pulled his tail off the day before in a deep crevice. We drove from here to a new road to Huatusco, which we took to go to Cordoba. The distance to Huatusco was thru a very dry, plainlike, low area, with cacti and pepper trees again. We climbed up to Huatusco and [[end of page]]
20 March 8, 1949, cont. Found heavy forest and banana, coffee and tobacco plantations. This drive is through breath taking country, with deep canyons and lush tropical forests. I could call it humid tropical forest, myself. We drove to Potrero Viejo to the Forbes Hacienda next. Forbes daughter (Mariana?) took me to the spot where Hyla venulosa abounded. They live in the very moist bases of banana tree boles. The trees grow in wraparound layers, and catch water and hold much moisture. The frogs are deep within these layers, and are sometimes, in old trees, way into the pulpy core. We took nine with no trouble. Walter Dahlquist took me next to the rear of the hacienda to a large plant he called "Elephant ear". The plant consists of long petioled, enormous leaves, all from a central low base. Here again the petioles form a chute which funnels water to the base where it is stored. Dahlquist expected to find some Hyla microtympanum here for me, having founded them there before. But we founded 3 Hyla staufferi [[inserted]] unknown to him, and another H. venulosa. We lunched with the Forbes, and drove to a camping spot 8 km. ENE of Potrero Viejo 1700 FT. (Data from Dahlquist) called Ojo de Agua. This was a sharp hillside near large sugar cane fields, The hill was covered with dense jungle growth, more humid tropical forest. We collected 3 Anolis (sagrei?) and a Leiolopisma before dark. I spent the evening finishing the specimens from Plan De Rio, and could do no night collecting. The Anoles have a brilliant orange dewlap which they expand and contract as they sit on bushes in the jungle tangle. They have a definite dorsal pattern of chevrons, which appears and disappears easily, however. [[end page]] 21 [[start page]] March 8, 1949 -Potrero Viejo, cont. The Leiolopisma was in a heavy rock slope, deep in big rocks. I shot him to get him. March 9, 1949. Potrero Viejo. Heavy rain this morning. I had to stay in camp while the mammalogists picked up their traps, and they didn't skin when they got back, so I had little time for collecting. I went after some bromeliads I had seen along the track the night before, and I had time to take 2 apart before I left at the honk of the truck's horn. Each of the bromeliads produced a salamander. McIntosh brought in a Hyla he found in a small hole inside the cave which is the source of the river. The salamanders were quite different in coloration when collected. The small one was light grey dorsally, with brownish grey sides. The large one was dull reddish above with dark brown sides. I carried them alive in a vial, however, and a few hours later the small one had changed color until he closely resembled the larger! A few hours later the large one was close to the original color of the smaller. This range of color variability is surprising, to say the least, and I'm trying to get color pictures of it. March 10-13- Mexico City. March 14, Nevada de Toluca. We drove up Toluca in the afternoon, leaving M.C. about 11 A.M. The road climbs the mountain from [[end page]]
22 the west. The road is quite good, and runs to the lake in the crater. Tree line is at 13,000 FT., and I collected a Sceloporus microlepidotus under a log right at tree line. We went back down hill to 12,200 FT. to camp. There were several springs in an alpine meadow and a good sized creek. A rock in the middle of the stream covered two Ambystoma, which I collected. Farther down the stream a road bridge had dropped in and created a pond, to which I returned in the evening, to find many Ambystoma active. It seemed to be a breeding congress, and I took many notes on the group. All specimens collected seemed to be males, however, with greatly swollen anal lips. Several deposited spermataphines after being put in preservative. Complete notes on my observations are elsewhere; under the species. March 15, Toluca. Found 3 S. microlepidotus under single piece of bark on a fallen log on a hillside, at 12,200. The rest of the day was spent in observation of the salamanders in the pond. The evening was quite cold, and the pond froze solidly during the night. My thermometer registered 22° at 7:00 AM March 16. The salamander activity stooped at about 11:00 PM., because of the cold. March 16, Toluca. We left the campsite very early, and dropped down to 11,500 FT. I got a large series of Sceloporus here, on the abundant fallen logs. It was still in the pines here. I got microlepidotus chiefly, with some aeneus. [[end page]] 23 [[start page]] March 17, A Cerro San Andres, Michoacan. Spent the night of 16th in Ciudad Hidalgo, and drove on this short chain of peaks. The road is 4 miles west of Hidalgo, turn left and follow road to San Pedro (de Aguarro, of something similar), which is two miles further, on the dirt road. Our camp is further along the same road, 9 miles on. The small village called Rancho de Axolotl is just over the hill from our camp. We drove on a considerable distance further to a goodsized lake, called Laguna Larga, at 9,200 FT. The lake is artificial, the result of damming a small stream between two mountains. I collected Rana pipiens, Sceloporus microlepidotus and an Ambystoma on its shores. Drove with McVaugh to a large sulphur lake, full of boiling holes. It looked like a muddy mess, but the water was not thick at all. A blowhole near the lake was right at boiling, and had been used often to scald feathers off chickens. I caught 2 pipiens on a hillside in a cold spring. A short stop while McVaugh took some specimens of "capulin" the cherry here, netted me a Hyla which to either lafrentzi or eximia. I think I have several of the 1st from here. There was little water here, but an almost dry spring dampened the area slightly. I also picked up a Sceloporus here. Hyla described on next page. March 18, 1949. Cerro San Andres. Followed a stream which empties into the alpine meadow in which we are camped upstream. Found Ambystoma ordinarium, Rana pipiens, and S. microlepidotus along and in the stream. [[end page]]
24 March 17, 1949. - Cerro San Andres. Notes on frog before preservation (Hyla lafrentzi) golden-orange colored around paired dark spots on back. The entire animal has a golden shine in the olive-green skin. The ground color is light green, the side stripe is brownish- green. The dorsal side of the fingers and toes is quite golden colored - or bronzy. March 19, 1949 - Cerro San Andres. Drove to town for supplies with McVaugh, so that I could collect lower down. After going to town we went back up the mountain to a stream at 7,800 feet. Chiefly pine, with some oaks. Floor was heavily covered with pine needles, and there were quite a few rocks on the slope. Turning rocks produced a Conopsis. McVaugh collected a Salvadora bairdii and a Hyla bistincta for me on the slopes. I caught another of the small Hyla, which are either lafrentzi or eximia. The hind leg has T.T. art. to the eye, but they are colored exactly as the lafrentzi from the D.F. March 20, 1949 - Cerro San Andres. Worked up the canyon behind the camp. This canyon is quite damp, and well supplied with springs. There is a fairly deep stream in it, flowing rapidly. Some of the springs are quite hot, practicaly boiling as it comes out. Rana pipiens is very abundant in the stream, and there are many tadpoles in the stream. There are no axolotls in it, however. I got a series of 21 Hyla - again the lafrentzi-eximia thing. They were all under bark on damp logs lying along and [[end page]] 25 [[start page of 25 is transcribed on the next page]] [[inserted scrap of a paper listing expenses is covering a text]] [[end page]]
24 [[start page of 24 is transcribed on the previous page]] [[end page]] 25 [[start page]] March 20, 1949, cont. across the stream. There were several times 3, 4 or 5 under a single piece of bark. Told an Indian boy I wanted some axolotls from the lake at the rancho, and he brought in 37 salamanders and 4 frogs. He said they came from the lake. They were all transformed but one. March 21, 1949, - Cerro San Andres. Went to the lake to check on the boy. Found that he had gotten the Ambystoma by turning over rocks and logs at the edge of the lakes there, not in the water. I got an [[Gatra?]] series there under logs, as much as 300 yds from the water. I also got Pseudoeurycea bellii under the logs. The Ambystoma vary much in color, some practically lack yellow, other are liberally spotted with yellow. They are quite abundant there. There are axolotls there also, I took several from the stream between the two lakes. The second lake is rapidly drying up, which may be a factor in transformation. Pipiens, pipiens tads, and a much larger tad were plentiful along the stream and in the lake. March 22, 1949. Enroute. Picked up a Pituophis D.O.R. Stopped for the night at lake Patzcuaro. March 23, 1949 -Enroute. Collected a Conopsis under a rock at Patzcuara. He was quite brown, while all the others have been gray. [[end page]]
[[a scrap of paper]] [[?]]GAGE - 58.0 at CAM[[P]] [[?]] 67.0 - SAN PEDRO DG Apuarro 69.6 AT HGWY. 73.5 [[?]]AIPALLO [[ end of a scrap of paper]]
26 March 23, 1949. - cont. Drove to Ciudad Guzman, turning off the hghy somewhat short of the hghy to Atitlan. The road runs past two vast dry lakes, one almost immediately off the main hghy to Guadalajara. There is a short stretch of mt. road before we came down into the flat. We stayed low past a second dry lake and Sayula, then climbed a low range of mts to Guzman. We overnighted in Guzman. (Hotel Anguiano-the worst yet). March 24, 1949. - Nevado De Colima The road to the mountain is the first one to the right from the SW corner of the plaza in Guzman. It follows an old dry creek bed(probably flooded in the rainy season) to the hills. Our camp site is on the NW slope of the mountain, with the peak not visible. It is shut off by a long high escarpment. The road passes thru Sayayula? and Jasmin to El Isolte and ends there at an old sawmill. Water for the town must come down from high in the mountain via an aqueduct made of hollowed logs. This is our H2O supply here. Dr. McVaugh caught an Aeneus for me about 7600 FT., on the road up. Got 2 Eumeces and a Scelop micro. at the old mill. We made camp in the dirtiest, driest spot yet. March 25, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Spent the whole day working up and down hillsides and canyons, turning logs and ripping bark. Got two Scelops micros. This is the dry season here with a vengeance. There is no dampness anywhere. I worked just as hard if not harder here than anyplace yet, but [[end page]] 27 [[start page]] March 25 - 1949, cont. got nothing. There was no "little rainy season" here this year - no rain in January - and the result is nothing stirring. March 26, 1949 - Nevado De Colima. Went up the aqueduct which supplies this - whole area with water to its source. This is about 1500 FT higher and about 2 miles SE of El Isolte. The water is caught almost immediately after flowing out of the ground and piped away, so this is just as dry an area as the rest of the mountain. I cought one Pseudoeurycea bellii to prove I put in a day's work. He was under a log very near the aqueduct. The area immediately about the spring is enterable only by the ladder, and is not grazed by cattle. Urtica, the nettle, is abundant and painful. Helmut says he has never hit it in Mexico before this. The grass is high and quite green, and bushes are numerous and large. It was still too dry for me, however. March 27, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Tried bromeliad collecting today, after getting another belii under a log in a deep canyon. This species is apparently inured to drying, and can stand much more of it than any other species I've seen down here. The bromeliads produced nothing. They seem to be quite specific in their choice of host tree, being confined to oaks, and possibly to one species of them. They don't grow on pines or eucalyptus at all. The bromeliads are quite dry, with no real pools, just moisture at the bottoms of the leaves. [[end page]]
28 March 28, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Turning logs and tore up bromeliads all day with no luck at all. A complete blank. Went down to about 7000 FT., but found no water or lessening of the dryness. There is much cover here, and the life is probably tremendous in the rainy season. The bird life is abundant even now, with more species than I have noticed before elsewhere. March 29, 1949 - San Gabriel, Jalisco, 4000 FT. Drove from El Isolte to the main road to Toliman, and followed it to Jasmin, and past. A fork in the road took us in the wrong direction (just west of Jasmin, near volcano, left to Toliman, right to San Gabriel). We learned of San Gabriel and drove here instead of to Toliman, as planned. Drove north of the village, which is in a terrifically parched, dry and dusty valley between the ranges of the Nevado de Colima & the next range west, for the mastos to set traps. I walked over a rocky hillside which is almost definitely a hibernation site and would probably be a gold mine during the first rains. There are many rock outcroppings with crevices running deeply beneath. I found several shed skins of Conopsis or Toluca size under rocks. Hooper saw a small brown snake which he couldn't catch. On the way back to town we stopped by a small water hole, originally about 15-20 feet wide, now shrunk to a shallow pool about 3 inches deep and 4-5 feet wide. I found 2 Scelops under rocks, and a very large rock near the pool covered [[end page]] 29 [[start page]] March 29 -cont. a very dormant young Kinosternon. He was partially in and out of a small hole well under, the rock. His eyes were completely sealed shut. Helmut returned, and we drove to town. March 30, 1949. - San Gabriel, Jalisco, 4000 FT. Went out with the mastos to trap locality, which was on the hillside mentioned yesterday, and turned rocks in the early morning. Got 2 Scelops and a good size Cnemidophorus, all under rocks on the edge of a corn field. When we got back to town, I went west along the small stream which supplies the town's H2O. It is fairly rapidly flowing stream, which occasionally forms a good sized pool with quiet water. The first rock I turned produced a batch of Bufo, all recently transformed. The first rock hid 12. The next big rock hid 13, the next 15, and one 18. I got a Series immediately and stopped collecting them. The stream is full of tadpoles. The rock walls which mark the hacienda boundaries on both sides of the stream were liberally supplied with lizards, Cnemidophorus, Sceloporus, and Anolis. I saw none of the Iguana which the local people say are common here. I got a Scelop & a Cnemidophorus. I entered a small banana grove and found a Hyla in the base of a leaf frond, but could find no more than one.. Took the gun and dipnet in the P.M., and shot 2 Anoles, a Scelop & a Cnemidophorus. Dipped out a fish collection and a batch of tadpoles. [[end page]]
30 March 30, cont. I have seen the Cnemidophorus here run on their hind legs alone several times. The body is not lifted high, however- the forelegs are just lifted up and were along side the body. A Sceloporus I saw did not hesitate to dive into the stream and swim to the other bank when it spotted me. I shot him on the far bank. There were very few frogs along the stream. 2 which I saw dive and waited for. were almost certainly R. pipiens, altho I didn't get either. I think all toads are Pipiens, altho I saw a few very tiny black ones, probably Bufo. March 31, 1949 - San Gabriel. Helmut brought in a Sceloporus he caught in his trap, a mile N. of town. I spent the morning taking care of the specimens I got here, and we drove to Guzman for the night. McVaugh got a Storeria storerioides on Colima for me. It has only 5 labials (7 in species). April 1, 1949 - En Route. Spent the A.M. in Guzman buying supplies, etc. Drove to NE slope of the Nevado, by a very roundabout route. The allweather road from Guzman to San Gabriel goes south from G. to the foot of the Nevado, where a junction goes one way to Atenquique and the other to S. Gabriel. The latter follows the foothills to Los Alpes, where it joins our old road to S.G. A bridge at Los Alpes is missing, thus the allweather road cannot be used all the way. About 2 miles short of Los Alpes a road goes left to a sawmill, and then on up the Mt. [[end page]] 31 [[start page]] April 1, 1949. (cont.) to 10,000 FT. This road is too steep about 7500 FT. for our type of truck, altho the lumber trucks go right on up. We camped at about 7000 FT. April 2, 1949 -Nevado de Colima. I went downhill today, because of my previous experiences at the high alt. on this Mt. I, dropped down to the tree line going down, where open grassy fields begin (about 6800 FT.) These fields are strewn with rocks. They (the fields) are closely cropped by cattle. A log at the root of a steep hill covered a small Crotalus, which had just finished shedding his skin, the cast lying beside him. The rocks yielded two species of Sceloporus, Ferrariperezi and Scalaris? The latter was quite common, and I picked up a small series as I followed the path around the hills. They were all under rocks and logs, in open fields. I continued on down the mt. almost to the flat valley, at 6500 FT. A very deep valley came off the mountain from very high, and continued its cut to the flatlands. I went down into it, and turned rocks, which were numerous. I found 4 Conopsis under these rocks, most of them on the canyon side only a little above the stream bed. The stream was perfectly dry, of course, as is all of this mountain. We left here about 4 oclock, and went to Guzman for water. Then we drove west on the dry weather road to San Gabriel, driving to about 6500 FT. We made camp about 6:30 under the foothills of the range directly to the north of the Nevado. [[end page]]
32 April 3, 1949 - 10 mi. W. of C. Guzman. Found 3 Eumeces and one Scelop under rocks and logs. we are still in fairly flat country, although the foothills go up 1500-2000 FT. right behind us. The grass here is also heavily grazed. All the Eumeces were in the woods on the foothills, while the Scelop. was under a rock in the level grazed field. Saw another here I didn't get. It went dawn a gopher hole. Drove back to Guzman at noon and picked up the botanists. Drove to Guadalajara directly, and spent the night. April 4, 1949. Spent entire day in Guadalajara. Learned from Helmut that there are two Miradors in Veracruz which have both been type localities. One is between Jalapa & V.C., the other between Cordoba & Jalapa. One is the former property of part of Helmut's family, and served as a collecting place for several German collectors. One is humid & moist tropical, the other is quite dry. [[end page]] 33 [[start page]] April 5, 1949. - Autlan. I rode with the botanists, and we had a flat tire about halfway down. As a result, we didn't get to Autlan till after 5. Went out N of Autlan with the mastos to set traps. Saw two lizards, didn't get either, because of the proximity of rock fences. Found a sago snake skin under a rock. April 6, 1949. Autlan and 2 mi. N. of La Resolana. Went out with the mastos before sunup, and had to wait for sufficient light to collect. As soon as there was light enough, I turned rocks and got a Cnemidophorus gularis. It was quite chilly, and I saw nothing else. This locality is on the main road- Autlan- Guadalajara- and is very dry valley between very dry hills, all covered with mesquite and cactus. There is a large river several miles to the north, which seems to be the total water supply hereabouts. After returning to Autlan, we drove south along the highway from Autlan to Manzanillo, going to a small town called La Resolana, which is not on the hghy, as shown in the 3A map, but somewhat south. We tried to find a road from here up the Sierra de Autlan, but local inquiry showed a complete lack of such, unless we go practically into Manzanillo, and would take 20 hrs. We decided against this and returned to the hghy, driving back towards Autlan. We crossed 2 mt. streams on the way, and camped at the third we crossed. It is a water truck filling stop, fixed up with pipes to fill the truck. The stream continues on across the road and [[end page]]
34 April 6, 1949. cont. drops a short distance into the valley. The altitude here is 1500 FT. Just across the road from camp is a swampy area, with a tropical aspect. Many lianas and bromeliads in the trees, immense legumes, and so on. It was a rich area herpetologically. Later I got several Hyla, Leptodactylus, Agalychnis, Bufo, Leptodeira, etc. in it. 2 of the 4 Leptodeira maculata taken were in the bases of elephant ear plants. The other 2 under logs. The Hyla, (smithi I think) were amazingly abundant in the bases of the elephant ear, 2 or 3 to a leaf. I got the H. smithi + some very tiny Leptodactylus on the 6th, but when I preserved them the next day, the sun got to them in late afternoon, and dried them out pretty thoroly. Kept them - may be good skeletal material. Got a Bufo at night crossing the road. April 7, 1949. -2 mi. N of La Resolana, 1500 FT. Spent the entire day in the tropical area, except for some lizard shooting in the dry slopes which surround the swampy ground. Ameiva, Anolis, 2 kinds of Cnemidophorus and Scelops are here. I also got a large Pipiens under a log in the dryer area. Got the 4 snakes on this date, as above. There were many fish in the streams, all Minnows. The trees were full of parrots, solitaires, and dozens of others. It was one of the most delightful places I've hit, and the only thing wrong is that it is too small. [[end page]] 35 [[start page]] April 8, 1949 - 2 mi. N. of La Resolana. I returned to the same area to help the botanists collect some of the elephant ear (their number on it is [[missing]]) in which I found so much. I got more of the frogs to replace the dried series, and also got some of the grasshoppers which live in the leaves. We left here in the afternoon and drove to the highest point on the road, where we stopped to collect. It is quite dry, with scrubby oak cover, also some of the barrancas are somewhat more moist. The hills are quite bare. I picked up an Anolis. We drove into Autlan for the night, and I spent most of evening working on specimens. April 3, 1949 - Autlan, 3000 Ft. Spent the entire day cataloging and preserving what I've collected recently. I've been waiting for a chance to fix things right for 2 weeks, and I can carry live live stuff no longer. We leave Monday to spend the week high in the Sierra de Autlan, and specimens will be out of place in the mule train. April 10, 1949 - Autlan, 3000 FT. Drove with the jefes to Chiante to arrange for pack animals for the trip up the Sierra. I didn't go all the way, however, because of the good collecting along the way. The road goes 8 mi. E of Autlan, then about 6 mi. S. to Chiante. It is in the valley most of of the way, thru dry, dusty country, with thorny bushes, mesquite and some cacti. There is lovely yellow flowering tree, called Primavera, all along the road. [[end page]]
36 April 10, 1949, - cont. The roads are lined with [[stricken]]sto(ink blot)[[/stricken]] stone fences and thorny bushes, and these are alive with lizards. Ameiva and Cnemidophorus abound on the ground, and the fences have Ctenosaura every few feet. I collected a series of the Ctenosaurs, with a wonderful color variation. 2 of the 12 collected were shot out of a tree, one in a hole about 35 feet up, the other on a limb about 20 feet up. The tree was in the middle of a rancho yard, which is fairly well surrounded by houses. They live on houses and barn roofs quite commonly. They lie on the tops of the stone fences, with their heads raised, and slightly raised on the fore limbs. They are easily visible for a long distance. I got a Cnemidophorus along the road, and R. pipiens under a log near a small stream which purports to have turtles, altho I saw none. Returned to town about 2 P.M, and spent the rest of the day fixing up the Ctenosaurs. April 11, 1949. Enroute to Sierra. Drove to Chiante where we loaded our gear on mules, left the truck, and started up the mountain. On the way up we passed thru the following small villages: The trail winds thru passes between mountains which still perpetuate the dry look of the valley. There is much [[strikeout]]dry[[/strikeout]] scrub oak and dry grass. I collected an Anolis in an elephant ear, in a dry creek bed, about 3500 ft. We hit oak forest about [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 April 11, 1949, Sierra de Autlan. 4600 ft., and pines at about [[stricken]] We camped earlier than was necessary in a valley that contained a good number of springs giving rise to small streams, which combine into a good sized river. I found a Rhadinaea under the first log I turned, and found nothing else the rest of the night. The altitude of this camp was 5000 FT., and the area is called Manantlan by the natives. April 12, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan, 7600 Ft. We continued our trip on up to 7600 feet today, up a cañada which contained considerable water. We climbed the hills to the east of Manantlan. The cañada is the first to the east of the crest. We went along the mountain about 2-3 miles and camped near a spring. The woods are not heavy, but the trees are large and tall. The undergrowth is not thick except in the floor of the valley. After lunch, I looked about for good collecting places, and ended up climbing the hill. It is quite steep, and it took me 2 hrs to go up. It is the highest point in this vicinity, however, and presents an admirable view. The natives say that on a good day one can see both Manzanillo and Guadalajara from it. I couldn't. I found a Gerrhonotus imbricatus at an altitude of 9200 Ft., under a log. Helmut caught an Anolis for me at the camp this A.M. before we left for uphill.
38 April 13, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan This area, altho wet, has been heavily burned over recently - within 2 [[ink blot]] yrs or less, I would judge, and burned hard. All of the logs are burned, some clear thru. I believe that this heavy and according to Indians, repeated burning is very detrimental to herp stuff. I think it cleans it out of the area, and they are awfully slow to come back. It may explain the paucity of material here. Anyway, I worked hard all day, and got nothing at all. Helmut got me another Gerrhonotus on the mountain, however, so the day wasn't wasted. April 14, 1949. Sierra de Autlan. Worked southeast of camp along the stream bed, finding many very good places for specimens, wonderful habitats, and so on. After a full morning's work I caught a Salvadora drinking at a small pool of water in a dry section of the creek. It is amazing that such good typical habitat can be so barren of specimens. Went downstream in the afternoon and met Bob Wilburn, all excited. He had found salamanders in the stream. He had two for me, and they were Gilled Ambystoma. They were living in the quiet pools formed occasionally by rapidly flowing stream. I collected a couple more, and went to camp to make a dip net to facilitate getting a series. The thing is undoubtedly new. Bob also killed a Thamnophis for me which had been lying alongside a pool. He also got hyla from a tree he cut down. [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 April 14, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan (cont.) I fashioned a dip net out of cheescloth and spent the night catching a series of the Ambystoma. After getting the adults I found juveniles in muddy pools upstream, and I got a few of them. There seems to be no sign of sexual activity at this time, and the juveniles may be from this year's hatch, which would give them enough time to grow up before the rains and heavy swollen streams appear. April 15, 1949. - Sierra De Autlan. Spent the morning preparing the salamanders. I tried a new technique, in order to get a full tail, with outstanding fins & gills. It worked quite well. Instead of using a pan to fix them, I dropped them in a large can of formalin, with nothing to touch them. The gills flared out and the tail fin was fully expanded. They fixed that way fairly well. The same thing worked fairly well for the juveniles I have. Helmut and I went out and took pictures of the pools this P.M. He went to a lot of trouble and hard work, and I think they'll be fine. I then collected a few more of the salamanders, took notes on them and their habitat and so on. The botanist brought in a scelop? and Storeria from the top of the Mt., and Helmut brought in a Storeria he found on the trail. The Storeria key to Storerioides, but they sure don't look like the one I got on Colima. These Autlan specimens will all bear closer checking.
40 April 16, 1949.- Sierra De Altlan. Packed up and left camp today. The mule drivers were slow getting up the mountain and slower getting packed, so we finally got at 12:30. I shot a Sceloporus on the way to sun at about 7500 FT., and one of the Indian muledrivers picked up an Anolis at about 4600FT. To get to our locality, one goes from Charte thru La Cedra and Tecopatlan to the group of ranches called Manantzan. We were in the mountains to the east of Manantzan. There are number of springs in the NW corner of the valley in which Manantzan is located, and the trail up the Mt. passes thru this area. Our camp, at 7600 FT., was to the Southeast of Manantzan. The Indians in the pack train know what the salamanders were, calling them axolotls. They told me that the stream from which I took them is the only one in this entire region, that they had never seen them elsewhere. The stream flows into Rio Armeria, which is Pacific drainage directly. Thus it could seem that this is a totally isolated, endemic population. April 17, 1949- Autlan & Guadalajara. The boy in the hotel at Autlan, the sun of the owner, is a bright lad, and when he saw a snake which some people had in the hotel, he told them of me. They brought it in for me to see, and it was a good big sea snake which they had gotten at Barra Navidad, a resort on the ocean. They were talking it to the [[end page]] 41 [[a scrap of paper]] La Cedra Tecopotlan Manantlan Rancho M of Chante C. del Perote is to the north nothwest C. de Tecolote is west . over [[end of a scrap of paper]] [[start page of 41 was transcribed on the next page]] [[end page]]
40 [[On a previous page there is the beginning of the transcription from April 16, 1949]] April 16, 1949- Sierra De Altan. Packed up and left camp today. The mule drivers were slow getting up the mountain and slower getting packed, so we finally left at 12:30. I saw a Sceloporus on the way down, at about 7500 FT., one of the Indian mule drivers picked up an Anolis at about 4600 FT. To get to our locality, one goes from Chante thru La Cedra and Tecomatlan to a group of ranches called Manantlan. We were in the mountains to the east of Manantlan. There are a number of springs in the NW corner of the valley in which Manantlan is located, and the trail up the MT. posses thru this area. Our camp at 2600{?} FT., was to the southeast of Manantlan. The Indians in the pack train know what the salamanders were, calling them axolotls. They told me that the stream from which I took them is the only one in this entire region, that they had never seen them elsewhere. The stream flows into the Rio Armeria, which is Pacific Drainage Directly. Thus it could seem that this is totally isolated, endemic population. April 17, 1949- Autlan + Guadalajara The boy in the hotel in at Autlan, the son of the owner, is a bright lad, and when he saw a snake which some people had in the hotel, he told them of me. They brought it in for me to see, and it was a good big sea snake which they had gotten at Barra Navidad, a resort on the ocean. They were taking it to the [[end page]] 41 [[start page]] April 17, 1949, cont. museum at Guadalajara. I took notes on it and preserved it properly for them. Mac got some colored pictures of it for me. We drove to Guadalajara this P.M. April 18, 1949.- Guadalajara. Spent day grubbing thru bookstores. Found one horrible old thing I bought for its short piece on the relations of man and snakes. April 19, 1949.- Guadalajara. Helmut and I went out to to a Barranca which is locally called " Barranca Ibarra", which is the same name as Bailey's type locality or [[underlined]]Ctenosaurs palkeri[[/underlined]], whether its the same locality or not. We ended up on the top of the canyon, however, so we had to walk down the old post road to Aguascalientes. The distance, however defeated us, so we had to turn back. People told us that there [[underlined]]are[[/underlined]] large lizards in the bottom of the canyon, and we plan to drive there next trip in. A road runs to the powerhouse on the dam which we could see far below, and we will come back on that. I got a small Anolis on the top of the hill. I also saw Cnemidophorus, which would have been topotypes, but I didn't get any of them. April 20, 1949 - Guadalajara and Ameca. Drove to Ameca in the P.M. after waiting all day to get started. The hghwy to Telquila is paved, and we followed it for about 20 miles, turning off on an [[end page]]
[[Scrap of paper]] [[?]] - Nevado & Valemas is due east [[end of paper]]
42 April 29, 1949, cont. improved road to Ameca. It is now in the process of construction, but is a fairly good road already. I saw turtles in the roadside ponds and creeks, but we didn't stop. We put up in the Hotel Regis in Ameca. April 21, 1949. - Ameca. Went out with the mastos, and hunted along a small creek while they ran their traps. It was about 7 mi. W. of Ameca, on one of the detours made for the new road, which is still in the process of building here. The road fords a small stream, and I got out there. I turned rocks along the stream, but found nothing for 3/4 of an hour. I then walked along a hillside, and finally got a snake (sp.?) under a rock where the creek cut over to the hillside. I later got a [[underlined]]Sceloporus ferraiperezi{?}[[/underlined]] near the creek. Frogs jumped in to the creek, I think they were pipiens. After breakfast, I took the truck and drove around trying to find a place to collect. I tried going north, but there were no good roads. I finally ended up on the "Camino Real", the old Spanish road to the west. I followed it for 10 miles, until it forded the Rio Ameca. I didn't chance the ford. I shot several Ctenosaura off stone fences along the road. I parked on the way back and walked to the river. It was chockful of tadpoles. A short way ^upstream from where I parked (again about 7 mi. W., this time N. of the river.), I found [[stricken]]an[[/stricken]] a slough, which produced Bufo, Rana, Hyla, and Leptodactylus. I saw snake trails, and shed skins, but [[end page]] 43 [[start page]] April 21, 1949.- cont. no snakes. April 22, 1949. - Ameca. The mastos went out last night and took the truck, staying the full night, expecting to be back for breakfast. Came breakfast and they didn't show, so I waited. They finally came in at noon, and I couldn't go out and achieve anything before time for dinner. That took till 3 o'clock - by then the mastos were ready to go again. My day was totally wasted, [[stricken]]expc[[/stricken] except for some rana & Bufo I got when I went out with the mastos. April 23, 1949. - Ameca Bill and I drove E of the city on the old Camino Real today. The road parallels the railroad most of the way across the valley, apparently. There are many stone fences and considerable cover along the road, so Bill rode on the fender for shooting. He shot a Scelop and a Cnemidophorus. About 5 1/2 - 6 mi. E. of Ameca, the road forks and one branch goes South across the R.R. we went that way, picking up a young fellow as we went. He spent the rest of the morning with us, catching turtles, etc. We passed thru a ranch called San Antonio, and forded the Rio Ameca on [[stricken]]?[[/stricken]] the ranch's south edge. We stopped there to collect. The river has fairly high, clay and sand banks, and runs fairly deeply, in places. Turtles were abundant and I got a series. I saw several snakes in water hyacinth beds, but got only one. [[underlined]]Rana Pipiens[[/underlined]] was very common along the banks. [[end page]]
44 April 24, - Ameca. after the mastos got back in the morning, I took Helmut to the airport to find out about roads to San Sebastian, then took him back to town and went out alone. I went S of town along the road to San Martin Hidalgo and Auran, stepping first about a halfmile S of the airport. Saw 2 Cove's deer, and shot at them, but missed. From there I drove about 2 mi further South and stopped at a bridge which had a small pond of stagnant water, all that was left of a goodsized creek. I followed the creek bed both ways from the road, collecting Scelups & Cnemidocs When I returned to the small pool I scared up and caught a 5 1/2 foot Masticophs flagellum. R. cipiens was quite abundant around this pool. Returned to town, as it was time for the mastos to go out again. April 25, 1949 - Ameca- Guadalajara. We left Ameca after the mastos finished skinning. While I waited I drove west again along the Camino Real and shot 4 more Ctenosaurs. I kept one whole specimen and preserved the rest. as skulls only, taking data on them first. They were, as usual, on stone fences along the road. The valley of Ameca is a very difficult one to collect in, because of the intense cultivation it has undergone. The river is used in all parts of the valley for irrigation, and the whole valley is covered with sugar cane, corn, and wheat. One is forced to go a long ways to find a place wild enough to collect [[end page]] 45 [[start page]] April 25, 1949, cont. in. The whole valley is well populated, and it is practically impossible to stop and collect without spending a half hour explaining what you are doing to someone. Drove south on the Ameca-Autlan road till we picked up the Autlan-Guadalajara hghy, then went to Guadalajara. This is much the better road, but the other will perhaps be better when it is finished. Stayed in the Hotel Mirales in G. April 26, 1949 - Guadalajara Spent day here, waiting for mail for Hooper, altho we had originally planned to go on at noon today. April 27, 1949 - Guadalajara - Tepic, Nay. We left here early this morning, on the Guad-Tepic Hghy. We continued clear to Tepic, where we picked up a road to the south which took us, eventually, to a small place called San Jose Del Conde by way of Compostela. This was as close as we could got to the Sierra San Sebastian by truck. We camped a short way south of town and waited till the next day to try to get mules. We found a Masticophis flagellum Dor just outside of Ixtlan, Nayarit. The buzzards had eaten him pretty badly, but I kept him all for close inspection later. Hooper shot a Sceloporus for me just outside Compostela. The country here in Nayarit is almost a steady picture of isolated mountains and large, fertile valleys. the mountains look to be quite bare and dry for the most part, altho some have scrub oak and pine
46 April 27, 1949. - cont. on them. Quite a few of the streams we crossed have water in them. April 28, 1949 - 1 mi. SW of San Jose Del Conde, 3000 ft. Macintosh brought in a Phyllodactylus lanei which he had caught in a mouse trap during the night. This is a very dry campsite, amongst mesquite and cacti, with little or no cover. There are deeper valleys on either side of the ridge we are on and there is water in these. I collected small series of the Cnemidops and Scelops in the canyon to the west of the camp, as well as an Anolis and some Pipiens. When I returned to camp, the mastos told me of a barranca east of the camp, with much water, bananas, and elephant ears. I went over, and found a green spring fed valley, with much life. I got Agalychnis, Hyla and Leptodeira, in the banana boles and elephant ears. We drove back to San Jose Del Conde, and took a road to the east, which went directly to the highway by way of Terran, coming out SE of Santa Isabel. We drove out the highway about 3 miles N. of Santa Isabel and made camp. April 29, 1949 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel, 3800 ft. Our camp is in a creek bed just to the east of the road, and I followed this creek down to a falls, which I circled, coming out in a banana grove. I shot small series of the Scelops & Cnemidops, and also picked [[end page]] 47 [[start page]] April 29, 1949- cont. up an Anolis & a Ctenosaura. The latter was on rocks high on a bluff. There is considerable permanent, flowing water at this locality. It flows to rapidly and deeply, however, that it is rather discouraging to new life. All rocks are buried in sand and are unturnable. I got a little Eleutherodactylus under a rock in the afternoon, along the river, and also got another Agalychnis. April 30, 1949. - 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel. Since I collected most of the common stuff here yesterday, I hunted today for the rest of the herp fauna. I got only a Scelop fokits skull besides a snake which looks like Hypsiglena affinis, dead in a path, and pretty badly crushed. I've two of them now, and they had been previously reported from only two localities in Mexico. It was in a path high on a hill, covered with long grass. That was all I found all day. May 1, 1949. Got a late start, as the mastos got back quite late. I went east of the highway to the high hills there. I saw Ctenosaurs on the rocks, but could get none. I shot a Scelop there also. Most of the area was severely burned over, and there were no lizards in the burned areas. Several of the stream cut valleys have water flowing in them, and I followed one up. Found Pipiens [[end page]]
48 in it, as well as Amphibian egg masses just in the process of hatching. They were clumped, with a single embryo, about 1/4 inch long, each jelly ball. May 2, 1949 - Ixtlan, Nayarit. Drove to Ixtlan about noon, and put up at the Hotel Madrid, which is a good place not to stay. The sanitary facilities are - to say the most inadequate. Rode along with the mastos 1 mi. E of town, and went down along the river. The stream here is quite sluggish and slow, with many rocks on the banks, and stagnant pools along the sides. This combination produced Kingsternon, Leptodeira, Bufo, Hyla, and Leptodactylus in an hour and a half. Most came from under rocks along the stream, in the stagnant pools. May 3, 1949- Ixtlan. I was incapacitated most of the day, moving a heel put on my shoe. I preserved what I had and brought my notes up to date. Went out to the same place on the river and picked up 2 more Leptodeira and 3 Leptodactylus. MacIntosh got another Bufo and 3 Leptodacs. [[end page]] 49 [[start page]] [[blank page]]
50 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 51 [[start page]] [[blank page]]
180 [[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] ITINERARY Feb. 13 - Mt. Vernon, Illinois " 16- Little Rock, Arkansas " 17- Jacksonville, Texas " 18- Laredo, Texas " 19- Linares, Nugvo Leon " 20- Tamazuncnale, San Luiz Porost " 21-28- Mexico City, D.F. March 1, - Puebla, Puebla " 2,-4- Cofre De Perote, Veracruz " 5, Las Vegas, V.C. " 6, Jalapa, V.C. " 7. Plan Del Rio, V.C. " 8, Cordoba, V.C. " 9- Potrero Vieto, V.C. " 10-13- Mexico City. " 14-15- Nevada De Toluca, Mexico. " 16- Ciudad Hidalgo, Micnoacan " 17-21 - Cerro San Andres, Michoacan. " 22 - Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan. " 23 - Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco " 24-28 - El Isalte, Nevado De Colima, Jalisco. " 29 -30 - San Gabriel, Jalisco. " 31 - Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco April 1 - Nevado De Colima, Jalisco. " 2- 6 mi. W. Of Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco. " 3-4 - Guadalajara, Jalisco. " 5 - Autlan, Jalisco. " 6-7 2 mi. N. of LaResolana, Jalisco. " 8-10 Autlan, Jalisco " 11-15 Sierra De Autlan, Jalisco. " 16 - Rutlan, Jal. " 17 -19 Guadalajara, Jal. " 20 - 24 Ameca, Jalisco. " 25 - 27 Guadalajara, Jal. " 28 - 1 mi. SE of San Jose del Conde, Nayarit. " 29 - May 1 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel, Nayarit. May 2-3 Ixtlan, Nayarit. May 4 Guadalajara, Jal. May 5 Nevado De Colima, Jal. May 6-7 Ciudad Guzman, Jal. May 8 Nevado De Colima, Jal. " 9-10- Guadalajara, Jal. " 11 9 mi. W. of Zamora, Michoacan " 12 -14 4 mi. S. of Patzcuaro, Michoacan. [[end page]]
ITINERARY (cont.) May 15-17 Mexico City, D.F. " 18 Zimapan, Hidalgo. " 19-20 Pano Ayuctle, Tamaulipas " 21 Enroute " 22 Mt. Vernon, Illinois " 23 Ann Arbor, Michigan [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Map drawing- location of: Los Pescados, Camp site 10,000, Los Conejos, Sierra de Agua, Perote and Cofre de Perote 14,000; position of the North]] [[end page]]
[[Record's back cover]]
Record
5255 7
[Pencil drawing of a horse and a carriage]
1 MEXICO, 1949 RUNNING NOTES
2 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 3 [[start page]] [[Image- a skull ventral view]] [[Image- a skull ventral view]] [[Image- a dorsal view of lower jaw]] [[end page]]
4 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 5 [[start page]] [[image]] PECTORAL GIRDLE [[image]] PELVIC GIRDLE [[end page]]
[[Start Page]] 6 [[End Page]] [[Start Page]] 7 Cañon Contreros, Feb. 24, 1949. We drove to 10,200 feet and collected in the fir woods there. The fir belt starts at 9,500 and continues as high as we went. Below the fir belt is pine, with a sprinkling of oak. This shows a gradual transition to much oak and little pine, and finally no pine. Small side cañons have streams fed by mt. springs. All stream beds + spring sources are quite rocky. Carla Wagner and I worked up a small stream, turning rocks in and on the edges of the stream. Nothing there. I tried rocks on the side of the hill, no luck till I got to the edge of a small wet area, fed by several springs. I found 3 Oedipus under rocks, the underside being fairly dry, or only damp. There were no salamanders in the very wet areas. I went down about 150 ft to a level area which had been used as a campsite, and which was damp all over, as a small stream crossed it. It was almost marshy. Again in the dryer part, I turned a rock and found a Hyla Lafrentzi. He did not try to get away. Helmut says he has never seen the species before. Cañon Contreras, Feb. 25, 1949. A.M. We arrived in the woods before the sun had fully come up, and the air and ground were quite chilly. I followed a small canyon, with what must be a fairly permanent waterflow. I found nothing, neither on the stream or in
8 any of the several springs to be found on the mountain side. To date I have worked on the Ajusco side of the cañon, which is the south side, and therefore gets less sun each day. It is quite wet in places. The Pedregal, Feb. 25, P.M. This is an area of heavy and extensive lava flow, with enormous clinkers all over the place. It is very, very dry; I saw no water in the whole place. There are many cacti and a few live oaks, the latter chiefly in hillsides. Pepper trees are common, and a few pine are on a higher hillside. I spent 3 hours here, and saw one lizard, 3 times. There were many scorpions, pill bugs, black widows and other spiders, and a few earthworms under rocks. The Sceloporus was a collared form, probably fellariperezi, which I couldn't get close to. Black back and tail, with a hint of chevron markings. I saw nothing else there. Cañon Contreras, Feb. 25, later P.M. Returned here for another try at the neotenic salamanders Wagner says he has collected in the mountain streams here. I found no salamanders, but I did see salamander eggs, attached to the under side of a rock in a mountain pool. They were individually attached. Each was about 3/4 inch in diameter, including gelatin. The eggs, in the neurula stage, were about 1/4 inch in diameter, longer than broad. [[end page]] 9 [[start page]] Cañon Contreras, Feb. 26, A.M. Crossed the cañon to the other side, where the sun strikes in early morning, and shines all day. This is the North Bank, with a southern exposure, on the slope of San Miguel. This side is considerably drier than the other, with little or no water. There were no streams where I worked. There were a few oak trees, with yucca, cactus, and maguey on the slope. I found a Sceloporus under a rock on this slope, of the same species as those on the houses in the city. I have seen them in Chapultepec Park and at the Los Angeles Court. Pedregal, Feb. 26, P.M. Returned with a gun to try again for the single Scelop, but I couldn't even find him. The heat of the afternoon is intense, and the lizards probably do no sunning then. Got nothing. [[end page]]
10 Kilometer 63, M.C.- Cuernavaca Hgwy, Feb 27, 1949. This is the type locality of Eumeces indubitus Taylor, so I stopped on the way to the Hoopers at Cuernavaca to see what we could find. It is in an area of heavy pine-oak forest, with many rocks and a few logs. We could find no lizards at all, although it was a perfect place for them. We turned one very large log, and Warner said he saw a "black lizard" run under. We could not relocate the beast, however. We spent only a few moments there as the Hoopers waited dinner on us. Kilometer 46, M.C.-Cuernavaca Hgwy, Feb. 28, 1949. This is an area of grasslands, with pines on the knolls. The grass is "Sacaton", a heavy bunch grass, which grows with exceedingly long blades. I found three Sceloporus [[space left blank]] under a single piece of bark on a large log about 3 feet above the ground, all 3 together. I saw several other scelops in the grass where it is impossible to catch them. The grass appears to be very dry, but at sunrise the dew is very heavy, and sufficient moisture is present for any lizard. My pants were soaked to the knee. The 3 scelops are most strikingly colored. The center of the belly is light orange in 2, greenish in the 3rd. This light area is bordered in all 3 by a very bright orange. The sides are black with greenish spots and stripes. They have more or less defined green dorsolateral lines. All have a narrow, incomplete [[end page]] 11 [[start page]] black nuchal collar. One has an orange throat, the second a light, fleshcolored throat, the third has a yellowish green throat. March 1, 1949. Today was spent preparing for the trip to Veracruz. I caught a single Sceloporus in the parking area of the Los Angeles courts. We drove to Puebla and spent the night. March 2, 1949 Left Puebla early, drove to Orizaba (MT.). The low land to the west of the mountain is exceedingly dry. There was no vegetation, and the volcanic dust lies thick all over. There was no water and no streams. We tried to climb it from the West, but all roads lie inches deep in dust, and the truck couldn't pull it. We then left the mountain and went north to Perote. We tried to climb the Cofre de Perote from the city of Perote, but the truck again stalled. We then continued around to the north, and went up from a small town named Sierra de Agua. We climbed to a small village, Los Pescados, and spent the night in a meadow slightly higher than the village. I found one Sceloporus under a log as we came up the mountain, but I am now highly uncertain as to which individual it is. This side of the Cofre has quite heavy pine cover, and we are camped near a small stream. There are springs in the mountains. [[end page]]
12 MARCH 3, 1949 WENT OUT ALONG THE SMALL STREAM BEFORE BREAKFAST, AND FOUND A SPRING A SHORT WAYS BELOW THE CAMP. I PICKED UP 5 SALAMANDERS HERE, 4 OF THEM UNDER THE SAME ROCK, HIGH ON THE SIDES. I ALSO GOT ONE SCELOPORUS HERE, AND WAGNER CAUGHT A SECOND. THEY WENT ALL UNDER ROCKS IN A DRY FIELD. WE BROKE CAMP AND WENT HIGHER AFTER BREAKFAST. WE FINALLY STOPPED IN AN ALPINE MEADOW AT ABOUT 10, 500 F. THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS IS JUST OVER THE MOUNTAIN ABOUT 1/2 MILE. THE PEAK OF COFRE IS CLEARLY VISIBLE DIRECTLY TO THE SOUTH OF OUR CAMP, IT IS AN ENORMOUS RECTANGLE, LOOKING LIKE A COFFIN, HIGH IN THE SKY. IT IS ABOUT 4,000 FEET ABOVE US. THE ALPINE MEADOW IN WHICH WE ARE CAMPED IS QUITE FLAT AND FULL OF LOGS. IT IS SURROUNDED BY FIR TREES, ALTHO THERE ARE PINE GROVES HIGHER YET. THE LOGS IN THE MEADOW ARE FULL OF SCELOPORUS, AND SEVERAL MEXICANS AND I BUILT UP A LARGE COLLECTION OF THEM. MACKINTOSH TURNED OVER A LOG AT THE EDGE OF A SMALL CREEK AND FOUND A CROTALUS TRISERIATUS. HE CALLED TO ME AND I CAUGHT IT. IT WAS VERY SMALL (MEASUREMENTS JUST BEFORE PRESERVING-DEAD: BODY 332 mm., TAIL (INC. RATTLE) 38 mm., TOTAL 370 mm. THE MEXICANS TURNED UP ANOTHER RATTLER ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE MEADOW IN A SEPARATE AREA, UNDER A LOG. BOTH OF THE SPECIMENS WERE IN QUITE DAMP AREAS. THE 2ND MEASURED: BODY 437 mm., TAIL 53 mm., TOTAL 490 mm. HE HAD A MICROTUS MEXICANUS IN ITS STOMACH. BOTH WERE FEMALES, I BELIEVE. A PINE GROVE, A LITTLE FARTHER DOWNSLOPE THAN THE CAMP, PRODUCED AN AMAZING VARIETY OF SALAMANDERS. ALL OF THE FOLLOWING WERE FOUND: [END PAGE] 13 [START PAGE] MARCH 3, 1949 (CONT) SALAMANDERS - 1ST SPECIES - SAME AS ON AJUSCO, IN BANON CONTRERAS. 2ND SPECIES - LARGER THAN REST, A FAIRLY UNIFORM LIGHT BROWN, WITH A IRREGULAR ROW OF SILVER FLECKS ALONG UPPER SIDE, ALMOST FORMING A GOOD DORSOLATERAL STRIPE. THE SIDES ARE THE SAME BROWN COLOR ABOUT HALFWAY DOWN, THEN THE SLIGHTLY DARKER BELLY COLOR GOES THE REST OF THE WAY AROUND. THE BROWN IS QUITE RICH, ALMOST A GOLDEN BROWN, OR COOL TAFFY. 3RD TYPE - THERE IS A STRONG DORSOLATERAL LINE SEPARATING THE BLACK OF THE SIDES FROM THE GREY OF THE BACK, THERE IS A FAINT BLACK VERTEBRAL LINE FORKING ON THE NAPE, TO EACH EYE. THE BACK IS GREY WITH TINY FAINT REDDISH ORANGE FLECKING. THE SIDES ARE BLACK WITH MUCH SILVER FLECKING. THE FLECKING IS ABESENT ON THE BELLY, WHICH IS SLIGHTLY LIGHTER BLACK. THE CHIN IS FLECKED WITH SILVER. 4TH TYPE - THIS IS MUCH SIMILAR TO THE 2ND TYPE, BUT IT HAS A DORSOLATERAL LINE OF GOLD, MADE OF THICKLY CONCENTRATED FLECKS. THIS LINE IS BORDERED BELOW WITH BLACK, WHICH FADES RAPIDLY INTO A BLUISH-GREY BELLY. THE BACK IS ABOUT THE SAME BROWN AS IN THE 2ND TYPE. ALL OF THESE WERE TAKEN IN A QUITE DRY PINE GROVE. ONE COULD BE CERTAIN THAT A SALAMANDER WOULD BE UNDER THE LOG, IF THERE WAS ANY SIGN OF DAMPNESS THERE. THE GROUND WAS HEAVILY COVERED WITH PINE NEEDLES. FALLEN LOGS WERE ABUNDANT, SOME QUITE DRY, OTHERS DAMP, NONE WET. THERE WAS NO GROUND WATER THAT I COULD SEE. ALL KINDS OF SALAMANDERS LISTED WERE TAKEN IN THE SAME PLACE, AND USUALLY SEVERAL OF THEM UNDER THE SAME
LOGS, USUALLY. THERE WAS NO ECOLOGICAL SEPARATION OF [[TAG&G?]] SPECIES OR INDIVIDUALS THAT I COULD SEE. 2 MEXICANS ARRIVED IN CAMP SHORTLY AFTER I, AND THEY HAD A BOTTLE WHICH, BY THEIR COUNT, CONTAINED 126 LIZARDS! WAGNER AND I COUNTED THEM, HOWEVER, AND THERE WERE 62 OF THEM, ALL OF THE SAME SPECIES. OF THESE WE DISCARDED 6 AS BEING TAILLESS, THEREFORE WE DON'T BUY THEM.I PRESERVED THE REMAINING 56. MARCH 4, 1949 COFRE DE PENOTE, 10,300 FT. SPENT MOST OF THE MORNING WORKING ON THE SPECIMENS COLLECTED YESTERDAY. AS SOON AS I FINISHED I WENT UP THE COFRE, AS FAR AS THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS. ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THIS VILLAGE WAS ANOTHER PINE GROVE, WITH HEAVY NEEDLE COVER; AND SOME LOGS. I FOUND ONE SALAMANDER OF TYPE 2 UNDER A WOOD CHIP. I FOUND A NEW TYPE OF SALAMANDER UNDER A LARGE LOG ALONGSIDE A VERY DRY, DUSTY ROAD. IT WAS NOT TOO DAMP UNDER THE LOG. IT WAS THE HIGHEST POINT AT WHICH I CAUGHT SALAMANDERS. IT IS ON THE SAME LEVEL AS THE VILLAGE OF LOS CONEJOS, WHICH I JUDGE IS ABOUT 10,500 FT. TYPE 5: A JET BLACK SALAMANDER WITH A DORSOLATERAL ROW OF GOLDEN FLECKS. THESE FLECKS TERMINATE IN A YELLOWISH-GOLDEN PATCH JUST BEHIND THE "EAR". THE LEGS ARE ALSO BLACK, MOTTLED WITH LICHEN-LIKE SILVER PARCHES. THE HEAD IS ENTIRELY BLACK, WITH THE LIPS FLECKED WITH SILVER. THE BELLY, CHIN, AND BOTTOM HALF OF THE TAIL ARE INKY BLACK, WITH JUST 2 OR 3 LIGHT SILVER SPECKS ON THE CHIN. THE SIDES ARE FLECKED WITH SILVER. THE DORSOLATERAL GOLDEN STRIPE CONTINUES ON THE TAIL TO THE TIP [[END PAGE]] [[START PAGE]] MARCH 5, 1949 SPENT THE A.M. TRYING TO GET SOME MORE OF THE SALAMANDERS FROM HIGHER UP. THIS PLACE IS A PINE SLOPE IN A FIR FOREST. THERE WERE PSEUDOEURYCEA LEPROSA IN BOTH THE PINES & FIRS, BUT MOST OF THE OTHER SALAMANDERS WERE PRACTICALLY RESTRICTED TO THE PINES. THE STRIPED SCELOPS WERE PRETTY MUCH EXCLUSIVELY FOREST. THE HALFCOLLARED SCGLOPS WERE MUCH MORE ABUNDANT IN OPEN PLACES, BUT THEY WERE ALSO PRESENT IN THE WOODS. I DIDN'T GET ANY MORE OF TYPE 5, BUT I DID PICK UP ANOTHER SUGARY ODD KIND-(ON THE NEXT PAGE). THIS ONE WAS UNDER AN ENORMOUS LOG, AND TWISTED HIS TAIL OFF IN MY HAD. AS USUAL, THE LOGS WERE QUITE DAMP UNDERNEATH, VOLCANO DUST AND SCELOPS LIE THICK ON TOP. WE LEFT THE FIRS ABOUT 1:00 P.M., AND STARTED DOWN THE COFRE. THE FIRS RUN DOWN TO ABOUT 10,000 FT, THEN IT IS [[?necy]] DING TO 8,500, WHERE THE [[?]] BEGIN. ONLY SIX [[?]] BELOW THIS ALTITUDE IS THE PLAINS, HOWEVER, AND THE ORIGINAL COVER CAN ONLY BE GUESSED. THE PINES ARE PRESENT TO SOME DEGREE IN ALL THE PARTS I HAVE SEEN. THE TEMPERATURE WHEN I GOT UP THIS A.M. (SUNRISE) WAS 30*F. I HAD ICE IN MY FIRING PANS. WHEN WE LEFT AT 1:00 P.M., IT WAS 62*F IN THE SHADE AND 88* IN THE SUN.
[[start page 16]] March 5, 1949. Cofre de Perote Type 6: This salamander is remarkable for the slimness of its body, and the long, thin legs. It is a unicolor animal, being a greyish brown all over. The legs are considerably lighter than the body. March 5, 1949, Las Vegas We went from Cofre to the village of Las Vegas, and then 2 miles further down the highway into a large Pedregal - a lava flow, long since solidified and cooled. Before we got located and settled it was 5 oclock, so I used the evening to fix the salamanders gotten that morning. March 6, 1949 - Las Vegas I started operations this morning on a small hill which had divided the lava flow, and had no lava on it, being as an isolated island. I turned hardly 3 logs before I found a Conopsis, deep in the rot of the log. It was very passive, and made no attempt to bite, but did try to burrow / found one of the striped Sceloporus under another log. This was all I found in the area outside the lava flow. The trees in the lava were heavily covered with bromeliads, all full of water, so I spent 2 hours tearing them apart, leaf by leaf. I didn't find a single thing. My experience with pedregal is that it is awfully short on reptile and amphibian life, at least at this season. The lava flow came down a small valley, and the hills were not covered. After much work [[end page]] [[start page 17]] in the pedregal, I went over to this uncovered hill. I found a Toluca and 2 striped Sceloporus under logs there. The Toluca was in the rot of the log, the Scelops merely under them. ^March 7, 1949^ [[inserted]] We went from here to [[insert handwritten note - ^after spending night in Valada^ ]] Plan del Rio, the lowest spot we have hit yet. It is about 800 ft. It is in fairly flat country, into which the rivers have cut quite deeply. These deep cuts have water, usually, and quite often verdant vegetation. Bananas are grown in the valleys. The hills are limestone, and the higher areas are very dry, with cacti and so on. I went directly to banana grove at the foot of the hill. Began for camp in the p.m. I saw several Sceloporus variabilis on the dusty limestone path down which I couldn't catch. The grove was full of fallen banana tree boles, and with good sized limestone rocks. One of the first rocks turned produced 3 Bufos [insert handwritten note - ^Engystomops^]] and a frog I think was an Eleutherodactylus - quite small. The bufos followed a huge tarantula down a short {{??}}, but they came out fairly rapidly. Next I found a large, fat Hyla under a banana bole, in a hollowed out spot. He gave quite a scream as I picked him up. I worked across the grove to a small spring on the opposite side of the valley, also limestone, and quite dense with vegetation. Rocks in the immediate vicinity of the spring produced 2 Rhadinaea [[insert handwritten note - ^Coniophanes^]], 1 oedipus (for lack of a better name), and a very large Cnemidophorus. I didn't get the latter. Another of the small Eleuths was under a rock here. [[end page]]
18 March 7, 1949- [[^Las Vegas^ Struck through]] Plan Del Rio (Cont.) I also saw a Leiolopisma that escaped me. This evening, after supper, I heard Bufo of some species calling very loudly down the hill. I took the flash and went down, but they were in terrain completely unknown to me, so I could not find them. I caught 10 string of fish for Bailey, and returned to camp. Mac said he knew how to reach the pond I wanted, so we went back again. He took me to the dam, but there was nothing there. I then followed the calls back aways; then had to wait a bit. I heard a new call while waiting- a sound exactly like the quacking of ducks. It starts slowly and picks up speed towards the end. I followed it to see what it was, and found a rather slow flowing section of the stream. This small pond had both the bufos and the quackers in it. I finally ran down the quacks, and it turned out to be a Hyla[[underlined]]- and I am certain it is Baudinii [[underlined]]. I got one clasping pair, and I found eggs deposited in the sack the next day- two masses. Therefore, Hyla Baudinii [both underlined] breeds in the early part of March- at least in this locality. I got 5 of them. I also finally got some of the Bufo. They look much like Compactilis [[underlined]] [[^Cristatus^ inserted ]] to me. Their call is to all intents and purposes exactly the same as that of B. americanus [[underlined]], I could detect no difference. MacIntosh saw a snake which was near the water, but we couldn't get it. It must have been a Geophis from the description, a good sized Rana carried on a guttural conversation all evening, but we couldn't get any. [[end page]] 19 [[start page]] March 8, 1949, Plan del Rio. Spent the morning collecting lizards with .22 dust shot. Collected a dozen or so. Both Cnemidophorus and Sceloporus were abundant in the limestone hills, in very dry places. There were many on the flat plain or prairie areas, but more were on the slopes, where the boulders form large crevices, and the sun doesn't shine quite so brightly and isn't so hot. I saw a very large lizard which stayed too far ahead of me. To get a shot at it, that got up on its hind legs and ran, bipedally. It was marked like an Ameiva(or Cnem.), although I've never heard of bipedal locomotion in these genera. The Sceloporus are always quick moving and make short dashes, moving rapidly and stopping. (They are all S. variabilis [[both underlined]] here, I believe). The Cnemidophorus, on the other hand, are slower, and are almost constantly in motion, crawling deliberately, apparently on the hunt. They drag their tails behind them, while the Scelops lift the tail high while moving. Cnemidophorus is very snakelike in its movements. We returned to the spring I found so productive yesterday to bathe, and I turned the rock again which had sheltered the large Cnemidophorus (all references to this genus at this collection point may be referable to Amgivia). He was back there, and this time he scuttled off up the limestone slope. I shot him easily. It was definitely the same beast, as I had pulled his tail off the day before in a deep crevice. We drove from here to a new road to Huatusco, which we took to go to Cordoba. The distance to Huatusco was thru a very dry, plainlike, low area, with cacti and pepper trees again. We climbed up to Huatusco and [[end of page]]
20 March 8, 1949, cont. Found heavy forest and banana, coffee and tobacco plantations. This drive is through breath taking country, with deep canyons and lush tropical forests. I could call it humid tropical forest, myself. We drove to Potrero Viejo to the Forbes Hacienda next. Forbes daughter (Mariana?) took me to the spot where Hyla venulosa abounded. They live in the very moist bases of banana tree boles. The trees grow in wraparound layers, and catch water and hold much moisture. The frogs are deep within these layers, and are sometimes, in old trees, way into the pulpy core. We took nine with no trouble. Walter Dahlquist took me next to the rear of the hacienda to a large plant he called "Elephant ear". The plant consists of long petioled, enormous leaves, all from a central low base. Here again the petioles form a chute which funnels water to the base where it is stored. Dahlquist expected to find some Hyla microtympanum here for me, having founded them there before. But we founded 3 Hyla staufferi [[inserted]] unknown to him, and another H. venulosa. We lunched with the Forbes, and drove to a camping spot 8 km. ENE of Potrero Viejo 1700 FT. (Data from Dahlquist) called Ojo de Agua. This was a sharp hillside near large sugar cane fields, The hill was covered with dense jungle growth, more humid tropical forest. We collected 3 Anolis (sagrei?) and a Leiolopisma before dark. I spent the evening finishing the specimens from Plan De Rio, and could do no night collecting. The Anoles have a brilliant orange dewlap which they expand and contract as they sit on bushes in the jungle tangle. They have a definite dorsal pattern of chevrons, which appears and disappears easily, however. [[end page]] 21 [[start page]] March 8, 1949 -Potrero Viejo, cont. The Leiolopisma was in a heavy rock slope, deep in big rocks. I shot him to get him. March 9, 1949. Potrero Viejo. Heavy rain this morning. I had to stay in camp while the mammalogists picked up their traps, and they didn't skin when they got back, so I had little time for collecting. I went after some bromeliads I had seen along the track the night before, and I had time to take 2 apart before I left at the honk of the truck's horn. Each of the bromeliads produced a salamander. McIntosh brought in a Hyla he found in a small hole inside the cave which is the source of the river. The salamanders were quite different in coloration when collected. The small one was light grey dorsally, with brownish grey sides. The large one was dull reddish above with dark brown sides. I carried them alive in a vial, however, and a few hours later the small one had changed color until he closely resembled the larger! A few hours later the large one was close to the original color of the smaller. This range of color variability is surprising, to say the least, and I'm trying to get color pictures of it. March 10-13- Mexico City. March 14, Nevada de Toluca. We drove up Toluca in the afternoon, leaving M.C. about 11 A.M. The road climbs the mountain from [[end page]]
22 the west. The road is quite good, and runs to the lake in the crater. Tree line is at 13,000 FT., and I collected a Sceloporus microlepidotus under a log right at tree line. We went back down hill to 12,200 FT. to camp. There were several springs in an alpine meadow and a good sized creek. A rock in the middle of the stream covered two Ambystoma, which I collected. Farther down the stream a road bridge had dropped in and created a pond, to which I returned in the evening, to find many Ambystoma active. It seemed to be a breeding congress, and I took many notes on the group. All specimens collected seemed to be males, however, with greatly swollen anal lips. Several deposited spermataphines after being put in preservative. Complete notes on my observations are elsewhere; under the species. March 15, Toluca. Found 3 S. microlepidotus under single piece of bark on a fallen log on a hillside, at 12,200. The rest of the day was spent in observation of the salamanders in the pond. The evening was quite cold, and the pond froze solidly during the night. My thermometer registered 22° at 7:00 AM March 16. The salamander activity stooped at about 11:00 PM., because of the cold. March 16, Toluca. We left the campsite very early, and dropped down to 11,500 FT. I got a large series of Sceloporus here, on the abundant fallen logs. It was still in the pines here. I got microlepidotus chiefly, with some aeneus. [[end page]] 23 [[start page]] March 17, A Cerro San Andres, Michoacan. Spent the night of 16th in Ciudad Hidalgo, and drove on this short chain of peaks. The road is 4 miles west of Hidalgo, turn left and follow road to San Pedro (de Aguarro, of something similar), which is two miles further, on the dirt road. Our camp is further along the same road, 9 miles on. The small village called Rancho de Axolotl is just over the hill from our camp. We drove on a considerable distance further to a goodsized lake, called Laguna Larga, at 9,200 FT. The lake is artificial, the result of damming a small stream between two mountains. I collected Rana pipiens, Sceloporus microlepidotus and an Ambystoma on its shores. Drove with McVaugh to a large sulphur lake, full of boiling holes. It looked like a muddy mess, but the water was not thick at all. A blowhole near the lake was right at boiling, and had been used often to scald feathers off chickens. I caught 2 pipiens on a hillside in a cold spring. A short stop while McVaugh took some specimens of "capulin" the cherry here, netted me a Hyla which to either lafrentzi or eximia. I think I have several of the 1st from here. There was little water here, but an almost dry spring dampened the area slightly. I also picked up a Sceloporus here. Hyla described on next page. March 18, 1949. Cerro San Andres. Followed a stream which empties into the alpine meadow in which we are camped upstream. Found Ambystoma ordinarium, Rana pipiens, and S. microlepidotus along and in the stream. [[end page]]
24 March 17, 1949. - Cerro San Andres. Notes on frog before preservation (Hyla lafrentzi) golden-orange colored around paired dark spots on back. The entire animal has a golden shine in the olive-green skin. The ground color is light green, the side stripe is brownish- green. The dorsal side of the fingers and toes is quite golden colored - or bronzy. March 19, 1949 - Cerro San Andres. Drove to town for supplies with McVaugh, so that I could collect lower down. After going to town we went back up the mountain to a stream at 7,800 feet. Chiefly pine, with some oaks. Floor was heavily covered with pine needles, and there were quite a few rocks on the slope. Turning rocks produced a Conopsis. McVaugh collected a Salvadora bairdii and a Hyla bistincta for me on the slopes. I caught another of the small Hyla, which are either lafrentzi or eximia. The hind leg has T.T. art. to the eye, but they are colored exactly as the lafrentzi from the D.F. March 20, 1949 - Cerro San Andres. Worked up the canyon behind the camp. This canyon is quite damp, and well supplied with springs. There is a fairly deep stream in it, flowing rapidly. Some of the springs are quite hot, practicaly boiling as it comes out. Rana pipiens is very abundant in the stream, and there are many tadpoles in the stream. There are no axolotls in it, however. I got a series of 21 Hyla - again the lafrentzi-eximia thing. They were all under bark on damp logs lying along and [[end page]] 25 [[start page of 25 is transcribed on the next page]] [[inserted scrap of a paper listing expenses is covering a text]] [[end page]]
24 [[start page of 24 is transcribed on the previous page]] [[end page]] 25 [[start page]] March 20, 1949, cont. across the stream. There were several times 3, 4 or 5 under a single piece of bark. Told an Indian boy I wanted some axolotls from the lake at the rancho, and he brought in 37 salamanders and 4 frogs. He said they came from the lake. They were all transformed but one. March 21, 1949, - Cerro San Andres. Went to the lake to check on the boy. Found that he had gotten the Ambystoma by turning over rocks and logs at the edge of the lakes there, not in the water. I got an [[Gatra?]] series there under logs, as much as 300 yds from the water. I also got Pseudoeurycea bellii under the logs. The Ambystoma vary much in color, some practically lack yellow, other are liberally spotted with yellow. They are quite abundant there. There are axolotls there also, I took several from the stream between the two lakes. The second lake is rapidly drying up, which may be a factor in transformation. Pipiens, pipiens tads, and a much larger tad were plentiful along the stream and in the lake. March 22, 1949. Enroute. Picked up a Pituophis D.O.R. Stopped for the night at lake Patzcuaro. March 23, 1949 -Enroute. Collected a Conopsis under a rock at Patzcuara. He was quite brown, while all the others have been gray. [[end page]]
[[a scrap of paper]] [[?]]GAGE - 58.0 at CAM[[P]] [[?]] 67.0 - SAN PEDRO DG Apuarro 69.6 AT HGWY. 73.5 [[?]]AIPALLO [[ end of a scrap of paper]]
26 March 23, 1949. - cont. Drove to Ciudad Guzman, turning off the hghy somewhat short of the hghy to Atitlan. The road runs past two vast dry lakes, one almost immediately off the main hghy to Guadalajara. There is a short stretch of mt. road before we came down into the flat. We stayed low past a second dry lake and Sayula, then climbed a low range of mts to Guzman. We overnighted in Guzman. (Hotel Anguiano-the worst yet). March 24, 1949. - Nevado De Colima The road to the mountain is the first one to the right from the SW corner of the plaza in Guzman. It follows an old dry creek bed(probably flooded in the rainy season) to the hills. Our camp site is on the NW slope of the mountain, with the peak not visible. It is shut off by a long high escarpment. The road passes thru Sayayula? and Jasmin to El Isolte and ends there at an old sawmill. Water for the town must come down from high in the mountain via an aqueduct made of hollowed logs. This is our H2O supply here. Dr. McVaugh caught an Aeneus for me about 7600 FT., on the road up. Got 2 Eumeces and a Scelop micro. at the old mill. We made camp in the dirtiest, driest spot yet. March 25, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Spent the whole day working up and down hillsides and canyons, turning logs and ripping bark. Got two Scelops micros. This is the dry season here with a vengeance. There is no dampness anywhere. I worked just as hard if not harder here than anyplace yet, but [[end page]] 27 [[start page]] March 25 - 1949, cont. got nothing. There was no "little rainy season" here this year - no rain in January - and the result is nothing stirring. March 26, 1949 - Nevado De Colima. Went up the aqueduct which supplies this - whole area with water to its source. This is about 1500 FT higher and about 2 miles SE of El Isolte. The water is caught almost immediately after flowing out of the ground and piped away, so this is just as dry an area as the rest of the mountain. I cought one Pseudoeurycea bellii to prove I put in a day's work. He was under a log very near the aqueduct. The area immediately about the spring is enterable only by the ladder, and is not grazed by cattle. Urtica, the nettle, is abundant and painful. Helmut says he has never hit it in Mexico before this. The grass is high and quite green, and bushes are numerous and large. It was still too dry for me, however. March 27, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Tried bromeliad collecting today, after getting another belii under a log in a deep canyon. This species is apparently inured to drying, and can stand much more of it than any other species I've seen down here. The bromeliads produced nothing. They seem to be quite specific in their choice of host tree, being confined to oaks, and possibly to one species of them. They don't grow on pines or eucalyptus at all. The bromeliads are quite dry, with no real pools, just moisture at the bottoms of the leaves. [[end page]]
28 March 28, 1949 - Nevado de Colima. Turning logs and tore up bromeliads all day with no luck at all. A complete blank. Went down to about 7000 FT., but found no water or lessening of the dryness. There is much cover here, and the life is probably tremendous in the rainy season. The bird life is abundant even now, with more species than I have noticed before elsewhere. March 29, 1949 - San Gabriel, Jalisco, 4000 FT. Drove from El Isolte to the main road to Toliman, and followed it to Jasmin, and past. A fork in the road took us in the wrong direction (just west of Jasmin, near volcano, left to Toliman, right to San Gabriel). We learned of San Gabriel and drove here instead of to Toliman, as planned. Drove north of the village, which is in a terrifically parched, dry and dusty valley between the ranges of the Nevado de Colima & the next range west, for the mastos to set traps. I walked over a rocky hillside which is almost definitely a hibernation site and would probably be a gold mine during the first rains. There are many rock outcroppings with crevices running deeply beneath. I found several shed skins of Conopsis or Toluca size under rocks. Hooper saw a small brown snake which he couldn't catch. On the way back to town we stopped by a small water hole, originally about 15-20 feet wide, now shrunk to a shallow pool about 3 inches deep and 4-5 feet wide. I found 2 Scelops under rocks, and a very large rock near the pool covered [[end page]] 29 [[start page]] March 29 -cont. a very dormant young Kinosternon. He was partially in and out of a small hole well under, the rock. His eyes were completely sealed shut. Helmut returned, and we drove to town. March 30, 1949. - San Gabriel, Jalisco, 4000 FT. Went out with the mastos to trap locality, which was on the hillside mentioned yesterday, and turned rocks in the early morning. Got 2 Scelops and a good size Cnemidophorus, all under rocks on the edge of a corn field. When we got back to town, I went west along the small stream which supplies the town's H2O. It is fairly rapidly flowing stream, which occasionally forms a good sized pool with quiet water. The first rock I turned produced a batch of Bufo, all recently transformed. The first rock hid 12. The next big rock hid 13, the next 15, and one 18. I got a Series immediately and stopped collecting them. The stream is full of tadpoles. The rock walls which mark the hacienda boundaries on both sides of the stream were liberally supplied with lizards, Cnemidophorus, Sceloporus, and Anolis. I saw none of the Iguana which the local people say are common here. I got a Scelop & a Cnemidophorus. I entered a small banana grove and found a Hyla in the base of a leaf frond, but could find no more than one.. Took the gun and dipnet in the P.M., and shot 2 Anoles, a Scelop & a Cnemidophorus. Dipped out a fish collection and a batch of tadpoles. [[end page]]
30 March 30, cont. I have seen the Cnemidophorus here run on their hind legs alone several times. The body is not lifted high, however- the forelegs are just lifted up and were along side the body. A Sceloporus I saw did not hesitate to dive into the stream and swim to the other bank when it spotted me. I shot him on the far bank. There were very few frogs along the stream. 2 which I saw dive and waited for. were almost certainly R. pipiens, altho I didn't get either. I think all toads are Pipiens, altho I saw a few very tiny black ones, probably Bufo. March 31, 1949 - San Gabriel. Helmut brought in a Sceloporus he caught in his trap, a mile N. of town. I spent the morning taking care of the specimens I got here, and we drove to Guzman for the night. McVaugh got a Storeria storerioides on Colima for me. It has only 5 labials (7 in species). April 1, 1949 - En Route. Spent the A.M. in Guzman buying supplies, etc. Drove to NE slope of the Nevado, by a very roundabout route. The allweather road from Guzman to San Gabriel goes south from G. to the foot of the Nevado, where a junction goes one way to Atenquique and the other to S. Gabriel. The latter follows the foothills to Los Alpes, where it joins our old road to S.G. A bridge at Los Alpes is missing, thus the allweather road cannot be used all the way. About 2 miles short of Los Alpes a road goes left to a sawmill, and then on up the Mt. [[end page]] 31 [[start page]] April 1, 1949. (cont.) to 10,000 FT. This road is too steep about 7500 FT. for our type of truck, altho the lumber trucks go right on up. We camped at about 7000 FT. April 2, 1949 -Nevado de Colima. I went downhill today, because of my previous experiences at the high alt. on this Mt. I, dropped down to the tree line going down, where open grassy fields begin (about 6800 FT.) These fields are strewn with rocks. They (the fields) are closely cropped by cattle. A log at the root of a steep hill covered a small Crotalus, which had just finished shedding his skin, the cast lying beside him. The rocks yielded two species of Sceloporus, Ferrariperezi and Scalaris? The latter was quite common, and I picked up a small series as I followed the path around the hills. They were all under rocks and logs, in open fields. I continued on down the mt. almost to the flat valley, at 6500 FT. A very deep valley came off the mountain from very high, and continued its cut to the flatlands. I went down into it, and turned rocks, which were numerous. I found 4 Conopsis under these rocks, most of them on the canyon side only a little above the stream bed. The stream was perfectly dry, of course, as is all of this mountain. We left here about 4 oclock, and went to Guzman for water. Then we drove west on the dry weather road to San Gabriel, driving to about 6500 FT. We made camp about 6:30 under the foothills of the range directly to the north of the Nevado. [[end page]]
32 April 3, 1949 - 10 mi. W. of C. Guzman. Found 3 Eumeces and one Scelop under rocks and logs. we are still in fairly flat country, although the foothills go up 1500-2000 FT. right behind us. The grass here is also heavily grazed. All the Eumeces were in the woods on the foothills, while the Scelop. was under a rock in the level grazed field. Saw another here I didn't get. It went dawn a gopher hole. Drove back to Guzman at noon and picked up the botanists. Drove to Guadalajara directly, and spent the night. April 4, 1949. Spent entire day in Guadalajara. Learned from Helmut that there are two Miradors in Veracruz which have both been type localities. One is between Jalapa & V.C., the other between Cordoba & Jalapa. One is the former property of part of Helmut's family, and served as a collecting place for several German collectors. One is humid & moist tropical, the other is quite dry. [[end page]] 33 [[start page]] April 5, 1949. - Autlan. I rode with the botanists, and we had a flat tire about halfway down. As a result, we didn't get to Autlan till after 5. Went out N of Autlan with the mastos to set traps. Saw two lizards, didn't get either, because of the proximity of rock fences. Found a sago snake skin under a rock. April 6, 1949. Autlan and 2 mi. N. of La Resolana. Went out with the mastos before sunup, and had to wait for sufficient light to collect. As soon as there was light enough, I turned rocks and got a Cnemidophorus gularis. It was quite chilly, and I saw nothing else. This locality is on the main road- Autlan- Guadalajara- and is very dry valley between very dry hills, all covered with mesquite and cactus. There is a large river several miles to the north, which seems to be the total water supply hereabouts. After returning to Autlan, we drove south along the highway from Autlan to Manzanillo, going to a small town called La Resolana, which is not on the hghy, as shown in the 3A map, but somewhat south. We tried to find a road from here up the Sierra de Autlan, but local inquiry showed a complete lack of such, unless we go practically into Manzanillo, and would take 20 hrs. We decided against this and returned to the hghy, driving back towards Autlan. We crossed 2 mt. streams on the way, and camped at the third we crossed. It is a water truck filling stop, fixed up with pipes to fill the truck. The stream continues on across the road and [[end page]]
34 April 6, 1949. cont. drops a short distance into the valley. The altitude here is 1500 FT. Just across the road from camp is a swampy area, with a tropical aspect. Many lianas and bromeliads in the trees, immense legumes, and so on. It was a rich area herpetologically. Later I got several Hyla, Leptodactylus, Agalychnis, Bufo, Leptodeira, etc. in it. 2 of the 4 Leptodeira maculata taken were in the bases of elephant ear plants. The other 2 under logs. The Hyla, (smithi I think) were amazingly abundant in the bases of the elephant ear, 2 or 3 to a leaf. I got the H. smithi + some very tiny Leptodactylus on the 6th, but when I preserved them the next day, the sun got to them in late afternoon, and dried them out pretty thoroly. Kept them - may be good skeletal material. Got a Bufo at night crossing the road. April 7, 1949. -2 mi. N of La Resolana, 1500 FT. Spent the entire day in the tropical area, except for some lizard shooting in the dry slopes which surround the swampy ground. Ameiva, Anolis, 2 kinds of Cnemidophorus and Scelops are here. I also got a large Pipiens under a log in the dryer area. Got the 4 snakes on this date, as above. There were many fish in the streams, all Minnows. The trees were full of parrots, solitaires, and dozens of others. It was one of the most delightful places I've hit, and the only thing wrong is that it is too small. [[end page]] 35 [[start page]] April 8, 1949 - 2 mi. N. of La Resolana. I returned to the same area to help the botanists collect some of the elephant ear (their number on it is [[missing]]) in which I found so much. I got more of the frogs to replace the dried series, and also got some of the grasshoppers which live in the leaves. We left here in the afternoon and drove to the highest point on the road, where we stopped to collect. It is quite dry, with scrubby oak cover, also some of the barrancas are somewhat more moist. The hills are quite bare. I picked up an Anolis. We drove into Autlan for the night, and I spent most of evening working on specimens. April 3, 1949 - Autlan, 3000 Ft. Spent the entire day cataloging and preserving what I've collected recently. I've been waiting for a chance to fix things right for 2 weeks, and I can carry live live stuff no longer. We leave Monday to spend the week high in the Sierra de Autlan, and specimens will be out of place in the mule train. April 10, 1949 - Autlan, 3000 FT. Drove with the jefes to Chiante to arrange for pack animals for the trip up the Sierra. I didn't go all the way, however, because of the good collecting along the way. The road goes 8 mi. E of Autlan, then about 6 mi. S. to Chiante. It is in the valley most of of the way, thru dry, dusty country, with thorny bushes, mesquite and some cacti. There is lovely yellow flowering tree, called Primavera, all along the road. [[end page]]
36 April 10, 1949, - cont. The roads are lined with [[stricken]]sto(ink blot)[[/stricken]] stone fences and thorny bushes, and these are alive with lizards. Ameiva and Cnemidophorus abound on the ground, and the fences have Ctenosaura every few feet. I collected a series of the Ctenosaurs, with a wonderful color variation. 2 of the 12 collected were shot out of a tree, one in a hole about 35 feet up, the other on a limb about 20 feet up. The tree was in the middle of a rancho yard, which is fairly well surrounded by houses. They live on houses and barn roofs quite commonly. They lie on the tops of the stone fences, with their heads raised, and slightly raised on the fore limbs. They are easily visible for a long distance. I got a Cnemidophorus along the road, and R. pipiens under a log near a small stream which purports to have turtles, altho I saw none. Returned to town about 2 P.M, and spent the rest of the day fixing up the Ctenosaurs. April 11, 1949. Enroute to Sierra. Drove to Chiante where we loaded our gear on mules, left the truck, and started up the mountain. On the way up we passed thru the following small villages: The trail winds thru passes between mountains which still perpetuate the dry look of the valley. There is much [[strikeout]]dry[[/strikeout]] scrub oak and dry grass. I collected an Anolis in an elephant ear, in a dry creek bed, about 3500 ft. We hit oak forest about [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 April 11, 1949, Sierra de Autlan. 4600 ft., and pines at about [[stricken]] We camped earlier than was necessary in a valley that contained a good number of springs giving rise to small streams, which combine into a good sized river. I found a Rhadinaea under the first log I turned, and found nothing else the rest of the night. The altitude of this camp was 5000 FT., and the area is called Manantlan by the natives. April 12, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan, 7600 Ft. We continued our trip on up to 7600 feet today, up a cañada which contained considerable water. We climbed the hills to the east of Manantlan. The cañada is the first to the east of the crest. We went along the mountain about 2-3 miles and camped near a spring. The woods are not heavy, but the trees are large and tall. The undergrowth is not thick except in the floor of the valley. After lunch, I looked about for good collecting places, and ended up climbing the hill. It is quite steep, and it took me 2 hrs to go up. It is the highest point in this vicinity, however, and presents an admirable view. The natives say that on a good day one can see both Manzanillo and Guadalajara from it. I couldn't. I found a Gerrhonotus imbricatus at an altitude of 9200 Ft., under a log. Helmut caught an Anolis for me at the camp this A.M. before we left for uphill.
38 April 13, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan This area, altho wet, has been heavily burned over recently - within 2 [[ink blot]] yrs or less, I would judge, and burned hard. All of the logs are burned, some clear thru. I believe that this heavy and according to Indians, repeated burning is very detrimental to herp stuff. I think it cleans it out of the area, and they are awfully slow to come back. It may explain the paucity of material here. Anyway, I worked hard all day, and got nothing at all. Helmut got me another Gerrhonotus on the mountain, however, so the day wasn't wasted. April 14, 1949. Sierra de Autlan. Worked southeast of camp along the stream bed, finding many very good places for specimens, wonderful habitats, and so on. After a full morning's work I caught a Salvadora drinking at a small pool of water in a dry section of the creek. It is amazing that such good typical habitat can be so barren of specimens. Went downstream in the afternoon and met Bob Wilburn, all excited. He had found salamanders in the stream. He had two for me, and they were Gilled Ambystoma. They were living in the quiet pools formed occasionally by rapidly flowing stream. I collected a couple more, and went to camp to make a dip net to facilitate getting a series. The thing is undoubtedly new. Bob also killed a Thamnophis for me which had been lying alongside a pool. He also got hyla from a tree he cut down. [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 April 14, 1949 - Sierra De Autlan (cont.) I fashioned a dip net out of cheescloth and spent the night catching a series of the Ambystoma. After getting the adults I found juveniles in muddy pools upstream, and I got a few of them. There seems to be no sign of sexual activity at this time, and the juveniles may be from this year's hatch, which would give them enough time to grow up before the rains and heavy swollen streams appear. April 15, 1949. - Sierra De Autlan. Spent the morning preparing the salamanders. I tried a new technique, in order to get a full tail, with outstanding fins & gills. It worked quite well. Instead of using a pan to fix them, I dropped them in a large can of formalin, with nothing to touch them. The gills flared out and the tail fin was fully expanded. They fixed that way fairly well. The same thing worked fairly well for the juveniles I have. Helmut and I went out and took pictures of the pools this P.M. He went to a lot of trouble and hard work, and I think they'll be fine. I then collected a few more of the salamanders, took notes on them and their habitat and so on. The botanist brought in a scelop? and Storeria from the top of the Mt., and Helmut brought in a Storeria he found on the trail. The Storeria key to Storerioides, but they sure don't look like the one I got on Colima. These Autlan specimens will all bear closer checking.
40 April 16, 1949.- Sierra De Altlan. Packed up and left camp today. The mule drivers were slow getting up the mountain and slower getting packed, so we finally got at 12:30. I shot a Sceloporus on the way to sun at about 7500 FT., and one of the Indian muledrivers picked up an Anolis at about 4600FT. To get to our locality, one goes from Charte thru La Cedra and Tecopatlan to the group of ranches called Manantzan. We were in the mountains to the east of Manantzan. There are number of springs in the NW corner of the valley in which Manantzan is located, and the trail up the Mt. passes thru this area. Our camp, at 7600 FT., was to the Southeast of Manantzan. The Indians in the pack train know what the salamanders were, calling them axolotls. They told me that the stream from which I took them is the only one in this entire region, that they had never seen them elsewhere. The stream flows into Rio Armeria, which is Pacific drainage directly. Thus it could seem that this is a totally isolated, endemic population. April 17, 1949- Autlan & Guadalajara. The boy in the hotel at Autlan, the sun of the owner, is a bright lad, and when he saw a snake which some people had in the hotel, he told them of me. They brought it in for me to see, and it was a good big sea snake which they had gotten at Barra Navidad, a resort on the ocean. They were talking it to the [[end page]] 41 [[a scrap of paper]] La Cedra Tecopotlan Manantlan Rancho M of Chante C. del Perote is to the north nothwest C. de Tecolote is west . over [[end of a scrap of paper]] [[start page of 41 was transcribed on the next page]] [[end page]]
40 [[On a previous page there is the beginning of the transcription from April 16, 1949]] April 16, 1949- Sierra De Altan. Packed up and left camp today. The mule drivers were slow getting up the mountain and slower getting packed, so we finally left at 12:30. I saw a Sceloporus on the way down, at about 7500 FT., one of the Indian mule drivers picked up an Anolis at about 4600 FT. To get to our locality, one goes from Chante thru La Cedra and Tecomatlan to a group of ranches called Manantlan. We were in the mountains to the east of Manantlan. There are a number of springs in the NW corner of the valley in which Manantlan is located, and the trail up the MT. posses thru this area. Our camp at 2600{?} FT., was to the southeast of Manantlan. The Indians in the pack train know what the salamanders were, calling them axolotls. They told me that the stream from which I took them is the only one in this entire region, that they had never seen them elsewhere. The stream flows into the Rio Armeria, which is Pacific Drainage Directly. Thus it could seem that this is totally isolated, endemic population. April 17, 1949- Autlan + Guadalajara The boy in the hotel in at Autlan, the son of the owner, is a bright lad, and when he saw a snake which some people had in the hotel, he told them of me. They brought it in for me to see, and it was a good big sea snake which they had gotten at Barra Navidad, a resort on the ocean. They were taking it to the [[end page]] 41 [[start page]] April 17, 1949, cont. museum at Guadalajara. I took notes on it and preserved it properly for them. Mac got some colored pictures of it for me. We drove to Guadalajara this P.M. April 18, 1949.- Guadalajara. Spent day grubbing thru bookstores. Found one horrible old thing I bought for its short piece on the relations of man and snakes. April 19, 1949.- Guadalajara. Helmut and I went out to to a Barranca which is locally called " Barranca Ibarra", which is the same name as Bailey's type locality or [[underlined]]Ctenosaurs palkeri[[/underlined]], whether its the same locality or not. We ended up on the top of the canyon, however, so we had to walk down the old post road to Aguascalientes. The distance, however defeated us, so we had to turn back. People told us that there [[underlined]]are[[/underlined]] large lizards in the bottom of the canyon, and we plan to drive there next trip in. A road runs to the powerhouse on the dam which we could see far below, and we will come back on that. I got a small Anolis on the top of the hill. I also saw Cnemidophorus, which would have been topotypes, but I didn't get any of them. April 20, 1949 - Guadalajara and Ameca. Drove to Ameca in the P.M. after waiting all day to get started. The hghwy to Telquila is paved, and we followed it for about 20 miles, turning off on an [[end page]]
[[Scrap of paper]] [[?]] - Nevado & Valemas is due east [[end of paper]]
42 April 29, 1949, cont. improved road to Ameca. It is now in the process of construction, but is a fairly good road already. I saw turtles in the roadside ponds and creeks, but we didn't stop. We put up in the Hotel Regis in Ameca. April 21, 1949. - Ameca. Went out with the mastos, and hunted along a small creek while they ran their traps. It was about 7 mi. W. of Ameca, on one of the detours made for the new road, which is still in the process of building here. The road fords a small stream, and I got out there. I turned rocks along the stream, but found nothing for 3/4 of an hour. I then walked along a hillside, and finally got a snake (sp.?) under a rock where the creek cut over to the hillside. I later got a [[underlined]]Sceloporus ferraiperezi{?}[[/underlined]] near the creek. Frogs jumped in to the creek, I think they were pipiens. After breakfast, I took the truck and drove around trying to find a place to collect. I tried going north, but there were no good roads. I finally ended up on the "Camino Real", the old Spanish road to the west. I followed it for 10 miles, until it forded the Rio Ameca. I didn't chance the ford. I shot several Ctenosaura off stone fences along the road. I parked on the way back and walked to the river. It was chockful of tadpoles. A short way ^upstream from where I parked (again about 7 mi. W., this time N. of the river.), I found [[stricken]]an[[/stricken]] a slough, which produced Bufo, Rana, Hyla, and Leptodactylus. I saw snake trails, and shed skins, but [[end page]] 43 [[start page]] April 21, 1949.- cont. no snakes. April 22, 1949. - Ameca. The mastos went out last night and took the truck, staying the full night, expecting to be back for breakfast. Came breakfast and they didn't show, so I waited. They finally came in at noon, and I couldn't go out and achieve anything before time for dinner. That took till 3 o'clock - by then the mastos were ready to go again. My day was totally wasted, [[stricken]]expc[[/stricken] except for some rana & Bufo I got when I went out with the mastos. April 23, 1949. - Ameca Bill and I drove E of the city on the old Camino Real today. The road parallels the railroad most of the way across the valley, apparently. There are many stone fences and considerable cover along the road, so Bill rode on the fender for shooting. He shot a Scelop and a Cnemidophorus. About 5 1/2 - 6 mi. E. of Ameca, the road forks and one branch goes South across the R.R. we went that way, picking up a young fellow as we went. He spent the rest of the morning with us, catching turtles, etc. We passed thru a ranch called San Antonio, and forded the Rio Ameca on [[stricken]]?[[/stricken]] the ranch's south edge. We stopped there to collect. The river has fairly high, clay and sand banks, and runs fairly deeply, in places. Turtles were abundant and I got a series. I saw several snakes in water hyacinth beds, but got only one. [[underlined]]Rana Pipiens[[/underlined]] was very common along the banks. [[end page]]
44 April 24, - Ameca. after the mastos got back in the morning, I took Helmut to the airport to find out about roads to San Sebastian, then took him back to town and went out alone. I went S of town along the road to San Martin Hidalgo and Auran, stepping first about a halfmile S of the airport. Saw 2 Cove's deer, and shot at them, but missed. From there I drove about 2 mi further South and stopped at a bridge which had a small pond of stagnant water, all that was left of a goodsized creek. I followed the creek bed both ways from the road, collecting Scelups & Cnemidocs When I returned to the small pool I scared up and caught a 5 1/2 foot Masticophs flagellum. R. cipiens was quite abundant around this pool. Returned to town, as it was time for the mastos to go out again. April 25, 1949 - Ameca- Guadalajara. We left Ameca after the mastos finished skinning. While I waited I drove west again along the Camino Real and shot 4 more Ctenosaurs. I kept one whole specimen and preserved the rest. as skulls only, taking data on them first. They were, as usual, on stone fences along the road. The valley of Ameca is a very difficult one to collect in, because of the intense cultivation it has undergone. The river is used in all parts of the valley for irrigation, and the whole valley is covered with sugar cane, corn, and wheat. One is forced to go a long ways to find a place wild enough to collect [[end page]] 45 [[start page]] April 25, 1949, cont. in. The whole valley is well populated, and it is practically impossible to stop and collect without spending a half hour explaining what you are doing to someone. Drove south on the Ameca-Autlan road till we picked up the Autlan-Guadalajara hghy, then went to Guadalajara. This is much the better road, but the other will perhaps be better when it is finished. Stayed in the Hotel Mirales in G. April 26, 1949 - Guadalajara Spent day here, waiting for mail for Hooper, altho we had originally planned to go on at noon today. April 27, 1949 - Guadalajara - Tepic, Nay. We left here early this morning, on the Guad-Tepic Hghy. We continued clear to Tepic, where we picked up a road to the south which took us, eventually, to a small place called San Jose Del Conde by way of Compostela. This was as close as we could got to the Sierra San Sebastian by truck. We camped a short way south of town and waited till the next day to try to get mules. We found a Masticophis flagellum Dor just outside of Ixtlan, Nayarit. The buzzards had eaten him pretty badly, but I kept him all for close inspection later. Hooper shot a Sceloporus for me just outside Compostela. The country here in Nayarit is almost a steady picture of isolated mountains and large, fertile valleys. the mountains look to be quite bare and dry for the most part, altho some have scrub oak and pine
46 April 27, 1949. - cont. on them. Quite a few of the streams we crossed have water in them. April 28, 1949 - 1 mi. SW of San Jose Del Conde, 3000 ft. Macintosh brought in a Phyllodactylus lanei which he had caught in a mouse trap during the night. This is a very dry campsite, amongst mesquite and cacti, with little or no cover. There are deeper valleys on either side of the ridge we are on and there is water in these. I collected small series of the Cnemidops and Scelops in the canyon to the west of the camp, as well as an Anolis and some Pipiens. When I returned to camp, the mastos told me of a barranca east of the camp, with much water, bananas, and elephant ears. I went over, and found a green spring fed valley, with much life. I got Agalychnis, Hyla and Leptodeira, in the banana boles and elephant ears. We drove back to San Jose Del Conde, and took a road to the east, which went directly to the highway by way of Terran, coming out SE of Santa Isabel. We drove out the highway about 3 miles N. of Santa Isabel and made camp. April 29, 1949 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel, 3800 ft. Our camp is in a creek bed just to the east of the road, and I followed this creek down to a falls, which I circled, coming out in a banana grove. I shot small series of the Scelops & Cnemidops, and also picked [[end page]] 47 [[start page]] April 29, 1949- cont. up an Anolis & a Ctenosaura. The latter was on rocks high on a bluff. There is considerable permanent, flowing water at this locality. It flows to rapidly and deeply, however, that it is rather discouraging to new life. All rocks are buried in sand and are unturnable. I got a little Eleutherodactylus under a rock in the afternoon, along the river, and also got another Agalychnis. April 30, 1949. - 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel. Since I collected most of the common stuff here yesterday, I hunted today for the rest of the herp fauna. I got only a Scelop fokits skull besides a snake which looks like Hypsiglena affinis, dead in a path, and pretty badly crushed. I've two of them now, and they had been previously reported from only two localities in Mexico. It was in a path high on a hill, covered with long grass. That was all I found all day. May 1, 1949. Got a late start, as the mastos got back quite late. I went east of the highway to the high hills there. I saw Ctenosaurs on the rocks, but could get none. I shot a Scelop there also. Most of the area was severely burned over, and there were no lizards in the burned areas. Several of the stream cut valleys have water flowing in them, and I followed one up. Found Pipiens [[end page]]
48 in it, as well as Amphibian egg masses just in the process of hatching. They were clumped, with a single embryo, about 1/4 inch long, each jelly ball. May 2, 1949 - Ixtlan, Nayarit. Drove to Ixtlan about noon, and put up at the Hotel Madrid, which is a good place not to stay. The sanitary facilities are - to say the most inadequate. Rode along with the mastos 1 mi. E of town, and went down along the river. The stream here is quite sluggish and slow, with many rocks on the banks, and stagnant pools along the sides. This combination produced Kingsternon, Leptodeira, Bufo, Hyla, and Leptodactylus in an hour and a half. Most came from under rocks along the stream, in the stagnant pools. May 3, 1949- Ixtlan. I was incapacitated most of the day, moving a heel put on my shoe. I preserved what I had and brought my notes up to date. Went out to the same place on the river and picked up 2 more Leptodeira and 3 Leptodactylus. MacIntosh got another Bufo and 3 Leptodacs. [[end page]] 49 [[start page]] [[blank page]]
50 [[blank page]] [[end page]] 51 [[start page]] [[blank page]]
180 [[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] ITINERARY Feb. 13 - Mt. Vernon, Illinois " 16- Little Rock, Arkansas " 17- Jacksonville, Texas " 18- Laredo, Texas " 19- Linares, Nugvo Leon " 20- Tamazuncnale, San Luiz Porost " 21-28- Mexico City, D.F. March 1, - Puebla, Puebla " 2,-4- Cofre De Perote, Veracruz " 5, Las Vegas, V.C. " 6, Jalapa, V.C. " 7. Plan Del Rio, V.C. " 8, Cordoba, V.C. " 9- Potrero Vieto, V.C. " 10-13- Mexico City. " 14-15- Nevada De Toluca, Mexico. " 16- Ciudad Hidalgo, Micnoacan " 17-21 - Cerro San Andres, Michoacan. " 22 - Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan. " 23 - Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco " 24-28 - El Isalte, Nevado De Colima, Jalisco. " 29 -30 - San Gabriel, Jalisco. " 31 - Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco April 1 - Nevado De Colima, Jalisco. " 2- 6 mi. W. Of Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco. " 3-4 - Guadalajara, Jalisco. " 5 - Autlan, Jalisco. " 6-7 2 mi. N. of LaResolana, Jalisco. " 8-10 Autlan, Jalisco " 11-15 Sierra De Autlan, Jalisco. " 16 - Rutlan, Jal. " 17 -19 Guadalajara, Jal. " 20 - 24 Ameca, Jalisco. " 25 - 27 Guadalajara, Jal. " 28 - 1 mi. SE of San Jose del Conde, Nayarit. " 29 - May 1 3 mi. N of Santa Isabel, Nayarit. May 2-3 Ixtlan, Nayarit. May 4 Guadalajara, Jal. May 5 Nevado De Colima, Jal. May 6-7 Ciudad Guzman, Jal. May 8 Nevado De Colima, Jal. " 9-10- Guadalajara, Jal. " 11 9 mi. W. of Zamora, Michoacan " 12 -14 4 mi. S. of Patzcuaro, Michoacan. [[end page]]
ITINERARY (cont.) May 15-17 Mexico City, D.F. " 18 Zimapan, Hidalgo. " 19-20 Pano Ayuctle, Tamaulipas " 21 Enroute " 22 Mt. Vernon, Illinois " 23 Ann Arbor, Michigan [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Map drawing- location of: Los Pescados, Camp site 10,000, Los Conejos, Sierra de Agua, Perote and Cofre de Perote 14,000; position of the North]] [[end page]]
[[Record's back cover]]