Field notebook, Chile, 1945

ID: SIA Acc. 11-085

Creator: Chile -- 1945

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1945

Citation: Edward Albert Chapin Field Notebooks, 1937-1947

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Abstract

Chapin traveled to Chile at the invitation of the Chile's Ministry of Agriculture to study insect damage to forests in the country. Entries are chronological and listed by date. Chapin discusses his travel by plane to Chile; travel through the country by train; specimens collected and their corresponding locations; descriptions of the forests of the country; interactions with colleagues; local foods tried; and local sites and towns visited. He collects in the vicinity of Puerto Montt, Puerto Varas, Puerto Octay, Valdivia, Temuco, and Termas de Puyehue. Photograph subject matter include local sites, locations visited, collecting sites, and colleagues (identified in captions). Materials collected include Chilean news clippings, photographs, and official papers.

Date Range

1945

Start Date

Feb 08, 1945

End Date

Apr 08, 1945

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.

Topic

  • Entomology
  • Parasitic insects
  • Insect-plant relationships
  • Plant Inspection
  • Entomologists

Place

  • Valdivia
  • Puerto Varas
  • Chile
  • Temuco
  • Puerto Montt
  • Puerto Octay
  • Nielol

Form/Genre

  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary
  • clippings (information artifacts)
  • Black-and-white photographs

Accession #

SIA Acc. 11-085

Collection name

Edward Albert Chapin Field Notebooks, 1937-1947

Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Sublocation

Box 1 Folder 3

[[IMAGE: Portion of page torn out of newspaper. Masthead reads as follows:]] EL MERCURIO Santiago de Chile, martes 3 de abril de 1945 [[One article has been marked:]] SEMINARIO ENTO-FITOPATOLOGICO Celebra hoy martes 3, a las 6.30 P.M., su primera sesión del año en el local de la Escuela de Agronomía. Quinta Normal, frente a Compañía. En esta oportunidad el entomológo norteamericano. Dr. Edward a Chapin, jefe de la División de Insectos del Museo Nacional de EE.UU, disertará sobre "Control biológico", tema de vasto interés agricola y científico que se ve todavía más realzado por el prestigio y reconocida capacidad del conferenciante. Se nos encurga inviter a los interesados.
[[IMAGE: Portion of page torn out of newspaper. Masthead reads as follows:]] EL CORREO DE VALDIVIA VALDIVIA (Chile) - DOMINGO 4 DE MARZO DE 1945 [[One article is complete:]] LAS DOS ULTIMAS ELECCIONES PA RLAMENTARIAS ARROJARON EN LA PROVINCIA DE VALDIVIA RESULTA DOS FAVORABLES A LA IZQUIERDA La de 1941 fué una "lucha muer te" entre la Izquierda y la Derecha. Las elecciones generales de Senadores y Diputados del año 1937 dieron como resultado una mayoria derechista provincial en el Senado y una igualdad de condiciones en la Camara de Diputados. Tenemos que fueron elegidos los senadores señores Carlos Haverbeck, liberal; José Maza, liberal; Alejo Lira Infante, conservador; Alfonso Bórquez y Luis Ambrosio Concha, radicales. Diputados fueron ungidos los señores Carlos Acharán Arce, liberal Juan Osorio Gómez, demócrata; Luis Urrutia Ibáñez, conservador; Pelegrín Meza, radical; Pedro Castelblanco, radical; Manuel Antonio Luna, democrático; Jorge Dowling, socialista, y Francisco Javier Labbé, conservador. Entre los triunfos electorales de esa lucha eleccionaria, se destaca el obtenido por el soicalista Jorge Dowling, yá que dicha organización política se debatia en ese entonces entre pañales y su acción organizativa se realizaba a hurtadillas para evadir la vigilancia y persecusión del régimen imperante. Otro triunfo que alcanzó resonancia y que fué recibido con júbilo por las fuerzas de la Izquierda, fué el del democrático don Manuel Antonio Luna, que en anteriores elecciones había salido derrotado por divisions de su Partido. Aunque en esta oportunidad los democráticos estaban divdidos en tres fracciones, a saber: democráticos, demócratas y democracia unificada, logró imponerse para, en su corta actuación en el Parlamento, convertirse en el apóstol de la honradez parlamentaria. Su repentina muerte provocó una elección extraordinaria, en la que triunfó el señor Samuel Valck. En esa occasion tuvimos ocho diputados, porque Valdivia abarcaba hasta lo que es hoy la Provincia de Osorno. LA LUCHA DEL AÑO 1941 El triunfo del Frente Popular en la elección Presidencial del año 38, hizo que en la lucha eleccionaria de diputados del año 1941, la Izquierda y la Derecha se presentaron cada cual férreamente unidas, para lograr la mayoría en el Parlamento. Ese año correspondió a Valdivia elegir cinco parlamentarios. La propaganda y agitación fué mucho más intensa por ambas combinaciones. Fueron cuatro listas, con los siguientes candidatos: LA NUMERO UNO Eduardo Rodríguez Mazer, socialista; Clemente Escobar Delgado, democrático; Pedro Salvadores, socialista; Fortunato Santibáñez, socialista. Esta lista, con un total de 3.891 votos, dió un diputado, el socialista don Eduardo Rodríguez M. LA NUMERO DOS Pedro Castelblanco, radical; Samuel Valck, democrático; Rená Moyano, radical; César Acuña, inconformista; Mario Contreras, comunista. Esta lista, con un total de 6.495 votos, dió dos diputados, los señores Pedro Castelblanco y René Moyano, del Partido Radical. LA NUMERO TRES Carlos Acharán, liberal; Julio Contreras, independiente. Con un total de 2.762 votos, dió un diputado, el señor Carlos Acharán Arce, liberal. LA NUMERO CUATRO La lista cuatro estaba formada por Jorge Bustos León, liberal independiente, y Alfredo Lea Plaza, vanguardista. Dió 2.940 votos, resultando elegido el señor Bustos León, del Partido Liberal. 16.120 ELECTORES En resumen, votaron 16.120 electors, cuyas preferencias favorecieron a la Izquierda con diez mil trescientos ochenta y seis votos, y a la Derecha con cinco mil setecientos dos votos. [[end of newspaper article]]
[[torn page of newsprint-no date, no title of newspaper]] ENTOMOLOGO DE LOS EE. UU. REALIZA UNA VISITA A LA ZONA Una interesante misión cumplirá en nuestra zona el Sr. Edward Chapin Ayer arribó a nuestra ciudad el señor Edward A. Chapin Ph D., entomólogo Jefe del Museo Nacional de Estados Unidos, en Washington, quien fué invitado por el Ministro de Agricultura, señor Manuel Casanueva, durante su visita a dicho país, con el fin de que haga estudios sobre las variedades de insectos en las diversas zonas de nuestro territorio. Este funcionario venía acompañado del señor Raúl Cortés, entomólogo del Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, quien ha sido comisionado por el Gobierno para colaborar en las investigaciones del distinguido visitante. UNA ENTREVISTA En conocimiento de la visita a Valdivia de los señores Chapin y Cortés, nos apresuramos a entrevistarlos en el Hotel Palace, en donde se encuentran hospedados. El señor Edward A. Chapin nos dice que su visita se debe a la gentil invitación que le hiciera el Gobierno chileno por intermedio del Ministro señor Casanueva, quien se impuso de las investigaciones que se realizan en el gran país del Norte sobre la ciencia entomológica. "Mi misión, nos dice nuestro entrevistado, es estudiar cuanto concierne a mis funciones de entomólogo y espero que mis investigaciones reporten algún beneficio para Chile y para mi país. Estoy profundamente agradecido, nos dice el señor Chapin, de la Buena acogida que he tenido en esta tierra, que me recuerda la región de los lagos en mi patria". VISITA A LOS ALREDEDORES Ayer los funcionarios visitantes acompañados del Inspector de Sanidad Vegetal de Valdivia, señor René Salas, realizaron una corta visita a los alrededores de Valdivia, para imponerse de la flora y las caracteristicas que presentan las diferentes especies y que acusan la presencia de insectos. En esta excursión los señores Chapin y Cortés reunieron interesantes datos que luego recopilados con los de las diferentes provincias del país serán presentados al Gobierno chileno. Esta tarde los funcionarios mencionados partirán a Temuco, en donde harán estudios en la zona maderera.
LA PRENSA Osorno, (Chile) jueves 1.o de marzo de 1945
Entomólogo norteamericano William Chapin vistará esta zona para hacer estudios sobre insectos de la madera Próximamente visitará nuestra zona el entomólogo señor Edward A. Chapin, del Museo Nacional de Estados Unidos. Este distinguido científico viajará al sur del país, acompañado por el funcionario del Departamento de Propaganda Agrícola señor Raúl Cortés. La jira del señor Chapin abarcará toda la zona comprendida entre Temuco y Puerto Montt. El viaje obedece al propósito del científico norteamericano de hacer un acabado estudio acerca de la acción beneficiosa y dañina de los insectos chilenos con relación a nuestros bosques. El señor Chapin es considerado como una autoridad en entomología, motivo por el cual, su viaje a nuestra zona debe considerarse como de gran importancia. A su regreso a Santiago levantará un detallado informe al Ministro de Tierras y Colonización acerca de sus observaciones en el terreno mismo. La Oficina del Agrónomo Provincial, que ha recibido una comunicación oficial dando cuenta de esta jira, se ha preparado para dar todas las facilidades necerias para que este distinguido hombre de ciencias lleve a cabo su misión.
^[[Mar 1, 1945]] Entomólogo de Estados Unidos continúa visitando la región HOY SE TRASLADARA A LA ZONA DE PUYEHUE Como informamos oportunamente, se encuentra visitando esta región, el señor William Chapin, entomólogo del Museo Nacional de Estados Unidos, quién estudia las diversas variedades de insectos beneficiosos y perjudiciales de la madera y nuestros bosques, como un medio de completar su estudios sobre la materia y poderlos oportunamente en conocimiento del Ministro de Tierras y Colonización. Después de su visita a la Genética de Cañal Bajo, durante el día de ayer se traslado a Pto. Octay, acompañado del funcionario del Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal señor Raúl Cortés y del Inspector Regional de dichos servicios señor Francisco Teuber Echenique. En el dia de hoy este distinguido visitante y eminente hombre de estudios, continuará visitando la zona y se trasladará a Puyehue, en donda estara posiblemente dos días, imponiéndose detallademente de la acción de los insectos sobre los árboles, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la madera aprovechada por la Fábrica de Madera Terciada de la "Somasur" ubicada en la orilla del Lago Puyehue, imponiéndose en detalle de la acción de los insectos.
[[handwritten notebook page]] Abril 7 p 3 Mercurio(Santiago) Apr. 7. 1945. p. 3 Regresó a EEUU El Dr. E. A. C. Ayer partió de regreso a Estados Unidos, por la [[?via aerea?]], el entomólogo norteamericano Dr E.A.C., Jefe de la División de Insectos del U.S. National Museum de Washington. El Dr. C. visitó durante los ultimos dos meses las prinicipales zonas del país, realizando, por encargo del Gobienino chileno, interesantes estudios particularmente sobre los insectos que atacan a nuestros bosques. Resultado de esos estudios fué un valioso informe entregado por el Dr. Chapin el Ministro de Agricultura el míercoles ultimo, durante un almuerzo privado que este Secretarío de Estado ofreció en un honor.
[[masthead:]] LA PRENSA Osorno, (Chile) viernes 2 de marzo de 1945 La zona de Puyehue visitó ayer entomólogo señor William Chapin HOY CONTINUARIA VIAJE A VALDIVIA Ayer el entomólogo norteamericano, señor William Chapin , acompañado del funcionario del Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, señor Raúl Cortés; el Agente de la Caja de Tierras y Colonización, señor Raúl Corrales y el Jeffe de la Oficina Regional de Sanidad Vegetal, señor Francisco J. Teuber Echenique, visitó la zona de Puyehue. En su visita el señor Chapin llegó hasta los establecimientos industrials de la Somasur, inponiéndose de la acción beneficiosa y prejudicial de los insectos nativos sobre la madera. También visitó el vivero forestall que la Oficina del Agronomó de la Provincia, en colaboración con la Cooperativa Agricola de Entre Lagos, Mantiene en ese lugar. Hoy posiblemente continuará viaje a la provincial de Valdivia.
1 Chile - 1945 Feb. 8. My train was on time in Miami and I took a taxi straight to the Hotel Pittsburger. When I arrived there was no room ready so I sat down to wait for Loomis. He appeared shortly and helped me get my baggage to the PAA office for inspection. All went smoothly since all films and papers had been inspected and sealed by the Washington censor. My baggage weighed in at 23 kgs. and I left all except an overnight bag. My ticket was then checked and I was free for the day. We drove to the Coconut Grove station to spend the day. I wandered around the station building while Loomis did some paper work and then we drove around the station grounds, stopping to collect a few nitidulids and staphs in a pile of decaying palm seeds. At noon we had lunch in a small restaurant run for the benefit of the station employees. In the afternoon Loomis took me to see the plantings of one of the possible sources of natural rubber. We stopped at several likely looking places to look for snails but everything was too dry. At about 5 we drove to Loomis' home and with Mrs Loomis and their son we went to dinner at a Chinese restaurant in Miami. Right after dinner we parted and I went to the hotel and to bed. Feb. 9. I was called at 4 AM to go to the airport. For some reason I resent the 85 cent charge for the trip from the PAA office to the airport in the Company bus. [[image-preprinted flight schedule]] SuMoWe [[?symbol?]]Fr Sa 6:15 ^[[handwritten]] 9.30 [[handwritten]] Lv MIAMI (Pan Am. Fld.), U.S.A. EWT 7:20 Ar CAMAGUEY (Gen. I Agr.), Cuba 75° 7:40 Lv Camaguey (Gen. I. Agr.), Cuba " 9:15 Ar Kingston (Palisadoes F'ld.),Jam. " 9:40 Lv Kingston (Palisadoes F'ld.), Jam." 13:25 Ar Balboa (Albrook F'ld), C.Z. #.." [[image-preprinted flight schedule]] At no other airport that I know of is there a charge for such a trip. Our plane was not ready on time so we sat and started to get acquainted. One of the passengers was Juan Varleta, a cousin of Raúl Cortés, on his way home to Santiago. Another was Alice Bennett, a clerk from Ottawa going to take a job in the British Embassy in Santiago. At 9.30 the mechanics released our plane and we started for Camaguey. The airport there was not at all interesting; it was well away from the city and was not at all attractive. Then on to Kingston. Land planes land on the Palisadoes, well down toward Port Royal. Madelaine Hodge was not on duty so I could get no news of anyone on the island. The system has been changed-if you want a drink you go to a small bar at one side of the waiting room. We pushed off for the long hop to Balboa and prepared for lunch which was good as always. Our plane was a four motored Boeing and very comfortable. Bill Komp was at the Balboa airport and after collect-
2 ing my bag we went to the Hotel Tivoli where he had made a reservation for me. Before leaving the airport we learned that there would be no plane the next day so I could have a good night's sleep. I lay down until dinner time, then ate and went to bed. Feb. 10. Komp came to the hotel at 9 and we started out to do some sightseeing. First he did some errands in Panamá City, which merges imperceptibly into Balboa. Next we went to the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. Capt. Mitchener was on duty, otherwise the lab was nearly deserted. I saw the animal rooms and the breeding cages where the mosquitoes are reared for the experimental work with malaria. As Mrs Komp was away, Bill had lunch with me at the hotel. Marston Bates and his wife, who was Nancy Fairchild, were up from Villavicencio and Mrs Fairchild was down from Florida. Nancy had just had her third child. We all ate lunch together and certainly both Marston and Nancy are very attractive. After lunch we called Zetek on the phone, found him in, and went to his home for a short call. We talked about the work at Barro Colorado Island mostly. From there we went to the airport to check my passage for the next day and then out the Canal Road to the first set of locks. We were able to go across the canal and see the beginnings of the duplicate set of locks that is being constructed. Back to the road and on to the Pedro Miguel locks and the Culebra Cut. We stopped to collect at spots along the road and near the Cut we turned in to the grounds of the Plant Industry Experiment Station at Summit. Collecting was not good but I did pick up a few interesting things. From Summit we went back to the hotel for dinner. Feb. 11. Up at 4 AM and to the airport by bus. [[piece of paper with the following table, glued to page, table consists of 4 columns]] Mo Tu Th Sa Su | [[blank]] | [[blank]] | PANAGRA [[dot]] 5:30 |.....|.....| Lv BALBOA (Albrook F'ld), C.Z. [[star]] #..75 [[degrees]] 8:45 |.....|.....| Ar CALI, Colombia [[star]] ... " 9:00 |.....|.....| Lv CALI, Colombia [[star]] ... " .....|.....|.....| QUITO, Ecuador (see Table 18) ... 11:50 |.....|.....| Ar GUAYAQUIL, Ecuador [[star]] ... " [[star]] 12:05 | "El |.....| Lv GUAYAQUIL, Ecuador [[star]] ... " 13:20 | Trans- |.....| Ar TALARA, Peru ... " 13:35 | conti- |.....| Lv TALARA, Peru ... " 14:50 | nental" |.....| Ar CHICLAYO, Peru ... " 15:00 |.....|.....| Lv CHICLAYO, Peru ... " - 17:35 |-[[arrow pointing down]]---| -[[arrow pointing down]] | Ar LIMA (Limatambo), Peru ... " [[end table]] After my ticket was checked, I went to the lunch counter and had breakfast. Our plane was an hour late in starting; this one was a Douglas two motor TC3A, neither as roomy nor as comfortable as the one out of Miami. Our first stop was Cali where I bought six packs of Piel Roja cigarettes for a dollar bill. Should have had at least eight but there was no time to argue. At Guayaquil I had a bottle ready and picked up two mantids and some other things on the airport windows. Just after leaving Guayaquil we were ordered to put on our belts, even though we were not leaving or approaching an airport. Almost immediately we ran into a short but sharp storm with
3 rough air. At the Talara airport I found some ascalaphids. Chiclayo airport is a desolate place in the desert; there were no insects or other life around the field. We reached Limatambo airport, the field that serves Lima only a few minutes late and were taken by bus to the Hotel Gran Bolívar for the night. I changed ten dollars into 66 soles so that I could pay my hotel bill and have a little extra. Instead of trying the hotel dining room Iwalked around in the vicinity of the plaza major and found a pleasant looking restaurant. As I went in I met Varleta, who had already found an old acquaintance from Argentina, a Dr Guzman. The three of us had dinner together. Feb. 12. Up at 3 AM and, for a change, the plane left nearly on time. [[image-preprinted flight schedule taped to side of page]] TuWeFr 323 325 SuMo We Fr 5:30 5:35 5:35 Lv LIMA (Limatamno), Peru 75° 8:30 8:35 8:35 Ar AREQUIPA, Peru " 8:45 8:50 8:50 Lv AREQUIPA, Peru " 10:55 Ar ARICA, Chile 60° 11:10 Mo Lv ARICA, Chile{ 60° 13:20 Ar ANTOFAGASTA,Chile{ " 13:35 Lv ANTOFAGASTA,Chile{ 60° 17:35 Ar SANTIAGO, (Los Cerr.),Chile{" Our flying had been largely over water and quite smooth; from Lima south we were over land more of the time and the air was noticeably rougher. It had been warm in Lima and when we came to Arequipa I thought it looked quite hot. On leaving the plane we had a delightful surprise; Arequipa is at 8100 ft. and the air is cool and crisp. The landing field is placed right at the foot of El Misti, a beautiful snow-capped peak. Arica and Antofagasta were more like Talara, hot and desolate. Between Antofagasta and Santiago there was no scheduled stop but we came down for gasoline at Vallenar, a new and still uncompleted airport. Another plane, which left Limatambo just after we did and which we caught sight of in nearly every airport, was not as heavily loaded as we and was able to fly straight through and so reached Santiago a few minutes ahead of us. Nevertheless, we came in on time and I found Raúl Cortés, Carlos Muñoz, Ramón Gutiérrez, the U.S. Vice Consul and others there to meet me. I went through Customs easily and was loaded, with my baggage, into a station wagon and taken to the City Hotel where I took Room 409. After disposing of my bags, Raúl, Ramón and I walked about the central part of Santiago until time for dinner. Ramón excused himself and Raúl and I had dinner in the hotel dining room. Feb. 13. Raúl came to the hotel at 9 to take me to the American Embassy to call on Paul Guest, Agricultural Advisor. I arranged with him to take care of my mail, etc. Then I went to the office of the Cultural Relations Officer, who proved to be Phil Thayer; it was my first meeting with him in thirtyfive years! We had a good talk, partly about my work and partly about his doings since we lost track of each other. As I started to leave, he invited me
4 to dinner tomorrow night at his home and to luncheon on Thursday. From the Embassy we went to the Department of Agriculture (Sanidad Vegetal) which is on the out skirts of Santiago in the Quinta Normal. I was introduced to the Director, Luis A Belmar P., the Subdirector Sergio Tartakowsky H. and Leonidas Durán, Chief of the Section of Agricultural Zoology. I also saw Raúl's laboratory and the small and very poor collection of insects. At 4, we were in his office to meet the Minister of Agriculture and Lands, sr. don Manuel Casanueva, who was in Washington last year. Raúl and don Manuel drew up plans for a trip for me which would include the part of Chile between Santiago and Chiloé Island. Raúl would accompany me and we would leave Santiago on the 17th for Puerto Montt. As soon as we left the Ministerio, we went to take up railroad tickets on the "Nocturno" which leaves Santiago daily at 5 PM. Our tickets were paid for by government transportation requests. Next to a bank to change 200 dollars into 6,320 pesos and then for "onces" we went to a restaurant specializing on fruits of all kinds. Between onces and dinner we took a long walk about the city, going up onto Santa Lucía, a queer hill rising up in the middle of the city and landscaped to death. We again had dinner together in the hotel. Feb. 14. As soon as I was up I arranged for my laundry and then went out for breakfast (two glasses of jugo de uva con azúcar) and to order a supply of professional cards, having forgotten to bring more than two or three. I left one for a sample and the new ones are to be ready the next day and will cost [[strikethrough]] P [[strikethrough]] 30 oer hundred. That done, Raúl and I went to Quinta to talk over the trip with Belmar and Tartakowsky and to prepare typed copies of our projected itinerary. We will have an extra day in Puerto Montt because the schedule of boats to Chiloé has been changed. We came in town for lunch and then went to the Embassy to leave a copy of our itinerary with Thayer and Guest and to get directions for getting to Phil's home. After onces, I started for the Thayer's. Was too early so I walked around several blocks to kill time and arrived at 8 sharp. Phil told me that while the little girl does not admit to be able to speak Spanish, she goes to the kitchen and jabbers away with the cook. Before coming to Chile, the family had been in the Far East for some years so this was the first experience of the children with Spanish. After cocktails, an excellent dinner was served by a nice quiet criada. We talked until late and I had to run for what might have been the last trolley. AS I couldn't understand the conductor and he couldn't
5 understand me, I got off the car when I thought we were somewhere near the cathedral. There was a small group of police standing on a corner and I approached with some reluctance and asked, in my best Spanish, how to get to the Plaza de Armas and the cathedral. To my complete surprise they understood me the first time and gave me directions in slow and very clear Spanish. It was fourteen blocks to the hotel. Feb. 15. Raúl called for me at 9 and we went to the Museo Nacional. I first met Señor Frage, now the librarian but formerly an entomologist specializing in the Tabanidae. At present and for some time in the past, his eyes have been giving him trouble. It was pitiful to see how he clings to the belief that "they are much better today and will be completely well soon." From the library I went to the office of Miss Grete Mostný, a refugee Austrian-jew archaeologist who has been recently working in the desert region of Chile. She was very pleasant and finally ran down by telephone both Ureta, who is technically in charge of the Chilean National collection of insects, and Carlos Muñoz, Director of the Department of Forests. Before they arrived the Director of the Museum, Dr. Enrique Gigoux, came in and I was introduced and started on a tour of the building. As Dr Gigoux was 85 years old and unable to climb stairs and devotes only two hours a day to the museum, it should not be surprising that the institution is in a very run down condition. Dr Ureta is a practicing physician and when convenient, comes to the museum for one hour each day. He and Muñoz came together and we were admitted to the collection of insects; a room perhaps 18 by 10 feet equipped with cases to hold about 250 drawers. The collection was a rather grim sight and none of the types of Germain or Philippi could be found. It was explained that they probably had been stolen. Raúl had spent the morning at the Dept. Sanidad Vegetal and came for me I time to go to the Club de la Unión for lunch with Thayer. There were six of us, Thayer, Guest, Casanueva, Janney of the Rockefeller Foundation, Raúl and myself. The party broke up at three and Raúl and I went to the hotel to talk and read some in "Time for Decision" (Raúl had the Spanish translation). After onces at the American Milk Bar we went to a movie, "Andy Hardy and his Blonde Troubles." Dinner at the hotel and bed. Feb. 16. We first went to the D.S.V. and I prepared a curriculum vitae for Sr Casanueva. Then I went to the Museum and while waiting for Ureta, I talked New World archaeology with Dr Mostný. When Ureta arrived, I asked to see the collection of Theclinae so that I could tell Bill Field about it. Found that Chile has less than ten species in all.
6 [[image-newspaper clipping]] ENTOMOLOGO NORTEAMERICANO VIENE A ESTUDIAR LAS PLAGAS QUE CAUSAN DAÑOS EN LA AGRICULTURA CHILENA UNA CORDIAL entrevista sostuve con el Ministro de Agricultura don J. Manuel Casanueva, el entomólogo del National Museum de Washington, doctor Ewards A. Chapin, que ha venido a Chile como enviado official del Gobierno de Estados Unidos e invitado por el Ministerio de Agricultura de nuestro país. Según fuimos informados, el doctor Chapin permanecerá en Chile dos meses a fin de estudiar las plagas de la agricultura, especialmente del Departamento de Bosques del Ministerio de Tierras y Colonización, el doctor Chapin hará estudios sobre los insectos que causan daños en las maderas, en pie y elaborada. Dada la experiencia y el conocimiento de este científico norteamericano, su informe sera de gran valor para la estructuración que se dará al citado Departamento de Bosques. [[end image]] [[caption]] Las Ultimas Noticias (Santiago) Feb. 16. [[caption]] We went back to town and for lunch I took Raúl to a restaurant specializing in Juan Fernandez lobster. We had cold lobster and white wine but little else. Then back to D.S.V. to fill bottles, etc. in preparation for our trip. At 5 we went to the Hotel Carrera for onces and then walked out to Santa Lucía where we sat and talked until time to go back to the hotel for dinner. After which I packed and went to bed. Feb. 17. Raúl appeared at nine and we went to the Embassy to leave BYM's letter to Guest and to say goodbye to him and Thayer. From there to the drug store for an extra supply of razor blades and some tablets of Entero-vioform as a precaution against intestinal infections. Then to the D.S.V. to say goodbye to Belmar, Tartakowsky and Dúran and to the Museum for the same purpose, seeing Mostný and Ureta. Raúl found and introduced me to R.A. Philippi, to whom I gave the data sheets on porpoise skulls. He promised to arrange for photographs of the types and offered us a ride back to the city. At the hotel I found that my cards had been delivered. I paid my bill and checked out but left my baggage at the desk for the time being. Raúl had engaged a taxi for 4.15 and he was on time to the minute. We loaded all baggage into the cab and went to the station, going aboard our train at 4.30. We had a compartment for the night and next morning at Loncoche we changed into a first class coach for the rest of the trip. This change was necessary because the sleeping car is dropped from the Puerto Montt train at Loncoche and is sent to Concepción. Our train left on time and until dark there was no change in the scenery, cultivated fields, small towns and small groups of houses, many windbreaks of casuarina trees. We saw many hundreds of acres planted to sunflower, Chile's attempt to secure an adequate supply of vegetable oil. On Chilean trains, those who wish to eat in the dining car are given tickets which admit them to a certain at a
certain time so that there is no standing. We went to be about 10 after a mediocre dinner. Feb. 18. Up at 8.30 after a good night's sleep. We were now in the grape country and many vineyards could be seen from the train. As we approached the city of Osorno we had our first sight of the Osorno volcano, the most symmetrical of all of Chile's snow-capped peaks. From here on, one or more snow-caps were always in sight. As the train sped on between Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt we had our first close view of a lake, Lago LLanquihue. Reached Pto. Montt a few minutes ahead of schedule and went across the street to the Hotel Miramar. We took a large double room without private bath but not too far from the large bathroom that served that end of the floor. We washed and walked to the Plaza de Armas where we found a clean German tearoom, Cafe Olimpia, which served excellent "onces". After eating, we strolled about town ending up at the fish wharves. Two or three small fishing boats were in and the fishermen were selling beautiful 20" mackerel at two for five pesos (.16). In the shops nearby were strings of dried mussels and dried shrimps, dirty and most unattractive. Back to the hotel to write a letter home before dinner, which was served at 8.30 and was quite good. Bed about ten. Feb. 19. Another good night and up at eight. First we made our reservations on the boat leaving Pto. Montt for Castro (Chiloe I.) tomorrow night at 10. Our boat will be the SS Chacao, 258 tons nett which seems small. Then to the postoffice to mail letter. Back to the hotel for our nets and bottles and up onto the hills back of the town where we found fair collecting. Took my first Chilean Scarabaeid, [[underlined]]Pinotus torulosus[[underlined]], as well as some weevils and odonata. Dinner at the hotel at noon. After dinner we started out in another direction but found the collecting very poor, everywhere it was too dry. We gave up at about 5 and went back to the Olimpia for onces. Then a turn around town, another visit to the fish wharves (no new kinds of fish to be seen) and back to the hotel to write cards to Willis, Parfinowich, Schmaltz, Sweet and Carpenter. Dinner at 8.30 and bed shortly afterward. Feb. 20. After breakfast we went northeast from the hotel and found a much better collecting place. It was high up on a side hill, with bog conditions. We collected all the morning and, with time out for lunch at the hotel, all the afternoon. On our way back to the hotel in the afternoon, we were stopped by a man who told us that we were on the property of the city water supply and we definitely should
not be there. Explanation from Raul proved sufficient to keep us out of jail. At the hotel we ordered hot baths. [[image - Isla Tenglo and harbor of Puerto Montt.]] It proved to be quite an ordeal. First the maid lights a wood stove and after half an hour she calls for one of us to bathe. The second bath doesn't take quite a half hour to heat. Baths are extra and cost four pesos each. [[image - Puerto Montt]] After our baths we went to the Olimpia and then back to the hotel to pack the small bag and the market bag for the trip to Chiloe. We turned over the suitcases to the management to be held for our return and our soiled clothing to the maid to be washed and ready for us on Friday. We had dinner and then took the bus to the boat. Stayed on deck (a very small deck) until after the boat pulled out and then went to bed. Our stateroom was very small, hardly larger than the bunks, one over the other, and a tiny handbowl.
9 Feb. 21. Slept well and although the boat was small and not particularly clean on deck, there was no vermin in the stateroom. We were up and out on deck by 7.30 and found ourselves in a group of small islands, making stops every few minutes. At Achao we landed three lighters of passengers and one of freight - mostly fruit and vegetables. At none of these islands is there a wharf so everywhere landings are made by lighter. Next island after Achao was Chaulinec, a smaller island directly out from Castro. Here we landed a few people, some groceries and four casks of wine. The wine casks were merely thrown overboard and allowed to drift ashore. From Chaulinec we turned in toward Castro, running between Quehui and Chelin and stopping at each of them. After leaving Chelin we went to lunch, perhaps the most disagreeable meal that I have ever eaten. The dining room was crowded, we were seated at tables of twelve and the food was served without neatness but with much dispatch. The ceiling of the room was black with flies with more than an occasional large roach. Every so often a roach would miss his footing and drop onto the table. While at lunch we stopped at Pulquedon on the island of Lemuy. That was the last stop before Castro where we arrived about three. We were landed by rowboat at five pesos a head and our baggage was adopted by a small boy [[image - Black and white photograph of SS Chacao lying off Castro]] [[caption]] SS Chacao lying off Castro [[/caption]] who carried it to the hotel, five city blocks away and all up hill, for ten pesos. The Hotel Luxor was practically new, a frame building of two or three stories. It was clean and we had a small room each. Our only complaint was that the partitions were thin and not noise-proof. We walked a bit about town and sat for some time in the plaza
10 until time for onces at the hotel. We went back to the plaza to collect aphids and coccinellids that we had seen earlier. Took tewo species of Coccinellids which were feeding on the aphids which were attacking the leaves of linden. Raul went across the street to a bookstore and returned with a copy of Kim (in Spanish) to read after going to bed. Castro is a small town built almost entirely on high ground overlooking the water. [[image - black and white photograph of waterfront showing stilted piers and buildings, buildings terraced up the hill, road in the foreground, and rolling hills in the distance beyond the water]] [[caption]] Waterfront of Castro [[/caption]] The waterfront is lined with warehouses and is where the railroad which connects Castro with Ancud starts. Dinner at the hotel was fair and we went to bed shortly afterward. Feb. 22. Woke up to find it raining quite hard, my first bad day since leaving Washington. However, it let up just as we were ready to go to the station to take the auotcarril for Ancud. We were late and had to take the second car which was really fortunate. The first car goes through to Ancud without stops and had we gone in it there would have been no chance to collect anywhere along the line. The second car carries the payroll for the maintenance of way men of the railroad. We left Castro nearly on time and by 9.15 there was blue sky in the south. We stopped where-ever there were men to be paid, sometimes at a station and sometimes between stations. Collecting would have been better if it had not rained earlier. At Mocopulli I found some carabid and a small colony of termites in a bit of wood lying beside the track. Snyder later identified the species as Porotermes quadricollis (Ramb.). About noon we stopped at Puntra long enough for lunch. There were two restaurants, perhaps we got the poorer of the two. In all,
11 the trip was tiring but we reached Ancud in due time. The autocarril is no more than a nine passenger station wagon mounted on steel wheels and running on a railroad track. The one and only hotel in Ancud is the Plaza and it is the worst yet. It has all the inconveniences imaginable - the bathroom was filthy, the toilet out of order, no mirror for shaving, the bowl and pitcher in the rooms was dirty - but there were no bedbugs. After [[image-black and white photograph of a two story building]] [[caption]] Escuela Práctica de Agricultura, Ancud. [[/caption]] dropping our bags in our room, we went to the Escuela to meet the director, René Prado Solís. He was very pleasant and took us over the building and grounds. There are two types of agricultural education given in Chile - the usual courses in the universities leading to the degree of Ingeniero Agrónomo, open to students who have finished in the colegios, and the Escuelas Prácticas, giving practical training in farm practices to boys with little or no formal education. At Ancud there was a dairy barn but it was not in any sense a model dairy and several acres in crops common to the region. The plantings were well cared for and seemed to be flourishing. All about the school were araucarias, sometimes singly and sometimes in rows. Raúl met a friend who was invited to dinner with us at the hotel. He said good night early and we went to bed. At least the bed was clean and comfortable and I had a good night. Feb. 23. We were up at 7, packed our two small bags and went to the boat. The Lemuy is less than half as large as the Chacao and a little dirtier. There being no wharf at Ancud, we were lightered out to the Lemuy (108 tons nett). Since the trip was to be entirely by day, we had
12 no stateroom so we had to keep our bags always with us. [[image-black and white photograph of church]] [[caption]] Cathedral, Ancud. [[/caption]] The sea was flat and there were some clouds but plenty of sun. We have seen porpoises every day and today saw seals (or according to one passenger, sealions) for the first time. The gulls that follow the ship are very handsome, white with black wings narrowly edged front and back with white. (Herbert Friedmann later identified the species as Larus dominicanus Licht.). Also there were many cormorants. At Chalao men came out to the boat bringing baskets of large sea urchins for sale, about 25 urchins for 12 pesos. Several baskets were bought by the cook and many of the passengers bought baskets. I watched the people breaking open the urchins and eating [[image-black and white photograph - small launch mid-river]] [[caption]] Landing passengers at Calbuco from the Lemuy. [[/caption]] the gonads, with or without salt and pepper. There was a salesman, a young German Jew, aboard that I had talked with some. When he saw that I had not bought any urchins
13 he insisted that I eat one of his. Before I could make up my mind whether I cared to try one, he had plopped some into my mouth and I had to take it. At lunch we had dishes of it for the first course. Sea urchin gonads are rated a great delicacy in Chile and while I found them not unpleasant, I certainly prefer oysters or clams. After stopping at Calbuco, there was one other and short stop before we reached Puerto Montt at 6.30 PM. We took the bus to the Miramar where we were expected. A new room, No. 5, was assigned to us and we found the change satisfactory. First of all, we had hot baths, shaves, and changed our clothing. The laundry that we had left was ready and everything had come back. When the girl gave it to me, Raúl was in his bath and I tried to negotiate with her. Before she would take any money she evidently wanted me to do something. She kept saying "Conforme!" which I learned later means "Check it" Finally I opened the bundle and spread the contents on the bed. The girl was pacified and accepted 40 pesos for the two lots. We had dinner and I wrote a letter home. Also I found some fruit (had had no fruit since leaving Santiago)and ate a half kilogram of white grapes and drank a large glass of peach juice. We leave for Pto. Varas in the morning at 8.30. [[image-black and white photograph of a tree]] [[caption] Araucaria araucana. [[/caption]] Feb. 24. Paid bill at hotel after breakfast and went across the street to the railroad station. We reached Pto. Varas at 9.30 and went to the Hotel Heim, a small and unpretentious place on a side street. It proved clean, comfortable and not expensive. A double room with meals was a hundred pesos a day (3.00 US). We walked about town and along the beach of Lago LLanquihue
14 where we found several small crawfish (Aegla sp.) and many specimens of a snail crawling on the rocks. I exposed the last two films in the pack and turned it in for development and prints. After lunch at the hotel Raúl lay down for a nap while I read, or tried to read, a "whodunit" in Spanish. At 5 we went down to the dining room for onces and then to a hill at the back of the [[image- black and white photograph of a large building with formally laid out garden in the foreground]] [[caption]] Railroad station at Puerto Varas. [[/caption]] town which had been converted into a religious park. We found the collecting good and took one or more species of Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, Carabidae, Nitidulidae and Scolytidae. At dark we quit and returned to the hotel for dinner. There was a fiesta in costume at the hotel and we both decided to go to bed immediately. I read Kim for awhile. Raúl had started Kim and before he had finished a page, threw the book aside with the remark that he didn't like it. I could get no explanation as to why. Later I found out the reason - Raúl is exceedingly sensitive about the dark color of his skin and the opening description of Kim reads "though burned black as any native". That was too much for him. He finally gave me the book to keep with the dedication "Here is a book that Lalo adores and that I am not able to read." "Don Lalo" was his name for me, derived from the nickname of his own brother Eduardo. Feb. 25. This day was Sunday and I started Raúl off for eight o'clock mass. I got up leisurely and at 8.40 went alone to breakfast. We were going to Ensenada by the nine o'clock boat and Raúl didn't get back to the hotel until 8.50. I ordered coffee for him and thanks to the fact that the boat was twenty minutes late, we
15 made it. The trip across Lago LLanguihue in the steamer takes about three hours and is very beautiful. Behind is [[image-black and white photograph - of buildings with a wide path in the foreground]] [[caption]] Puerto Varas, from near the railroad station. [[/caption]] the town and directly in front of us is Volcan Osorno, with its white cap blending with the fluffy white clouds. [[image-black and white photograph of a snow topped mountain in the distance]] [[caption]] Volcan Osorno, from Ensendada. [[/caption]] To our right we could see Volcan Calbuco, not by any means as perfect a cone as Osorno but of interest since it was in full eruption as late as January 6, 1929. The snow caps were small because it was late in the Chilean summer. We reached Ensenada at 11.40 and collected in a swampy area between the hotel and the lake. After lunch we had two hours before we had to be back on the boat. Collecting was not too good but we took some good things. Mostly it was too dry and it seemed like the end of the season. Back at our hotel at 6.30 PM. Feeling the need of some, I went out
16 [[image-black and white photograph of a snow covered mountain]] [[caption]] Volcan Osorno in winter [[/caption]] [[image-black and white photograph of a snow covered mountain]] [[caption]] Volcan Calbuco in winter [[/caption]] (Photos by E. Karl, Pto Varas) to buy some fresh fruit. Grapes were out of sight, 12 pesos per kilo; apples were good and could be had for a peso each. I ate apples and sorted insects until dinner was called at 8.30. It was excellent - pejerreyes fritos, asado de tenera, tutti-frutti and aguita de menta. I must introduce the custom of aguita at home.
17 Feb. 26. Up at 8 o'clock sharp and had breakfast. As we are leaving tomorrow for Osorno, we went first to the correo to send a wire to Teuber giving time of our arrival. Then we went back to the park on the hill to collect. Took some good things there and in the pasture below, especially some thrips, staphylinids and weevils. On our way back to the hotel we stopped at Karl's to pick up the prints and films of the Chiloe trip and to leave certain films for extra prints. After lunch Raul took a nap while I sorted catch and read some more in "Kim". Went out for onces at 4.30 and, in spite of a gentle rain, back to the pasture for a little more collecting. Back at the hotel I wrote a letter to Clara. That night we took in a movie, "Felipe Derbray", made in Argentina and very melodramatic. Feb. 27. We were up at 7.30 and packed before breakfast. I paid the hotel bill and got the 9.15 train for Osorno. No Teuber at the Osorno station so we went to the Hotel Burnier where we settled our bags in room 317. We then went to the office of the Department of Agriculture where we expected to find Teuber. Instead we learned that he expected us on a later train and would be at the hotel at 2 PM. He was on time and brought a letter from Guest enclosing a valentine from Sophy and Hilda, no letter from Clara. First impressions of Teuber were very favorable. He is obviously germanic with his blond hair and blue eyes and was courteous and not at all blustery. We talked about Chiloe and made plans for our time in Osorno. "Tomorrow to Puerto Octay and the next day to Puyehue." That afternoon we drove out to a [[image - black and white photograph of a farm/garden with greenhouse and hills in background. With caption]] Experiment Station at Puerto Octay small station where seedlings of Monterey pine are being grown for use in reforestation. While the Monterey pine is of little importance in this country, it has proved to
18 be well adapted to Chile. Where the soil is too poor for farming this pine grows well and makes a good stand that is ready for harvest in from fifteen to twenty years. Further, it is selfseeding which means that the planted forests will be perpetual. We went back to the hotel and at [[image - black and white photograph of a town with buildings, trees, sidewalks.]] [[caption]] Osorno. Plaza de Armas. Note modern church. [[/caption]] 5.30 a new man, sent by Teuber, appeared and drove us to the Estacion Genetica which is about 9 km. out of the city. There I met Jose Suarez (has been in the United States and is a friend of Ben's) who took us all over the place. The work there is mostly with forage grasses, testing for resistance to drouth. That night Suarez joined us for dinner. Feb. 28. Started for Puerto Octay early, Teuber driving the Ford 2 ton truck and we reached the Experiment Station about 11 AM. The trip was a bit tiring as there were no springs in the seat and the road was not first class. Sr. Silva, the Director, took us over the grounds where they are doing much to improve the potato, working with a dozen North American varieties and many wild strains of [[underlined]] S. tuberosum. [[/underlined]] One strain from Chiloe has tubers that are long and slender, (about 8" x 1"), and have jet black skins. This particular strain is of little use as food but does have a very high resistance to leaf-curl and scab. I saw tubers with skins that were black, violet, red, rose and white with white or yellow flesh. Thousands of seedlings resulting from controlled crosses were growing in beds and these would be studied and the best of them multiplied for use in breeding work or for introduction into the commercial trade. For lunch we were taken to a small hotel right on the shore of Lago LLanquihue. It was originally the summer home of a wealthy Chilean but was abandoned after an unfortunate accident took the lives of several of his guests. It was first offered to the government but was not accepted.
19 [[image - black and white photograph of a hotel, with car parked under a tree.]] [[caption]] The hotel at Puerto Octay. [[/caption]] After a very good lunch, the proprietor joined us in a walk in the woods near the lake. In a rotten stump I found about 40 specimens of cosmetid and one small scorpion. The best collecting was under stones and logs. On the way back to the hotel we found a dead tree on fire. We all took off our coats and put it out with some difficulty. When I picked up my coat I found that sparks had landed on it and there were two holes, one of which was in a conspicuous place. When we got back to our hotel in Osorno we had hot baths which did a lot to raise our spirits. My suit was by now a sorry looking mess but a thorough brushing did help it a lot. It was my only good suit in Chile and if Raul hadn't been such a dude I wouldn't have been wearing it. [[image - black and white photograph of landscape with waterfalls, city, forest, mountains.]] [[caption]] Falls of Pilmaiquen, with Puntiagudo and Osorno. [[/caption]] Mar. 1. Teuber, Mrs Teuber, Corral, Suarez, Cortes and I started at 9.30 AM for Pilmaiquen in the station wagon. The ride was much more comfortable than the one yesterday. We stopped to see the falls and to take pictures and also to visit the new hydroelectric plant there below the falls.
20 Termas de Puyehue [[image - black and white photograph showing a building with road in the forefront, log guardrails on both sides. Trees and hills behind and in the distance]] [[caption]] Hotel [[/caption]] [[image - black and white photograph - five people on a patio, four men and one woman. Trees and grassy hillside behind them]] [[caption]] Cortés, Suarez, Teuber, Mrs. Teuber, Corral. [[/caption]] From Pilmaiquen we went to the Termas de Puyehue where there is one of the finest Chilean hotels. Rates were up to 7.50 (U.S.) a day per person, which in Chile is very high. First of all, we went in for a swim in the enclosed pool, fed from thermal springs. The water was a little too warm to be invigorating but for a short time it was certainly pleasant. Then came the very excellent luncheon in the hotel dining room; the food and service both sumptious. I noticed that there was an evident desire on the part of some of the party to be photographed with the hotel as a background. After lunch we went out to get a bit of collecting. First to a small group of hot springs that came out of the ground
21 on the edge of a small stream. The collecting was the best that I have seen so far and it was too bad that we had so little time. On the way back to Osorno we stopped at the Fabrica Madera Terciada "Somasur" (a plywood factory). Here was my first chance to do anything to amount to with the problem of insect damage to forest trees. The yard was full of barked logs of various species of trees and a man was sent with me to tell me the kinds as I asked. Having made some estimate of the frequency of attack of various types of insects on the various types of trees, we went inside the plant and watched the veneer coming off a log and noting how deep the insect burrows [[image-black and white photograph-building in cleared fields in the mountains]] [[caption]] Enclosed bathing pool at hotel [[/caption]] penetrated the log. It was fairly evident that the amount of damage was relatively slight. There didn't seem to be any really important pest of the forests in Chile which is a very good thing. Chilean forests are not like ours; a Chilean forest may extend for miles and contain only two, three, four or at most five kids of trees while ours often contain twenty of even thirty kinds. Therefore, if a pest attacking a single species of tree gets a foothold in the Chilean forest, it may seriously injure or destroy 20% or more of the trees while in the United States a similar outbreak might account for as much as 10% but rarely more and usually less. Reached the hotel at 8.30, had a very welcome hot bath and dinner. Mar. 2. This is a day of rest. We walked about the city in the morning. At noon we entertained Teuber and Mrs Teuber at luncheon (I like them both very much). With the departure of the Teubers we went to our room
22 and read and slept until about 4.30. We then took our baths, dressed and went down to the lobby where we found Jorge Ramsay A. I gave him the note from B Y M and later did the same to "Pepe" Suarez. After onces we took in a movie -an Argentine comedy and quite good - followed by a good walk before dinner. After dinner we packed, paid our bill which came to P 1201,60 for both, took another walk and went to bed. Mar. 3. Up at 6.45 for early breakfast, and by taxi to station for the 7.45 train to Valdivia. The trip was very pleasant and not long. In the Valdivia station I waited with the baggage while Raúl went hunting for a taxi. [[Image-black and white photograph]] [[caption]] Valdivia. View from our hotel window. Note advertizing painted on pavement! [[caption]] Usually our hotel was near the station but this time it was on the far side of town, facing (as usual) the Plaza de Armas. Our room was N°9, a large corner room with full length windows and a bath built into one corner of the room. While we were at lunch we were called on by René Salas M., the assistant agronomist of the Department of Agriculture stationed at Valdivia. He was a very nice looking youngster, perhaps 25 years old. At 2.30 he came back and took us first to the offices of the Department and then to the motor launch (official) in which we were going down the Río Calle Calle to Niebla. The trip took about two hours so we were ready for onces when we reached the hotel. Back of the hotel were many remains of old Spanish fortifications, the outer defenses of Valdivia. These were very interesting, being carved out of the living rock rather than built up out of masonry. The rock is moderately soft, easy to cut with knife, and the walls of the trenches and store rooms were covered with initials and dates. The earliest date that I saw was 1610, ten years before the final overthrow of the Spaniards by the Chileans in this region. These fortifications are on the very edge of cliff overlooking the water. We found a footpath which led down onto the beach where we collected, getting a few interesting things. At 7 PM we were
23 back at the launch, ready to return to Valdivia. As the sun set, the cormorants came in in long lines to settle down for the night on what seemed to be sand bars along the main channel. Twice our motor refused to run and we drifted back while Salas tinkered with it. It was 9.30 before we were at the wharf. [[image-black and white photograph-fort in distance]] [[image-black and white photograph-section of fort]] [[caption]Fortifications at Niebla [[caption]] Mar. 4. Election day but all seemed going well. Considering the large number of police who were every where to be seen, that was not surprising. At 9.30 Salas appeared again and we took the launch for a run around Isla Teja. This island is made by a dividing and then rejoining of the Río Calle Calle and is really part of Valdivia. We went ashore at one place (Raúl nearly ruined his almost new saddle shoes by jumping onto a mud bank that looked solid) and found fair collecting. Salas joined us at the hotel for lunch. He asked many questions about the United States and chances to go there for study. Raúl was in a very bad humor, in fact he had been ever since we left Puerto Varas, and he told Salas that "in the United States, negroes and South Americans were treated alike." Then, for fear I had missed that gem, he repeated it in English. I managed to refrain from commenting. We left shortly after lunch for the railroad
24 station because the politicians had most of the taxis and it was best to grab one when it was available. While waiting for the train to start, we collected on some rose-bushes that were growing beside the tracks. The train was half an hour late leaving Valdivia and we lost another 40 minutes in Antilhue. Reached Temuco about an hour late but as the hotel was adjoining the station we were able to get our room, leave our bags and get to the dining room in time for dinner. After dinner we walked to the Plaza and back before bed. No election returns in up to that time. Mar. 5. At 9.00 AM we went to the Escuela Práctica de Agricultura. We were met by the Director, Sr. Oscar Muñoz M. and the Professor of Biology, Sr. Luis Picasso Stagno. They were both very pleasant, though I came to like Picasso the better of the two. The school is one of several in Chile that gives instruction to poorly prepared farmers and others in practical agriculture. These schools are most like our Agricultural College Short Course. [[image-black and white photograph of man]] [[caption]] Edwin Ihl C. [[caption]] We were taken over the school to see the classrooms and laboratories and the dining room and kitchen. I was introduced to Edwin Ihl, I.A. from Santiago, who was in charge of the work dealing with white grubs "gusanos de pasto". He did not have an adequate laboratory nor library and had not been trained especially for this work. He was intelligent and in time he will commence to get results. At 12.30 we returned to the Director's office and were invited to lunch at the Faculty table. The food was excellent and I was assured that we were having the same menu and food (except for the wine) that the students had. We were to go to the Fundo Trianon in the afternoon and as there was a prospect of some collecting there, we went back to the hotel for our nets and bottles. The school is to be removed from its present location to the Fundo. Ihl joined us and we collected some white grubs as well as a centipede, a scorpion, two large and brilliant carabid beetles and other items. We returned to town about 6.00 and were the guests of Muñoz at a swell restaurant for onces. We looked like
25 tramps! Then back to the hotel to change clothes and go to call on Sr Gilberto Montero to see his collection. He has accumulated about 24 drawers of miscellaneous insects, only part of which were labeled as to locality and almost none were determined to genus or species. I noticed nothing that seemed out of the ordinary run. While we were there, Ihl joined us and we all went back to the hotel for dinner. After dinner Raúl wrote letters and Ihl and I went for a walk. We found a bench in the Parque and sat for quite a time discussing the relations which exist between the United States and the Latin-American countries. [[image-black and white photograph]] [[caption]] View of Temuco from Nielol. [[caption]] Mar. 6. The morning was given up to sight-seeing. First we went to the recently organized Museum of the Araucanian Indien. There were about 4 rooms devoted to pottery, stone implements, weaving, etc. Since Temuco is the present center of the Araucanians that are left, such a museum is quite properly located here. While we were there, Ihl joined us and we walked about town, crossing the bridge over the Río Cautín. We saw many Indians coming into town with produce for market. Every Indian woman wears an enormous silver breast ornament, no two of which seem alike. After lunch we went to the Temuco office of the Department of Agriculture where we found Picasso and Ihl. We took the Department truck and drove out about 20 km. east of the city to the Fundo Cooper. Collected more white grubs etc. Back to the hotel for a bath and rest. Before onces I went to the photo shop for my last two film packs. The films themselves looked not too bad but the prints were very yellow. We had left some freshly emerged flies to harden at the Escuela
26 and we walked toward the school intending to get them. But remembering how bad the light is in the laboratory, we changed our minds and went back to the hotel. Mar. 7. Up and again to the Escuela Practica. Reached there at 9.30 and met Picasso, Muñoz, and Ihl. Raúl, Ihl and I went up to the top of Ñielol, a heavily wooded hill near the city which has been made into a park. We took a narrow and rather steep foot path through the woods and found some good collecting under stones and logs. We had a light lunch in the restaurant at the top and then started down to join the others for a real meal at the Escuela. Raúl talked for about an hour about his trip to Easter Island. We went back to the hotel about 4.00 for a rest and at 5.30 met Picasso at the restaurant for onces. As we were to meet Ihl at the hotel at 8.30, we had time to look about in the stores. I bought some silver, a bracelet and four ash trays. We went to dinner at 9.00 and were joined at table by Alvarado, who will go to Angol with us. After dinner we went to our hotel room and talked until 10.30. Mar. 8. Up late, had a bath and a shave, packed and went to breakfast. Ihl came at 10.00 and the two of us waked far out Avenida Germanica and back by another route to the rooms of the Sociedad Agronómica, arriving there at noon. Picasso met us there and took us to his home for luncheon. As we sat down at table, Mrs Picasso noticed she had lost the set out of her ring. It was a large topaz and of course, the discovery cast a slight gloom over the luncheon. However, when we left the table and went into the living room, Ihl saw the stone on the rug and all was well. Back to the hotel to discover that there was no train to Angol until tomorrow. Alvarado decided to go part way and spend the night at the hotel in Renaico which is less expensive. Raúl and I preferred to stay in Temuco so we took another room for the night and left a call for 4.45 A M. Leaving Raúl in the room writing letters, Ihl and I went out for onces and to buy some fruit for breakfast. I found some beautiful big white grapes at 4 cents a pound. We also looked in the stores of a machete but without success. For onces I had an iced coffee milkshake (pronounced café lao). Back to hotel for early dinner and bed. Mar. 9. Up at 4.45, dressed and ate some grapes. Train was waiting when we came out on the platform. We were ten minutes late in leaving Temuco but arrived at Renaico on time. There we waited about 50 minutes for the train from Santiago that was going to Angol and we all got into Bullock's car. First to the
27 office of the Intendente of the city, where Bullock had some business, then to a hardware store. While I was looking around I saw a short Collins cutlass which I bought for 100 pesos (3.00 US). We drove to the Plaza where we waited for another of the Vergel missionaries. This was Mr. Houser from So. Dakotta, in whose house we are going to stay. Mrs Houser is an Oberlin graduate and they have had two children there. The son graduated in 1941. Lunch was ready for us and it was much like a North American dinner. In the afternoon we wandered about over the farm. I was impressed by the fact that there they had a climate that was suitable for both the citrous fruits and apples, pears and peaches. We were shown through Bullock's small museum. For some years Bullock has been collecting the heavy doughnut-shaped stones that were used by the Araucanians as warclub heads and he now has a very large collection (about 500 of various sizes). He has also found a pre-Columbian cemetery where the burials were in urns. Three of these urns have been dug up intact; they are about four feet high and perhaps 30 inches in diameter. We had dinner with the Bullocks at about seven; after dinner we talked mostly about the war and the extent of the Nazi penetration in Chile. Mar. 10. A very good breakfast at 8.00. Bullock called for us about 10.30 and with a laborer, we visited an enormous stump that was completely overgrown with blackberry bushes. The laborer cleared the stump and chopped into it in several places but we found no termites. Mr Houser was attending a Rotary Club lunch in Angol so we had our lunch with Mrs Houser. In the afternoon, Bullock turned me over to a small boy of 12 years. José proved to be a good collector, as well as an agreeable companion. Bullock told a good story about José - A new overseer told him to take a hoe up to the barn and then called after him "Do you know where it belongs?" José replied with scorn, "I've been here for seven years and you have just come!" Returned to the house at 4.00 to put away the catch and pack. We leave Angol tomorrow morning on the 8.00 for Concepción. Dinner with the Housers and after dinner Bullock came over with some leps and dragonflies for me and some flies for Raúl. Later the Housers, Raúl and I played Chinese checkers under a new (to me) set of rules. Bed at 11.30. Mar. 11. Up at 6.45, breakfast at 7.00, started for Angol at 7.35 and pulled out of the station on the train for Concepción at 8.13. At the last minute I gave Mrs Houser a hundred pesos for social work (enough to buy a good pig for some worthwhile boy to raise).
28 At Concepción we went to the Hotel Cécil, just across the street from the new concrete railroad station which was built after the 1939 earthquake and fire. On January [[image - black and white photograph]] [[caption]] New railroad station, Concepción. [[/caption]] 25 of that year, a disastrous quake which was centered not far from Chillán shook Chile from Chillán to Concepción causing great loss of life. There was still much evidence of the damage to be seen in Concepción where some 10,000 people were killed and where much of the destruction was caused by the fire that followed the quake. There are many new buildings in the city but there are still many vacant lots and standing walls without roofs, floors or windows. Chillán was much harder hit. As the quake came late at night there were very few people on the streets and that fact multiplied the number of people killed. Chillán had a total loss of life of 30,000 and most of the buildings were rendered unfit for habitation. After lunch we walked out to the University of Concepción campus. This is the South American university that most resembles a North American university. It was started in 1920 and for many years did not have sufficient funds to operate properly but a few years ago it was permitted to partake of one of the national lotteries from which it gets some 8,000,000 pesos a year. The buildings are modern and include Biología General, Veterinaría, Derecho, Educación and others. We will have to come back as we could not find anyone to take us through any of the buildings. Back to town for onces and a shoeshine and a movie. It was Las Tres Hermanas, with Barbara Stanwyck. Not bad for Hollywood. Dinner and bed at 10.30.
[[image-black and white photograph of 7 men, posed for group portrait. Directly under photo are numbers corresponding to each man]] [[caption]] Luncheon at Club Concepción, Mar. 15, 1945. 1- Cooper, 2- Wolnitsky, 3- Chapin, 4- Buddenberg, 5- Rioseco, 6- Cortés, 7- Hunsaker. [[caption]]
[[IMAGE: group photograph of 19 men. Photo is keyed with numbers 1-19, typed above and below, with legend to the right as follows.]] 1 Teuber 2 Tartakowsky 3 [[blank, originally Looser, but erased]] 4 ^[[Looser]] 5 Muñoz 6 [[blank]] 7 Rosenberg 8 Suárez 9 Cortés 10 Calvert 11 Durán 12 Stuardo 13 Guest 14 [[blank]] 15 Chapin 16 Horst 17 Thayer 18 Fraga 19 ^[[Olave]] [[caption:]] Cocktail at Hotel Carrera, Santiago, Mar. 29, 1945.