Sage, R. D. : field notes, Costa Rica and Mexico, 1965

ID: SIA RU007311

Creator: Sage, Richard D.

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1965

Citation: Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Papers, 1938-1982 and undated

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The field notes document the work of Richard D. Sage in Costa Rica, Mexico, and United States, July 7 - September 7, 1965. The field notes are divided into two sections: journal and species seen. The journal documents work in Costa Rica. Pages are numbered. Entries are dated and begin with location (usually landmark, town, province, country), elevation and describe field work completed, specimens collected, flora and fauna observed. Most descriptions focus on bees and related plants. Entries contain detailed descriptions of appearance, quantity and behavior of bees, their nests, sometimes listed with time of day. Includes sketches and hand drawn maps with notes on observed behavior and location and type of plants. There are also detailed descriptions of flowering plants, sometimes with specimen number. |In section listed "species seen," entries begin with locality, date, and list observed fauna with quantity and their common or scientific name. These include at least birds, reptiles, and mammals. At the end of the field notes is a list of pictures taken, which describe images per film roll, with captions. Captions detail location, elevation, and description. There is also an expedition outfit list from a University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 1947 Expedition and map of Mexico.|Locations are in (but limited to) Guanacaste and San Jose in Costa Rica; California and Texas in United States; Oavaca and Sonora in Mexico.

Date Range


Start Date

Jul 07, 1965

End Date

Sep 07, 1965

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Entomology
  • Plants
  • Bees
  • Botany


  • United States
  • Mexico
  • Costa Rica


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Maps

Accession #

SIA RU007311

Collection name

Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Papers, 1938-1982 and undated

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 39 Folder 4

[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 1 [[circled]] [[strikethrough]]Xla Iu[[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]]Xylocopa[[/underlined]] sp. [[underlined]]Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste,Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]7 July 15:20-18:10 On two Flamboyant Trees Steve & I got 12 [[underlined]]Mega[[underlined]] & [[underlined]]Neo[[/underlined]] [[underlined]]Xylocopa[[/underlined]]. They were coming to the flowers for nectar. The one tree in which we got 10 of the specimens was about 50 ft high & 50-60 ft across. The bees were quite abundant in the higher parts of the tree. One two occassions (16:10 & 17:30) I counted at least 4 different bees in the tree. The bees remained active until 18:05. At 18:00 The sun disappeared below the horizon. At 18:10 I got one [[underlined]]Eulema[[/underlined]] and no [[underlined]]Xylocopa[[/underlined]] were seen or heard. There were a couple of occassions when the bees were working the same bunch of flowers and were as near as 4-6 inches from each. There was no apparent aggressive action by either bee in these instances. There were three species of hummingbirds working the tree. There were no encounters between the bees and the birds. All of the bees I saw flew away from the tree in a northerly direction -- but this may be a biased observation as I spent little time on the south side.
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 2 [[circled]] [[left margin]] 7 July Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] Most of the bees were active in the higher parts of the tree and it was necessary to climb up into the branches in order to secure about half the specimens. The bees seemed to come in waves. They would be numerous 4-5 for about five minutes, then it would be hard to find them & then after about ten minutes or so there were would many bees working again. [[left margin]] 8 July Arrived at the first tree we collected at yesterday at 06:23. There were bees active at that time. This tree is smaller and is about 30-35 ft high & 40 ft wide. It is about 100 yds west of the larger tree where steve is watching. 0:6:30 3 bees. all on north side of tree near top. Took three pictures of the flowers and the tree. 06:46 6 bees working all around the tree. 0656 1 bee ^[[(smaller bee)]] hit 10 flowers in 1 min 15 sec. 07:00 6 bees working around tree - evenly distr. 07:15 6 bees working all around tree (none of the larger ones seen.
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 3 [[circled]] [[underlined]] Xylocopa [[/underlined]] sp [[left margin]] 8 July [scribble] [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] wind has come up but this does not appear to hamper the bees 07:30 7 bees (all small) evenly distributed around the tree 07:45 5 smaller black bees working all around the tree. 08:00 4 bees (small) working all sides of tree 08:15 5 bees all around tree. all small. 08:37 4 bees all small around tree. There was a fairly strong breeze blowing during the count. 08:45 4 bees working all around the tree. There was still a breeze. There are more butterflies working the flowers now. They look like while pieridae 09:00 3 bees working SW corners of tree. Breeze was slight 09:15 4 bees working around the tree & 1 [[underlined]][[Eulema?]] [[/underlined]] 09:30 4 bees around tree 09:45 3 bees around tree 10:00 No bees around the tree. Stingless bees with yellow abdomen still active. Cloud just past overhead after I finished the count. 10:15 No bees on tree 10:30 1 bee on tree.
[[Top right margin]] 4 [[circled]] Xylocopa [[Underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underline]] [[left margin]] 8 July 10:45 2 bees were on tree. I found one resting on underside of leaf while I was walking around. After a few seconds of observation it flew off. The other one suddenly flew away but I don't know whether it too had been resting. It was definitely not working the flowers. 11:00 heard no bees working the tree 11:15 one bee on tree 11:30: No bees on tree. 12:10 1 bee working NE side 12:30 No bees present 12:45 Heard no bees active on tree 13:00 No bees heard on tree 13:15 No bees working the tree. 13:30 1 bee working NE corner of tree. 13:45 2 bees working tree. 1 on NE and 1 on SW side. One ^[[of these]] arrived from the NE as I got up to make the count. 14:30. No bees working the tree. 14:45. 4 bees working tree on all sides 15:00. No bees working on the tree. 15:15 No bees working the tree. 15:45. No bees working the trees. 16:00 Two bees on the tree. Saw them only as they flew away. [[end page]]
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 5 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[\underlined]] [[left margin]] 8 July 16:15 2 bees on tree. Spotted them only as they left. They don't seem to be as obvious as they were in the morning. 16:30 No bees working the tree [[strikethrough]] [[text?]] [[/strikethrough]] 16:45. No bees working the tree. However I did find one resting on underside of a branch on the NE side of tree. Just after I finished counting a strong wind came up which blew flowers to the ground. 17:00 1 bee working flowers on NE side of tree. Wind is still blowing 17:15 2 bees working in the tree. One on the east & one on the west side. 17:30. 1 bee working the NE. side of the tree. What may have been a smaller brownish xylocopa flew off as I rounded the SW side of the tree. 17:45. No bees on tree. The sun is low on the horizon now but still above the horizon. [[dash]] There were no observed interactions between the bees and the dragonflies which hovered over the tree most of the day. 18:00 No bees on tree. Sun has disappeared below horizon.
[[top right margin]] 6. [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 9 July 0525. Arrived at the same tree I was on yesterday. There were bees active. The sun had not yet come up at that time. 05:30. 5 bees working all around the tree. 05:45. 5 '' '' '' '' '' '' 05:55 The sun just came over the hill. 06:00 9 bees working all around the tree. 06:15 5 bees working all around the tree. 06:30 4 bees working all around the tree. 06:45 7 bees work all around the tree 07:00 5 bees work all around the tree 07:15 8 bees working all around the tree. There were some of the larger bees working this time & during the last count. 07:30 6 bees working all around the tree with large bees present. 07:45 5 bees working all around the tree including 2 large bees 0800 3 bees working all around the tree [[underlined]] 11 July 1965 [[/underlined]] 05:30 checked out a field where Steve had found Xylocopa a couple of days ago. The site is a large grass field in which these legumes are regularly dispersed in single plants. They probably average
[[top right margin]] 7 [[circled]] [[top left margin]] RD. sage 1965 [[top margin]] [[underlined]] Xylocopa [[/underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea leve, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[underlined]] 11 July 1965 [[/underlined]] about 10-15 feet apart from one another. When I arrived at 05:30 the flowers were still closed up and of course there were no bees The field is bordered on the SW side by a swampy area, on the NW by acacia forest, on the SE by a road and then a corn-field, and on the NW by houses and the road. The grass was about 2 ft high where it was growing undisturbed. The legume plant was a little shorter. 0555. The sun hit the first flowers in the SW corner of the field. 06:00 No bees, flowers still closed 06:30 No bees flowers still closed 07:15 No bees. Hummingbird (green) visiting flowers. 07:30. No bees. 08:00 No bees. 08:30 No bees. Many monarch-type butterflies at the flowers. 09:00 No bees. A strong wind has been blowing since 08:30 09:30 No bees [[strikethrough]] Stro [[ /strikethrough]] 010:00 No bees. Strongest gusts of wind so far. 010:30 No bees. Wind still blowing.
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 8 Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 11 July 10:50. First bee. large black. Time it took to visit 10 flowers 1 min 15 sec. (caught it.) It forcibly crawled into some of the flowers which were unopened. Examination immediately upon capture showed yellow pollen on abdomen and legs. 11:00 1 bee (large-similar to one just taken). 11:10. Another large bee visiting yellow legume. While trying to count its rate of flower visitation I chanced on a small patch of a blue flower & there was a Schoenherria visiting these tiny flowers. The distance between the two bees was about 10 ft. I don't think the large bee could even land on these small flowers. My impression was that the Schoenherria was a faster flying bee... more like a hover fly. Caught the animal. Examination did not reveal any pollen on this animal. Schoenherria 10 flowers/9 sec. 11:25 " 10 " /10 sec " " 10 " /10 sec " 11:30 1 large black bee working yellow legumes 11:30 3 Shoenherria on blue flowers. 12:00 5 large black bees on yellow legumes.
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 9 [[top margin]] Xylocopa [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 11 July 12:08 Noted a Schoenherria (? male) over some grass in the field. It chased at a small white butterfly. I watched it. It flew in irregular figure 8's about 3 ft high. It ranged [[strikeout]]os[[/strikeout]] as far as a 20 ft diam. but mostly flew 8 ft. The area it flew over was a low part of the grass between two bullthorn acacia 5 ft tall & 7ft apart from one another. This was thirty yds to the SE of the flowers the others were visiting. The animal flew just over the tips of the grass. In between the two larger acacias was a small one 20 inches, thus: [[image of flight path and observations]] The animal disappeared at 12:18 Just prior to making the 12:00 count I collected a Schoenherria from the blue flowers. I watched it visit 8-9 flowers of the blue and it had to go out of its way in order not to attend
[[top right margin]] 10 [[circled]] [[top margin]] [[strikethrough]] Journal [[/strikethrough]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playas Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 11 July. to one of the yellow legumes which was growing in the midst of the blue flower 13:20 Returned from lunch & immediately checked the blue flower patch. A large black Xylocopa was visiting the blue flowers. It also attempted to visit another yellow flower (see ) unsuccessfully once and then successfully on the second try. The first time it landed on the flower the lower petal fell off. There was one Schoenherria visiting the flowers at that time. 13:45 Checked the spot where the Schoenherria had been defending a territory but no bee was there. Strong gusty breezes still blowing. Apparently doesn't hinder bee activity. 14:00 7 black bees working the field Shade is covering the first flowers in the SW. corner of the plot. 15:00 7 black bees working the yellow legumes. 1 Schoenherria on the blue flowers. It may be that the total number of Schoenherria were only those which I caught earlier & this one. 15:30 10 bees working yellow flowers. No Schoenherria ^ [[on blue]]
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 11 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 11 July. 16:00 6 bees working the yellow legumes. Possibly one Schoenherria but couldn't be certain. 16:20 No bees on blue flower. 16:30 9 bees working yellow legume. 17:00 6 bees working yellow legumes. 17:20 No bees active on blue flowers. 17:35 4 bees working flowers. All of the flowers are now in the shade. 18:05 No bees on yellow legume. No bees on blue flower. Sun had disappeared. Yellow legume flower was still open. [[left margin]] 12 July 04:50 Checked out the flamboyant [[?]] tree for Xylocopa. Stood under the trees in the poor light but was unable to here any bees. Returned to the Schoenherria site of the blue flowers at 04:55 I couldn't see any at that time. 05:30 Looked around from where the blue flowers were and discovered a few feet away a bush of white flowers upon which the Schoernherria were abundant. I checked out the surrounding brush patch and found 7-8 of these plants in varying degrees of flower. There were 7 Schoernherria on these plants
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 12 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level Guanacaste Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 12 July There was also 1 Eulena and a bright metallic green bee working one bush that was off to the side of the main group of plants. The Schoernherria were collecting pollen as their underparts and insides of the legs were white with pollen. A general picture of the whole area is as follows 06:00 3 bees ^[[schornherria]] working plant (white flower) more on blue flower. [image]
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 13 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]]12 July 06:30 2 bees ^[[Schoenherria]] on white flower, none on blue 07:30 2 Schoenherria active on blue flower- - collected a male(?). 1 Schoenherria active on white flower. 08:10 No Schoenherria on either flower. 16:40. No bees on blue flower or white flower. Eight large black bees on yellow legume. Took about 10 pictures of the yellow legume and the blue flower [[left margin]] 13 July 06:15-08:00. Walked down the beach to a [[strikethrough]]hegd[[/strikethrough]] hedge of pink flowers facing the ocean. They were part of the front fence of a house. At 06:35 I found the first [[strikethrough]] tabaniformis[[/strikethrough]] ^ [[subvirescens]] visiting these flowers. I hadn't come prepared and tried to catch the bee in my handkerchief but it stung me and got away. There was another [[underlined]] xylocopa [[/underlined]] but smaller with only one white band on the abdomen but I didn't get it. At 06:40 when I left for breakfast there were three large black ones there also. Returned after breakfast and watched the bushes. Got one at 07:50. These bees fly much faster and more erratically than the other two groups I've worked with. They behave like horse flies.
[[top right corner]] 14 [circled] [[top left corner]] RD Sage 1965 [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 13 July 18:00 - 18:30 - No bees visiting flowers (pink) [[left margin]] 14 July [[strikethrough]] 06 [[/strikethrough]] 05:45. 1 large black bee and 1 Schoenherria visiting pink flower.--no tabaniformis [[strikethrough]] subvirescens [[/strikethrough]] 06:00 No bees on flower 06:15 " " " " 06:30 " " " " 07:00 " " " " 08:00 1 bee working the flowers 08:30 no bees working the flowers 09:00 " " " " " 09:30 " " " " " 17:05 - 17:20. Returned to the field of yellow legumes. Checked the white flowers and blue flowers near them but there was no activity on them. On the yellow flowers I took 6 large black bees in that period. No more appeared. [[left margin]] 15 July 05:50 - 06:00 Took three Schoenherria off of the group of white flowers which steve had been watching for the last couple of days. There was a fourth Schoernherria but it got away. Got a fourth bee about 50 yds away on an isolated bush of the white flower. 06:03 - 06:12. Got three bees on the same kind of white flowers in the area I watched a couple of days ago. Three bees got away here. [end of page]
[[top left corner]]RD.Sage 1965 [[top right corner]] 15 [circled] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]15 July 08:30-09:00. Returned to the hedge of pink flowers and collected miscellaneous series of bees but no [[underlined]] xylocopa [[/underlined]] seen. [[underlined]] 7.6 mi NE. Los Canas, via Hwy 19. ^[[1200 ft]]Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]]16 July 17:05. Found a nest in a fence post making up a horse corral. The nest opening faced to the east and was about 24 inches above the ground -- 20 inches above the grass. The [[strikethrough]]hole was[[/strikethrough]] burrow was as follows: [[image - bee in relationship to opening, noted 3.5" beside image]] The bee was nesting in the bottom of the burrow with its head facing up. There was another burrow going up and into the log from the entrance. The bottom of the burrow was empty. The burrow was about 1/2 in before it before it started to drop down. Took two pictures of the nest at this point with the recently killed bee in position as I discovered it. We then began [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] to excavate the upper tunnel. By the time we
[[start page]] RD. Sage [[1965??]] 16 xylocopa sp. 7.6 mi NE. Las [[Conas--tilde above the letter "n"]], 1200ft, [[vista/]]19, Guanacaste, C,R. had finished hacking away the tunnel 6 more bees had appeared (These included 3 males and three females (one escaped). They would come rushing out one at a time about two or three stroke[[strikeout k]]s after I would begin chopping. [[strikeout ??]] They would fall to the ground and the first two appeared very sluggish. The later ones were more active - - no doubt due to the previous warnings. We colected the bees and then hacked out the nest with a saw and hatchet. This is nest #1. [[margin 21July]] 1 mi ESE S San Isidro de General, 2500ft, San Jose 08:30-10:00. Collected 4 [[Mega??lacopa]] and 1 [[X.?????]] in a patch of purple flowers )SJR#). The day was clear and sunny. The [[?mega's]] were there during all the time we collected. They were present only as singles or doubles - - never saw more than 2 at one time. The other smaller one was flying quickly from flower to flower - - much quicker than the larger megas. I saw three of the smaller ones but collected only one. The patch of flowers was growing in a swampy area with [[[strikeout standing'' running water about 2-4 in deep. The patch was thick & dense and about 25x60 yds. It was right alongside the road. [[end page]]
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage [[top right margin]] 17 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] 1 mi ESE San Isidro de General, via rd, 2500 ft. San Jose, C.R. [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 21 July There were many other kinds of bees working the flowers along with the xylocopa. There was one more [[underlined]]mega[[/underlined]] there when we left. There were many more Bombus here than the xylocopa. They seemed to replace the [[underlined]] Neoxylocopa [[/underlined]] that we found at El Coco. An interesting thought. [[underlined]] 3 mi N San Isidro de General, via Hwy, San Jose, C.R. [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 21 July 14:00-15:00. While we were looking around for other things I noticed xylocopa holes in some rotting fence posts. There were three holes in one and two in the other. Hacked them open and found they were all similar in being about 3 inches deep but nothing in them. They looked fresh but the duff inside was old. 4.5 mi ESE San Isidro de General, 1900 ft, San Jose, Costa Rica. [[left margin]] 22 July 09:05 Returned to the nest site I had found a few minutes earlier. Watched the nest site until 10:30. Steve returned and we went over to the flower patch. I followed a stream through a meadow did the place we collected yesterday It was about 180 yds long N-S) by 5-10 yds wide. Between 10:30-11:30 took bees. No Schoernherria seen. The Megas would make large sweeping flights over the
[[upper left corner]] R.D. Sage 1965 [[upper right corner]] 18 [circled] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] 4.5 mi ESE. San Isidro de General, 1900 ft., San Jose, Costa Rica [[left margin]] 22 July. patch. Could find no Schoernherria there. Left the [[left margin]] 26 July 1965 08:30 Returned to take that nest of the supposed xylocopa that I watched on the 22nd. As I was loosening the tacks which hold the wire to the post a xylocopa fell out on the ground. It had come from a different hole than the one I had been looking at. I collected it & determined that it came from a very obscure hole whose entrance was in a crack running along the log. The entrance was on the east side of the post approximately 2 ft above ground level. The fence enclosed an open field to the east. There were small shrubs in the field but for the most part it was bare. The purple flowers we took large bees on was 100 yds. farther east but down the slope 50 ft in elevation. I cut out the nest and took the larvae which were in it. This is nest #2. The nest post was a mixture of rotten and solid wood on the inside. Ants had a nest in other parts. The tunnel of the bees nest angled upwards so that the chambers were above the entrance on the post. Arrived at the flowers at 09:08 there were no xylocopa in evidence although Bombus
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 19 [[cirlced]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]4 mi ESE San Isidro del General 1900 ft, San Jose, Costa Rico [[underlined]] [[left margin]] 26 July was abundant. The sky was somewhat overcast and this may have had something to do with it. Saw the first large [[strikethrough]] car [[strikethrough]] black carpenter bee [[strikethrough]] at 09:23. It made a large figure 8 over the flowers. I didn't see it land. Took a black Schoenherria, like the one from the nest at 09:30. It was on the flowers. Took the large [[underlined]]Mega Xylocopa[[/underlined]] regularly after that. They were all caught at the upstream end of the flower patch. I saw only one in the middle and none at the lower end. Left the area at 10:55 after collecting large carpenter bees and 1 Schoenherria [[underlined]] San Jose, San Jose, Costa Rica [[underlined]] [[left margin]]29 July 08:45 collected a schoenherria off of a blue flower (SJA# ). The blue flower formed part of a hedge with a pink flower (8JA# ) which overlamps [[scribble]] a fence. The place is collected for bees by people at the university (including Michener). It is called Las Jose's.
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage. 1965 [[top right margin]] 20 [[circled]] Xypocopa sp. [[underlined]] 5.5km SE. Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]31 July 1915 10:15-12:30. Returned to check a supposed carpenter bee nest I thought I had found a couple of days earlier. Steve sat at this nest, which is #2. He discovered another nest on the other side of the same stunt. The bee(s) in this nest were active and we determined that these were [[underlined]]Tabaniformis[[/underlined]]. It was hazy but warm. I went out & checked for nests in other likely looking stumps & dead trees. Found 4 more in the immediate vicinity. Nest #3 was very peculiar. I found the nest by accident. I had climbed a dead tree & was chopping off a dead branch to check some large holes. The branch snapped off and fell to the ground & broke into 3 pieces. A carpenter bee (Megazylacopa fell out of a shallow nest (Nest #3). The branch was about 15 feet above the ground at the nest site. In the same piece of wood was a little green bee which I discovered when I split the wood open. Captured same. Nest #3 [[image- two parallel lines (meant to be a tree) with a circle in the middle and a bee flying out of circle]] (cont. on p 23) the wood is very soft & can be torn apart by
xylocopa sp [[image: darkened circle]] active [[image: x in a circle]] inactive 5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1260 m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[image: hand drawn map]]
[[circled]] 22 [[/circled]] RD Sage 1965 xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] 5.5 km SE Desamporados, 1260 m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] 31 July 1 Upper nest - [[underline]] x. tabaniformis [[/underline]] 2. Lower nest - Tabaniformis x3 dead tree with 1 [[underline]] Megaxylacopa. [[/underlined]] (see pg. 20) taken on 31 July 1965. 4. in small stump schoenherria 5 [[strikethrough]] [[underlined]] megaxylocopa [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] 6. [[underline]] x. [[tabaniformis?]] [[/underline]] 7. in dead tree in fork 7 ft above ground, [[strikethrough]] [[notoylacopa?]] [[/strikethrough]] size active 8 possibly abandoned
RD. Sage 23 1965 Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] 5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1250m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] 31 July found. Took another abandoned nest that apparently the woodpeckers had broken into [[underlined]] (Nest #19) [[/underlined]]. Left the site at 12:30. Returned at 14:30. Looked for more nests in the open field. I found two more & Steve found 8. The nests were found [[scribble]] most frequently it seemed in the dead brances of a tree of the family Melastomocaea. Took an abandoned nest [[underlined]] (Nest 19) [[/underlined]] from such a tree (See SJA Bot# ) It rained for a few minutes at 16:00. Left at dark. Steve collected Nest #18 by accident. It contained 14 [[underlined]] Megaxylocopa [[/underlined]] (4 ♂♂ 10 ♀♀). [[line denoting break]] 1 August [[strikethrough]] 32 July [[/strikethrough]] Nest #4. bee in hole after probing. 09:45 Nest #6 at least 2 tabaniformis 09:50 10:10 Nest 22 5 ft off ground in dead tree trunk. entrance at 135° Entrance [[strikethrough]] covered [[/strikethrough]] and [[strikethrough]] inner [[/strikethrough]] outer part of hole encrusted with fungi. Entrance 33x12 mm [[image drawing of woodpecker hole in tree]] attack hole of woodpecker Bee present after probing. 10:15 checked #7. bees in it. Discovered another nest in same tree (Nest 21). Bee(s) in it. Entrance on underside of branch
[[image - site map indicating Brush, Forest, #21, #74 & 75]]
RD Sage 1965 [[page number encircled]] 24 Xylocopa sp [[underline]] 5.5 km SE. Desamparados, 1260 m San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underline]] 1 August 11:00 [[underline]] Schoenherria lateralis [[/underline]] nest discovered (Nest b) Poked in nest & bee responded. Buzzed in a high pitched tone that could be heard 10 ft away. Backed out to the entrance 3 times in response to probings. Wouldn't come out head first. Did the same behavior while I was tying a label on the branch 3 in. away - but not disturbing the whole. Abdomen was pumping in & out. - Check and take two apparently abandoned nests NE by 10 ft. from (Nest b). They are filled with debris. 12:00 (Nest 21) located in a dead log lying out in the field. The entrance to the nest was covered by spider web. Tested the burrow with a twig & got buzzing. When I sat down to write notes a black medium sized bee most surely one of the Schoenherria [[underline]] lateralis [[/underline]] After the first bee flew out I probed again & heard another bee. 31 July 14:45 In a field about 100 ft lower in altitude and 400 yds north of where we were working this AM. Found a nest (Nest #d22) in a spiny plant (SJ[[A?]]Bot 76). It looked to be a large bee. It was on the underside of a dead horizontal branch. [[strikethrough]] It was a [[/strikethrough]] There was a bee in it.
[[top left margin]]RD Sage 1965 [[top center]][?]] [[top right margin]] 26 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]5.5 km SE. Desamparados, 1260 m. [[?]] San Jose Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 2 August 08:30 Arrived at tree containing #21 + #7 No sign of activity [[line across page]] [[left margin]] 3 August 11:30 Nest #23 Discovered the tree on a N facing slope in [[?]]. Entrance was 210 degrees nest angled upward. Chopped into tree to check another nest and three bees came tumbling out (1 escaped). Entrance was three feet from ground. The whole tree was dead. Lower part ie below nest contained nest of large ants. (pickled some) The upper part of this [[strikethrough]]pran[[/strikethrough]] branch contained other nests which had been broken into by woodpeckers. This nest entrance was in a knot-hole. Base diameter of tree was 41 cm. [[strikethrough Threee w[[/strikethrough]] Tree shaped as follows: [[image - diagram of tree branches showing nest location]] While chopping open the nest another bee escaped from a [[strikethrough]]small[/strikethrough]] another passageway at the bottom [[strikethrough]]of the[[/strikethrough]] where I was making my cut. [[strikethrough]]About 10-15 minutes later a bee returned to the[[/strikethrough]] [[end page]]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 27 [[circled]] [[top margin]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] 5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1350im., San Jose, C.R. [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 3 August 13:00. Broke open an abandoned Xylcopa nest in the [[Melostomacoal?]] tree and found a solpupid. There were also mud nests of some hymenoptera in the chambers. They were not active so I could not determine what [[strikethrough]]was[[/strikethrough]] they were. Took the nest and it is accn #4. About 10-15 minutes after I had taken Nest #23 a bee returned to the tree where I had moved to -- approx 30 ft down-hill. It buzzed about the branches. It then returned to the tree from which #23 had been taken. It buzzed about -- it flew up close to the tips of the branches -- as if looking for a hole. I scared it off trying to catch it. I put the nest pole back in approx the same place as it had been. [[strikethrough]]The bee re[[/strikethrough]] A bee returned to the tree five minutes later and went through much the same motions -- flying about the tips of the branches. It came within two feet of the nest hole but I scared it away & it did not reappear while I was in the vicinity for the next fifteen minutes. [[left margin]][[strikethrough]]sheh[[/strikethrough]] The nest #23 consists of 9 bees (including 2 escapees). There were 2 males (symbols) + 5 females (symbols) which are pinned. The nest pole contains abandoned nests. I sawed it into [[strikethrough]]three[/strikethrough]] 4 pieces fitting as follows [[image - sketch of nest with four pieces labelled]]
[[top left margin]] RD. Sage 1965 [[page number encircled]] 28 [[top margin]] [[underline]] xylocopa [[underline]] sp [[underline]]5.5 km S.E. Desamparados, 1350 m, San Jose, C.R. [[underline]] [[left margin]] 3 August Nest #24. Is an abandon nest that was found on a large branch which had fallen to the ground. The nest is in an abutment piece of the branch. Where I found it, it was only a [[strike through]] foot [[strike through]] foot of the ground & appeared much too damp to support a living bee. See [[?]] #4 regarding [[?]] in the abandon burrows. There are some ants and a [[strike through]] pinned which were inhabiting the wood below the nest pole. The two [[male symbols]] appear to be heavily infested with small mites. They are densest around the juncture of the post - thorax and the abdomen. [[wavy line inserted]] 5 August [[strikeout]] 5? [[/strikeout]] 09:15. Checked nest #6. The straw Steve put in it on the third was still present. The nest is still in complete shade at this time. The opening of nest #6 is due South (180 degrees) and is 44 in. above the ground at the base of the tree. The [[strikeout]] des? [[/strikeout]] circumference of the tree at its base is 28cm, at [[strikeout]] its [[/strikeout]] the nest hole it is 24cm. The base of the tree is still living. The top half appears to dead. The tree is of the spiny species(5JA-Bot #76). Nothing had happened at 09:40. The nest opening is very obscure although [[strikeout]] not [[/strikeout]] it is on the plain surface of the tree trunk. There is no droppings below the entrance as we have [[end page]]
[[top right corner]] 29 [[top left corner]] RD Sage 1965 [[top margin]] [[underlined]]Xylocopa[[/underlined]] sp. [[left margin]] 5 August [[underlined]] 5.5km Desamparados, 1380m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] found with some of other nests. 10:45. No activity whatsoever thus far. Tree still in shade. 12:00 No activity at all This part three hours. The hole is just now becoming exposed to the sunlight. 5km SE. [[underlined]] Desamparados, 1200-1300m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 9 August 09:15 Took Nest #22. Took three pictures. It was left off of ground. Opening was on underside of branch. Branch ran in an E-W direction. Tree is of sp. STA Bot #76. Woodpeckers appear to have attempted to enter nest. The nest tree was at bottom of a slope about 100ft higher in altitude. Nest is of the [[underlined]] Neoxylacopa [[/underlined]] and consists of 200 males+19 females. 10:00 Found Nest #36 (200 females+ 10 males) in a fence hole along the road at the top of the slope where nest #22 was located. The opening was 40 inches above the ground for #36. It opened at 225 degrees. Took one picture of this nest pole. Could not determine what sp. the nest tree was. [[left margin]] Neoxylacopa Nest #22. There were spider webs in the burrow between where the woodpecker had made its entrance. The bees were only in one part: A+B. [[image- schematic representation of the bee nest]] This nest was a simple tube going out in both
R.D. Sage 1965 [[top right corner]] (30) [[underline]]xylocopa[[/underline]] sp [[underline]]5km SE. Desamporados,1200-1300m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underline]] [[left margin]]9 August directions from the entrance. Diameter of nest at entrance was 37mm Nest #36 schoenherria. The next was T-shaped It had been attacked by a woodpecker. [[image - describing shape of nest and woodpecker attack locations]] Diameter of post at the entrance was 47mm Pickled the [[image-female symbol]]of this next as it was covered with mites (?) and the [[image - male symbols?] were bare. This phenomenon can be seen in the other Schoenheries we have have taken here. The infestation is heavy & distribution is as follows: [[image of inset with mites on back and near wings]] The undersides were bare & the wings also. There was also a solpupid in the wood of the nest post & it is pickled with the infested bee. [[left margin]] Shoenherria #37 In same post as #36 but up higher--near the tip. Couldn't tell what direction the opening was as I didn't discover it until after I had removed this part of the post from the fence. It consists of 1 [[image-female symbol]] only. She has a simple going up
[[circled]] 31 [[/circled]] RD Sage 1965 [underlined]] Xylocopa sp. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] 5km SE. Desamparados, 1200 [[strikethrough]] m [[/strikethrough]] - 1300m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] 9 August The post. When I removed the paper I had used as a plug the bee was facing the opening. When I started to probe with a pair of forceps she immediately brought her abdomen around and tried to sting the forceps. There was no provisions in the nest. I pickled her. The nest consists of two pieces. Nest diameter at entrance was 42 mm. The two nests 36 & 37 [[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] were in a fence post along the road which runs along a ridge. I walked down the west slope of the same ridge in a cow pasture. I followed a fence in hopes of finding more of these types of nests. I found two abandoned nests in the same type of wood. They had both been attacked - apparently successfully - by woodpeckers. One nest was 15 in off the ground & opened due South. The woodpeckers apparently can detect the course of the burrow and successfully enter near its ends where the bees would be gathered. [[underlined]] 55km SE. Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] 10 August 08:15. Arrived at nest #5. Sun is shining except for brief periods when a cloud comes overhedd. There [[strikethrough]] waw [[/strikethrough]] was fresh-looking sawdust on the entrance to the nest - which goes up into the tree. This nest is different
[[left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[Right corner]] (32) xylocopa sp. [[underline]] 5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1260km, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underline]] from the others I have seen lately in that it opens to a [[strikethrough]]westerly[[strikethrough]] easterly direction (120 degrees). The hillside at this point has a slope of about 50 degrees-50 degrees. The nest hole is 56 in off the ground. 10:27 bee came down to the entrance of the hole. Returned back up to the burrow as I came near. It appears to be [[underline]]Neoxylacopa[[/underline]]/ 10:50. bee returned to opening of nest. Did not stick its head out of the opening. 11:00 Bee came out entrance. At same time collected a male [[underline]] Neoxylacopa[[/underline]] [[strikethrough]](Nest 39)[[strikethrough]] flying about low to the ground. Bee [[strikethrough]]at[[/strikethrough]] in nest stuck antennae out for 10 seconds then disappeared back up the burrow. Male was taken 5 ft from nest. I did not see or hear a bee leave the nest previously. 11:09. Another male [[underline]]Neoxylacopa[[/underline]] flew by me at a height of 20". It first stopped at a small stump lying 5ft 5 of base of nest tree #5. It then flew up with 2ft of my face then flew west to base of tree 5ft from nest tree 6 & landed for only a second. Then flew SW. towards a fallen tree. I lost sight of it then. It flew fairly slow & did appear to be disturbed. I thought it looked as if it were looking for something. [[image-sketched local map: fallen tree, standing tree, dead stump, nest tree 6]]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 33 [[circled]] [[underlined]]Xylocopa[[/underlined]] sp. [[underlined]]5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 10 August 11:25 Bee visible upon closer inspection about 2 inches up the burrow. 11:25 [male] Neoxylocopa flew by. It was flying a little bit higher (3-4 ft) Flew by from the west & then up the hill to the SE. 11:28 bee came to entrance. A small [[chrysidid ??]] flew by the entrance at distance 1-2 in & bee immediately withdrew back up burrow. 11:40 Sighted female Schoenherria flying about rotting tree 40 ft NE of nest 6. Located female starting a nest. Watched her for two minutes All of sudden female Mega dropped out of unseen burrow 1 ft above. [[left margin]][[image - diagram of locations of nest 39 and 40 on tree]] Scared the Schoenherria away from nest Schoenherria flew around 2 ft away. Mega went back to nest. Schoenherria returned to tree & buzzed around close to trunk looking for hole site. Finally stpped flying and started to work again. Male Mega came out hole flew down within 3 in of Schoeherria & then flew back to hole - Scoenherria didnt stop work This hole the Schoenherria started was 5 in below the one at which I first saw her. This first hole [[strikethrough]]didn't mac[[/strikethrough]] was about 3mm deep. It looks as if she started 2[nd] hole from start. At three feet you can here the chewing sound. 11:53 Schoenherria still digging. Schoenherria oblivious to me at 20 in. work is done with mouth & fore legs seem to pull chips out. Nest is just below
[[top right margin]] 34 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1260 mm San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]10 Aug. spine on tree, Bee is holdig onto spine & digging upside down. 12:03 Dug as deep as head. 12:06 upside down again. 12:08 Right side up. 12:09 upside down. Is working in a clockwise circle. 12:11 right side up. Is in as deep as [strikethrough]her the[strikethrough] a line across wings. 12:12 upside down. Is spending more time upside down. Hanging on to outside by only hind legs. 12:13 right side up. 12:15 upside down. Work does not seem to be done at the horizontal only right & up-side down. Her wings are folded tight across her back so that they cross over one another [[image-sketch of wings]] 12:17 Right side up. - - moving always clockwise. Wood come out under belly. 12:19 upside down, working at horizontal 3 oclock position (12:21). 12:21 right side up. Uses 2 legs for pulling out wood grains. 12:23 rightside up. 12:25 upside down (moved counterclockwise) 12:26 right side up ( " " " ) 12:27 upside down ( " " " ) Chips building up on belly while upside down. Turned to 9 oclock position and many chips fell out. 12 32 Right side up. Sky clouding over & wind beginning to blow, 12:34 upside down. 12:36 right side up, moving counter clockwise 12:38 Upside down. Wind blowing stronger : 12:38 right side up. 12:38 upside down - very active. Stopped working
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 35 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]5.5 km S.E. Desamparados, 1260 m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 10 August 1240 Came out of hole. Cleaned anntennae. Flew around tree at 2-3 in distance. Enlarged circumference of flight with each circle. I'm sure it was sight fixation. Then flew away. 12:43. Returned buzzed around me an tree once then around vicinity of nest hole and landed 1 in below & crawled up to it and began to dig. 12:45 Upsidedow moving clockwise. 12:54 Right side up. 12:55 upside down. 12:57 in up to the junction of abdomen & thorax 13:01 Right side up moving counter clockwise. Wind blowing again. 13:02 Upside down. This nest entrance is at 240 degrees. The Megaxylocopa above is at [[210?]] degree 13:06 Right side up. 13:07 First raindrops. 13:09 Upside down. Raining now. 13:14 left the tree with female still digging Returned at 15:40. Female present. Only tip of abdomen showing. Not rainy just cloudy. A large amount of frass hanging around outside of nest entrance. Tried to [[strikethough]]talk[[/strikethrough]] take some pictures of the nest & frass but camera is on blink. AT 16:44 all but [[strikethrough]][[tiny?]][[/strikethrough]] small portion of abdomen was hidden from view. 17:30. All of bee was out of sight in burrow. [[left margin]]11 August Returned to nest 39+40 at 08:35 Her face was visible just inside the entrance. I cleared away some branches which were obstructing [[end page]]
[[top left margin]]RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 36 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]]5.5km SE. [[Desomparados]], 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] the view and she retreated up the burrow a little further but her head was still visible. It was cloudy overhead and the wind was blowing. Very little saw dust remains visible outside the nest entrance. 08:47 Backed out of burrow so only head was inside. Her body was covered with small saw dust and gave her a very light colored appearance. 0851 Came out of burrow and remained quietly at entrance until 09:01. Began a few wing beats. At 09:02 flew off nest tree. Circled the tree twice & flew off. Measured the cavity in her absence. It is approx 24mm to the back of it. 0915 Began to rain. Returned at 09:29. Sawdust gone off her back. Found the entrance with no false starts. Apparently went right back to work. [[left margin]]12 August [[underlined]]2.5km E., 4km N.[[Chitario?]], 600m, [[Cartago?]], Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 12 August 11:58 Saw large carpenter bee fly from cut tree. It came from [[strikethrough]]the[[/strikethrough]] 30ft up. Circled the area and then disappeared. Sighted 3 nests holes close to one another. Collected a woodpecker off 12:15. [[image=drawing of woodpecker holes in tree]]
[[right corner]] (37) [[left margin]] RD Sage 1965 Journal Xylocopa sp [[underline]]2.5 km E., 4km N, Chiteria, 600m, Cartago Costa Rica[[/underline]] [[left margin]] 12 August [[column 1]] Nest # b d ? ? f e f f g g b [[column 2]] Enter - 12:15 - 12:29 1232 12:48 12:50 - 12:58 15:45 [[column 3]] leave 12:15 - 12:23 12:28 - 12:33 - - 1252 - - [[underline[[Sighted a bee entering a hole at 15:45[[/underline]] [[left margin]] 13 August Arrived about 09:00. Bees were active at nest. Began to rain at 09:45. Climbed up in tree at 10:15 and plugged up the burrow entrances. Began to saw the tree down. It took 45 min. Took the tree & left for San Jose [[line break]] [[left margin]]14 august 1 female from nest &[[?]] Ng 1 female N* 1 female N1 1 female
[[top right corner]] (38) [[left margin]] RD Sage 1965 xylocopa sp [[underline]] 2.5 km, E.,4km N. Chitaria, 600m, Cartago, Costa Rica[[/underline]] [[left margin]] 14 August Nest log is 9-10 in diameter and about 46 in. in length. Sawed into 4 pieces as follows [[image-describing bee burrows and location]]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[/left margin]] [[top right margin]][[circled]] 39 [[/circled]][[/right margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]]2.5km E., 4km N.Chitaria, 600m, Cartago, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]14 August[[/left margin]] Nest of 48 ) [[strikethrough]] At 0 [[/strikethrough]] Entrance is at 0. Burrow slants upwards and splits into 3 chambers. This is bottom nest on the log. The nest entrance is right on a crack in the log. [[left margin]][[underline]] Megaxylocopa [[/underline]][[/left margin]] Female left first. Took a (male female?) from center chamber. Nest [[strikethrough]]42[[/strikethrough]] 49 Entrance at 315 [[degrees]]. Is 9in up the log from Nest 48. Slopes upwards Nest 43. Entrance at 270 [[degrees]]. 5 inches ^[[up]] from Nest 49. Nest 44. Entrance at 270 [[degrees]]. 3.5 inches up from Nest 43. Nest 45 Entrance at 15 [[degrees]]. 8.5 in around circumference from Nest 43. Took [[strikethrough]]1 [[male]], 1 [[female]] 1 [[male]][[/strikethrough]] 7 [[females]] ([[underlined]] Megaxylocopa [[/underlined]])
RD.Sage 1965 40 xylocopa sp. 2.5kmE., 4km N.Chitaria,600m, Cartago, Costa Rica 14 August Nest 46 At 30 degrees. 3.5in from nest 45. Nest 47 Entrance at 270 degrees.It is 14in up the tree from nest 44. The entrance has been attacked by woodpeckers.[[left margin]] Megaxylocopa. The burrow forks 3 inches in from entrance. The fork which is outhermost has been entered by wood peckers 4 inches up from bifurcation. The more central nest contains a live bee. Took (female symbol) in the inner burrow. 46 cont. Complicated nest. Contained one burrow with two cells with larva and pollen [[loaves?]]. The adjacent burrow had the remains of a [[orthoptera]] in it and a pupae which I partially damaged. [[DRAWING IN CENTER]] The chambers were sealed with a compressed sawdust material which in the top chamber was 4mm thick in the middle [[end of page]]
R D. Sage 41 1965 [[underline]] Xylocopa [[/underline]] sp. [[underline]] 2.5 km.E., 4 km N. Chitaria, 600m, Cartago, Costa Rica[[/underline]] 14 August. Nest 46 cont. The top chamber contained a larva & pollen loaf about 1/2 the size of the one in the outermost cell. Here I couldn't see any larva or an egg but it may be discovered inside the loaf. The loaf itself is a very gooey stuff with a consistency like saw cookie dough. The chamber in which the orthopteroid was has its walls a dark grey color.. presumbly fungi. The other burrows are the natural color of the wood. The pollen balls are attached at top of chamber. Nest 53. A Schoenherria ♀. Entrance at 270º. The burrow is 5 inches below Nest 47. The burrow is similar to the Schoenherria nest I got at San Isidro in that it points up for a short distance & then drops down - not at all like the [[underline] megaxylocopa?]][/underline]]. The [[strikethrough]] nest [[/strikethrough]] pieces & the nests are numbered & pieced together: Section Nest # # of pieces. D 47. 2 C' 47 entrance, 53 1 C 45, 46 & 53 parts. 2. B 43, 45, 46, 49, 48 part. 4. A 48 entrance 1
[[Upper left]] RD Sage 1965 [[Upper right]] 42 [[Top margin]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] 2.5km E., 4km N.Chitaria, 600m, Cartago, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[Left margin]] 14 August In a sealed off burrow in nest 45 there were two cells containing what I presume are wasps. The burrow had about 10 of these grass cocoons. There were 4-5 in each cell: They all appeared to be dead & dried up. Pickled the mess. [[image- depiction of cocoons in cell]] [[underlined]] Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 15 August 15:00 Checked out an abandoned barn and corral on the east side of town. There were many nest entrances in the crossbeams of the structure. They had all been painted with tar from what I could understand from a peon who guards the place. [[strikethrough]] On [[/strikethrough]] In some of them I saw the [[strikethrough]]mod [[/strikethrough]] mud chambers of wasps. In the corral we found four active nests, 1 in one timber & 3 in another. On the way out found another nest with active sawdust but the bee was not in. [[underlined]] 14km SW.Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 15 Aug. 15:30 Found Neoxylocopa visiting a mimosa like legume which was in flower on both sides of the road in the fields. The bees were scattered about 1 to ever 4 bushes. [[underlined]] Bombus [[/underlined]] was working the same flower.
[[left margin]] R.D. Sage 1965 [[/margin]] [[circled]] 43 [[/circled]] Xylocopa sp. [[strikethrough]] Joarn [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 16 August [[/margin]] 11:00 - 12:00 - In a fence row 35 yds in from the beach and extending about 40 yds inland I found the abandoned nest of either Mega or Neoxylocopa. Found another burrow which was started but only extended about 1 in. into the wood. Another nest was found in a post which looks like it is active although I was unable to get a response to probing. The nest angled up and then dropped down the post. 15:30. Found a nest in the end of a root of a large tree which had toppled over into the lagoon [[line across page]] [[left margin]] 17 August [[/margin]] [[strikethrough]] 06:00- [[/strikethrough]] 05:30- 06:15. Checked the patch of Solonuim near the cow pasture that has the [[underlined]] Crotalaria [[/underlined]] in it. Most of it had gone to fruit and I saw no bees. Moved over to the patch behind the motel -- which Steve had watched before -- again no Xylocopa. I watched the white Scrofulariaciae that is in flower adjacent to the Solonum. Saw only Euglossa and Centris on it. 17:10. Checked the [[underlined]] Crotalaria [[/underlined]] patch I watched before and found only one [[underlined]] Neoxylocopa [[/underlined]] on the stuff. [[line across page]] [[left margin]] 19 August [[/margin]] 08:50. Found a dead tree forming part of a fence row which has at least 7 nest entrances only one of which could be determined as being active. 09:00 While writing this a large black bee returned
[[top left margin]] R.D Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 44 Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]]19 August and went into this same burrow [[insertion]] (Nest a) [[/insertion]] as I had already determined as having a bee. I couldn't make out at a distance of 12-15 ft. wether this bee had pollen on its scopae--it didn't look so. 09:09 Another large bee (Mega I think) returned to another entrance (Nest b) Nest b bee returned to front of nest & extended her antennae but went back in. Could be I am disturbing her sitting 6 ft away. Left at 09:30 when neither bee had emerged. [[underlined]]14 km W Liberia via Hwy 21, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] [[left margin]]20 August 09:45 Found Nest 55 in dead branch of SJA Bot#83. The nest entrance was on the underside of branch + branch was running in a N-S direction. I broke off the branch exposing the burrow + found one bee in the basal portion. Plugged this. While writing account 2 more [[insertion]] [[2 symbols for female]] [[/insertion]] emerged + escaped from the more distal hole. The branch was on S side of bush + 4 ft off the ground. There are two other nest holes in same piece of branch. Upon evamination in a room it was discovered that there were 2 nest entrances for this nest. The nest yielded 3 [[2 symbols for female]] and 2 [[2 symbols for male]]. (plus 2 [[2 symbols for female]] which escaped. The diameter of the nest [[strikethrough]] tree [[/strikethrough]]
RD Sage 1965 Xylocopa sp. [[circled page number]] 45 [[underline]] 14 km SW Liberia, via Hwy 21, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underline]] [[margin]] 20 August [[/margin]] branch is 35 mm. The 5 bees were in the most basal section of the branch. The two which escaped were from the more distal portion. [[underline]] Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underline]] [[margin]] 20 August [[/margin]] 16:10 Checked the [[underline]]Crotalaria [[/underline]] and found 2 Neoxylocopa visiting them. Plugged the holes in the tree I found yesterday at 17:30 [[wavy line across page]] [[margin]] 21 August [[/margin]] 07:45. Cut off the branches of the tree containing the bees nests. Took two pictures of the area. The tree stood 5 ft tall with three three forks: Nest # [[drawing of tree trunk with 2 limbs; one with a forked branch; symbols for S--N, symbols for E--W, and the words Section I, Section II]] In the main trunk there were no nests. In the smaller one there was one at the top of the branch. It opened in a NW direction. [[margin]] Nest a59 [[/margin]] Contained 2 [[two symbols for females]] [[underlined]] Neoxylocopa [[/underlined]]. NW opening for entrance. Simple [[drawing--thin crooked branch-like]] shaped [[strikethrough]] pu [[/strikethrough]] burrow slanting upward. 80 mm in length. branch had diameter of 120 mm. [[end of page]]
RD. Sage 1965 Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] 46 [[circled]] Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[underlined]] 21 August Diagram of Section II Looking in from N. ____ = North side ---- = South side E [[drawing of arrow]] W [[Drawing of tree stump marked]] Nest b 59, 5" [[drawing of arrows indicating E W at top of stump]] [[lines drawn to holes on trunk indicate nest sites marked Nest c, Nest d, Nest f near bottom of trunk, Nest e]] [[lines drawn marked 8" circumference; 12" length of branch]] [[Drawing of second trunk, shorter than first]] [[dashed line circle at top of stump]] Made X sec here (per diagram on pg.47)[[line to Nest 62, which has a line to Next 60, which has a line to unnumbered hole, second line to another unnumbered hole]] [[drawing of diagonal line with dented line above that down the trunk]] [[drawing Nest j, Nest k]] [[end of page]]
[[top left margin]]R.D.Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 47 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp. Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[wavy line drawn across page]] [[left margin]]21 August Nest # a 59, Neoxylocopa, 3 in from top. Entrance at N. Entrance [[strikeout]] parts[[/strikeout]] partially obscured by a small dead twig Nests c, d, & e are all abandoned. Nest c & e are schoenherria size. The other is a short Neoxylocopa hole size. Nest c looked very recent. Nest b. an opening to the N. . An abandoned but very complex Neo or Mega xylocopa burrow [[strikeout]]It slanted up[[/strikeout]] Must be from last season. [[left margin]]X sec. of log between Nest f & g: [[drawing as if from top of trunk showing where nests were located and distance between them]] Nest 62 [[arrow]] 10 mm. Nest h 60 [[arrow]] 3mm. Nest h60 [[arrow]] Nest h60 [[arrow]] Nest h60 [[arrow]] 12mm [[arrow]] Nest h60 [[arrow]]9 mm [[arrow]] 1mm. 14 mm [[arrow]] 5mm [[arrow]]Nest h60 [[arrow]]
R D. Sage 48 1965 Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] Playas del Coco, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [[/underlined]] 21 August Nest #60, [[underlined]] Megaxylocopa [[/underlined]], opening at W. Angles upwards. Very complicated AT points breaks through to Nest f which is abandoned. Found 5♂♂ & 6♀♀ in this nest. Nest 62, [[underlined]] Schoenherria [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] subvirescens [[/underlined]], opening at NW.. Angles upwards from entrance. Took 5 ♀♀, 12♂♂, 1 ?. Pickled 1 ♂ & 1 ♀ plus abdomen of one I chopped in half while opening the log. Nest 61, [[underlined]] Megaxylocopa [[/underlined]], opening to the NW. Angled upwards & then branched into three columns. Contained 2 ♀♀, 4♂♂. 2 ♂♂ were in one cell & the other 4 were in another one of the cells together. This is the same nest into which I saw a ♀ fly yesterday (see sp. [[accnt?]]) When these bees were pulled from the nest and crowded into cyanide jars they [[exuded?]] a sticky fluid from their anus. It has a smell of vanilla -- or fresh sawdust. [[underlined]] Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. 22 August 11:00. Returned to the barn where we found the other nests. I counted 36 nest entrances in the rafters of the barn itself. They had been painted with a black material -- no doubt tar. [end page]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 49 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]22 August Talked with the owner of the place. He said the paint they use is called [[Alkytron?]]. It covers the wings of the bees when they leave & they fall to the ground where they stomp on them. [[underlined]]5.5km SE Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]25 August Nest# 21. In a fallen tree in open meadow. Took 1 picture of nest. Opening of nest is at 65 degrees. Height from ground is 3ft. Another 3ft of branch goes up from there. Burrow slopes upwards in branch. (Schoenherria)8 [[symbol for males]] 3 [[symbol for females]]. Pickled 1 [[symbol for female]] & 1 [[symbol for male]] which were damaged in opening the nest. There [[strikethrough]]were[[/strikethrough]] was a light infestation of mites on 4 of the [[ symbols for males]]. Absolutely none on the 2 [[symbol for females]]. The mites were at the base of the right wing on one & in between the abdomen and thorax on the others. The diameter at nest entrance is 70mm. Nests 74 & 75 were located in a dead tree (SJA Bot#76) The tree was one of three of the same species -- all dead at the very head of the lower meadow. The slope it was on faced NE. The tree itself stood 15-18 ft high. The branch [[strikethrough]]on[[/strikethrough]] which the nests were located was a side branch from the main trunk. The woodpeckers had attacked the tree and hollowed out a cavity with an opening 55x95mm. From the lower lip of the entrance the cavity is 80mm deep
RD Sage 1965 50 [[number 50 is circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underline]]5.5km SE., Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[/underline]] 25 August Going up the cavity follows the burrows of the xylocopa burrows. [[image- a hand drawn diagram of nest 75 part b and nest 74. At the top it states "woodpecker attack holes (schocnherria)" at a fork in the nest. Towards the bottom there is another note that says "woodpecker attack hole (megaxylocopa) 10ft to ground"]]
[[top right margin]]RD Sage 1965 [[top left margin]]51 [[cirlced]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]]5.5km SE. Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]25 August The woodpeckers destrowed the entrances to all of the burrows. The cavity opened in a S.E. direction when the tree was standing. The [[strikethrough]]lowt[[/strikethrough]] lowest nest #74 was 10ft above the ground. Nest 74 Megaxylocopa 5 [[symbols for males]] 7 [[symbols for females]]. Entrance destroyed by woodpecker attack. Entrance 10ft above ground. Pickled 1 [[symbol for male]] & 1 [[symbol for female]]. Nest 75 [[Schoenherria]] 7 [[symbols for males]]. Entrance & part of nest destroyed by woodpeckers. These bees do not have any mites on them. [[left margin]]26 August 13:45. Checked nests 39 & 40 with a piece of grass and found a bee in each one. 14:25 Found Nests 77 & 78 in a spiny branch (SJA Bot#76). The lower third of the tree was still living -- the upper 2/3 was dead. The Nest 77 opened up 300 degrees and 30 in. above the ground. Began to rain. The slope faced NW. These nests were 90ft S of nest 7. Nest 7 &76 in [[Melostomacola?]]- dead. It stands 12 ft high. Nest 7 has entrance at 120 degrees & is 7 ft above ground in fork of branch. Nest [[strikethrough]]76[[/strikethrough]] ^[[22]] 105 degrees is the entrance and 5ft above the ground. The nest is in a spiny tree (SHA Bot#76) Nest slopes upwards in the branch.
[[top left margin]] R.D. Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 52 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]]5.5 km SE Desamparados, 1260 m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[underlined]] [[left margin]]26 August Nest [[strikethrough]]76[[/strikethrough]] 22. Neoxylocopa 3 females Diameter of limb at next entrance 60 mm. Circumferance of tree at base is 14 inches. Nest 76 [[underlined]]Schoenherria [[underlined]] 4 females, 2 males ^[[1?(escapee)]] Entrance at [[strikeout or unrecognized symbol]] 120 degrees on the [[strikethrough]]slope[[/strikethrough]] side of the branch. ^[[9 ft above ground.]] Burrow slopes upwards in branch. 1 bee escaped in the field while I sawing it apart. Mites infesting the 2 males, none on females. Nest 7 [[underlined]]Schoenherria [[/underlined]] 4 females 3 males. Entrance at 120 degrees in croch of a branch. Hole was 7 ft above ground on a N facing slope. There was one end cell which had apparently died. There was the remains of the cell end around the edges of the burrow. Inside this cell there was a black moldy moss. ^[[The cell was 16 mm in length.]] No mites on these bees. Nest 77 Schoenherria 2 males. (see pg. 51 for description of tree & openings. Mites on 1 male on the first tergite. Nest 78 [[underlined]]Neoxylocopa[[/underlined]] 2 females Pickled both. There were wood ants nesting in an abandoned Xylocopa in the same portion of the tree with the 2 live nests. Pickled some of these. There were termites boring through the center of the log. Pickled some of these also. [[line across page]] [[left margin]]29 August 10:55 Sat down to watch Nests 39 & 40. Nest 40 is incredibly camoflaged. Even now I have to check with a close up examination to determine its exact position 12:15 No activity at all during the past hour & fifteen minutes. [[strikethough]]They [[strikethrough]] The sky is now cloudy overhead.
RD Sage 1965 53 Xylocopa sp. 5.5 km SE. Desamparados, 1260 m, San Jose, Costa Rica 29 August 15:15 Plugged up the entrances and sawed down Nests 39 & 40. Took black & white photographs of them earlier. There was more sawdust below the entrance to Nest 40. Nest 4.[[written above- Schoenherria 6[[image-two female symbols]] & 4[[image-two male symbols]]Entrance at 320 degrees, 15 in above ground. Stump is unidentified tree and is 21 in high Circumference at [[strikethrough]]base[[/strikethrough]] entrance is 21 inches. No [[mites]] on any of the bees. Nest 79. [[written above- Neoxylocopa 3[[image-two male symbols]] & 7[[image-two female symbols]] Entrance at 300 degrees,8.5 in above ground in unidentified dead stump 17 in tall. Circumferance at heighth of nest is 12 in. Nest 80 [[written above- Neoxylocopa 1[[image-female symbol]]Entrance at 225 degrees 6 in above ground in unidentified dead stump. Stump is 13 in high. Circumferance at nest height is 17 in. There is another entrance hole at 345 degrees 7 in above the ground. The active burrow has been exposed at the top where part of the stump has been broken off. I plugged this entrance at 12:00. Took a picture of this stump in black and white. Collected a dead branch from the [[medoxlomacea]] tree which had nest entrances in it and wood pecker damage. The lowest nest on the post has its entrance at 0 degrees and is 7 1/2 ft off the ground. Was abandoned but contained some bee provisioning of inquiline. [[image-arrow pointing to text in margin:]] Dick: I've also got a nest #81 Nest 81 Entrance at 195 degrees approvemately 11 ft above ground in a branch of a completely dead [[Melostomaceae]]. Took black & white pictures of wood pecker damage to this nest.
RD Sage 1965 54 Xylocopa sp. 5.5 km SE. Desamparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica 29 August Nest 81 cont. It appears to be abandoned here in the field. Upon examination at home it proved to be empty. Apparently the woodpecker must have taken the bees before they hatched as the remains of the cell walls are still present--in various stages of decay. In this attacked channel there are the remains of 5 cells. The nest is as follows: [[image- Hand drawn horizontal cylinder. An arrow points to the right with the word "up" accompanying it.Inside the cylinder, from right to left, numbered 1 through 5, are sections. Below the drawing the lengths of the sections are noted as follows: 1. 15 mm, 2. 17 mm, 3. 15 mm, 4. 19 mm, 5. 19 mm ]] The unattacked channel is empty. This is almost surely an old Schoenherria nest. The end of the attacked channel is right at the saw cut and was not saved. Upon breaking open #6, a former [[underlined]] tabaniformis [[/underlined]] nest I found it to be abandoned and reoccupied by a mud nest [hymenoptera]]. Even these though are old with nothing in them. [end page]
RD Sage 1965 [[circled]]55[[/circled]] xylocopa sp. 5.5km SE. Desanparados, 1260m, San Jose, Costa Rica [[ wavy line drawn across page ]] Nest 39 Neoxylocopa 2[[image-two female symbols]]Entrance at 210 degrees,aproxamately 3 ft above ground in dead SJA Bot 76. Pickled both bees. Nest 40 Schoenherria 1[[image-female symbol]] in same branch as 39 (see earlier aconts). Entrance is at 240 degrees, 14 in below #39. Pickled the bee. The diameter of the branch in which these two nests are located is 50-55 mm. At this time this nest is a simple L-shape, sloping up the trunk of the tree 35 mm. Santa Rita, 10 mi E Nahuala 7100ft, Solola, Guatemala [[ wavy line drawn across page ]] 9 September 09:20-10:00 At 09:20 collected 1 specimen on SJA Bot 108. It was collecting necter apparently, as no pollen could be seen on the flower. Also the flowers were very small and as can be seen from the specimen [[strikeout]]the[[/strikeout]]most of it had gone to seed. The other specimen was taken at 10:00 on SJA Bot 111. It is a legume which had first attracted me to the area. The site was in a corner of a fenced in orchard. Many weeds & herbaceous things growing there. The two plants, SJA Bot 108 & 111 were growing in the same corner & closely intertwined with one another. I saw only one other [[Notoxylocopa]]on SJA Bot 108 but missed collecting it. The one I got at 10:00 on Bot #111 was collecting pollen. It moved very rapidly from flower to flower. very different from Neoxylocopa.
collected on [[ripped paper]] San Antonio .[[ripped paper]] collected on [[ripped papper]]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 56 [[circled]] Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]] Huechetenango 6200ft, Huechetenango, Guatemala[[/underlined]] [[left margin]] 3 Sept. 15:45-16:30. Collected 2 [[symbol for female]] Neoxylocopa and 1 [[symbol for male]] [[strikethrough]]Schoenherria[[/strikethrough]Notoxylocopa sp. off of SJA Bot 112. The first site of collection was along a NE facing slope in a natives front yd. There were 5 major trees on which steve & I got Neoxylocopa. Collected Bombus on the same stuff. In towards town where the road crosses a deep gully with a stream running through it. There were many of these same trees growing. Collected 1 more [[symbols for female]] Neoxylocopa. Apparently both of the Neoxylocopa were taking nectar as their scopae are clean but they were visiting the flowers. The [[symbol for male]] Schoenherria was hovering at eye level under the outside branches of the same tree. Another [[symbol for male]] of the same sp. chased a Bombus which entered into a similar zone on another bush. This bee returned to the same position it was holding before the Bombus had arrived. [[line across page]] [[left margin]] 4 Sept. 06:45 Returned to the river bank site. Collected 1 [[symbol for female]] Notoxylocopa on a blue stemmed flower (SJA Bot 113). There was a Bombus on the same bush. This bush was the only one in the patch of corn & squash. 07:00 Followed 1 Notoxylocopa ([[symbol for male]]?) as it circled a bush of the yellow flowers. It landed on [[strikethrough]]a fl[[/strikethrough]] the top of a flower & walked towards its base. I counted the time as 4 seconds for four different flowers. It moved from one flower to [end page]
[[top left margin]] RD Sage 1965 [[top right margin]] 57 Xylocopa sp. [[underlined]]Huehuetenango, 6200ft, Huehuelenango, Guatemala[[/underlined]] [[left margin]]4 Sept 1965 one adjacent or only two or three flowers away. Didnt catch it. 07:10 Took another female Notoxylocopa on the purple flower. Scopae were clean. [[underlined]]34 mi SSe. Nochixtlan, Via Hwy 190 7100 ft. Oaxaca, Mexico[[/underlined]] 07:30 - 09:10 Located 12 abandoned Xylocopa nests in dead branches of pine trees (SJABot #117) All but one of the nests [[strikethrough]]was[[/strikethrough]] were in lateral branches up to about eye height. One nest [[strikethrough]]on[[/strikethrough]] was in a small sapling which had been killed. [[strikethrough]]I I open[[/strikethrough]] This nest opened to the west. The other nests opened to the underside of the branch. One tree containing Nest 85 had two other nests in another branch at about the same heighth. Both of these nests had been attacked by woodpeckers. Nest 85. On a lateral branch 4 feet above ground. Opening was on underside. It had been destroyed by a woodpecker. 7 recent cells are visible. SJA Bot 117 [[image - diagram of destroyed nest with sizes of the cells, with note at bottom of 182 mm in length]] Saw a Notoxylocopa fly by at 08:10. Heard what were most certainly the same sp. twice more before 0:900. The area we found the nests in a pine oak forest on a west facing slope. The site is near the top of a ridge.
[[margin]] R D. Sage 1965 [[/margin]] [[circled]] 58 [[/circled]] Xylocopa sp [[underlined]] 34 mi 55E Noch, [[xttcan?]] via Hwy 190, 7100 ft., Oaxaca, Mexico [[/underlined]] [[margin]] 7 Sept. [[/margin]] All the nests I found which were intact consisted of a T shaped chamber.
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[[Tan folder with a single tab. Written on the tab is "Species Seen "]]
[[Tan folder with a single tab. Written on the tab is "Species Seen". Tab is on the left side of the folder]]
[[left corner in margin]] R.D. Sage 1964 [[/left corner in margin]] Species Seen [[underline]]3mi E., 1/2mi S. Cabeyon, Riverside co., Calif[[/underline]] June 12 [[underline]]Leptolyphlops humilis [[/underline]] #170 Costas Humming bird (10+). Gerrhonotus multicarinatus (1) Bewick Wren (3) Bufs sp. (1) *Werbling Vireo (1) Slyvilopus audoboni (4+) Loggerhead Shrike (1) [[underline]]Lepus californicus[[/underline]] (1) *Scott Oriole (1) Gambel Quail (FC) Ash-Throated Flycatcher (1) Cactus Wren (2) *Crissal Thrasher (1) [[underline]]Wilmot Rd, 7miE Tuscon, Pima co., Arizona [[/underline]] [[left margin]] June 13 0600-0905 [[/left margin]] Morning Dove (c), * Curve-Billed Thrasher (c), Gambel Quail, *Verdin (4), Black-Tailed Gnatchtcher (1), * Rufous Winged Sparrow (7), *Ladder-Backed-Woodpecker (2), [[underline]]Sclyvilagus audoboni[[/underline]] (1), cow-Bird (4), Lesser-Nighthawk (1), *Ash-Throated Flycatcher (1) *Lucy Warbler, *Warbling Vireo (2) 1mi NW jct Tanque Verde on Catalina Hwy, Pima Co. Arizona [[line across page]] 19:00-20:00 Phrynosama solare (1), Lepus californicus (1), Slyvilagus audoboni (2), *Purple Martin (2), Roadrunner (1), *Curve-Billed Thrasher (2), * Gila Wood-Pecker (2). [[left margin]] June 14 06:00-09:30 [[/left margin]] Molino Basin, Pima co. Arizona [[wavy line drawn across the page]] Urosaurus ornatus (1) Sceloporus sp (1), *Bell Vireo (2), [[strikethrough]]Ladder[[/strikethrough]]*Acorn Woodpecker (1), Bush-tit (FC) *Hooded Oriole (FC), *Bronze-cowbird (6), Crissal Thrasher (1), *Hepatis Tanager (2), *Black-Chinned Hum-
RD Sage 1964 64 Species Seen June 14 wings Bird(2) *Broad-Billed Hummingbird(1),Brown Towhee(1),[[3]]*Desert-Sparrow(1), Rufous Crowned Sparrow(2), *Arizona Jay(4)* Cassins Kingbird(1) Olivaceous Flycatcher(2), Black Phoebe(2) 8mi E. MT. Davis Jct., Jeff Davis co., 3900',Texas June 16 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] **Scaled Quail, Mocking Bird, Desert Sparrow, * Cassin's Sparrow, Davis MT. Juct., Reeves co. Texas June 16, 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] *Say's Phoebe, (sitting on nest [[strikeout]] ?? [[/strikeout]] under gas station Mertzon, Irion co. Texas 16, June 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] *Scissor-Tailed Flycatcher 9mi S. [[strikeout]]San An---[[/strikeout]]Waco, Texas 16, June 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] *Cardinal(1), *Blue Jay(1) Ratcliff Lake, Texas [[strikeout]]16[[/strikeout]]17 June 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] Cardinal(4), Blue Jay (5), *crested Flycatcher(1) [end page]
R.D. Sage 1964 65 Species seen Boykin Springs, Angelina National Forest, Jasper co June 17-June 23, 1964 [[wavy line drawn across page]] Sharpe Shinned Hawk 1 Blue Jay, F.C. Turkey Vulture 2 Common Crow F.C. Bob-White 2 Chickadee Mourning Dove 1 Tufted Titmouse F.C. Common Nighthawk 2 *Brown-Headed Nuthatch 10+/- *Yellow-Bellied Cuckoo 2 *Carolina Wren F.C., YG *Red Bellied Woodpecker Bewick Wren Downey Wood pecker *Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher yg *Red Cockaded Woodpecker Hermit Thrush(heard) *E.Wood Pewee *Red Eyed Vireo F.C. *Crested Flycatcher White-Eyed Vireo F.C. Purple Martin 4 Black&White Warbler 1 *Summer Tanager Hooded Warbler 1[[image- male symbol]] Cardinal Pine Warbler c. *[[underlined]]Empidonox[[/underlined]] 1 Pine-Wood Sparrow C.FI. c99 yg Belted Kingfisher 1 Yellow Throated Vireo 1 Killdeer 4.
R.D. Sage 1964 66 12 mi SW. Refugio, Refugio co. Texas 25 June 1964 t. [[wavy line drawn across page]] Turkey Vulture Cardinal 2, [[strikeout]]1[[/strikeout]]2 *Laughing Gull 1,1 Pyrrholoxea 4, Mourning Dove 1 *Painted Bunting, 2, *Ground Dove 2 *Cassin Sparrow,8, Night Hawk.30,4,2 *Yellow Billed Cuckoo,[[superscript]] egg [[/superscript]] 4 *Golden-fronted Woodpecker,6,3,2 [[superscript]] yg,A.[[/superscript]] Road Runner,4 *Weeds Flycatcher 2. *Bell Vireo, 2,3 [[superscript]] yg egg [[/superscript]] Scissor-Tailed Flycatcher 2,5 Verdin,2 Eastern Meadowlark,3,3 Desert Sparrow,1 *[[strikeout]][[?]][[/strikout]]Bullock Oriole,2 yg. *Orchard Oriole, 1 Cnemidophorus [[strikeout]]Tigris[[/strikeout]] 2 Sacki., 1 Brown Headed cowbird F.C. *Elaphe Obsoleta,1 E.Meadowlark C Crotalus atrox, 1 Odoccileus [[strikeout]] ?? [[/strikeout]] virginianus 3
RD. Sage 1964 Wilder Wildlife Refuge, San Patricio co. Texas 26 June 1964 to 5 July [[wavy line drawn across page]] *Green Heron 1 *Golden Fronted Woodpecker 6,1 *Mottled Duck 1 Scissor Tailed Flycatcher Turkey Vulture, 4 Myiarchis Black Vulture 1 [[strikethrough]] B [[/strikethrough]] Bewick Wren Red Tailed Hawk 5 E. Mockingbird c. White Tailed Hawk 1 Whiteyed Vireo 3 Bob White 10 Bell Vireo, 2 Turkey c House Finch fc Killdeer Boat-Tailed Grackle 1 Laughing Gull Brown Headed Cowbird Mourning Dove E. Meadowlark Ground Dove, 2 [[strikethrough]] O [[/strikethrough]] Cardinal, C Yellow Bellied Cuckoo F.C. Pyrrholoxea, 5 Road Runner 2 [[superscript]] yg [[/superscript]] *Blue Grosbeak 2 Owl Painted Bunting [[superscript]] yg [[/superscript]] *Paraque 6 * Lark Sparrow [[strikethrough]] Fc [[/strikethrough]] C Nighthawk, 2 *Cassin Sparrow [[strikethrough]] FN [[/strikethrough]] C Hummingbird 1 Crotalus atrox 1 Bufo Woodhousi 3, Black-Tailed Jack Rabbit 2, 1 Terrepene ornata 1 [[strikethrough]] Brush [[/strikethrough]] Cotten Tail 4, c Gopherus berlanderei, 3 WhiteTail Deer c Kinosternon 2 Javelina 4 Pseudemys Sceioporus variabilis 3 Cnemidopherus sackii [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] [[superscript]] w/ova [[/superscript]] Saeloporus [[underlined]] sp. [[/underlined]] 1 Ophe.odrys vernalis Pituophis m. sayi 1
R D. Sage 1964 Indian Point Pier, Corpus Christi, [[5?]], Tebas 2 July 1964 Blue Heron 1 Willet 10 Least Tern [[0?]]. Laughing Gull abundant Boat. Tailed Grackle 10 +.
[[top left corner]] R.D. Sage 1964 [[title]] Lake [[ATascosa?]] Wildlife Refuge, Cameron co. Texas. 6 July 1964 - [[dividing line]] [[left column]] *White Pelican 20 [[plus or minus symbol]] *White Ibis 6 *Little Blue Heron, 1imm *Reddish Egret 1 *Louisiana Heron 5 *Black-bellied Tree[[pen mark]] Duck, 5 *Fulvous Tree Duck, 1 [[pen mark]] Mottled Duck 7 American Widgeon 1 Turkey Vulture 3 Harris Hawk 5 Caracara 1 Chachalaca heard 1 American Coot C. Killdeer 2 *Wilson Plover A. *Long Billed Curlew A. Greater Yellowlegs 1 Willet, A. Young *Black-Necked Stilt-2 *Ring-Billed Gull 1 *Bronze Cowbird C Brown-Headed Cowbird Boat-Tailed Grackle A. Cardinal 2 *Texas Sparrow C [[right column]] Laughing Gull C. *Forester Tern 2 *Common Tern *Black Tern 1 Least Tern C *Royal Tern C Black Skimmer C Mourning Dove A Ground Dove C Yellow Billed Cuckoo 2, 2 Roadrunner 1,1 Great Horned Owl 3 Common Nighthawk C Heard Paraque, 1, Ladder Back Woodpecker 1 Golden-Fronted W.P. C Scissor Tailed Flycatcher C YN *Kiskadee F.C. [[scribbled out number 1]] 2 Weeds F.C. 1, 2 Horned lark A. Cactus Wren Mockingbird A. Curve-Billed Thrasher A house Sparrow A E. Meadow lark A Red-Winged Blackbird [[scribble]] C
Lark sparrow *Botteri's sp. Cassin sp. C Desert Sp Verdin, [[1,1?]] Painted Bunting: [[1?]] Great Blue Heron [[1?]] White-Winged Dove Turkey 2 Groove-Billed Ami [[1?]] White-Tailed Hawk. 2 Barn Swallow [[1?]]
R.D. Sage 1964 9 mi E. Cuernavaca [[underlined]] Canyon de Lobos, [[Morelos?]], Mexico [[/underlined]] Black vulture Turkey vulture Red-Tailed Hawk Chachalaca Ground Dove Inca Dove Squirrel Cuckoo White-Collared Swift Fork-Tailed Emerald Hum. Violet Crowned Hum. Russet-Headed Motmot Golden-Checked WP. [[black spot]] se Throated Becard Vermillion F.C. Thick-Billed Kingbird Pale-Throated F.C. Western Wood Pewce Empidonax sp. [[underlined]] Myopagus viridicata [[/underlined]] Beardless FC. Rough-Winged Swallow Magpie Jay Banded [[strikethrough]] Barded [[/strikethrough]] Wren Canyon-Wren Blue Mockingbird Gray's Robin Golden [[Virco?]] [[Next column:]] Fan-tailed warbles Bronged Cowbird Streak-backed Oride A Yellow Grosbeak [[underlined]] Melozone Kierneri [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Aimophila [[ruficauda?]] [[/underlined]]
[[left top corner]] R.D. Sage 1964 [[left margin]] 13 August [[underlined]] 1 mi S.E. Tamazulapam, 6200' +/- , Oaxaca, Mexico [[/underlined]] Turkey Vulture 4 Red-Tailed Hawk 1 Plain chachalca (heard) Mourning dove 10+ White-winged Dove 2 Common Road-runner (heard 2) Great-Horned Owl (heard 1 Nutting's F.C. 2 Beardless F.C. 2 [[Empiclonas ??]] 5 Tropical Kingbird 2 Contopus richardsoni 2 Common Raven 6 Scrub Jay 5 Black-Eared Bushtit 10+ Rock Wren 2 Bewick Wren 6+ Canyon Wren 2 Spotted Wren 3 Ocellated Thrasher 16+ Curve-billed Thrasher (heard 2) Mockingbird [[strikethrough 2]] 4 Turdus sp. 3 Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher 8+ Gray Silky F.C. 10 Bell Vireo 9 Rufous Capped Warbler 7 (young) [[right hand column on page]] Wagler Oriole 1 Black-Headed Grosbeak 4 House Finch (c) Lesser Goldfinch Red-Eyed Towhee (c) Brown Towhee (c) Oaxaca Sparrow 7 Rufous-Crowned Sparrow 7 Black-chinned Sparrow c August 25 Chipping Sparrow flock of 10+ 20+ Canada Warbler 1 [[female symbol]] Wilson Warbler 1 [[male symbol]] [[Calothrix ??] 5+ Cassion Kingbird 1
[[start page]] [[margin 4-10 ]] E. of Tehuantepec, via Hwy 190, Oaxaca, Mexico [[margin 18 - 23 August]] Green Heron 1,-,1,-,-,- Blue-Black Grassquit-,-,1-,-,-, Common Egret 1,-,-,-,-,- Dicksissel500+, 150+,20+ 6+, 40+, C [[strikethrough]] [[??]] [[/strikethrough]] Wood Ibis 3,1,-,3,-,-, Sumichrast Sparrow 10+, [[strikethrough]] [[C] [[/strikethrough]], C C, C, 15+, Turkey Vulture C,C,C,2,2,2, Aimophila ruficauda 15-20, 15 2, 15+, 13, 14 Black Vulture C,-,C,1,1,2 Citroline Trogon,-,2,1,1,-,1 Caracara 2,2,2,2,1,1, W. Wood Pewee,-,1,4,1,-,1 Bobwhite 2,6+,2,5,3 (heard 6),6(heard) Yellow-Billed Cuckoo,-,1,-,-,-,- Inca Dove,C,C,[[?]],C,C,C Bronzed Cowbird,-,1,-,-,-,- Common Ground Dove C,C,C,C,C,[[strikethrough]] [[,]] [[/strikethrough]]C, Icterus gularis,-,3,3,7,4,6 White Wing Dove C,C,C,C,C,C, Rufous-Naped Wren,-,6+,4,3,1,4, Leptotila sp. 2,-,1,-,1,1, Social Flycatcher 6+,7,-,-,4+,4+, Orange-Fronted Parakeet C,C,C,C,C,C, Progne sp -,4,4,6,4,3 Amazon albifrons 2,4,-,-,2,-, Black-Bellied Tree Duck 2,-,-,-,3, Groove-Billed Ani C,C,C,C,C,C,-, Rufous,Rumped Ground Cuckoo (heard),(heard),6,5+,4, C, Broad-Billed Hummingbird 1,1,1,2,1,1, Ruddy Breasted Seedeater,-,-,-,1,-,3 Golden Fronted Woodpecker,10+,6,2,5+,4, Paraque,-,-,1,10+,3,[[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]]1, Tropical Kingbird,2,4,4,4+,2,3, Feruginous Pygmy Owl,-,(heard),-,-,heard,(h), Kiskadee F.C. 3,6,9,11+,10+,C, Mangrove Cuckoo,-,-,-,3,-,- Myiarchis nuttingi 3,4,2,3,4,4, Roadrunner,-,-,-,1,2,- Magpie Jay 6, (heard), 2,3,3,5, Roadside Hawk,-,-,-,-,-,2 Banded Wren 3,4,-,-,-,- Yellow Warbler,-,-,-,-,-,2 Tropical Mockingbird 2,8,7,10+,C,C, White - Lored Gnatcatcher C,C,C,C,C,C, Boat-Tailed Grackle 5,6,C,C,C,C Streaked Backed Oriole 2,4,4,-,4,4,] [[?Le ?loncher?]] Bunting 5,3,-,[[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]],3,-,-
[[margin]] 28 - 29 August [[/margin]] [[underlined]] San Blas, 0 - 100'±, Nayarit, Mexico [[/underlined]] Brown Pelican, 10 Heerman Gull 10+ Olivaceous Cormorant FC Red-Billed Pigeon 10 Andinga 8 - 10 Talpacote Ground Dove C Magnificant Frigate Bird 15+, Orange-Fronted Parakeets, 15+ Green Heron, C (y) Paraque 2 Little Blue Heron 10 Cinnamon Hummingbird 1 Common Egret c Citroline Trogon 1 Snowy Egret c Green Kingfisher 5± Tri-Colored Heron 10+ Belted Kingfisher 1 Yellow-Crowned Night Heron 1 [[strikethrough]] Re [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Momotus Mericanus [[/underlined]] heard 2 American Bittern 1 Tropical Kingbird 1 Wood Ibis 1 Social FC c Glossy Ibis 2 [[Ketkades?]] FC c White Ibis c Mangrove Swallow c Roseate Spoonbill 2 Sinaloo Wren 5 Black Vulture c Yellow Winged Cacique c Turkey Vulture 2 Boot-Tailed Grackle c Common Oyster Catcher 2 Groove-Billed Ani 2 Snowy Plover 1 Grayish Saltator 1 Black-Bellied Plover 5+ House Sparrow 4+ Wilson Plover 6+ White-Collared Seedeater 4 Whimbrel 2 Mexican Crow - 10± Marbled Godwit 4 G Yellow-Legs 4 Willet C Ruddy Turnstone 10 Sanderling C
[[underline]]16 mi N. Navajoa, 200ft±,Sonora Mexico[[/underline] Gambel Quail (heard) Mourning Dove 5+ Great Horned Owl (heard 2) Lesser Nighthawk (c) Guilded Flicker 1 Gila W.P. 7+ Myiarchus sp. (c) Olivaceous FC 1 Western Kingbird 2 Verdin 4 Cactus Wren (c) Curve Billed Thrasher (c) Mockingbird 2 Black-Tailed Gnatcatcher 2 Icterus sp 3 Lark Sparrow 2 [[underline]]Aimophila carpalis [[/underline]] c Painted Bunting 1
[[underline]] 20 mi E Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico [[/underline]] [[left column]] Turkey Vulture 1 Elegant Quail C White-Wing Dove c Mourning Dove c c. Ground Dove c Yellow-Billed Cuckoo 5 Lesser Nighthawk 1 Hummingbird? 2 Coppery Tailed Trogon 3 Guilded Flicker [[?]] (heard 2) Ladder-Backed Woodpecker 1 Gila Woodpecker 2 Varmillion FC 3 Western Kingbird c Empidomax 3 C. Raven 2 Cactus Wren C Cañon Wren heard Curve-Billed Thrasher (heard) Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher 2 Black-Tailed Gnatcatcher 1 Bell Vireo 2 Nashville Warbler 5 [[McGuillivray?]] Warbler 2 Yellow Breasted Chat 3 [[underline]] Icterus [[/underline]] sp 3 Western Tanager 1 [[right column]] Cardinal 5 Black headed Grosbeak 8 Varied Bunting 8+ Brown Towhee 6 Five Striped Sparrow 17
R.D. Sage 1965 [[underline]] Playa Cocos, sea level, Guanacaste, Costa Rica 8 July 1965 [[/underline]] Brown Pelican,c,5,2,2,5 Magnificent Frigate Bird,c,3,2,2,4 Heron,2,4+,2,2,(heard 1), White Ibis,2,2,2,2,x Black Vulture,c,c,c,c,c Turkey Vulture 3,2,No 7[[?]],10,3, Colinus sp.,heard 2,1,2 heard,x,x Inca Dove heard,4,3,3,3,3 Columbiaglina talpocote [[?]] 2,x,6+,6+,6+ [[underline]] Aratinga canaicularis [[/underline]][[?]] c,c,c,c,c [[underline]] Amazona [[/underline]]sp. c,c,c,x,c [[underline]] Playa cayana [[/underline]],5,x,2,x,x [[underline]] Crotophaga sulcirostris [[/underline]] c,c,c,c,c Chloroceryle aenea,2,x,7,x,1 Blue-crowned Motmot 1,x,x,x,x Centrurus sp heard,heard,x,2,2 Kiskadee F.C. c,c,c,c,c Tody FC. x,11,8+N,x,x Calocitta Formosa 7,3,6+,x, Camphylorhynchus rufinucha,c,c,c,x,2 Thayothorus [[?]] sp. x heard, 1,1,2,1[[?]], 2 [[underline]]Vireo flaviridus [[?]][[/underline]] x,1,x,2,2,2 Boat-tailed Grackle, 5-7,3,3,5 Icterus sp. x,1,2,x,x [[underline]]Sporophila torqeola[[/underline]] x,2,2,4,x Volatinia jacarina x,5+,3,3,3
Aimophila ruficaula,12-13,7,3,x [[?]] Common egret,1,x,x,1,x Brown booby,x,x,2,2,2 [[underline]]Amozilia rutila [[/underline]][[?]],2,x,1,xx [[underline]]Trogon melanocephalus[[/underline]](?)xxx1,x White-winged dove,x,x,1,4,1 [[strikethrough]]Miayo[[/strikethrough]] myiorchio sp. xx,2,x,x
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Pictures Roll #1 Finished a roll that had shots from earlier in the spring. Last 2-4 shots were of habitat locality of [[underlined]] Uma exul. on 17 June. One or two before that were of the area where we put down [[cans ?]] in Arizona & of a baby mockingbird at some sight. Roll #2 1 - 5 or 6 6 mi. E. Matamoros 6/17/65 7-8 west of Saltillo " " " 9-10 south of Saltillo 6/18/65 10-11 south of San Luis Potosi sunset " " 1 on [[pass ?]] over Mex & Puebla 9000 ft. 1 yellow flowers south of [[Oaxa ??]] 1 village of Chile & palmetto palm 2 valley of Oaxaca 2 [[strikethrough]]village [[end strikethrough]] on road Arriaga in Chiapas 2 El Salvador along coast west of Lago Nicaragua- volcano Conception Volcano [[Iroyu ??]] & regrowth. Views of San Jose and [[Cartaps ??]] from the volcano 6/29 (2) St Peters celebration in San Pedro 6/29
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Museum of Vertebrate Zoology June 1, 1947 EXPEDITION OUTFIT LIST Check-list of equipment and supplies likely to be required on a field trip, compiled from lists of materials used on expeditions made during the past forty years. [[underlined]]Average[[/underlined]] quantities are given, for two months unless otherwise stated. Supplies listed in the following order: 1. Ammunition. 2. Traps. 3. Photographic outfit. 4. Materials used in preparation of specimens. 5. General outfit. 6. Cook outfit. 7. Groceries. 8. Personal outfit. 9. Automobile outfit. 1. AMMUNITION Loaded auxiliary shells 7 per man per day Loaded 16-ga. half loads 12 shot 3 per man per day Loaded 16-ga. shells, 6 shot 1 per man per day Loaded 16-ga. shells, 8 shot 1 per man per day Loaded 16-ga. shells, 10 shot 2 per man per day Rifle shells are needed for special objectives. 2. TRAPS Mouse traps 100 per man Rat traps (wired) 20 per party Gopher traps (wired) 20 per party Mole traps 1 per man No. 1 steel traps 10 per party No. 3 steel traps 5 per party
2 3.PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFIT Camera 1 per party Camera Case 1 per camera Tripod 1 per camera Tilting tripod top 1 per party Focusing cloth 1 per camera Exposure meter 1 per camera Filters and holders 1 set per camera Films 3 doz. per camera per month 4. MATERIALS USED IN PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS (a)[[underline]]Cotton[[/underline]] American 2 bats (2 lbs.) per man Calif. Special 2 bats (5 lbs.) per man Wadding 30 sheets per party Absorbent 2 lb. roll per party (b) [[underline]]Wire[[/underline]] No.26 1, 4-oz. spool per man " 24 2, 4-oz. spools per man " 22 2, 4-oz. spools per man " 20 2, 4-oz. spools per man Wire for wiring traps (c) [[underline]]Scales[[/underline]] Double beam trip balance and weights 1 per party Big Game scales 1 per party (d) [[underline]]Preservatives[[/underline]] Arsenic 3 lbs. per party Formalin 2 qts. per party (e) [[underline]]Containers[[/underline]] Pill boxes or small vials 20 per party 2 qt. Mason jars 8 per party Collecting Chest 1 per man Plant press with blotters and papers 1 per party Cloth bags (for snakes, etc.) 4 per man
3 (f) [[underline]]Miscellaneous Supplies[[/underline]] Skinning pans 1 per man Specimen labels 400 per man per month Skull tags 200 per man per month Sawdust 15 lbs. per party Applicators- 6 in. & 12 in. 1 bundle per party Chloroform 6 oz. per party Magazines (Sat.Eve.Post) 12 per party Muslin (colored, for trap markers) 10 yds. per party Twine 1 ball per party Excelsior 1 sack per party Burlap sacks 6 per party Large-headed black pins 800 per party Cotton thread, No. 8 & 24 (white) 4 spools per man Shipping tags Hypodermic for injecting specimens and blowing skulls 1 per party Extra hypodermic needles 2 per party First Aid kit Fly sprayer or Aer-a-sol bomb Fly spray 5. GENERAL OUTFIT (a) [[underline]]Equipment[[/underline]] Tent, 10 x 12ft. 1 per party Tarpaulin 2 per party Table (folding) 2 per party Chairs (folding camp) 1 per man Shovel 1 per party Hatchet or belt ax 1 per party Ax 1 per party Extra ax handle 1 per party Hand saw 1 per party Thermometer 1 per party Barometer 1 per party Dunnage bag for cotton 1 per party
[[right margin]] 4 Coleman gas lantern, and extra mantles 1 per party Trap bags 3 per man Canteen 1 per man Rope, 1/2-inch and 1/4-inch 50 ft. per party Hammer 1 per party Flat file 1 per party Nails, 4 and 6-penny 1/2 lb. per party Tacks 1 package per party [[left margin]] (b) [[underlined]]Permanent Records[[/underlined]] Notebook 1 per man Notebook paper (filler, 4 sheets per man extra) per day Census sheets, white 1 per man per day Photographic record sheets 2 per man per month Pocket field notebook 1 per man Penholder 1 per man Pen points 1 doz. per party Pencils 3 per party Higgins Eternal Ink 1, 2-oz. bottle per man Directions for collecting 1 set per man Literature concerning region 1 set per party [[left margin]] (c) [[underline]]Paper Supplies[[/underline]] Maps (topographic, when available) 1 set per party Museum stationery (envelopes and letterheads) Postal cards 25 per party Postage stamps supply Receipt book 1 per party [[center]] 6. COOK OUTFIT[[/center]] Gas stove, 2-burner 1 per party Camp-fire irons 1 set per party Stew pans (with covers) 3 per party Frying pans 2 per party Grabber 1 per party Dish pans 1 per party White gasoline (for stove or lantern) [[end page]]
5 Coffee pot 1 per party Cups 1 per man Plates 1 per man) and Knives 1 per man) 2 or 3 Forks 1 per man) extra Spoons 1 per man) per ) party Mush dishes 1 per man Butcher knife 1 per party Large cook spoon 1 per party Large cook fork 1 per party Can openers 2 per party Wash basin 1 per party Water pail 1 per party Dish towels Dish rags 7. GROCERIES (Suggestions only; quantities according to supply facilities.) Cream of Wheat Butter Rolled Oats (also used Crisco for bait) Cooking oil Canned milk Bacon Dried milk Ham Pancake flour Canned soup Cornmeal (also used at times Canned fish for skinning) Canned peaches Macaroni Canned apricots Dried pudding or jello Canned pears White flour Canned pineapple Baking soda Fruit juices Salt (extra for preservative) Raisins Pepper Dried apples Syrup Dried peaches Sugar Dried prunes Chocolate Dried figs Coffee Walnuts Tea Canned corn Eggs Canned tomatoes Beans Canned peas
6 Rice Jelly Potatoes Cookies Fresh vegetables Crackers, soda Onions Crackers, graham Ketchup Bread Ivory soap Soap powder Matches Steel wool Paper towels Toilet paper 8. PERSONAL OUTFIT 16-ga. double barrel Envelopes, paper and shotgun in case postal cards .22, .39 and/or .410 Expense account sheets auxiliary barrel Watch Rifle and pistol if Tooth brush needed for special Comb objectives Mirror Scalpels - 2 Razor Forceps - 2 Shaving brush and cream Wire cutters -1 Extra glasses and case Scissors - 2 Colored glasses Tooth brush (for small Binoculars mammals) - 1 Flashlight (extra bulb Scraper (peach and batteries) pitter) - 1 Cash Needles (assorted Clothes (in addition to sizes) - 10 what are worn) Egg blowing outfit Underwear Carborundum stone Socks (4 pr. at least) Steel millimeter tape - 1 Hunting coat or vest Fountain pen - 1 Shoes (extra laces) Pencil - 1 Hat or cap Hunting license Handkerchiefs Collecting permits Shirts (Federal & State) Sweater Stamps Belt
7 Clothes (cont'd) Mosquito net Suspenders Compass Towels Pocket knife Wash rag Snake bite kit Dunnage bag Medicines Sleeping bag Knapsack or pack frame 9. AUTOMOBILE OUTFIT Automobile or truck 1 for each 3 men Mileage record book 1 per car Extra tires 2 per car Extra inner tubes 2 per car Cup grease 1 can per car Extra gasoline 2 to 25 gallons Funnel 1 per car Water cans 5 to 20 gallons Extra valve cores 6 per car Extra valve caps 6 per car Jack 1 per car Extra fuse 1 per car Extra light bulbs 2 per car Tire pump 1 per car Chains 1 set per car Tow rope 1 per car Fire extinguisher 1 per car Keys 1 set per man Tire repair outfit 1 per car Tool set 1 per car Gasoline credit card 1 per car Ward C. Russell