Volume 1, 1860-1868

ID: SIA RU007123

Creator: Journal of Facts in Natural History

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1860-1866

Citation: Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869

Close
Usage Conditions Apply
The Smithsonian Institution Archives welcomes personal and educational use of its collections unless otherwise noted. For commercial uses, please contact photos@si.edu.
Request permissions Download image Print

Narrow Your Results

Reset

Filter Your Results

Smithsonian Secretaries Information

Close Browse records and papers of the Smithsonian Secretaries, from 1846 until today. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by individuals who have held that office.

Expeditions Information

Close Browse records and papers documenting scientific and collecting expeditions either affiliated with the Smithsonian, or with which Smithsonian researchers participated. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by geographic regions predominantly represented in expedition records.

Professional Societies Information

Close Browse records of professional societies closely associated with the Smithsonian, that focus on areas of scientific research and museum studies. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by major topics and disciplines.
 

Abstract

The journal is the first of two volumes and documents the entomological work of Benjamin Dann Walsh, 1860-1866. Pages are numbered. The journal begins with a table of contents indicating on which page each year's entries begin. The first page of journal entries is headed with "Journal of Facts in Natural History." Entries are dated and include a range of details. Some summarize or cite publications. Most entries are narrative in style and describe collecting in the region of his home. They begin with a description of where specimens were found, discussion of environment including vegetation, followed by detailed descriptions of insect specimen (combination of type, stage of development, sex, appearance of anatomy with measurements and coloration, diet, sometimes behavior). Entries also include lists of specimens (number, type, and location); discussion of lab work; and personal observations with quotes from other students, observers, and journals, often relating to economic aspects of entomology. There are also attached and loose sketches of insects. Includes pasted news clippings about insect infestations. At the end of the volume are notes from the proceedings of the Rock Island County Branch of the Kansas Settlers Society of Chicago Illinois, June 12-25, 1856, as well as a list of correspondents. Locations include but may not limited to sites in Illinois. Locations are often specified by county, town or property owner's name, without indicating state.

Date Range

1860-1866

Start Date

1860

End Date

1866

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.

Topic

Entomology

Place

  • United States
  • Illinois

Form/Genre

  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Illustrations
  • Clippings (information artifacts)

Accession #

SIA RU007123

Collection name

Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Sublocation

Box 1 Folder 1

[[front cover]]
(1860-1868) Benj. D. Walsh, STATE ENTOMOLOGIST, Senior Editor of The "American Entomologist" Corner of Exchange and Orleans Sts. Rock Island, Ills.
[[left page]] Peach maggot J. p. 69 ___ beetle J. p. 66 Squirrels carnivorous J. pp. 56. 32. 189 Transformation delayed a season p. 143 (many cases in Stainton) odonatour annus p. 150 Vol. I of this Journal. March. 1860 - page 5 1861 commences page 9. 1862 ------ ----- 25 1863 -------------- 41 1864 -------------- 71 1865 -------------- 141 1866 -------------- 184 (concluded Vol II. p.15.) Vol II. 1867 commences page 16. [[end page]] [[start page]] Journal of Facts in Natural History From Prof. Owen's address Port Assn. in Silliman's Journal Nov. '58 "Von Siebold, having subjected to the closest microscopic scrutiny and experiment the conclusion to which the practical beemaster Dzierzon had arrived, relative to the cause of queen bees with crippled wings producing a swarm exclusively of drones, has demonstrated that the male bee is produced from an egg which has been subjected to no influence save that of the maternal parent; while such egg, if impregnated, would have produced a female or working bee. The now well investigated phenomena of parthenogenesis in Hydrozoa have resulted in skewing, as in the analogous case of Entozoa, that animals differing so much in form as to have formed 2 distinct orders or classes are really but 2 terms of a cycle of metagenetic transformations, - the acalephan Medusa being the sexual locomotive form of the agamic rooted budding polyp, just as the cestoid [[tonia?]] is of the cystic hydatid.
2)stabilienda non sunt genera instrumentorum cibariorum cuspidum discriminus ratione, sed cum differentia [[cuo masorer ?]] sunt, et cum generi, scissioneus. necessitas postulat, ob specienum, verbi gratia, nimiam [[misspelling of nimium]] multifacetatem. Sab.G.Cr III. 61 Larva feeding on pith of wild aster - tenthredo? -- length 3/4 inch -- head black - six very short tuberculous? legs, hairy - a double row of smooth tubercle-like processes on each side + on each segment of the body, but the last, extending above the true legs. General color dirty white - semitransparent [Larva all died] Dytiscus ^Harrisii Lee [1.4 to 1.6 long] Differs from verticalis (Say) in the following respects: - vertex (in front) not punctured - 4 large yellow patches on postpectus - Thorax margined before + behind with yellow - posterior sternum more dilated. Hydrophilus 1. (smaller) = ^miatus Lee - Thighs + 4 head tibia fasciate with rufous - anterior metasternum nearly straight Hydrophilus 2.(larger) = ^glaber [[Hist?]] front tips of thighs vittate with rufous - anterior metasternum strongly turned up. [end page] [start right side page] From Dr. Kirtlands paper, Cleveland Trans,--"Callydrias [[misspelling of Callidryas]] Eubule 3) -- this large + nearly pure yellow-colored butterfly never reaches the northern extremity of Ohio -- at Cincinnati it occurs in great number; but only, as it is said in the fore part of summer." Ibid. "P. Marcella, resembles Ajax, but differs in having only one red spot on the inner margin of the posterior wing." Larva of Helophilius? Or Eristalis? found March 15, 60 under bark of old oak stump, remote from water. Larva (closely resembling larva of Helophilus figured Westw. Intr. II. 558 fig 131.7) .35 long, exclusive of tail, which with its process is over .4 long. Color dirty light brown. Process [[enserted?]] from tail .15 long: 14 tubercular feet, furnished with 4 or 5 spines,[[strikethrough]] hooks [[/strikethrough]] The 1st pair placed close to mouth to further from the 2nd pair than the others are from each other, a ragged anal process, with the appearance of two tubercular feet close together immediately in front of it, which however have no spines. Mouth apparently 4 tubercles [[drawing]] with a cavity in the middle. A pair of short antennae above,[[drawing]] & a pair of very indistinct tubercles on top of 3rd segment (2nd from head.) A row of 7 simple tubercles each side beneath, 1st opposite 2nd pair of feet, last opposite anal pair of tubercles. No vestige of eyes.
4) Pupa- [[note in pencil]]a mistake: See below [[/note]]supposed to be of ditto. - [[note in margin/above text: some 20 of them being found in company with it]] Length .4 exclusion of tail, which is .05 long. Closely resembles fig.5 of Westwood (ubi supra) except that dorsal process are merely 2 short nipples [[image - drawing of nipple shape that is a flat line with small bump upwards in the middle]] On each side of head above, on anterior edge, are two distinct shiny horny [[note in pencil above ]] pointed [[/note]] hooks, black, [[image- drawing of hooks]] with the antennae as in larva, but shorter. On top of 3rd segment another pair of similar tubercles. Tail [[image - drawing]] (a) shiny + horny, [[note in pencil]] widely striated longitudinally above + below [[/note] of a light mahogany color, anal (b) part of abdomen + being dirty opake brown, marked [[note in pencil above line]] as well as the rest of body [[/note]] with irregular transverse interrupted dark [[note in pencil above line]] obscure [[/note]] lineations. Feet as in larva, but lateral tubercles + anal process [[strikethrough]] obsol [/strikethrough]]none. Mouth two tubercles, with a hole between. [[note in pencil beside start of paragraph]] [ [[/note]] Now if this be a "coarctate" [[strikethrough]] larva [[/strikethrough]]pupa, how come the horny hooks to the head??? of which there is [[underlined]]no vestige whatever [[/underlined]] in the larva. [[note in pencil]]- Mistake.] The Pupa attaches itself by its tail to the rotten wood, + a pair that I observed, fall 1859 adhere so closely to a glass bottle [[inserted note about the line]] by a glutinous secretion from whole abdomen [[/note]] that I cannot remove them without injury. The tail of larva [[strikethrough]] evidently [[/strikethrough]] can scarcely be intended [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] for respiration, as is said to be the case with similar aquatic larvae. (Westw. ubi supra] [[underline]] Cui bono [[/underline]]? a xylota (osten Sacken) [bred plenty of them] Spring 1861 bred from larva to pupa - larva like pupa but[[??]] [[/pencil note]] [end page] [[start right side page]] March 28, 1860. Found two larva (dipterous?) in fibrous debris inside [[pencil note over word]].5[[/note]] the hollow of a felled + hollow [[strikethrough]] soft maple [[/strikethrough]] sycamore. Length 1 1/2 lo 1 3/4 Breadth 5/16. Segments 12, exclusive of head. Head mahogany brown polished + pointed: nearly entirely contractile, with a few hairs. A brown spiracle each side of penultimate [[image - small drawing on right hand side]] segment above. Body somewhat depressed [[note insert above line]]or rather laterally expanded,[[/note]] whey-colored, with the appearance, even to the naked eye, of irregular patches of white eggs[[image - drawing of small circles]] over nearly half the surface, except the 1st + 2nd + partially the 3rd segment. The skin between most of the middle segments, below is contractile + furnished with tubercles (in place of legs?) which entirely disappear at the will of the animal. Placed larvae in large tin pail. [[note in pencil]]In July ^1861^ found [[strikethrough]] larv [[strikethrough]] pupa skin in pail, perhaps Midas filatus (see Harris) -- [[underline]]June or July bred a Midas n. sp [[/underline]] Found this winter Polistes (odynerus?) fuscatus [[symbol for female, and an ^(and the yellow species also) [[/note]]]] two specimens under bark. Mr. Jonah Case also informs me that he knows of no social wasps but the yellow-jacket + the baldfaced hornet. Consequently as the [[symbol for male]] hornets all perish before winter, + only the [[symbol for female]] hybernate, it is reasonable to suppose that o. fuscatus is not social, + therefore it cannot be a [[underline]] Polistes [[/underline]] as Dr. [[correction in pencil above]] Harris [[/note]][[strikethrough]]Fitch[[/strikethrough]] calls it. [[note in pencil]] (NY. Ms.[[//]] p. 17) "Bald-faced hornets [[female symbol]] hybernates under very rotten logs; "yellow-jacket" [[female symbol]] under bark of felled trees. Left off Ichneumonida with "Cryptus" Say II 688 - thence to [[underline]]p. 704 [[/underline]]Unworked through.[[/pencil note]] - worked thro Heteropt. to I. p. 314 [[end page]]
6) [[strikethrough]] Oryctes Satyrus?? Falr. (My cabinet) [This insect is figured in Emmons' Report N.Y as Copris carolina.= Dr. Velie's species] it is clearly not a Copris, but an Oryctes - belonging to Dynastidae, not Scarabaeidae. It agrees with characters of Oryctes given in Latrielle (II.102) & especially differs from copride Copris in the absence of the lunate clypeus & the interm. & post. tibiae being "lineis transversis ciliatis." (Latreille). Hope gives ^[[insertion]] "Satyrus" [[/insertion]] under Xyloryctes" (Melsh. Cat p.57) [[/strikethrough]] July 4 Caught [[symbol for male]] Libellula corrupta Hay [[strikethrough]] large Iterzus [[/strikethrough]] back of "brick" - just came out. July 6 Caught Bembex fasciata? F (plain thorax) with musca caesar in its claws - middle July caught on burrowing in sand. [[Image - hand drawing of Larva]] Larva found in company with Harpaulus Pensylvanicus under log July 17.'60 1 of 11 segments polished black rest dark black. Caudal appendage & legs rufous. Body hairy This is evidently a staphylinidous larva (See Westwood) from the anal proleg July 19. saw the [coreid] ^Tingid (Syrtis?) Phymata erosa Fals. (yellowish and black) with raptatory & very stout forelegs, engaged in sucking the juices of the smallest species of Bombus, on a flower. The Bombus was still alive, but weak. July 20. observed the larger rufous Erax (S.Baron) (Asilid) on the wing seize a middle sized small [[symbol for female]] Bombus &suck its juices, taking it head end first & and keep its abdomen away from its own self. Inserted beak front of thorax. [[end of page]] [[next page]] (7 July 20. observed the [[symbol for male]] scoliad (yellow and black fasciate) seize with the anal hook, like a thumb, objects presented to it. Used for sexual prehension, as Diapheromera Saye? July 28 saw the above [[strikethrough]] coreid [[/strikethrough]] ^Tingid (Syrtis?) preying on a Tachina? the size of a housefly on umbelliferous plant. Tachina was loudly buzzing, which attracted my attention. The males of the 2 yellow-banded "scolia" ^[[insertion]]{Myzine subulata & [[/insertion]] (smaller than confluenta) use the long spine as a thumb to take hold when it closes between the other 2 smaller spines. In the wing neuration of my largest species of Crabronid (1860) there is a peculiarity which Latreille says is confined to the Scoliadae. viz. the 1st subm. forms a series with the marginal, & 2nd & 3rd submarginal ^[[insertion]] form [[/insertion]] and a 2nd series (Gen.Cr. IV. p. 104-5 The [[symbol for male]] of some Eumenids have a [[underlined]] double [[/underlined]] retractile sting-like process at extremity of abdomen. Aug. 14 ^'60 {a Tabanus - bred, but very defective, aquatic dipterous larva. Length 2 1/4 inches when extended, 1 3/4 inches contracted ^[[insertion]] diameter 5/20 [[/insertion]]. Pointed at pos both ends ^[[insertion]] vent beneath behind [[/insertion]]. Tubercles to every segment except the first three ^ [[insertion]] & the last three by a lesser degree [[/insertion]], placed all around anterior edge, above as well as below, so that he can progress on his back nearly as fast as on his belly. Color a greenish white, ^[[insertion]] transparent [[/insertion]] lighter beneath. An ^[[insertion]] irregular [[/insertion]] dark green annulus on anterior and posterior margin of each
8) segment, [[strikethrough]]which is[[/strikethrough]] lighter beneath. A retractile thorn, 1/20' long, at tip of tail. [[image-sketch of segmentation of organism numbered from 1 through 12 and head]] Head small & not perceptibly horny or with any hooks. Burrows with great strength between the fingers, & walks on a smooth table fast & with ease. Skin very transparent, & as he progresses slides backwards & forwards over his internal organs like the finger of a glove. Head & first segment or two retractile. Tubercles not retractile. ^[[Bred June or July a Tabanus]] [[strikethrough]]Between March & April changed to a pupa not distinguishable from that of ^[[mistake]] Tipula trivitta S. & same size pupae [[?]] & preserve[[/strikethrough]] Sep. 19 Noticed on ear of sweet corn infected with chinch bug in imago & larva states, hippodamia ^[[blood red]] maculata [[Deg?]], coccinella munda Say[[no spot]], & two species of scymnus- one black & one black with rufous tail. Noticed one pupa of coccinellid also. R.V. Ankeny Rio Grand, Freeport, Stephenson Co.found his backsowing of wheat (which was uphill) free from chinch bug all over the field. (in cases-from strangers)- sown thicker or thinner? B.D.W Nov. 1860 Noticed under log on Rock Island in a hollow of the earth a [[round]] ^[[spherical]] mass of a common ^ [[black]] myrmica 2 1/2 to 3 in in diam, enclosing in their midst a lot of larvae. No larvae visible outside, [[end page]] [[start page]] pg 9 [[note covering text]] [[image on note of segmented worm-dorsal]] [[note text-come out ^ [[end [[?]] may]] largest common tipula Decidedly a Tipulid: back like that of T. trivittata Say spines strongly developed on back especially toward tail Pupa of {^Tipulid? WII. p524 f.5}[[strikethrough]][Asclid?] or Midasid ?[[/strikethrough]] May 15. '61 [in square can] found under log. Very active twisting itself about, back & forth Drawing pasted over text [[image-segmented worm ]] 1st May 1861 too full [specimen preserved] flat [[strikethrough]]larva[[/strikethrough]] pupa in glass jar [[continuing from under note]] footed wood feeding noticed a pair) when attached by ,twist itself spitefully , one after the other in its jaws & kill them, exuding a black juice at the same time from its mouth. One which had attached it on top of its neck, it shook off by violent contractions & then killed. May 20. Bred a Telephourus carolina [[strikethrough]][[cucreous dytra[[?]], yellow tho- [zan?] & black disk]][[/strikethrough]] from a pupa, found under white elm bark amongst larva of cerambycids & Tendriomids [[?]] Preys on them? May 21. Melandrya striata? 5. 4 or 5 found in rotten sapwood of bass & several pupae? of it May 22 {same under oak} Leptis? trifasciata? imago under bass-bark. My two pupae? the same species? Dendroides (with rufous & black legs) found hitherto under oak bark, imago or pupa. Today 3 imagos under bass bark.
[[drawing on right side]] 1st of May 1861 too full [specimen prepared] flat larva pupa in glass jar
[start page] came out [insert "end May"] largest common tipula [all above boxed in][[image-diagram of worm showing dorsal details]] decidedly a Tipulid: back like that of T. trivittata Say spines strongly developed on back especially towards tail Pupa of Tipulid? WII. p.524+5 pupa of [[strikethrough]] Asilid or Midasid? [[/strikethrough]] May 15,61 [in square can] found under log. very active twisting itself about, back and fourth.
8) segment, [[strikethrough]] which is [[/strikethrough]] lighter beneath. A retractile thorn, 1/20 long, at tip of tail, [[image - drawing of insect broken up into 12 segments]] Head small & not perceptibly horny or with any hooks. Burrows with great strength between the fingers, & walks on a smooth table fast & with ease. Skin very transparent, & as he progresses slides backwards & forwards over his internal organs like the finger of a glove. Head & first segment or two retractile. Tubercles not retractile. [[insertion]] bred June or July, a Tabanus [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] Between March and April changed to a pupa not distinguishable from that of Tipula hiviltala S. & same size. [pupa died & preserved] [[/strikethrough]] mistake Sep. 19. Noticed on ears of sweet corn infested with Chinch bug in imago & larva states, hippodamia [[insertion]] blood red [[/insertion]] maculata Degeer, coccinella munda Say [[insertion]] "no spot" [[/insertion], & two species of scymnus _ one black & one black with rufous tail. Noticed one [[underlined]] pupa [[/underlined]] of coccinellid also. R. V. Ankeny Rio Grande, Freeport, Stephenson Co found his backsowing of wheat (which was uphill) free from Chinch bug all over the field. (in case - from stranger)- sown thicker or thinner? B.D.W. Nov. 1860 Noticed under log on Rock Island, in a hollow of the earth a [[strikethrough]] round [[/strikethrough]] ^spherical mass of a ^[[insertino]] common [[/insertion]] black myrmica 2 1/2 to 3 in in diam, enclosing [[underlined]] in their midst [[/underlined]] a lot of larva. No larva visible outside, [[end of page]] [[start of page]] 9) [[staple marks indicate missing insertion]] like larva of stratiomys in Westwood [Came out a stratiomys ] May 15? 61 noticed the 14-footed wood feeding noctuid larva (of which I have had a pair) when attacked by the common black myrmica, thrust itself spitefully round & seize 20 of them, one after the other in its jaws & kill them, exuding a black juice at the same time from its mouth. One which had attacked it on top of its neck, it shook off by violent contorsions & then killed. May 20. Bred a Telephorus [[strikethrough]] cinereous dytra, yellow tho-rax & black disk [[/strikethrough]] Carolina from a pupa found under white elm bark amongst larva of cerambycid & Tenebreonids. Preys on them? May 21. Melandrya striata? 5. 4 or 5 found in rotten sapwood of bass & several pupa? of it. May 22 {same under oak Leptis? trifasciata? imago under bass-bark. My two pupa? the same species? Dendroides (with rufous & black legs) found hitherto under oak bark, imago or pupa. Today 3 imagos under bass bark. [[end of page]]
[start page] 10) May 22. Noticed Cicindela b. punctata under oak bark, & have 4 or 5 times so noticed it this spring. Does its larva reside there & prey timber on borers? Noticed it again May 25 ^[2 specimens] & 26 one specimen May 26. found under oak bark. May 25 found two larva (identical)not 1 inch long & evidently not half grown in a wh. hickory stump. Probably the larva was at least 2 years, as the imago only appears May & June [content of diagram] Larva of Alaus oculatus Harris p. 48 [[image - diagram of larva]] Black Mahogany maho mah light mah. to penult segment too wide 9 beneath & [[ground?]] ^above light yellowish light mahog- extreme length ^ over 2 [[strikethrough]] tenths [[/strikethrough]] inches depth .15, width about .3 Walked [image - curved line diagram, indicating movement shape], not straight. May 26.'61 [rest of page text...] Fals. found under bark of a decaying black oak (or red oak) not materially rotten. Breeds there, doubtless. -Four specimens of Areoda lanigera have been brought to me early in May from two different quarters, said to have been dug up in garden ground. One I saw myself on the ground, just after it was dug up. [Dug one up myself in my garden in 1862.] [[end page]] [[start page]] (11 May 28.'60 All of my four pupa of Chauliodes start to come out, ^{all were female} have a two-fold upper caudal process [image-small diagram] (.1 long or less) & an inferior process of two soldered together. Pupa is quiescent, but [[underlined]] can [[/underlined]] crawl, straight on its belly, a pretty good hickory. May 28. My first Chauliodes rastricorius Ramb. came out, from pupa found 10 days ago. Larva found 3 weeks ago had on 28th all gone to pupa. One of them stuffed, and preserved. They are aquatic or subaquatic & having been found on the lower side of a log afloat on edge of slough. But they [[strikethrough]] pop [[/strikethrough]] come out of water & go to pupa under logs, & one under bark of a log, forming a cell as does Corydalis cornutus. May 28. Took 3 very large [[Ceramb.]] larva from a very rotten bass log. 2-inch long, legs very short, segments much humped, & a dorsal darker line along back - also a smaller similar one, probably a year younger - say 1-inch long. Tia pailis [died] Bred 4 orchesias - from the woody fungus of [[bolerophym?]] cornutus. Larva no anal horns - specimen preserved - length .2 head yellowish, mouth piceous, 6 legs, walk well. Body whitish.
Larva of Alaus oculatus Harris p. 48 [[image of larva with labels]] black mahogany mah. mah. light mah. to penult. segm too wide[[bracket around 4 segments]] 9 light mahog. beneath & ground above light yellowish Extreme length ^ [over] 2 [[strikethrough]] tenths [[/strikethrough]] inches depth .15, width about .3. Walked [[image - wiggly line]], not straight. May 26 '61
reeus," La Moille, 3 rd 1861. alsh, esq. [[Esteemed]] Friend Your kind and hly to my letter
[[left-hand page]] 10) May 22. Noticed Cicindela b-punctata under oak bark, & have 4 or 5 times so noticed it this spring. Does its larva reside there & prey on timber-borers? Noticed it again May 25 ^[[2 specimens]] & 26 one specimen [[space is blank. appears that an image may have been pinned to the page. Copy wraps around blank space]] found under oak bark; May 25 found two larva (identical) not 1 inch long & evidently not half grown in a wh. hickory stump. Probably the larva lives at least 2 years, as the [[imago?]] only appears May & June. May 26. [[Imago?]] of Cetonia fulgida Fals. found under bark of a decaying black oak (or red oak) not materially rotten. Breeds there, doubtless. -- Four specimens of [[dreoda lanigera ?]] have been brought to me early in May from two different quarters, said to have been dug up in garden ground. One I saw myself on the ground, just after it was dug up [Dug --one up myself in my garden in 1862.] [[end page]] [[start page]] 11) May 28 '68. All my four pupa of Chauliodes still to come out, ^[[{all were ♀}]] have a two-fold upper caudal process (.1 long or less) & an inferior process of two soldered together. Pupa is quiescent, but [[underlined]] can [[/underlined]] crawl, straight on its belly, a pretty good hickory. --May 28. My first Chauliodes [[browned ink]] rastricoruis Ramb. [[/browned ink]] came out, from pupa found 10 days ago. Larva found 3 weeks ago had on 28[[superscript]]th[[/superscript]] all gone to pupa. One of them stuffed, & preserved. They are aquatic or subaquatic 2 having been found on the lower side of a log afloat on edge of slough. But they [[strikethrough]] pup [[/strikethrough]] come out of water & go to pupa under logs, & one under bark of a log, forming a cell as does Corydalis cornutus. --May 28. Took 3 very large Ceramb. larva from a very rotten [[baso ?]] log. 2-inch long, legs very short, segments much humped, & a dorsal darker line along back - also a smaller similar one, probably a year younger - say 1-inch long. [[Tin-pail ?]] [died] --Bred 4 orchesiae - from the woody fungus of [[bolerophagus ?]] cornutus. Larva no anal horns - specimen preserved - length .2 head yellowish, mouth piceous, 6 legs, walk well. Body whitish. [[end page]]
12) May 28. Took on the island 7 specimens of a bee, lodged in cells in the bark of a felled bass . . In some cells was a mass of pollen (ord. specimens) with minute larva; an other larger; in others full grown larva ^ no pollen. In others again perfect bees. Four specimens are smaller greenish (male?) + 3 blue + larger (female?) May 30. Found under stone on the Island a deplerous rufous topped with black on the head + of threefold prongs beneath larva .4 long, light rufous ; a pair of prongs [[image - sketch of prong with "beneath" and "underside" noted]] Tail 4 thorns, divaricating every way. ^[Midas? pupa only 2-thorned] Segments [[strikethrough]] dark upfront topped with black [[/strikethrough]] pointing backwards thorned on posterior margin, but 1st abd. segment thorned [[underlined]] only [[/underlined]] on antr. margin, pointing forwards, like my Midas fulatus? pupa-skin. Oth abdomen thorns much weaker + shorter [came out June 9 on Asilus Took plenty of Choridium capestratum F. on the Island. -on May 25. I had found winged specimens of my Pemphigus [formicarius W.] on the Bluff. May 29. found a nest of the yellow ant in a stump honeycombed by larva on the Island: it contained many wingless pemphigi, located at least 1f from the ground ^ in cells apart from the larva, but not far apart. Had seen them in 1860 also under bark removed [[strikethrough]] from [[\strikethrough]] ^ above the ground. May 30. noticed more than a doz. nests of the yellow and under stones on the Island, all with wingless pemphigi in groups adhering to stone, & larva on surface of chamber [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 on the earth beneath. Some were naked, some in one nest were covered with dense masses of cotton. ( [[vid?]] specimen.) June 1st. Bred from [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]]one of 2 pupa found in a rotten bass post, in a hole with one end of pupa even with the outside, a pyralid with anterior wing-fringe, dotted with gold: labial palpi very long and ^hairy like a bottle-brush ^ hairs sloping forward, man.palp. shortish. The pupa is remarkable for the caudal apex being truncate, almost squarely, but sloping a little towards the [[strikethrough]] abdomen [[\strikethrough]] lower surface, & armed with [[underlined]] 4 [[/underlined]] long & 2 short spines in a [diagram - circle with radiating spines coming out of it] diverging from the centre. Pupa-skin preserved. The pupa was enveloped in a cocoon of fine wooddust lined with dirty white silk. No such pupa in Westwood. June 2nd. Took a very large Pselaphid in a nest of the yellow ant of the Pemphigi, that has its man. palpi elbowed & the 2nd joint bifid. No such arrangement mentioned in Westw. either Vol I or 5 [[image]] The eyes are small, but prominent and disctinct. [more correct][[image]] = ceophyllus monilis Sec -June 3rd. Early in May had found this larva under oak bark. Today found 3 more (smaller) under bass & put 2 of them in the bottle of oak decayed stuff along with the first larva [diagram inserted - larva sketch, numbers 12 down to 1 from top to bottom, also the following text: mahogany {one found, too little almost black [under oak bark, not very long felled] [[underlined]] No 2 [[/underlined]] May 13, '61 =Larva of [[xefophafus??]] Westw.II 531 fig 18
[[start page]] 14) [[strikethrough]] May [[/strikethrough]] June 3. Noticed a cluster of the ^ [[insertion]] apterous [[/insertion]] pemphigi on a root (about .2 mill diameter) in [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] a downward leading [[strikethrough]] under [[/strikethrough]] hole of a nest of the yellow ant under a flat stone. The cluster entirely surrounded the root. June 5. Bred from pupae in a wh. hickory stump 2 [[image - male symbol]] & 1 [[image - female symbol]] graphisurus, evidently distinct ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Not [[/underlined]] Leconte) [[/insetion]] from fasciatus, which occurred last year in [[insertion]] quercitron ? Fitch [[/insertion]] (black) oak. June 7. observed this morning the long { [[insertion]] prionocyphon discoideus. S [[/insertion]] long - [[strikethrough]] broad [[/strikethrough]] antenn, aquatic larvae, to whom I had last night given a fresh supply of stump-water, vibrating vigorously up & down a pencil of hairs, ^ [[insertion]] about [[/insertion]] 4 [[strikethrough]] millim [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] segments [[/insertion]] long, proceeding from their tail. Found a [[image - female symbol]] Rhipicerid? afloat & alive on the water. - the pencil consists of 5 or 6 ^ [[insertion]] very fine [[/insertion]] [[image - vertical line with downward angled lines drawn from it]] (June 8th)- viewed with the double lens_ June 8 & for a week previous have had many [[strikethrough]] Pyrochroa? flabellala ? Fals. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Dendroides canadensis [[/insertion]]from pupa in oak (& bass?) which I had mistaken for those of Hallomenus Larva of Corydalis Cornutus, besides six legs, has 7 pair of ^ [paddle-like prolegs], ^ [[insertion]] branchiae [[/insertion]] furnished with [[strikethrough]] hairs [[/strikethrough]] a fringe of hairs, one pair on each segment from 4th. to 10th. inclusive. Penultimate segment is simple. Larva of Chauliodes, being aquatic, has not these paddles. They are not used in walking, [but are no doubt used in shovelling back the dirt as it burrows in the earth.] They are branchiae [[end page]] [[start page]] (15 June 9 Pupa of [Rhipicerid?] Prionocyphon (Fig.) white with ^ [[insertion]] large [[/insertion]] black eyes, conspicuous beneath. Apparently 12 dorsal segments, ^ [[insertion]] the last small [[/insertion]] Length scarcely .2 The 2 hairs of occiput black. [[image - small diagram of larva. Diagram reads : Elbows [one segment too few ]] All the rest white. Body covered with a short white down, erect. Swims, if disturbed, or rather struggles on surface of water. Quiescent there. The larva when at the surface swims on its back. [Have { [[insertion]] broken antenna [[/insertion]] a specimen preserved today with antens of intermediate length - 1/4 length of body] It there keeps its body slightly below the surface, striking with its feet, but the pencil of hairs touches the surface, [being then not near so long, (say 1 or 1 1/2 mill) & obscure compared with its view June 7] & jerks from point to point in a line curved downwards [[image - diagram of curved line of movement]] occasionally a bubble of air is discharged from the tail. Beneath the surface it darts with great vigor upwards or downwards, but does not use pencil of hairs, which is then retracted into the transverse horizontal slit. Changes its course from up to down or vice versa with a sudden quick jerk. Antenna of pupa are about 2/3 length of body, & are placed side by side lengthwise beneath the body. June 12 In motion? larva last segment above is brown & 2 or 3 next lighter brown June 10. Took 3 larva under decayed oak log, burrowing in rotten part, in company with 2 [[strikethrough]] omalisus obliquus? Say [[/strikethrough]] Eros humeralis? Width 3 millim. Flattened length .5 ^ [[insertion]] Body yellowish white [[/insertion]] Head [[strikethrough]] rufous [[/strikethrough]] chestnut, antens terminal half [[strikethrough]] rufous [[/strikethrough]] chestnut ^ [[insertion]] above [[/insertion]] rack of 11 first segments with a transverse oblong discal ^ [[insertion]] spot [[/insertion]], 12th segm
16) terminal 2/3 [[strikethrough]] half [[/strikethrough]] chestnut, & a large ^ [[insertion]] chestnut [[/insertion]] proleg. A narrow longitudinal chestnut stripe on ^ [[insertion]] side of [[/insertion]] each segment 2nd to 11th inclusion ^ [[insertion]] just visible above. [[/insertion]] A smaller transverse spot on each segment beneath from 4th to 11th inclusion. Legs (6) light chestnut. [[Image - of caterpillar. Diagram reads: Spots generally transverse diam. double longitudinal. Narrower in front & behind [[strikethrough]] Om. obliguous? Say [[/strikethrough]] Eros humeralis? From 2nd to 10th segm even width. Spots too wide. 6. too wide]] [One larva died, & is preserved] June 12. Bred from jar of Prionocyphon (in which it must have been at least since June 7) a common species of Trechus .25 long & rufous on suture & margin of elytra. Found one larva of prionocyphon discoideus Say with all the dorsal segments brown, & noticed him distinctly protrude 5 or 6 feathers from his horizontal anal slit [[image: of feathers]] thus, the feathers appearing [[underlined]] about [[/underlined]] the length of 4 terminal segments. Could not distinguish the [[insertion]] bi-ciliations [[/insertion]] [pectinations], from his hoeliaess. Killed one full-grown larva, which died protruding the anal process - preserved it, [[image - anal process]] thus. Larva ^ [[insertion]] which have sparse long hairs [[/insertion]] carry their anten. before them on the water, vibrating them, as other insects. The bi-ciliatrous appear to be sm disposed in pairs thus [[image - bi-ciliatrous]]. Extreme length of antenna 3/4 body, [[end page]] [[start page]] (17 Number of tipulid larvae in water where found on ^ [[insertion]] several larvae of Prionocyphon [[/insertion]] being placed in a shallow vessel of ^ [[insertion]] water [[/insertion]] along with one very young & one full grown, they came in contact repeatedly, but did not attack them. They crawl in bowl of water with ease repeatedly. Natural habit to crawl on decayed wood, beneath surface, occasionally swimming & coming to the surface, probably for a supply of air. Do not always swim on their backs, when at the surface. Delight in crawling over wood above like my turtles - swimming on back to take in air? [[strikethrough]] June 14. Bred moth from Trypetoid gall of Solidago. Pupa-case preserved, as protruding. Larva 16 footed yellowish. Spiracles (fuscous) on all but 2nd 3rd & anal segments. Head & [[image of segment]] 2nd segment horny & rufous. N.B. Specimen had failed to go to pupa, & probably shrunk the Length .4. It had spun a good large irregular web of white silk in the small bottle where it was confined. [[/strikethrough]] June 14. Found three of my five rose Argyrotoxa? gone to a fasciate [strike: tachinode]] Ichneumoid pupa ^& cocoon^. Two remain. Length .7. Head yellowish. Body greenish, or dirty light green. A yellow stripe on each side. Above a treble row on each side of narrow white stripes, one half wider than the lateral & dorsal greenish interval. Legs & prolegs too black thorny, the later greenish inside & at tip. On
18) each segment except 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] & 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] first a transverse row of 5 shiny black nipples each bearing a hair, & 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]], a row of 4 do. arranged in quincunx on 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/suerpscript]] & 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] segments a [[strikethrough]] :. [[/strikethrough]] [[image - a triangle]] of nipples [[image - diagram of dot arrangement]] on each side followed by a single row of 6 dorsal ones. On the one specimen, which is generally lighter colored, these nipples ^ [[insertion]] generally [[/insertion]] are more or less obsolete. Legs 16. [[line]] Larva of [[underlined]] Phycita? nebulo. Walsh [[/underlined]]. Length 1/2 inch. Color greenish brown, lighter beneath. Head & body both with long sparse white hairs. Head dull black, with fine confluent punctures & are ^ [[insertion]] slightly impressed [[/insertion]] longitud. line, divaricating in front; 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] segment horny above. An elevated shining black spot on each side 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] segment. Legs 16. [[line]] June 16. Caught Gomphus vastus. Hagen with one of the pied yellow & brown Mississippi Phryganeides in its mouth. (Macronema zebratuus) [[line]] June 17. Since yesterday ^ [[insertion]] one [[/insertion]] of the [[Argyrotoma?]] of the Rosebuds had gone under ground apparently. Two Syrphid larvae, one on Rose, the other currant, Ditto [died..] Of the immature Gomphi captured yesterday, noticed one Vastus & one [new] with the abdomen very much inflated. Wind-colic? The hind thigh of [[male symbol]] vastus [[end page]] [[start page]] (19 is black; of [[female symbol]] basal half greenish yellow. [[line]] August 6. Lusk found among the weeds in his garden a chrysalis about 1 1/2 inch long, cream colored, wingcases spotted with small round fuscous spots. Tip of 4 antepenultimate abd. segments edged with mahogany, antepenult. not so broadly. Spiracles dark colored. [Aug 18 came out Chaerocampa chaerilus?] [[line]] [[line]] Aug. 7 Examined Prionocyphon jar. 8 or 10 larvae still alive - put 3 in alcohol - bred these 5 to 10 minutes. No pupa or imago's [[line]] In the hind wings of Leucanea unipuncta, the "arc" of Hagen is not, as in the Neuropt., between the median & submedian nervures, but between the subcostal (or cubital) & the median. Thus:- [[image - pen drawing of wing showing costal, subcost. sectors (loc 2 or 3), median, postcostals]] [[line]] The normal type of a Lepidopt. wing maybe seen beautifully in [[strikethrough]] lower [[/strikethrough]] hind wing of Aegeria, ^[[insertion]] 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] & 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] spec. in Cab [[superscript]] t [[/superscript]]. [[/insertion]] where costal & subcostal are simple & almost coalesce, the sector has [[underlined]] no prolongation [[/underlined]] towards the base & the median is [[strikethrough]] quad [[/strikethrough]] tri-furcate. [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] In some genera costal & subc. are bi- or tri-furcate; in others the sector is partially prolonged towards the base, but is obsolete before it reaches the base: In others the median is [[insertion]] 4- [[/insertion]] furcate & the furcations variously arranged. The neuration
20) of the upper wing is generally very similar & may be seen very clearly in Lophocampa tessellaris, but is generally difficult on account of the scales. Hence lower wing chiefly to be used. Scarites subterraneus? - took 5 specimens South which are .9 to 1 inch long, whereas R.I. specimens (as well as two taken South) are uniformly .7. One of these small southern spec [[superscript]] m [[/superscritp]], taken in the burrows of Copris Carolina, has only the [[underlined]] two [[/underlined]] post. punct. A R.I. specimen has [[underlined]] no [[/underlined]] punctures; Say gives none, but Latreille does I. 210. [[underlined]] Two [[/underlined]] of the large southern specimens have hind punctures double transversely. Say gives .9 as the length, & omits puncta. The small red glabrous Attelabus ^ [[insertion]] nigripes Leconte [[/insertion]] has [[symbol for "male"]] ant. thighs thorned. In Cabinet No._ ^ [[insertion]] (Rhyncophora) [[/insertion]] bred from one of two larvae found under pine bark in the spring ^ [[insertion]] (May) [[/insertion]]; .35 long, head rufous, mouth piceous _ legless. Balance white. [this ^ [[insertion]] insect [[/insertion]] seems lost or mislaid]. Colaspis ([[underlined]] light [[/underlined]] clay, striate ^[[insertion]] "undetermined" sec [[/insertion]]) was bred on S.I. from a pupa found at root of Peach tree [= flavida Say] [[end page]] [[start page]] 21 Sep 27. 1861. Found several ^[[insertion]] Coleopterous? [[/insertion]] larvae in a new kind of woody fungus _ colored with sanguineous. Length 1/2 inch. Breadth 3/20. Color yellowish white. Head light rufous, darker above; in the center above three tubercles [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[image - pencil drawing of tubercles]] separated from sides of head by a stria. Each segment [[strikethrough]] covered [[/strikethrough]] above has a transverse black fascia, of double width in the 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] which is rough with punctures. Between them the surface is yellowish white. 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] to 11 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] have a transverse carina in their middle, behind which the fascia is punctate, before glabrous these segments are also divided longitudinally by a narrow yellowish line, wider in front on every transverse [[strikethrough]] black [[/strikethrough]] fascia. Anal segment blackish above, & rough with tubercles, & with two short thorns pointing upwards. Beneath a ^ [[insertion]] short [[/insertion]] retractile proleg? or the anal aperture used as a proleg occasionally? Legs six. Body is slightly depressed, & tapers a little at both ends. [died] Mound City. Ju[[strikethrough]] ne [[/strikethrough]]ly 18. [[underlined]] Saw [[/underlined]] the red (southern) species of ^[[insertion]] Polistes [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] obgaem [[/strikethrough]] that builds the hornet-like flat nest eating a green 3/4 inch caterpillar on a honey-locust. No nest near. Ju[[strikethrough]] un [[/stirkthrough]]ly 19. ^[[insertion]] near M. City [[/insertion]] Saw on a human encrement (covered with red & black braconid (in cab[[superscript]] t [[/superscript]].) staphylinus chrysarus sieze an onthophagus July 8 & 9. Anna. Saw many Harpalus pensylvanicus underground on roots of peach - trees infested by Ageria enitiosa. Also [[strikethrough]] Bradytus [[/strikethrough]]^ [[insertion]] Cratacanthus dubius [see p 26] [[/insertion]] [[Image - pen drawing of portion of insect]]. The former swarms in
22) houses & apparently thrives off flies. July 10 ^ [[insertion]] near Anna [[/insertion]] Took lib. corrupta Hagen, lighter-colored as with specimen taken July 4, 1861 at Rock Island. Black spot, dorsal, 2 ant[[superscript]] r [[/superscript]]. segments abdomen [Afterwards took other specimens, one of the usual color, but all differing in having "raies" on thorax, (instead of mere dots) more or less developed.] Near [[strikethrough]] Mound City [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] Anna [[/insertion]] noticed under bark of a post a pupa (hymenopterous?) enclosed in cocoon [[image - drawing of cocoon]] with two or 3 small (starved?) larvae by its side [found near Anna] Description of larva & pupa Papilio thoas? [died] [[large empty section of page, part along right side reads:]] found another specimen on a wild cherry end of September '61, which has gone to pupa in North cage. [[end page]] [[start page]] (23 Oct 9 '61 Found on a willow twig a cottony mass enveloping a number of footless (ichneumonid?) larvae about 3/8 long. Put in "Solidago-gall" bottle [died; 1862 some produced a brachygaster] [[line]] Oct 9 ^ [[insertion]] '61 [[/insertion]] Noticed [[male symbol]] Orchelimum agile? Deg. singing on the banks of Rock River on low willow trees - chit-it-it-chee-ee-ee-ee-ee-ee. Differed from summer specimens ^ [[insertion]] [a different species near vulgare Harris] [[/insertion]] in the top of thorax being bi-vittate; instead of the two vitta being confluent. Also in the tibiae (especially posterior ones) being black but especially in the hind thighs being 3-thorned. [[line]] Oct 11. Bred 5 ([[male symbol]]) [[female symbol]] pemphigus from wingless specimens found in nest of yellow ant, 10 or 8 days ago; ^ [[insertion]] wingless? [[/insertion]] [[2 female symbols]] are rounder & whitish; [[strikethrough]] [[2 male symbols]] [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] winged [[female symbol]] ? [[/insertion]] (those which have disappeared & obtained wings?) longer & cinereous. Winged [[insertion]] [[female symbol]] ? [[/insertion]] [males] [[strikethrough]] pca [[/strikethrough]] plum-bloom blue, abd. & collar; [[strikethrough]] collar [[/strikethrough]] thorax ^ [[insertion]] & head [[/insertion]] blue black opaque. Legs [[strikethrough]] obscure [[/strikethrough]] yellowish fuscous. Observed in Plocaria brevipennis Say, that the tarsi of anterior legs, though short, are moveable on the tibia. So of other legs. [[line]] Came out [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] Bibio albipennis. *Say Nov 3. Found under a mass of stones on R. I. hundreds of a ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] footless [[/underlined]] tenthredinid? or lepidopt? [[/insertion]] larva about 3/4 inch long, head rufous with ^ [[insertion]] strong [[/insertion]] jaws, dirty whitish body, with many thorns or prickles. Eruciform. Placed in large glass jar. Preserved 2 in alcohol. When found they were clustered on some dead leaves (apparently partly eaten; under the stones
24) In progressing, he uses his head as a point d'appui. [[line]] Kirby p. 74 says this is a character of [[underlined]] diplerous [[/underlined]] larvae Spring of 1861 bred Oryctes satyrus from a very large white larva with coal-black head found under a stone in R. I. Fall 1861 found another larva under a stone in ^[[insertion]] end Sept or beg. [[/insertion]] October, & afternoon. end of October visited the spot & traced his track which he had travelled off consuming the grass roots like Phyllophaga quercina. [[underlined]] Xyl [[/underlined]] oryotes:. incorrect. [[line]] Nov. 7. Hatched from pupa. V. interrogations [[female symbol]] with an unusually wide & vivid blue margin to its wings. Pupa ( 6 golden spots on breast), [[image - pencil drawing of 6 dots in two vertical columns three dots to a column) found under sandstone rocks at Black Hawk Watch tower. Pupa preserved. Found two there. [[line]] Dec 25. Clover caterpillars from McHenry Co. found in millions in Clover stacks up to 2 ft from bottom. [[Newspaper clipping pasted over handwritten notes]] [[handwritten on clipping]] ^[[P.J. Feb 15 - 62]][[/handwritten]] [[clipping]] Clover Worms. We have received from Richard Wray, of Mc. Henry county, another installment of those pests found in his clover stacks. Mr. W. says he is feeding the same kind of hay from a mow in the barn, and all the lower part of it is filled in the same way as the stacks that have been described. He finds in cold weather they keep very close in their webs, but crawl out in pleasant weather. He further says that he believes the eggs are laid in the green clover before cured, and the sweating of the stack hatches them out. He has grown clover hay for fifteen years on the same farm an this is the first appearance of the worm. [[/clipping]] [partial content of diary covered by clipping} Length 1/2 inch segment glabrous by a thread & spins of about 6 long 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] & last) each hair a dark central spot Diameter .07 tapering yellowish brown. Wriggles (see Harris p. 446-7) [[end page]] [[start page]] (25 In Winnebago Co. 1849 first year of Chinch bug (Ill Agr. Rep. ^[[insertion]] IV [[/insertion]] p 314) [[line]] Mink's catch bee-moths (also grasshoppers) (Corr. of Rural N. Yorker Jan 18 1862) [[newspaper clipping]] -M. de Thoron has addressed a curious communication to the Academy of Sciences on the subject of certain singing fish that inhabit the seas as well as rivers of South America. He specially mentions the Bay of Pailon, situated north of the province of Esmereldas in the Republic of Ecuador, where, being in a boat, he was suddenly startled by a deep humming noise which he attributed to some large insect, but which upon inquiry turned out to be a kind of fish called "Musicos" by the people of the country. On proceeding further the sounds became so strong as to remind him of the strains of a church organ. These fish live both in salt and in fresh water, since they are also met with in the river Maraje. They are not more than ten inches long; their color is white sprinkled with blue spots, and they will continue their music for hours without minding any interruption. [[/clipping]] [[line]] "In the years '27, '28 + '29 the black weevil injured & destroyed the wheat in the stack & in the granary." Hon. P.B. Fouke St. Clair Co. Agr. Trans[[superscript]] ns [[/superscript]], Vol 2. p. 315 [[line]] Feb. 7 '62 the pupa (from corn husk) received from Dr. Bartlett is not glabrous, but opaque dull & has truncate tail with 4 tubercles. [[line]] Fall of '61 dug out many D.^[[insertion]] orcus [[/insertion]] parallelus from a rotten log on the island. Larva constructs no cocoon, as Lucanus. Larva in alcohol. [[line]]
^handwritten at top: P.F. Feb 15-62 Clover Worms. We have received from Richard Wray, of Mc. Henry county, another installment of those pests found in his clover stacks. Mr. W. says he is feeding the same kind of hay from a mow in the barn, and all the lower part of it is filled in the same way as the stacks that have been described. He finds in cold weather they keep very close in their webs, but crawl out in pleasant weather. He further says that he believes the eggs are laid in the green clover before cured, and the sweating of the stack hatches them out. He has grown clover hay for fifteen years on the same farm an this is the first appearance of the worm.
That said tax shall be paid to the Town Collector of the Town where such dog may be owned or kept each year previous to the return of the Collector's book. That the Collector shall pay over on oath, (after deducting a commission of three per cent. as compensation for collecting,) to the Commissioners of Highways, to be by them expended in repairing the roads and bridges of the town; said payment to be made at the time of the annual settlement of said Collector with said Commissioners; and that said Collectors shall keep a record of the payment and a description of the Dogs on which payment is made, and give a receipt for the tax, containing a full description of said dogs. The constitutionality of such enactments has not been tested, but is in some quarters questioned. We believe there should be a stringent [[end of text]]
24) In progressing, he uses his head as a point d'appui Kirby p. 74 says this is a [[underlined]] character of deplerous [[/underlined]] larva Spring of 1861 bred Oryctis Satyrus from a very large white larva with coal-black head found under a stone in R. I. Fall 1861 found another larva under a stone in ^[[insetion]] end Sept. or beg. [[/insertion]] October, & afternoons end of October. visited the spot & traced his track which he had travelled off consuming the grass roots like Phyllophaga quercina. [[underlined]] Xyl [[/underlined]]oryates? :. incorrect. Nov 7. Hatched from pupa. V. interiogationus [[image - female symbol]] with an unusually wide & vivid blue margin to its wings. Pupa (6 golden spots on breast,) [[image - pencil drawing of 6 dots in two vertical columns]] found under sandstone rocks at Black Hawk watch tower. Pupa preserved. Found two there. Dec 25. Clover caterpillars from McHenry Co. found in millions in clover stacks up to 2 ft from bottom. Length 1/2 inch. Color dirty greenish brown : head rufous, 1st + last segment glabrous yellowish brown. head rufous & last segment glabrous yellowish brown. Legs normal. Suspends by a thread + spins whitish web. A transverse row of about 6 long whitish hairs on each segment (except 1st & last) each hair proceeding from a lighter tubercle with a dark central spot. First + last segments irregular hairs. Diameter .07. tapering slightly at each end. Beneath yellowish brown. Wriggles + runs backwards like a [[Fortria?]] (see Harris p. 446-7) [[end page]] [[start right side page]] 25 In Winnebago Co. 1849 first year of Chinch bug (Ill Agr. Rep. IV. p 314) Mink's catch bee-moths (also grasshoppers) (Corr. of Rural N. Yorker Jan 18. 1862) [[start newspaper clipping]] --M. de Thoron has addressed a curious communication to the Academy of Sciences on the subject of certain singing fish that inhabit the seas as well as rivers of South America. He specially mentions the Bay of Pailon, situated north of the province of Esmeraldas in the Republic of Ecuador, where, being in a boat, he was suddenly startled by a deep humming noise which he attributed to some large insect, but which upon inquiry turned out to be a kind of fish called "Musicos" by the people of the country. On proceeding further the sounds became so strong as to remind him of the strains of a church organ. These fish live both in salt and in fresh water, since they are also met with in the river Maraje. They are not more than ten inches long; their color is white sprinkled with blue spots, and they will continue their music for hours without minding any interruption. [[end clipping]] "In the years '27 '28 + '29 the black weevil injured + destroyed the wheat in the stack + in the granary" Hon P. B. Fouke St. Clair Co. Agr. Transks, Vol. 2. p. 315. Feb '62 the pupa (from corn husk) received form Dr. Bartlett is not glabrous, but opaque dull + has truncate tail with 4 tubercles. Fall of '61 dug out many Dorcus parallelus from a rotten log on the island. Larva constructs no cocoon, as Lucanus, larva in alcohol.
26) Cratacanthus dubius found in S. Ill. at roots of peach trees (bored) also h. pensylvanicus - [[line]] found Scarites subterraneus in burrows of Copris Carolina. [[line]] Geopinus cucrassatus found [[2 lines]] 6 inches underground in a sandy place, under a dead pigeon, where also were found many pupa of Musca Caesar? [[line]] Geo. W. ^ [[insertion]] Brackett of [[/insertion]] Belfast, Maine says they had "some trouble by (aphides) plant lice" with their wheat & oats. P. F. Feb 15. 1862 [[line]] March 3. '62. Removed the pseudomaginal skin from the entire thorax of a species of Cratonychus bred from oak. A very thin pellicle. [[line]] Nondescript - [[strikethrough]] Malachidae. [[/strikethrough]] In Antherophagus (Omaliidae) Leconte [[yellow paper note with writing obscured by white note with image of insect]] [[white note]] [[image - pencil drawing to head and first joint of insect]] 2nd j. ant. 3/4 of 3rd last j longest Except scapus 3 last joints slightly enlarged [[/note]] [[line]] Telephorus carolina bred [[?]] from pupae found under white elm bark among cerambycids & 1 under pine bark. [[end page]] [[start page]] (27 Nondescript? genus of Giside - hind coxae transverse [[image - pencil drawing]] middle coxae globular flat, rather wide apart: aut. conae. short, transverse, approximate. Sternum keeled. First j. v. abd. long. (See Cabinet) Query - [[female symbol]] [[Cera?]] = sphindus (Lecontes) [[line]] Nondescript? genus of Scolytidae [[white note with smaller white note obscuring drawing]] [[smaller white note]] [[image - pencil drawing of legs]] legs [[?]] [[/smaller note]] [[white note]] [[obsecured image]] hind coxa transverse [[?]] cox widely separ? ant. cox long conical - cylindrical & very prominent interstices bristled [[line across note]] [[/note]] ["Polygraphus?" sec] Chramerus iconia Sec. mg [[line]] Clerus nigripes Say is apparently parasitic on Hylesinus aculeatus Say. Found both swarming on a decaying ash on April 1861. [[line]] [[Clipping from journal]] Journal of the ^[[State Agr. Society. Feb 1862]] FARM MANAGEMENT Statement of Farm Management and Products for the year 1861, by S. W. Arnold, near Cortland, De Kalb county, Illinois, to whom was awarded the second premium on farms of 160 acres and upwards. [[/clipping]] [[Second clipping from journal obscured by another clipping stuck over it]] The oat corp was dimin hoppers, who eat off the grain, and the sod at t the sod that forms aroun [[/second clipping]] [[third clipping obscuring second clipping as well as text written underneath]] ress. There are instances with farmers in which debt can hardly be avoided, as was the case here in 1856 and 1857; the grasshopper destroyed our crops two years in succession, and many had given credit to those who became involved at the time of the financial crash; the latter might perhaps have been avoided by judgment, and perhaps a better knowledge of natural history and science may have aided in providing against the ravages of the grasshoppers. One fact I noticed, although they ate the bark from saplings, and consumed our corn, tobacco, etc. ate holes in clothes hanging out to dry, destroyed boots and shoes when they lit on them in the house, yet peas they avoided, and it was an odd sight to see the field completely stripped, even of the weeds, and the pea patch left undisturbed. There was no turning to the right or left with them, they went hopping on to the tune of John Brown, and they may be hopping yet for aught I know. I only hope they will never come here again. Many resolved then to keep two years supply of produce on hand afterwards, but I fear most of us have forgotten the good resolution made in time of distress, as is often the case. O.H. KELLEY Anoka Co, Minnesota, June 28, 1863. [[/third clipping]] [[handwritten on clipping]] ^[[N. Y. County Gentleman July 31 1862]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Buichus [[?]] [[underlined]] over one year [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Magdale in company [[underlined]] under [[/underlined]] elm [[line]]
[[strikethrough]] is Oxyporus fissilatrous? (placed staphyl[[superscript]] ae [[/superscript]]. Westw- Homalota belongs to Aleocharini [[/strikethrough]] gula [[strikethrough]] [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] [thus] bimaxillary [[image]] tarsi half length of tibiae, two equal joints - claws long & slender ant. inserted on large tubercles before inner corner of eyes.
[[Image is a torn, yellow fragment with the following notes]] prost & mesost. rufous metastegia & abdomen yellowish & hairy abd. dusky ^behind in the^ middle except last joint {6-j beneath 4 above visible hind conae thus, [[drawing]] flatted middle the same ant. promt. conical eyes large, lenses all contiguous. G.O.
[[start page: a fragment from a page with 4 drawn images]] [[upper left image of a leg, reads:]] intermed leg [[lower left image of a leg, reads:]] front leg (joints very doubtful) [[upper right image of leg, reads above leg:]] perfectly transparent - no joint [[below leg, reads:]] hind [[strike out middle]] leg dark mark [[bottom right image of leg, reads:]] another [[word?]] [[end page]]
[[Image - head of insect showing eyes and antenna and location of tubercles]] tub. tubercl tab 2nd j. ant. 3/4 of 3rd last j - longest except Scalpus 3 last joints slightly enlarged all 11 pubescent __
When, after the birth of the last of her little of six, [?] little ones were put to the udders of the mother, and began to draw their natural food, at that moment the spell was broken, and the measureless love of the mother was developed--it flowed with her milk. Though the process of putting the little pigs occupied scarcely a minute, y[[?]] that short interval sufficed for the great change, the birth of an affection that was to be boundless and untiring so long as her little one needed the mother's care, for upon one of her young uttering a cry as I placed it beside her she turned on me with a roar of anxiety and anger that sent me with a leap to the other end of the enclosure. The development of hoggishness and spite in the young pigs immediately after birth, was both surprising and amusing; they would contend fiercely with each other for food, and when obtained would defend themselves from their fellows by moving their hinder parts towards the quarter from which an intruder approached. Marblehead, Mass. JAMES J. H. GREGORY. --- (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) REMEDIES FOR CRIB-BITING
[[end of previous sentence]]ress. There are instances with farmers in which debt can hardly be avoided, as was the case here in 1856 and 1857; the grasshoppers destroyed our crops two years in succession, and many had given credit to those who became involved at the time of the financial crash; the latter might perhaps have been avoided by judgment, and perhaps a better knowledge of natural history and science may have aided in providing against the ravages of the grasshoppers. One fact I noticed, although they ate the bark from the saplings, and consumed our corn, tobacco, etc., ate holes in clothes hanging out to dry, destroyed boots and shoes when they lit on them in the house, yet peas they avoided, and it was an odd sight to see the field completely stripped, even of the weeds, and the pea patch left undisturbed. There was no turning to the right or left with them, they went hopping on to the tune of John Brown, and they may be hopping yet for aught I know. I only hope they will never come here again. Many resolved then to keep two years supply of produce on hand afterwards, but I fear most of us have forgotten the good resolution made in time of distress, as is often the case. O.H. Kelley. Anoka Co., Minnesota, June 28, 1862 [[Hand written in Margin:]] N. Y. Country - Gentleman July 31. 1862
Bred Hickory galls (woody) June 4- antenna
ant [[image - pencil diagram]] ant legs [[rafin?]]
[[image - pencil sketch]] hind coxa transverse interm cox widely separ? ant. cox long conical cylindrical & very prominent interstices bristled
last tars. jt longer than all the others hind thor [[diagram of shape]] (scut. obsolete.) fitting between elytra ant. = scolytus labrum obsolete jaws = scolytus scolytus
26) Cratacanthus dubius found in S. Ill. at roots of peach trees ( bored ) also h. pensylvanicus-- found Scarites subterraneus in burrows of Copris Carolina. Geopinus incrassatus found 6 inches underground in a sandy place under a dead pigeon, whereas also were found many pupae of Musca Casar? ---- Geo. W. ^[[Brackett of]] Belfast, Maine, says they had "some trouble by (aphides) plant lice" with their wheat & oats. P.F. Feb. 15. 1862 ____ March 3. '62 Removed the pseudomaginal skin from the entire thorax of a species of Cratomychus bred from oak. A very thin pellicle. __Nondescript- [[strikethrough]] Malachidae. [[/strikethrough]] An Antherophagus (Omaliidae) Leconte Telephorus carolina bred (1861 spring) from pupa found under white elm bark among cerambycids & 1 under pine bark. [end of page] [[start right side page]] (27 Nondescript? genus of Giside - hind conae transverse middle conae globular flat, rather wide apart. Ant. conae. short transverse, approximate.Sternum keeled. First j. v. abd. long. (See Cabinet) Query - female Ceracis? = sphindus (Lecontes) Nondescript? genus of Scolytidae ["Polygraphus?" sec] Chramerus iconiae Sec. MS Clerus nigripes Say is apparently parasitic on Hylesinus aculeatus Say. Found both swarming on a decaying ash on April 1861. [[start clipping]] Journal of the State Agr. Society Feb 1862 FARM MANAGEMENT Statement of Farm Management and Products for the year 1861, by S. W. Arnold, near Cortland, De Kalb county, Illinois, to whom was awarded the second premium on farms of 160 acres and upwards. [[end clipping]] [[second clipping]] The oat crop was diminished at least 10 bushels per acre, by the grasshoppers, who eat off the heads, the ground being literally covered with grain, and the sod at the time of plowing this fall, was very much like the sod that forms around where a threshing machine has been used. [[end of clipping]] [[strikethrough]] Bruchus pisi Tenn. stays [[undelined]] alive [[/underlined]] in peas in numbers [[underlined]] over one year [[/underlined]], when peas are kept two seasons. BDW [[/strikethrough]] mistake: did not in 1864 Magdalinus barbitus S = armicollis S. Take in company plenty on elm, & found one barbitus [[underscore]] under [[/underscore]] elm bark
28) Bred a specimen of olibrus apicalis (phalacridae) from Hessian fly strain in 1861. [[line]] Opatrinus notus Lay bred in 1861 from pupa found in S. Ill. under [[strikethrough]] decayed [[/strikethrough]] bark of dead tree. [[line]] x [[vertical line]] Rec [[superscript]] d [[/superscript]]. March 1862 from John P. Reynold, 4 specimens of leucania unipuncta "caught in the spring of 1861 flying about the cherry trees in the evening when the trees were in blossom" by Phil. M. Springer of Springfield, who sent them to Reynolds. [[line]] Psyllide - ^ [[insertion]] in [[/insertion]] Cabinet [[line]] In relaxing [[male symbol]] [[female symbol]] Fremen Columba, [[male symbol]] anus is just above anal horn; but there is no [[female symbol]] anus there. Confluent with vulva, as in aculeata? [[line]] May 1862 Strata on boring Artesian well at Depot R. I. 117 ft Limestone 6 or 7 in. Shale 5 ft sandstone 1 ft 6 in bluish limestone (like that of Coal Valley) 2 ft 2 in coal 6 [[strikethrough]] to 8 ft [[/strikethrough]] sandstone (getting more calcareous) opposite [[line]] [[inserted text to the side of above list]] [[curly bracket encapsulating inserted text]] Llandeilo rocks (lower Silurian) in Dumfriesshire contain beds of anthracite Lyell p. 441 (Principles?) [[/inserted text]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (29 May 1862 [[curly bracket]] Put 5 or 6 larvae of [[underlined]] Corydalis cornutus [[/underlined]] in water of river; 3 or 4 rolled themselves up & were carried away by the stream. Two crawled out of the water. One of them climbed up an adjacent very smooth barkless stump 3 ft. high : used his anal process [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] as a proleg : did [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] use the ventral processes : attempted to climb down the same stump & lost his hold & fell into the river. [[line]] May 26, 1862 Coleman (V.F.) writes me that Ithycerus noveboracensis (specimens sent me) "was sent here from Lagrange Mo by J.H. [[strikethrough]] Hairgis [[/strikethrough]] Hargis, who gives a deplorable a/c of their ravages on his young trees roses etc. He is a nursery man & they are eating up his nursery." [[line]] The hind wing of Nomia heteropoda Say is split thus [[image - pencil drawing of insect wing]] ( = some diptera) [[line]] [[line]] ft light brown limestone 10. white marble 10. light gray limestone 10 June 2, 1862
29) * June 4 1862 Bred two cecidomipa salicis ? from dwarf willow galls ^ [[insertion]] = rhodoides W. [[/insertion]] off Meddleham's farm ^ [[insertion]] obtained in the winter [[/insertion]] : indistiguishable from c. salicis ^ [[insertion]] (brassecoides) [[/insertion]] bred from R. R. willow galls, though the galls vary considerably. The untricated gall [[image - pencil drawing of leaf]] on willows seems to be caused by a # tenthndo. See imperfect specimen Do. [No] [[Shobiloider?]] O.S. [[line]] June 16. Caught agrion - ^ [[insertion]] n sp [[/insertion] (near Doubledaye) in my garden with a currant aphis in its mouth. [[line]] June 15. In a pseudogall of [[strikethrough]] Byrsocryfila [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] Phylloxera [[/insertion]] [image - pencil drawing] on Hickory leaves, noticed many with several large Thrips among the aphides, & about as numerous. [[line]] June 18. Counted 350 eggs in body of ^ [[insertion]] Attacus [[/insertion]] Luna, besides eggs laid before capture [[line]] June 22. Noticed in galls of Phylloxera caryofolia Fitch ^ [[insertion]] very [[/insertion]] many red pupa of a ^ [[insertion]] lay [[/insertion]] thrips; had noticed a few imago's of this same (?) Thrips in the same galls 2 weeks ago; the pupa seem to have supplanted the Phylloxera, almost every gall continuing ^ [[insertion]] 6 or 7 of [[/insertion]] them, with a few Phylloxera. [[line]] July (middle) leaf roller of apple ^ [[insertion]] (bred) [[/insertion]] is pale variety (= Chicago spec. [[superscript]] ns [[/superscript]]) of [[strikethrough]] locl [[/strikethrough]] Loxotrema [[losacrana?]] (bred) [[line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (30 N. Y. [[Seminr.?]] [[Trib?]] June 20. 1862 [[newspaper clipping]] The canker worms are very bad this year in Massachusetts--never worse, says The Salem Gazette. All remedies but the oldest fail. This is, pine tar to prevent the ascension of the worms. No material has as yet been found better adapted for this purpose, and cheaper, than the tarred paper, which is used for sheathing, and sold at the hardware stores. It is usually cut into strips six or eight inches wide and fastened round the trees, with a few tacks. But first it is well to tie round the tree a narrow roll of cotton batting, to prevent the ascent under the tar-red paper of the grubs, through any of the crevices in the bark. The cotton, too, if it project a little below the paper, will keep the drip of the tar from running upon the tree. [[/clipping]] [[line]] July 20? 62 Noticed, under the lintel of the old shanty just before R. R. bridge on Mi to the left, a nest of about 12 cells of [[strikethrough]] [[Odymorus?]] [[/strikethrough]] Polistes with yellow fasciae. [[strikethrough]] [a palestem?] [[/strikethrough]] on it were 4 or 5 insects, at work. Social? like bumble-bees. But no [[underlined]] large [[/underlined]] females, as with Bombus. [[curly bracket]] 1866 (fall) yellow Polistes built horizontal comb on upper face of rail in garden. [[line]] July 26. Eyes [[female symbol]] pulchella black, when in ^ [[insertion]] living freshly bred [[/insertion]] imago ; white? in subim. [[strikethrough]] J [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] July 27. Found dead 5 ludias attenuntus Say in bottle; Feb 10, 1861 contained only 4 larvae; no others put in; June .. 1862 only one remained. Hence its larva lives at least two & probably three years, because the larva was introduced in 1860, being then probably largish, & lived till July 1862. [ [[male symbol]] has wings more pointed [[female symbol]] ] [[line]] July ^ [[insertion]] 26 [[/insertion]] [[Paluy.?]] limbata: living [[male symbol]] 1st jt. ant. tarsi moveable; obtained [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Jul [[/strikethrough]] [[male symbol]] imago of Pal. flavescens from subimago, which has [[underlined]] "opaque yellow" [[/underlined]] wings [[line]]
31) Pal. interpunctata Say - In living insect hue under aut. [[underlined]] is [[/underlined]] arcuated [[image - arc over small circle]] (as Hagen says) not angulated Say) - eyes yellow - black dividing line - [[line]] A geometer caterpillar (oak?) 1 1/2 or 1 3/4 long shewed no desposition to feed in October in. Yew, & remains (Nov. 9)[[image - pen drawing of caterpillar]] on the left upper side of the wire breeding-cage. [[line]] Dec 14 shifted its place to right further corner & was lively. Feb 9 exactly in same place. [[Indented to right hand side]] May (middle) would not eat very young oak leaves, & shrivelled & became helpless. Placed it under leaves in Breeding cage. [[/indented]] [[Newspaper cutting]] on the animal and vegetable productions of New South Wales, New Zealand, and some of the Austral Islands. 8vo. pp. 460. London. Cloth ............................... 6 50 Berkeley (Rev. M.J.) Outlines of British Fungology; containing characters of above a thousand species of fungi, and a complete list of all that have been described as natives of the British Isles. 8vo. pp. 470. London. Cloth.....9 30 [[line]] AN INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED. 8vo. LONDON, 1857...............5 00 Bernardi. Monographie des genres Galatea et Fischeria. Avec 10 planches, coloriées. 4to. Paris..........................8 00 Bewick (Joseph). Cleveland Ironstone: a Treatise on the Ironstone of the Cleveland District, North Yorkshire. Illustrated by a large Geological Map of part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, also sections of the strata and of the Yorkshire coast, in colors, with plans of pillar workings. Royal 8vo. cloth, lettered. London...............6 50 Bailliere Brothers, 440 Broadway, N.Y. [[/newspaper cutting]] [[image - cross]] in one specimen double horns on 5, 7, 9 & 10 in another [[line]] & rudimental single horns on 6 & 8 [12 joints sectioned, head = 0] [[end page]] [[start page]] (32 July 27 Found a mass of cottony cocoons on willow leaf, which produced Aug 1. [[underlined]] 167 [[/underlined]] microgaster (3rd abd. jt. lateraly rufous) [[line]] Aug. 6. Saw the harlequin reduviad (Harpaetor cinctus F.) on a flower sucking juices of a clay-bank Halictus [[line]] [[right hand margin has vertical line with x in middle]] Dr. Velie found the remains of a blue bird in the nest of a flying squirrel the bones all polished. They ate [[short vertical line]] bird flesh freely in confinement. [[line]] [[line]] July 9. Stung by an [[insertion]] Ophion morio [[/insertion]] {anomalon flavicorne} Say; pain soon went off. [[image - pencil sketch of hand pointing to right]] The sen was not that with 1st. [[Ic?]] post tarsi [[underlined]] orange [[/underlined]] :. that is [[male symbol]]. [a distinct g. o sp.] Norton [[line]] [[section strikethrough]] July 10 {Found a [Sphingid] larva [[insertion]] beat one off honey-locust. [[/insertion]] - length 1.8 inch - ^ [[insertion]] light gray [[/insertion]] green. [[insertion]] Dryocamped [[/insertion]] Laterally from 3rd [[?]] to penult. abd. jt. a whitish hind bordered above by purple. Scattered whitish [[strikethrough]] [[lobrioa?]] [[/strikethrough]] tubercles, very thick toward anus; a regular row at ? [[strikethrough]] tail [[/strikethrough]] tip of 3 or 4 1st segments. Segments 2 ^ [[insertion]] & 3 [[/insertion]] of thorax on each side two ^[[insertion]] 1/4 inch [[/insertion]] long recurved horns, tubercled & {bluish purplish at tip-joints {or 7 & 9 [[underlined]] 5 [[/underlined]] 7 } [[double underlined]] [yes] [[/double underlined]] each side with two silvery horns see opposite. [In one specimen on 5, 7 & 9 & a single lateral silver horn on 10. [[/strikethrough]] [[overwritten]] "Sphingicarpa disfigura" [[/overwritten]]
Curtis (J.) Farm insects; being the Natural History and Economy of the Insects injurious to the Field Crops of Great Britain and Ireland, and also those which infest Barns and Granaries, with Suggestions for their Destruction. By John Curtis. Royal 8vo. pp. 534. London. Cloth. 8 00 Cuvier (Baron). The Animal Kingdom, arranged after its Organisation, forming a Natural History of Animals, and an Introduction to Comparative Anatomy. Translated and adapted to the present state of science. New edition, with additions by W. B. Carpenter and J. O. Westwood. Royal 8vo. pp. 710. London. Cloth . . . . . . . . 7 75 Damon (Robert). Handbook to the Geology of Weymouth and the Island of Portland. With Notes of the Natural History of the Coast and [[page torn]]eighborhood. Accompanied by a Map of the District, Geological Sections, Plates of Fossils, Coast Views, and numerous other illustrations. 12mo. pp. 200. London. Cloth . . . . . . . . . . 1 55 D'Armailhacq (A.) La Culture des Vignes, la vinification et les vins dans le Médoc, avec un état des vignobles d'après leur réputation. 2e édition. 1 vol. in 8vo. pp. 576. Paris . . 1 75 Bailliere Brothers, 440 Broadway, N. Y.
[[newspaper clipping; remainder of cut off ad]] on the animal and vegetable productions of New South Wales, New Zealand, and some of the Austral Islands. 8vo. pp. 460. London. Cloth ....... 6 50 Berkeley (Rev. M. J.) Outlines of British Fungology; containing characters of above a thousand species of fungi, and a complete list of all that have been described as natives of the British Isles. 8vo. pp. 470. London. Cloth ......... 9 30 --- AN INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED. 8vo. LONDON, 1857. ........... 5 00 Bernardi. Monographie des genres Galatea et Fischeria. Avec 10 planches, coloriées. 4to. Paris .............. 8 00 Bewick (Joseph). Cleveland Ironstone: a Treatise on the Ironstone of the Cleveland District, North Yorkshire. Illustrated by a large Geological Map of part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, also sections of the strata and of the Yorkshire coast, in colors, with plans of pillar workings. Royal 8vo. cloth, lettered. London. ........ 6 50 [[bold type]] Bailliere Brothers, 440 Broadway, N. Y.
31) Pal. interpunctata Say - In living insect line under ant. [[underlined]] is [[/underlined]] arcuated [[image - arc over small circle]] (as Hagen says) not angulated Say) - eyes yellow - black dividing line. [[line]] A geometer caterpillar (oak?) 1 1/2 or 1 3/4 long showed no disposition to feed in October in. & end, & remains (Nov. 9) [[image - pen drawing of caterpillar]] on the left upper side of the wire breeding-cage. [[line]] Dec 14 shifted its place to right further corner & was lively. Feb 9 exactly in same place. May (middle) would not eat very young oak leaves, & shrivelled & became helpless. Placed it under leaves in Breeding cage. [[Rest of page empty until the very bottom of page]] [[cross symbol - image]] In one specimen double horns on 5,7,9 & 10 in another [[line]] & rudimental single horns on 6 & 8 [12 joints reckoned, head = 0] [[End page]] [[Start page]] (32 July 27. Found a mass of cottony cocoons on willow leaf, which produced Aug 1. [[underlined]] 167 [[/underlined]] microgaster (3rd abd. jt. laterally rufous) [[line]] Aug. 6. Saw the harlequin redworm [[?]] (Harpactor cinctus F.) on a flower sucking juices of a clay-bank Halictus [[line]] Dr. Velie found the remains of a blue bird in the nest of a flying squirrel + the bones all polished. They ate birds flesh freely in confinement. [[line]] July 9. Stung by a ^[[Ophron morio]] {anomalon flavicorne} Say 3 pain soon went off. [[image]] The sen [[?]] was not that with 1st [[?]] jt. [[?]] post. tarsi [[underlined]] orange [[/underlined]]. [[symbol for "therefore" - image]] that is [[symbol for male - image]] [a distinct g. osp. Norton] [[rest of page crossed out and Sphingicaripae [[distigia?]] written over the top but section reads]]: July 10. {Beat one off honey locust} Found a [Sphingid] Dryocampid larva - length 1.8 inch - bright [[?]] grat [[?]] green. Laterally from 3rd Unfedium [[?]] to penult. abd. jt. a whitish line bordered above by purple. Scattered whitish [[strikeout]] dobrish [[?]][[/strikeout]] tubercles, very thick toward anus; a regular row at tip of 3 or 4 1st segments. Segments [[strikeout]] [[?]] [[/strikeout]] 2 & 3 of thorax on each side two 1/4 inch long recurved horns, tubercled & bluish purplish at tip. Joints 5,7 & 9 [or 7 & 9] [yes] each side with two silvery horns. see opposite. [in one specimen on 5,7,& 9 & a single lateral silver horn on 10. [[end page]]
33) [[strikethrough]] The outer one short, the inner one 15 long recurved. Anal horn as thoracee horns. Beneath green, with tubercles smaller & denser. Tip of anus horizontally bifid. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Aug 14. Took many specimens (bank of slough in field near Fair Grounds) of "Xiphidium undescribed?" with the ovipositor nearly 2 as long as body. Pupae (even with rudimentary wings) had the ovipositor equally long [[symbol]]. My specimen in Cabinet. The [[male symbol]] anal appendages seem to vary in shape a good deal. An annuary variety? [[strikethrough]] Yes [[/strikethrough]] No. [[strikethrough]] p. 36* | In large breeding cage | 2 {Dryocampa distigma {Sphingides p. 32 - 3. Notodonta conciuna? 4 or 5 on bark. Dryocampa pellucida? 1 on oak Eadryas grata | 1 Philampelus Achemon | Eumetopona ministra (many sphinx) [see p. 31] 3 + 2 ^[[insertion]] +vc [[/insertion]] Sphungid larva { (green) on ^[[insertion]] gordius? [[/insertion]] thorn 1 Cerura ([[symbol]] borealis) found on oak | several Sphingid on birch Smerinthus myops (1) - Dryocampa stigma? Fitch II. 323 6 or 7 large pseudo-ceruro orgyia leucostigma 2-inch long, green, with narrow pale, dorsal stripe. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] in small cage (no dirt) [[/strikethrough]] came out [[strikethrough]] Orgyca lecucostigma [[/strikethrough]] See also p. 38 In new dirt cage - [[strikethrough]] 21 [[/strikethorugh]] ^ [[insertion]] 15 or 16 [[/insertion]] silver horn honey locust sphinx (p32 2 or 3 brown [[image - pencil drawing of dome shaped image]] on locust - many greenish ^[[insertion]] pygoru [[/insertion]]? with pale ^[[insertion]] lateral [[/insertion]] stripe (on honey locust) || Sycamore - lophocarpa Tepellaris ([[strikethrough]] 6 or 7 [[/strikethrough]]) 8 or 9 + green [[paecera?]] pale dorsal stripe [[strikethrough]] 5 or 6 [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] 8 or 9 [/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (34 [[line]] July. Found (sweeping) nest evidently of Eumenes fraterna inside which were 3 green caterpillars. Harris (p471) last Edn.) says it also employs cankerworms. [[line]] Aug 23rd. Recd. from Emery pupa of moth found burrowing in a corn-stalk. It has a tail horizontally double ^ [[insertion]] (straight) [[/insertion]] [[image - pencil drawing of tail]] about 1/16 inch long, & used as a forceps, being moveable. Is not unusually long. Gortyna zell (pupa) has 4 short hooks turned upwards. [bred, [[strikethrough]] & lost?] but doubtful] [[/strikethrough]] = Gortyna nitida Guen. Near it were several larvae, apparently dipterous {bred one - muscid, wings bifasciate (head pointed) & 1 pupa not conictate. Saved the pupa [bred, v. supr.] [[line]] Aug 23rd. Carpocapsa pomonella had all spun, come out & rotted before today from apples gathered off tree at Kenney early in July. Had put them in bottle half full of moist ligneous debris. [[image - pencil drawing of caterpillar]] = [[symbol]] 66 Fitch? N. unicornas, see Morris. [[image - pencil drawing of section of caterpiller]] white on back [[image - pencil drawing of portion of caterpiller]] white on back of their 2 jts followed dark brown stripe to tail Notodonta. Found two on thorn; [[pick?]] thorn & fed on oak leaves Aug 22nd.
[[page start]] 35) Aug. 28 Found many larva of Eumetopona menistra on Thorn, & some on oak - Noticed large brown Asilus fly some yards with a mature [[male symbol]] Adipoda Carolina twice as heavy as itself. It held it face to face [[image - pencil drawing of position of fly]] bees they hold differently: [[image - drawing of insect]] [[line]] Several larva of Eumetopona menistra had Tachinade eggs (white) on their black heads. Could pick them off with finger nail [[line]] Larva (supposed) of Pygora albifrons. (spins above ground) Length 1 1/2 inch. Dorsum a broad [[^ pale]] blue stripe with [[strikethrough]] [[6]] [[strikethrough]] 5 black lines, then a narrow yellow stripe, then a pale blue stripe with 3 black lines, then a yellow stripe, then a [[^ pale]] blue stripe [[^ at origin of legs]] ] with 3 black lines widely interrupted [[strikethrough]] bet [[strikethrough]] at the hind end of each joint. Beneath dull pale green. Head honey yellow. Penultimate segment glabrous honey yellow, with a large tubercle above. [[page end]] [[start page]] 36) [[strikethrough]] Hind [[strikethrough]] Anal pair of prolegs (used in crawling) yellow. Legs & other prolegs yellowish. [[line]] [[image of insect]] (2) on oak - Sep 9th, Length .7 inch. 2 Limacodes scapha on sycamore [[line]] Sep 9. Took 3 or 4 cocoons of Eudamus Tityrus on [[^ Amorpha fruticosa]] [coffee-tree,] leaves of which much eaten. [[line]] * On plum & thorn,[[image/strikethrough?]] caterpillars 2 inch long, with a broad dorsal [[^ fuscous or dark cinereous stripe*]] [[strikethrough]] black stripe [[strikethrough]] [[drawing within brackets]] [[strikethrough]] prolonged laterally on each of the segments {4 of 10} [[^ 2 10]] [[^on those segments]] with (A) scarlet & blue (B) powdered blue. [[strikethrough]] On 11(?) a dorsal black hump. Laterally a broad, milk-white stripe [[^ cut by the prolongation, then a cinerous stripe ]]; beneath greenish. [[^ cinereous?] ] Have three [[^ or 6 ]]: one spun. [[^ No. 1]] Scattered soft whitish hairs. A Lachey = lasiocampada H. Head black, legs normal. [[image scratched out]] *on each segment 4-10 enclosing a rhomboidal black spot prolonged laterally & enclosing two scarlet spots (A) & 2 powdered blue ones (B) [[image showing labeled segments]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 37) The lophocampha [strikethrough]] is [[strikethrough]] common on oak, thorn, hickory, (?) bass, &c [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] has on 1st segment 2 black pencils, beneath [[^ each of ]] which 2 white pencils; on 2nd segm 2 black pencils, beneath each of which 1 white pencil; ditto on segment 11. , white pencil then less obvious. General color varies from dirty whitish to almost fuscous-cinereous & from yellowish to yellowish brown. Imago agrees with description of lophocampa tessellaris, which feeds on [[underline]] Sycamore [[underline]]. Cannot be lophocampa caryae, which has black pencils on [[underline]] 4th [[underline]] & [[underline]] 10th [[underline]] segm, nor the unbred larva ment'd by Harris after [[underline]] Carya [[underline]], for that has no black pencils on 3rd segment. [[line]] Mr. Lighton tells me that Corydalis cornutus deposited its eggs on the glass-windows [[underline]] next the river [underline]] of the floating Daguerrean saloon .. it is aquatic. [[line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 38) On Hickory Sep 28 a caterpillar 1 1/2 inch long; Head honey yellow - mouth & legs black - Body tawney with fuscous dots & lines next the sutures, above a lateral sanguineous stripe. Spiracles are just above this lateral stripe, & are white surrounded by black. Segm. 1 [[^ & 2]] with long tawney hair arising from 6 warts & extending much beyond the mouth; segm. 3-5 with [[^ dense truncate tawny]] brushes arising from these warts, about 10th inch long; segm. 11 with 4 such brushes, 2 middle ones 1/5 inch long. Other segments with a few divaricate hairs from 6 warts. A yellow dorsal line. Placed in new Dirt Cage. [died or failed] [[line]] The [[female symbol]] of Lachnus Caryae lays eggs about .1 long, 2 1/2 as long as wide, cylindrical rounded at end, testaceous or pale mahogany. The [[2 female symbols]] (6 or 8) never seem to acquire wings; to Oct 9th 1862 [[line]] The larva of Danais plexippus is fasciate with yellow & black & [[? written over]]towards ant'r & post'r. ends of body has a pair of [[underline]] moveable [[underline]] [[image]] black filaments about 1/4 inch long. Westw. II. p345 [[end page]]
39) Oct 20. Found many galls of C. confluens Harris (aciculata o.s.) vacated; in ^ [[insertion]] 10 [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] 9 [[/strikethrough]] found imago; only in [[underlined]] one [[/underlined]] larva. [[line]] Oct. 21 Found a larva of Arctia isabella all tawny red except some black behind the head. Occurred among many normal ones Put in alcohol. [[line]] ^ [[insertion]] Oct. [[/insertion]] Milk white cocoon from Dr. Velie Larva 2 to 2-1/2 inch long, nearly as thick as his finger - grass-green, each segment with a lateral dot & also a thin oblique streak of [[underlined]] burnished gold [[/underlined]] (ita) [[image - pencil drawing]] Fed hazel [[image]] or found on it [[strikethrough]] Eggar moth? [[/strikethrough]] [Came out a Polyphemus July 1st] [[line]] Nov 9. Noticed "Coccus Harrisii" on crab-trees on Bluff (long row, near J. Case's Corner, South end. (Not many; on "leaf-blight" trees. [[line]] Of an iguana, kept in captivity near Rio. "When the winter (a winter like the [[strikethrough]] North [[/strikethrough]] latter part of a Northern May) began, he became nearly torpid, & remained without eating for 4 months." Fletcher's Brazil & the Bo. [[?]] p. 294 (from a lady). [[end page]] [[start page]] (40 R.N.Y. Jan 3. '63 [[a clipping glued in page]] LOCATION of Ag. COLLEGELS. - Will you please inform me, through the columns of the Rural, where the different Agricultural Colleges are situated? and oblige - CANADA, Forest Station, C.W. In the Rural of April 12, 1862, we gave an article on Agricultural Colleges, stating the location and condition of the most prominent ones. Among those in operation are the Michigan Ag. College, located at Lansing, the capital of the State; the Farmer's College, at Farm School, Center Co., Pa.; and the Maryland Ag. College, located ten miles from Washington, D.C. [[/clipping]] Describe my new Coleopt. & address Leconte ^ [[insertion circled]] swept away in the vortex of the war, [[/insertion circled]] quis reget arduis promos relabi posse revor montibus et tiberim reverte cum [[underlined]] tu [[/underlined]] colptos undigne nobilis Libros Latreille; Fabriciam et domini Mutare loricis Iberis, Pollicitas meliora, tendis? Tibeium Reserte, [[line]] N.B. on labels (Coleoptera) *[ink] denotes "not in Melsh. Cat."; x [pencil]denotes from Ent. Soc. Phil. State or Territory uncertain. [[line]] Oct 29.'62 Found a specimen of Cratonychus incertus Lec. in earth of breeding cage, along with elatendous larvae. The closely allied C. communis occurs in swarms always under [[underlined]] bark [[/underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] of young trees [[/insertion]]. :. 1st feeds on roots 2nd on timber [[line]] Oct 16. '62 Took in woods Amphicerus bicaudatus [[line]] "A species of mite, the red spider of gardeners, Erythraeus telarius" K & S p 113
41) Acanthus bipunctatus Deg. has 3 - j[[superscript]] d [[/superscript]] (not 4 j[[superscript]] d [[/superscript]]) hind tarsi. This & the wings > tegmina makes a new genus = Acodendroa. [[line]] Recd. from Kansas per Emery & Co a double row of flat oval eggs - [[image - pencil sketch of double row of eggs, 7 in each row]] - 16 in number - on twig of apple tree. No doubt eggs of [[underlined]] Platyphyllum [[/underlined]] concavum or some allied gryllide. see Havres [[underlined]] 3[[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]] edition p. 157. 159. 160. [[line]] Feb. 18. 1863 Noticed several small ^[[insertion]] elm [[/insertion]] [wild plum] [[strikethrough]] ? [[insertion]] or elm? [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] trees 7 or 8 ft high on the R.I & C. R.R. beyond [[strikethrough]] [[the]] [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] Brooke's [/insertion]] orchard just this side of an open cattle crossing to the left a great many of the limbs & twigs & even the trunk 1 1/2 inch through of which were covered ^sometimes^ chiefly on [[strikethroug]]e[[/strikethrough]] ^the sunny^ side) ^sometimes all around^ with slits, the ^thin outer^ bark gaping open. These slits were about 1/8 inch long, longitudinal, & ^on stripping off the bark were found^ to contain[[strikethroug]]ed[[/strikethrough]] each from 7-10 white, semitransparent, flattish, oval eggs, [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] 2 1/2 times as long as wide, packed obliquely the outer tips pointing upwards. [[drawing]] and the flatness oblique thus viewed from above [[drawing]]. In a twig .3 inch in diameter & in 1 inch of its length I counted 34 of these slits, & the rest of the twig was the same. Each slit, on stripping off the green bark, was brown, the brown color extending a little on all sides of it, & the green bark itself was similarily discolored. The whole tree was not thus infested, only particular limbs & twigs ^often 2/3 of whole tree.^ The eggs were generally imbedded into the sapwood about half their length, sometimes nearly their whole length. [June hatched to a green sp. of Eupoasca p. 56] [[end of page]] [[start page]] (42 On carefully examining my pear-tree (which had last August some few chloronemia on it) I find here & there a twig with precisely similar slits (2 or 3) only the eggs are 3 times as long as wide. Otherwise arranged exactly alike. Feb 20 Found a few similar slits on pear & apple in Boyer's orchard. Kinney tells me that 8 years ago Dr. Gregg's apple trees were full of such slits, & there was "blight" there. He has long noticed them & the eggs in them, he says. On the apple the eggs seemed not flat, but [[strike: cylindrical]] fusiform, rounded at tips. Feb 21. Found eggs & slits on a young crab near the ^elm^ [wild-plum trees], about a dozen in a twig 2 inches long & .4 diameter: eggs [[strike "cylindrical"]] fusiform, 3 times as long as wide placed [[drawing showing eggs place horizontally]] (not 1111) & outside tips rather more pointed than inside tips, .07 inch long. When 2 or 3 slits were together, they were confluent into a large round rough scar on larger twigs .4 inch diameter. Found similar slits & eggs on twigs of a young burr-oak & also on those of shag-bark & white hickory, all in the close vicinity of these plums. March 16. Took Coreus tristis & Chilocorus stigma under bark, alive. [[a printed newspaper cutting pasted on bottom of page reads:]] FROM NEAR VICKSBURG. Memphis, April 9 (via Cairo, April 4). The health of the troops is good, but horses are dying by hundreds in consequence of being stung by gnats. [[/cutting]] [[end page]]
43) In Pimpla [[symbol for female]] (Hymenopt.)there are eight dorsal segments to abd. & ovipositor is attached at end of ^6th^ [5th] ventral. In Mantis [[symbol for male]] 9 dorsal, & only 8 ventral (ita Westwood [[??]] "[[symbol for female]] 9 " & ovipos. at tip of 6th ventral, the [[ecalle vulv.??]]" covering the other jts. March 29. On Camden R.R. (west side, field) noticed several fungus - cockscomb-like galls on tips of twigs of [[strike "sycamore"]] ^cotton-wood^. Inside many dead larvae & [[strike "one"]] two winged Byrsocrypta, apparently = vagabunda Walsh [[drawing]] [[underline]]June 6th green galls (cockscomb-like) [[/underline]] with large ^aplerous [[symbol for female)^ larvae. April 5th. Found in company with ^Maur^ Mycetina lineata & a single Lycoperdina ferruginea [[strike "lineata"]] 8 or 9 black larvae, evidently Endomychidrous (see fig. apend. Westw. Class) Preserved in alcohol with larva of Datana ministra [[drawing]] willow galls - in the centre a sanguineous Cecidomyia [[strike "Hymenopterous"]] pupa - ^enclosed in a ^soft^ hyaline cocoon^- under scales many diplerous? larvae ^(=inguilinous cecidomyia)^, yellowish.^[[strikethrough ?? [/strikethrough]] Hymenopt. Tenthredinide? April 9. Found half-grown Evagoras vividis Uhler (Reduviad) hybernating under a log April 18. 48 ^April 20 +3^ Cynips ^q. podagre Walsh^ [[underline]] all [[symbol for female [[/underline]] out of a ^[from Common E. of 1st slaughter house]^ woody fungus-like swelling on branches 1/2 to 3/4 inch diameter of oak (q. tinctoria?) Ant. 14 jt. rufous basal half. Legs [[end of page]] [[start page]] (44 rufous, except hind coxa & fem. ^generally^ blackish & tips of tarsi of the hind lib. obfuscated. Abd. shining piceous. ^In mature black. Insect^ varies much in size. Differs from C. quercus tuber. Fitch in other respects, besides not having [[symbol for female]] 12 jt. antennae. Fitch had [[symbol for male and female]] of that species. Call this [[underscore]]Cynips quercus-podassa[[/underscore]] - very near C. [[underscore]]quercus-batatus[[/underscore]] Fitch, but that species has [[underscore]]all[[/underscore]] its thighs black & [[symbol for female]] has 13-jt. antennae & the gall is very different. ^[[underline]]see p. 46[[[/underline]] April 25. Found (as last year) green [[symbol for female]] Tragocephala infuscata in company with numerous [[symbol for 2 males]] ranging from dull pale reddish brown to dull brown-black. Noticed previously this month many more specimens of V. Progne in timber, & today captured one. Evidently hybernate in imago. Took imago of Harpaetor cinctus (reduv.) Hybernates in imago, imago appearing late in summer. Noticed on wing Pap. turnus End of March or beginning of April I found many [[underscore]]winged[[/underscore]] [[symbol for 2 males]] of [[underscore]]Formica aphedicola[[/underscore]] in company with a single [[symbol for female?]] under a log. April 30. Galls of a Solidago, containing ^50 or^ a hundred woody cells connected by spongy matter each cell tenanted by a pale orange-color larva ^about 1-1/2 mill. long^ [[Inseoptera]]? See O. Sackeas paper.[yes: his species] [[end page]]
45) Last April & 1st May - All the [[symbol for female]] Agr. Ramburii which I take (they have only appeared for the last 3 or 4 or 5 days) are of the orange-coloured var.y Query - is this the [[underlined ]] immature [[/underlined]] type? May 5th the elms (supposed plums or cherries) on the R.R. to Moline are now in leaf an inch long, except those badly infested with egg-slits, which have the buds only some swelled, & many of their limbs (perhaps most) [[underlined]] dead & shrivelled [[/underlined]]. Eggs not yet hatched, but some showing the dark eyes & of the included insect. No doubt = Mymar Two or 3 days afterwards noticed same fact with infected crabs: eggs not [[underlined]] encluded & some buds which had partly opened were withered & brown. In Living Anax Junius the rhinarium is membranous & the labrum when turned upwards entirely conceals it. [[remainder of page crossed out - very difficult to read but here goes]] N.P. It is [only] in [[strike: Neuroptera & Pseudoneuroptra ???Neuroptera odorata]] on a/c of their relative largeness of the hind wings, that the 4 segments of metathorax are [[strike: most easily ??]] most distinctly traceable & it affords a good example of the "unity of [[?]] plan" in the animal creations that in Ephemerina (closely allied to Odonata) they are equally plain, though the hind wings ^when present^ are very short & are traceable even in those sub-genera where the hind wings are absent; while in the genus Sphea [& Pomphlus?] which has larger wings than any other Hymenopt. & when consequently the metathorax is very large, they are scarcely better developed [[strike: more easily traceable]] than in [[strike: any]] other Hymenoptera, the metathor praescutum only being greatly enlarged. [[end of page]] [[start page]] (46 Prof. Westwood says "it is only in the prothorax of some Locusts that the dorsal subsegments of the prothorax can be traced." In most Reduviidae & also in Belostoma & Ranatra (Heteroptera) there is a single transverse connate suture as in Tetria, indicating two subsegments! May 11th. A Geometer larva ^Hipparchiscus venustus Walsh^ (fed on oak?) brown with prongs like Limacodes pithecium but shorter, & body otherwise normal came out into the green geometer previously in collection. Pupa then preserved. Tongue nearly as long as antennae. Abdomen (recent) white, but green on dorsum of jts 1-3 [[words??]] greenish with a large white spot on dorsum of 2. [[next paragraph crossed out but reads]] May 11th. From galls of podagra 3 [[symbol for male]], 6 [[symbol for female]] of C. quercus podagra [[underlined]] W. see p.43. All head & thorax rufous, except large black spot on ocelli & dorsum of thorax black. [Specimen [[symbol for female]] preserved alive changed? See next page] Antennae rufous, extreme tip obfuscated - less rufous, hind tip generally obfuscated. Abdomen piceous above, almost rufous beneath. [[end of crossed out paragraph "see next page"- return to text]] May 12. Bred from infected twigs of elm on R.I. & C.R.R. numerous [[symbol for male]] & 3 [[symbol for female]] Mymar beneficus Walsh. Eggs had been noticed containing blackish pupa, while the rest were white. Must have been the black Mymar there. Noticed May 9 or 10 (or 11) many Mymar [[underlined]] on the elm trees. Antennae [[symbol for female]] pale; [[symbol for female]] 9-5 jts [[drawing]] 13 jt (1&2) see p. 48. Differs from Mymar Hal. in abd. not [[underlined]] being peduneled [[?]]. It is pedund. [[end of page]]
47) May 15th Cynips podagrae - one [[female symbol]] bottled May 11 still retains the pale rufous ground - colour. Others ^subsequently^ the 1st 24 hours of coming out, are all but black in the pale parts. [[next paragraph crossed out, but reads]] Of a lot butchered today (May 15) (gc) 2 [[male symbol]] [[strike: full]] pale rufous ^ ground color^ & 1 [[female symbol]] rufous ^(gc.)^ (bottled May 12) 3 [[male symbol]] [[strike: full]] pale rufous ^(gc.)^ 10 [[female symbol]] [[strike: full] pale rufous, ^(g.c.)^ 2 [[female symbol]] rufous ^(g.c.)^ (fd. May 12) [[strike: 4 symbol for male black]] 1 [[symbol for male]] very pale rufous ^head, body black^ 4 [[symbol for fmale]] black (head rufescent) All 4 small, 3 [[symbol for female]] rufous (g.c.) (bottled May 13 1 [[symbol for male]] pale rufous Head (g.c.) ^ body black^ 2 [[symbol for female]] black, 1 [[symbol for female]] (as small as the 4 small [[2 symbols for female]] of May 13) black, head rufescent, 2 [[symbol for female]] pale rufous (g.c.) ^=podagra^ bottled May 14th N.B. observed in bottle pale & dark individuals, [[symbol for male]] mounted [[underlined]] on [[symbol for female]], but not coupled [[underlined]]. [[end of crossed out section, return to text]] 2 species 1st pseudo-podagrae pleura ^=(?) Cynips (synerges)lignicola O.S. 2nd Art. p.252^ (but differs slightly) & [[strike: mes. praescutum]] collare rufous, head rufous with a large black spot on ocelli, abdomen piceous, rufescent beneath 2nd podagrae [[underlined]] ^described before-p.43) head black, mouth & front pale or rufescent ^vertex black^ body black. [[strike: (a cuckoo cynip?)]] These two between May 10 & 15th came out together from the same galls in numbers. The 1st belongs to Harley's A,II (i. inguelinae) the 2nd (which came out soonest) belongs to A.I. & is the true maker of gall, no doubt. Besides the 1st ingueline I have reared 8 [[symbol for female]] of another inguiline [[strike: line not readable]] from the same gall which is black, & closely resembles podagrae, but neuration is different ^antennae are larger & [[symbol ?]]^ but is smaller = mendax ^see p.49^ [[strike: Both galls together, but q. ficus had many holes made by an apterous cynip?]] [[end of page]] [[start page]] (48 In my lettuce bed (head lettuce, wide apart) dug under two "cut" plants & found 1/4 grown & 1/2 grown larva, apparently of Lachnosterna quercina = cutworm (see my Articles). May 16 dug [[strike: III]] up two more, one actually attached to the roots, which I had undermined. May 17. Two homopterous larvae from elm-slit eggs. Pale with black eyes & on dorsum a double row of 10-11 hairy ^fleshy^ filaments, 3 on thorax. Head hairy, & with 2 antennae like the filaments which = breadth of segments [[drawing]] [[symbol?]] Certain Entozoa have a genital orifice, distinct from anal; Wyman P.B. Soc. N.H. Vol IX-p.180 [see p. 46 bottom] [[symbol for female]] of Mymar beneficus W. ^(living)^ has the scapus [[drawing]] thus ^living [[symbol for female]] has abd. peduneled [[drawing]]^ 1&2 distinctly [[free??]] & pale; rest black. Elbow is between 1&2. Joints difficult to count, but either 8 or 9; club 1 jd. In [[symbol for male]] joints certainly = 13. May 17th. Oak-leaves scarcely yet full-size ^(about 3/4)^ in a/c of late spring, yet found numerous oak-apples, [[underline the following:]] all with terminal nipple, [[end of underline]] near slaughter-house on the Flats. Larva in them half-grown, & many of the apples full grown. Skin thick as apple of aciculata. Are not these the spring-brood of aciculata & both [[symbols for male & female]]? My [[symbol for male]] aciculata came out from a gall with [[underline the following]] very thin [[end underline]] skin before July 5. On the same trees, still hanging on, were many galls of last year, perforated with small (parasitic) holes & some by ^many^ Synophri, all of which had nipples [[underlined]]. [[end page]]
49) May 18. observed 2 [[symbol for female]] [[Mymar beneficus?]] flying repeatedly into slits but not ovipositing. One once fixed itself both upright on its hind legs, balancing itself behind by its wings as a Kangaroo by its tail, in the manner stated by Mr Scudder to be adopted by the Platygaster that oviposits in the canker-worm eggs, but did not oviposit nor introduce its abd.-tip. The abd. [[symbol for female]] is clearly peduncled, peduncle as long as width of abd. & apparently [[image]] cecidomyious[[referring to Cecidomyiidae?]] gall [[strikethrough]] lymphs [[/strikethrough]] quercus-pilula Walsh [[strikethrough]] filch [[/strikethrough]] [[symbol for male female]] cynipide today. The larva apparently often goes into the ground to pupize, for I found at bottle of jar (no sand) 10 or 12 ^(cedidomyiade)^ (dead and dry). Other galls (1) had living, or at all events succulent, larvae in them as this is the inguiline [[diagram]], probably the true tenant belonged to the [[?]] and is unknown. [[symbol for male]] ant. 15 [[symbol]], [[symbol for female]]12 jt. [[casting??]] May 17. Dug out of galls of q. ficus many daed wingless [[symbol for female]] cynips (description [[apud?]] Filch q. ficus. [[strikethrough]] A doubtful inquiline (from p.4 bottom) may also be referred here with probability[[/strikethrough]][Mistake of jars.] May 19. Pot. cupidus Say subimago. Enterus. seta = 2/3 others. May 21. Cynips pseudo-popegrae. From admist a swarm of pale normal ones, took {many 2} dark [[symbol for female]] {in bright light a trifle paler & reddish (no tale about them) in the normal pale spots. [[symbol]] mendax in the ant. being shorter. Are they a var. of pseudopdagrae, or a 4th species? [[underline]]The galls were isolated. [[/underline]] [[end of page]] [[top of next page]] (50 In [[symbol for female]] Gomphus fraternus with inflated abdomen, there is a little tail attached to tip of so-called 2nd ventral, 1/3 as long as the segment itself. May 24. Found dozens of oak-apples (conflueatus Filch) at "Lib-4-maculata corner". Broke ends of twigs. One (cut open) contained pupa[[strikethrough]]coccinea spongifica[[/strikethrough] Galls now contain full grown larvae some of them. Tips of almost all had now lost their nipple.^"mistake"^ [varieties have the terminal nipple absent, but have small nipples scattered irregularly on surface] one was convered with 12 or 18 dark-pointed nipples, & dark patches. [[insert - [some of these galls (same lot) thin shell, some thick] ]]Probably where the Synophous had ovipositor - Noticed dark [[mines?]] in the woolly matter of 2 galls. [made by a Lepidopterous larva: [[caupit?]]at work in gall of q. inanis, green 16 footed, head brown, one [[?]] in jar June 5th. May 25 Gathered many oak-apples, mostly with nipples, & found in several [[symbol for female]] pupae of [[strikethrough]]aciculata [[/strikethrough]{coccinae spongifica (Common opposite see p. 52) May 26 From crab slits came out homopt larvae undistinguishable from those of elm, & also the Mymar beneficus W. [35] - Lasioptera solidaginis O.S. Found 5 dead with galls. also a Torymid (dead) in one of cells (gummed on perserved gall) =(?)one, perfect, formed loose with galls. Bred several (4 preserved) [[underscore]] the same [[/underscore]] species from galls of Vernonia fasciculata (lepidopterous larvae in them). Therefore, although no traces of lepid. larvae in Sol. galls, the parasitic Las. must have starved them out. So willow galls insect on [[diagram]] = insect [[end of page]]
51) [[whole section crossed out..here is text]](cecidomyia)on fuzz galls; 1st caused by a Tenthredo, 2nd by a Lepedopt. Probably in many cases where cecidomyia (apparently identical) are formed in different galls may be explained on this hypothesis: Loew remarks on the difficulty of distinguishing them ^(p.187)^ Doubt if any cecidomyia makes a gall. C. Destructor does not. [[end of crossed out section]] Found a parasitic ^larva^ on the corn-stalk Noctuide sent me by Emery. Did I breed it? cecidomyide? See O.S. apud Loew p.179 May 27. Galls on Amorpha fruticosa. Those with larger holes [[diagram of hole size]] contained Lep. pupa; those with small hoes or none Ichneum pupa in cocoon. Sometimes those with no holes contd. dead lep. larva In none could I find traces of Lasioptera & its cells. May 28. Crab [Tettigonia] [[margin above "merulvacidae"?]] when first hatched .06 inch long. Several out today & also Mymar beneficus June 1st. The Eurytomid & the Pteromalid bred from galls of Lasioptera solidaginis O.S. on Vernonia fasciculata, I find indiscriminantly on similar galls breeding the Lasioptera, on Solidago. Pteromalide different? June 2nd A large crippled Catocala came out from dirt cage. Destroyed. Another a day or 2 later. [Edwards pupa] [[end of page]] [[top of next page]] June 3. Galls of caryaecaulis no slit; caryaeglobuli round above the leaf, flat beneath & with a slit there which eventually gapes open. On Island [[strikethrough]]many[[/strikethrough]] no caryaecaulis but many caryaeglobuli. On bluff both in company. June 4. opened several galls obtained May 24 & 25, & found 1 [[symbol for male]] & 2 [[symbol for female]] {coccineae spongifica} full winged & some in larva & pupa: [[symbol for female]] has 13 jt. ant. last joint long and with a fault [[diagram]] [[symbol for male]] 15 jt. ant. If, as I believe, cynips q. coccineae (=spongifica)(the difference being only the relative thickness of shell of gall [[symbol?]] both kinds occurring indiscriminantly this spring in the same lot) is the spring brood of c.q.aciculata (which is ajaxuous & [[symbol for female]] only like spring & summer broods of aphidae), there is no material difference in the structure of antennae, both kinds being 13-jd. with the last jt.conuate, making in all the typical 14-joints. But there [[underscore]] is [[/underscore]] a most wonderful difference in the sculpture, that of spongifica being much coarser on thorax & according to O.S. p. 246 in shape of abdomen. Aciculata [[underscore]] must [[/underscore]] be conflueus Harr. because the others (spongifera & coccineae) are not from autumnal but vernal [[strikethrough]] joints [[/strikethrough]] galls. But, on my theory, they are all identical. My numerous q. inanis galls were on [white][[marginal note above "red"]] oaks. Diameter 3.4 - 1 1/8 inch. Probably c. quercus inanis is the spring brood of c.q.centricola O.S. p. 58 Trans.Ent. Soc. He distinguishes them by the size of the galls chiefly.
53) Have found galls of c. q. palustris abundant on two adjoining trees, 1st laurel oak. 2nd q. tinctoria. Bred only parasites, but am sure the galls were identical, for kept distinct & bred the same parasites. Next year from galls on q. tinctoria [[underlined]] bred the c. q. palustris, which O.S. bred from that oak. Hence same insect on 3 [[underlined]] different oaks. Still aciculata & spongifica are confined at R.I. to q. tinctoria [[underlined]]. I suspect all these species are identical, & that the difference in the galls is caused by the difference in the species of oak. Will they breed transversely, i.e. q. inanis [[underlined]] produce aciculata [[underlined]] on black oak, & q. spongifica [[underlined]] produce centricola on white oak? Try it. [[sentence double underlined]] Will, again, aciculata [[underlined]] produce spongifica [[underlined]] on black oak & q. inamis on white oak? Try it [[sentence double underlined]]. Noticed one or two galls of q. inanis [[word?]] (not spherical) as spongifica. June 10. Inside central kernel of gall of C. quercus inanis found 3 [[underlined]] white larvae [others of spongifica 7 or 8] June 11. Took in house a much-worn L. unipuncta June 12. Great bulk of eggs on R.R. (Camden) Crab not hatched yet. 2 or 3 small trees killed dead, after [[end page]] [[start page]] (54 putting out some leaves. Biggest tree only a few limbs killed. [[bracket with "A" inside]] June 13. Placed in a gauze bag on black oak in Dunlap Farm. East of RR & just in the opening in the woods before the old fence, south side [[drawing of location]] of tree, (notches cut on an old dead limb) 5 lively [[symbol for female]] Cynips q. spongifica & 1 rather weakly [[symbol for male]] ditto. ^could not walk & lay on his side; so B^ June 16 undisturbed. [[symbol for male]] dead 2 [[symbol for female]] alive? June 21 ___________ __________ 4 [[symbol for female]] dead [[next paragraph crossed out but reads:]] June 14. I notice that hitherto all my galls (except one [[symbol for male]] today) that have produced spongifica [[underlined]] flies have been thin-shelled or = c. q. coccineae. Such galls are brown & ripe now, whereas the hard-shelled & thick-shelled ones are green more or less. Hence I conclude that the difference in the galls is caused by the early or late puncture -- the thin-shelled being the earliest. Similarly (or my theory) the aciculata [[underlined]] galls are very [[underlined]] thick-shelled. There are intermediate grades between the two types of galls. [[drawing]] [[end of crossed out paragraph, return to text:]] [[Bracket with a "B"]] Gauzed today of c. q.-spongifica 4 lively [[2 symbols for female]] & one sluggish [[symbol for male]], from a separate lot of galls & not in company with any [[symbol for female]]. Place, Lib. 4 maculata Lane (South side) round opening = Snake Place on a young white-oak ^on E side^ on red [[underlined]] oaks 50 to 100 yards off found [[underline next:[[q. inanis galls [[end underline]], placed in a jar by themselves. [[strike: Hence as]] In two instances [June 16 undisturbed 2 [[symbol for female]] dead.] T.O. [[end page]]
55) These red oak galls grew out of the stem close to the origin of the leaf, not out of the leaf as usual. O.S. says (p. 241) his "q. rubra" is in most cases [[underlined]]q. coccinea [[/underlined]], [[underlined]]which[[/underlined]] according to Brendel is a [[underlined]]variety[[/underlined]] of [[underlined]]q. tinctoria [[/underlined]]. Harris probably made the same mistake when he located his [[underlined]]Confluens [[/underlined]] on the red oak. O.S. (p.243) is doubtful whether his [[underlined]]q. inanis [[/underlined]] occurs on [[underlined]]q. rubra [[/underlined]] or [[underlined]]coccinea [[/underlined]]. Young trees (2-5 inches in diameter) of [[underlined]]rubra [[/underlined]] may be distinguished by the bark being smooth & glossy [[underlined]]except[[/underlined]] towards the butt, whereas in [[underlined]]tinctoria [[/underlined]] it is rough. On the whole (see my remarks in O.S. 246-8) I am of opinion [[underline]]c.q. coccinea = spongifica = inanis & c. q. aciculata & centricola [[/underline]] are the metagenetic type of the 3 first, which three first are generated by parthenogenesis. No species of any animal, even hermaphrodite, can propagate indefinitely without intercourse with another individual, otherwise variations would be indefinitely exaggerated & the number of species thereby produced wd. also be indefinite. June 15 The galls of Phylloxera caryae-caulis splits open [[large "X"]]. I have such a gall on the [[underlined]]leaf-stalk [[/underlined]] of the [[underlined]]leaflet [[/underlined]], split in this manner. Therefore Ph. [[underlined]]caryae-caulis Filch = c. globuli [[/underlined]] Walsh, the insects being indistinguishable. This gall is thus [[drawing of gall]] opening [[/underlined]]below [[underlined]], like caryae-globuli, but [[large "X"]] not ---. [[end page]] [[start page]] (56 June 16. A few c. q. coccineae or spongifica galls occur that have scarcely the least vestige of nipple at lip N: [[drawing of nipple]] N.Y. Trib. - June 16, 1863 [[a clipping from newspaper reads:]] "Mr. Cummings observed that he did not know that we have any bird here about that eats the rose bug, curculio, nor catterpillar. He protects the birds and has protected the squirrels until he found that the common red squirrel is a great destroyer of bird's eggs and young. They even come around the house and gnaw into the wren boxes." [[end of article and return to text]] So the flying squirrel, according to Dr. Velie v. supra. June 18 Thursday. had a [[symbol for male]] [[underlined]]q. spongifica [[/underlined]](very lively) come out -- Monday 22nd still alive & kicking -- had put him in a vial with some white sugar. [No more [[symbol for male and female]] came out after this date from 2 or 300 galls, nor any parasites except a [[symbol for female]] Callimome July 23rd] June 21. Took many imagos of an [[underlined]]Empoasia (ulmicola ^-cida^ W. [[/underlined]]) on the R.R. Elms. Trees were full of larvae in all stages of pupae. Half (about) the eggs still unhatched. A [[underlined]] Scymnus [[/underlined]] (spotted) & several small[[underlined]] telephori [[/underlined]] on the trees. Also saw a [[seryte?]] imago (not taken) & 10 or 12 [[underline]] very young larvae [[/underline]] (only) on the R.R. Crabs. Many eggs (1/4 about) still unhatched. The bulk of them destroyed by the [[underlined]] Mymar [[/underlined]]. [[symbol for male]] of c. q. spongifica (in a vial with sugar) lived at least ^5 or^ 6 days -- perhaps 7. [[end page]]
57) July 1. from egg-slits of the crab (R.R. tree) observed [[strike: "a"]]^8^ perfectly hatched tettigonia ^from 7 different slits^ apparently, from the shape of head, chl. malefica [[name underlined]]. They lay inside [[underlined]] the slits, but were motionless & apparently dead. Most of the other eggs are empty, preyed on by Mymar[[underlined]]? They were white, eyes dusky. No thorns or prickles. [[symbol]] larvae first hatched (Membracidae). [[underlined]] Several other eggs were dusky at tip, besides 2 black eyes, similar to one observed at Bloomington were these, Mymar? Observed a dead [[symbol for female]] Mymar ^in egg slit^ with antennae fully developed. Some of the hatched tett. (1 or 2) lay with the head the [[underline next]] wrong way.[[end underline]] Did not observe any [[underlined]] membracide larvae. June 31. Observed a dozen & more full-winged tettigonia on R.R. crab, but cd. not catch any. Also, on a cursory inspection, several very young tettig. larvae. N.B. There had hatched between June 24 & 31st 2 or 3 membracide larvae from a bottle full of pear crab & elm infected twigs taken to Bloomington. July 2. Saw a half-grown larva of Reduvius raptatorius Say walk off with a cynips in its mouth, half as large as itself, on my umbrella while [[beating?]]. July 2. From earth on which I had placed fall of 1862 infected [[hairs?]] obtained Conotrachelus posticatus? Schonherr [[?]] [[strike: near anaglypticus Say]]. Passed the winter underground. [[end page]] [[start page]] (58 July 4 Bred the small common {atomaria corticaria pumila Melsh} from c. q. inanis galls. July 3. Examined [[image]] willow galls -- this big -- no larva discoverable. July 4. Noticed pupa of conocephalus & also of Caloptenus bivittatus? or the closely allied species, both of which had short wings, flattened & veined in the peculiar manner which in Locustadae & Gryllidae seems always to indicate the pupa state. July 5 R.R. Elms full of leafhoppers -- imago & half-grown larvae & pupae. (Aug. 16 opened all straws (6 or 7) in glass jar -- all empty) July 9. Recd. from J.H., Carroll Co. 4 larvae, flattish about .2 long, with a lateral & dorsal row of spines & two bifurcate caudal appendages. [[remainder of page obscured by a separate note that is partially cut off on the right side but reads:]] Living in the inside of the [[strike: above the roots]], the division [[page cut off]] cutting off partially the ^last^ [[page cut off]] oats are blasted ^turning white^ & come to no[[page cut off]] in ^some one of the joints .07-.08 inch in [[page cut off]] exit, a 16-footed caterpillar .7 [[page cut off]] Head honey-yellow with lateral [[page cut off]] mandible black. ---[T. [[ page cut off]] [[end page]]
[[underlined]] [[strikethrough]] Body [[/strikethrough]] ^ opaque [[strikethrough]] black [[/strikethrough]] [[/underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] except [[/insertion]] joints 1 & 12 which are honey yellow above & pale ^ [[insertion]] watery [[/insertion]] greenish laterally ^ [[insertion]] & beneath [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] as is also the anterior 1/3 of 1; both 1 & 12 with a lateral shining black vitta above the line of spiracles, which ^ [[insertion]] vitta [[/insertion]] in 1 does not nearly attain the head; joints 2 - 11 with a white dorsal vitta, & another above the line of spiracles obsolete [[strikethrough]] on 4 - 7 [[/strikethrough]] from the middle of 3 ^ [[insertion]] to the middle [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] nearly the lip [[/strikethrough]] of 7; beneath the [[strikethrough]] af [[/strikethrough]] line of spiracles a third [[strikethrough]] another [[/strikethrough]] while vitta on 1 & 2, wider on 1 where it encloses the [[spir?]]. which is black. Legs black, shining; origin of legs dusky; prolegs pale - watery green with their origin the same, but a little dusky on jt 6 & 7. [[strikethrough]] Venter [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] Beneath [[/insertion]] pale watery green, obfuscated on jts. 4 & 5. 3 [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] specimens, alcohol vial No. 1.
Living in the inside of the stem of oats in ^ [[insertion]] two or three of the middle [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] about the 4th & 5th [[/strikethrough]] joints [[strikethrough]] above the roots [[/strikethrough]], the division between which it gnaws through, cutting off partially the ^ [[insertion]] last [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] 5th [[/strikethough]] joint inside the sheath so that the oats are blasted ^ [[insertion]] turning white [[/insertion] & come to nothing, & perforating a round hole in ^ [[insertion]] some one of the [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] the 4th [[/strikethrough]] joints .07 - .08 inch in diameter for the moth to make its exit, a 16-footed caterpillar .7 - 1 inch long & .08 to .10 inch in diameter. Head honey - yellow with a lateral black stripe tapering at base [[slip?]]; mandibles black. [[line]] [T.O] About end of June noticed one of these larvae at layer close to a grown piece of wheat in Dunlap's field.
57) July 1. from [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] egg-slits of the crab (R.R. tree) observed [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] 8 [[/insertion]] perfectly hatched tettigonia, ^ [[insertion]] from 7 different slits [[/insertion]] apparently, from the shape of head, [[underlined]] chl. malefica [[/underlined]]. They lay [[underlined]] inside [[/underlined]] the slits, but were motionless & apparently dead. Most of the other eggs are empty, preyed on by [[underlined]] Mymar [[/underlined]] ? They were white, eyes dusky. No thorns or prickles. [[symbol]] larvae first hatched ([[underlined]] Membracidae [[/underlined]]) Several other eggs were dusky at tip, besides 2 black eyes, similar to one observed at Bloomington were these Mymar? Observed a dead [[female symbol]] Mymar ^ [[insertion]] in egg slit [[/insertion]] with antennae fully developed. Some of the hatched [[left?]]. (1 or 2) lay with the head the [[underlined]] wrong way.[[/underlined]] Did not observe [[underlined]] any [[/underlined]] membracide larvae. June 31. Observed a dozen & more full-winged tettigonia on R.R. crab, but cd. not catch any. Also, on a cursory inspection, several very young tettig. larvae. N.B. There had hatched between June 24 & 31st 2 or 3 membracide larvae from a bottle full of pear crab & elm infected twigs taken to Bloomington. July 2. Saw a half-grown larva of Reduvius raptatorius Say walk off with a cynips in its mouth, half as large as itself, on my umbrella while [[beating?]]. July 2. From earth on which I had placed fall of 1862 infected [[hairs?]] obtained Conotrachelus [[strikethrough]] near anaglypticus Say [[/strikethrough]]. posticatus? [[Schonherr?]] Passed the winter underground. [[end page]] [[start page]] (58 July 4 Bred the small common { atomaria corticaria pumila Melsh} from c. q. inanis galls. [[line]] July 3. Examined [[image - pencil sketch of gall]] willow galls - this big - no larva discoverable. [[line]] July 4. Noticed pupa of conocephalus & also of Caloptenus bivittatus? or the closely allied species, both of which had short wings, flattened & veined in the peculiar manner which in Locustadae & Gryllidae seems always to indicate the pupa state. [[line]] July 5 R.R. Elms full of leafhoppers - imago & half-grown larvae & pupae. [[insertion]] Aug. 16 opened all straws (6 or 7) in glass jar - all empty [[/insertion]] [[line]] July 9. Recd. from J.H., Carroll Co. 4 larvae, flattish about .2 long, with a lateral & dorsal row of spines & two bifurcate caudal appendages. Head large & flat. Larva of cryptarcha ampla, [or phenolia grossa] a specimen of which was brought me by Dr. Velie from Geneseo infected locusts, he supposing they destroyed the locusts, as J.H. does. [[line]] Found Perilampus triangularis Say ^ [[insertion]] dead but perfect [[/insertion]] inside a chrysalis about 1/2 inch long under a log. [[line]] ^ [[vertical line indicating Aug 16 insertion]] [[line]] July 10. Mr. ^ [[insertion]] Wm [[/insertion]] Miller of Pleasant Ridge informs me many oat-straws with him are attacked by a worm 1 inch long, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] so thick, inside the straw just above ^ [[insertion]] one of [[/insertion]] the ^ [[insertion]] lower [[/insertion]] joint. Oats come to nothing. Won't be [[repa.?]] for 2 weeks. [[line]]
59) July 8 Found larva of P. thoas on [[strikethrough]] Papaw? [[/strikethrough]] x (Tree with 3-lobed leaves - [[strikethrough]] annona triloba? [[/strikethrough]]) Ptelea [[strikethrough]] or hop- [[/strikethrough]] tree July 10th. went to pupa. Larva agrees with figure sent me by Edwards from Sen. Abbott, the dotted & spotted parts being cinereous gray, the other parts dark brown. [Came out July 31 & escaped me] [Dryocampa] distigma n.g. = Sphingicampa [[symbol]] ant. [[female symbol]] bipectinate, larva sphingiform. [[line]] [[whole section strikethrough]] Article on remarkable larvae & their imagos. D) * 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]]. Tabanus p.7 * & Midas 1* ) [[horizontal line down to C]] 2 [[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]]. Limacodes scapha p. 36 [[check mark]] 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]]. Sphingicampa distigma & Dryocampa bicolor? [[check mark]] 4 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] Lophocampa tessellaris ("incorrectly figured in Smith & Abbott - my caterpillar?) [[strikethrough]] Dromiona [[/strikethrough]] Antiphola (Comedy of Errors) [[line]] (my species) (p. 371 [[line]] * 5th Green geometer (p. 46) C) [[check mark]] 6 Oryctes satyrus p. 24 [[strikethrough]] [moth of Solidago galls p.17 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] N) [7 Chauliodes p. 11] [[/strikethrough]] Pygaera albifrous larva p.35 [8 Pyralida p.13] C [[check mark]] ) 9 Areoda lanigera p.10 C [[check mark]] ) 10 Ciciudela b [[strikethrough]] fructata [[/strikethrough]] guttata p.10 [[lambda]] ) * Phycita nebulo P.F. & its larva p.18 } & other descriptions (Dr. LeConte) [[/whoe section strikethrough]] [[line]] [[image - pen drawing of gall]] willow galls are C. strobiloides of Loew's Monograph; (known only in larva & central pupa unnoticed.) (larva cynipioid [[end page]] [[start page]] (60 July 15. In a lot of R.R. willow galls (undescribed & different from C. [[two horizontal lines]] [[underlined]] salicis [[/underlined]] Fitch = [[underlined]] rigidae [[/underlined]] Loew galls) found in the centre of each sub-gall [[drawings]] a pale larva, with no colored or horny head 12 or 13 jtd. including the head, .05 to .12 long & from 1/2 as long again as wide to twice as long as wide. Color whitish. Specimens preserved. This must be the author of the gall. Is it a Cecidomyiade? Found also in the ^swollen^ stems of these galls where they branch out [[diagram]] in cylindrical burrows in the wood opening outside through the bark a singular two-beaked pupa, not coarctate, but with the legs and antennae distinct. Abd. yellowish or reddish, rest blackish, length .12 to .09 inch, beak 1/6 or 1/7 as long as body [[drawing of beak]]. From one of these proceeded under my eyes a Cecidomyide imago, ^not beaked,^ preserved with its pupa-skin. Depredating on these in same burrows several chalcidide pupae (Eruytomides) one came to imago & preserved. Pupae .06 to .09 inch long. Burrowing into the subgalls many lepidopterous larvae ^(6 or 7 at least)^ .15 - .10 inch long, pale green, with the head & top of 1st segment black. Also a pupa of the same .17 long. Came out ? Also very many (100 & over) aphis - blackish with greenish abdomen. One winged perserved. Larvae some pale greenish, some black above with a longitudinal pale vitta above, much dilated before the middle; ^ No intermediate grades^ Preying on these noticed 2 Tyrphus larvae & 1 lacewing larva.
61) Noticed also among the subgalls 2 specimens of an { [[insertion]] [[lislarderes?]]? [[/insertion]] {anthonomus? (preserved), new to me? Also 6 or 7 anthocoris pseudochinche Fitch, & 2 or 3 of its larvae. Prodigious exuberance of insect life! The Lepidopterous insect, being [[underline]] much [[/underline]] smaller, must be different from that formerly bred by me from their galls. It is. July 23 one came out. July 16. Examined Slaughter-house oaks. No new galls formed. Out of about [[strikethrough]] 14 or [[/strikethrough]] 16 ^[[insertion]] or 18 [[/insertion]] galls left on a particular tree [[strikethrough]] one half [[/strikethrough]] 3 or 4 (opened) contained lively larvae, & on the whole full one half were not perforated. Will these produce [[underline]] aciculata [[/underline]] in the fall & spring? Crab-trees generally ^[[insertion]] now [[/insertion]] have their leaves spotted with large orange-colored spots, observed 5 or 6 weeks ago ^[[insertion]] in the old graveyard [[/insertion]] & which now on their lower surface have either a fungus or a minute conical [[insertion]] cecidom? [[/insertion]] cynips-gall [image - pen drawing of minute conical shapes]] growing from the spots. [A fungus - "cluster cup" - see article in Ameri Agric.] [[strikethrough]] N.Y. Tribune, July 14. '63 [[/strikethrough]] - July 19. Noticed incipient galls [[image - pen sketch of column shape]] on R.R. willows, in which I found eruciform pale larvae (legless?) .1 ^[[insertion]] inch [[/insertion]] long & less. Interior of galls pithy. April 1864 developed to Cerambycids, which I am breeding. = Saperda inornata [[Sag?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (62 July 20. Today & yesterday I have 9 [[male symbol]] & 13 [[female symbol]] of Glyphe (ceraphron) ^[[insertion]] near [[/insertion]] destructor(?) Say come out from an ^[[insertion]] irregular [[/insertion]] mass of white silken cocoons found in the old grave-yard this summer (about end of June) on a stem of grass & enveloped in floss. The [[male symbol]] ^[[insertion]] (recent) [[[/insertion]] have abd. [[image - pen sketch of insect abdomen]] & profile [[(image - pen sketch of profile of insect abdomen]], & the [[female symbol]] ^[[insertion]] (recent) [[/insertion]] abd. [[image - pen sketch of insect abdomen]] & profile ([[image - pen sketch of hand pointing to right ]]) [[image - pen sketch of profile of insect abdomen]] or [[underlined]] triangular [[/underlined]] not [[underline]] flat. [[/underline]] It is only the [[2 male symbols]] [[image - hand pointing to left]] that have a white spot on the base of the dorsum of abdomen. & they have brighter green ^[[insertion]] in front parts [[/insertion]] than [[2 female symbols]] generally. I am [[underline]] certain [[/underline]] about their coming from the cocoons, because I moved the cocoons from one jar to another last night & specimens came out [[underline]] in both jars [[/underline]]; [[image - pen sketch of hand pointing to left]] yet I saw yesterday no holes in the cocoons. No [[underline]] [[traconides?]] [[/underline]] yet come out from the cocoons. NB. July 22 had 13 [[underline]] [[male symbol]] [[/underline]] come out, 5 with the yellow spot, 8 [[underline]] without [[/underline]], but all (recent) with [[underline]] flat [[/underline]] abdomen. July 23 2 [[female symbol]] came out & 3 [[male symbol]] all spotted. [[insertion]] [The color of above varies greatly & I believe them = destructor Say = viridescens Walsh. = jail cocoon [[obscured by note]] [[image -cross shape]] [[/insertion]] [[line]] July 23. Bred [[female symbol]] Gnophria vittata from a dirt cage filled with dirt this spring, in which had leaf-feeding caterpillars on oak & perhaps on birch & thorn. Harris makes larva feed under stones on lichens. Was it among the dirt when put in? Bred last [[covered by note]] which [[underline]] copulated [[/underline]] [[covered by note]] hour [[line]] July 25 had [[covered by note]] cocoons ^[[insertion]] Sail [[/insertion]]] [[covered by note]] the larva has [[covered by note]] image of white floss, & sat each in a head of hollow in it, moving to & fro [[strikethrough]] his [[/strikethrough]] the fore [[Overlaying note]] [[image - cross shape]] Yet, [[underline]] destructor [[/underline]] issues singly from [[underline]] Cecidomyia [[/underline]] destructor & [[underline]] viridescens [[/underline]] in swarms from lep. larvae & spins a cottony envelop. Eutomophagic species? [[underline]] Cleonymus clisiocampae?,[[/underline]] which breeds [[/overlaying note]]
T Yet, [[underlined]] destructor [[/underlined]] issues singly from [[underlined]] Cecidomyia [[/underlined]] destructor, & [[underlined]] viridesceus [[/underlined]] in swarms from lep. larvae & spins a cottony envelop. Eutomophagic species? [[underlined]] Cleonyruses clisiocampae [[/underlined]], which breeds
inside a pupa, a 3rd habit. But, in all these cases, it is not the chalcir fly that spins, but the Microgaeta Pezomachus, he that does so.
61) Noticed also among the subgalls 2 specimens of an [[insertion]] { ustarderes? [[/insertion]] anthonomus? (preserved), new to me? Also 6 or 7 anthocoris pseudochinche Fitch, & 2 or 3 of its larvae. Prodigious exuberance of insect life! The Lepidopterous insect, being [[underline]] much [[/underline]] smaller, must be different from that formerly bred by me from their galls. It is. July 23 one came out July 16. Examined Slaughter-house oaks. No new galls formed. Out of about [[strikethrough]] 14 or [[/strikethrough]] 16 ^[[insertion]] or 18 [[/insertion]] galls left on a particular tree [[strikethrough]] one half [[/strikethrough]] 3 or 4 (opened) contained lively larvae, & on the whole full one half were not perforated. Will these produce [[underline]] aciculata [[/underline]] in the fall & spring? Crab-trees generally ^[[insertion]] now [[/insertion]] have their leaves spotted with large orange-colored spots, observed 5 or 6 weeks ago ^[[insertion]] in the old graveyard [[/insertion]] & which now on their lower surface have either a fungus or a minute conical cynips-gall [[insertion]] cecidom? [[/insertion]] [[image - pen drawing of line with two cone-like structures hanging from it]] growing from the spots. [A fungus - "cluster cup" -- see article in Ameri Agric.] [[strikethrough]] N.Y. Tribune, July 14.'63 }[[/strikethrough]] [[line]] July 19. Noticed incipient galls [[image - two vertical lines representing incipient galls]] on R.R. willows, in which I found eruciform pale larvae (legless?) .1 ^[[insertion]] inch [[/insertion]] long & less. Interior of galls pithy. April 1864 developed to Cerambycids, which I am breeding. = Saperda inornata Say [[end page]] [[start page]] (62 July 20. Today & yesterday I have 9 [[male symbol]] & 13 [[female symbol]] of Glyphe (ceraphron) ^[[insertion]] near [[/insertion]] destructor (?) Say come out from an ^[[insertion]] irregular [[/insertion]] mass of white silken cocoons found in the old grave-yard this summer (about end of June) on a stem of grass & enveloped in floss. The [[male symbol]] ^[[insertion]] (recent) [[/insertion]] have abd. [[image - pen drawing of a cocoon]] & profile [[image - pen drawing of profile of cocoon]] & the [[female symbol]] ^[[insertion]] (recent) [[/insertion]] abd. [[image - pen drawing of cocoon]] & profile ([[image - hand pointing to right]])[[image - profile of cocoon]] or [[underline]] triangular [[/underline]] not [[underline]] flat [[/underline]]. It is only the [[2 male symbols]] ([[image - hand pointing to left]]) that have a white spot on the base of the dorsum of abdomen. & they are brighter green ^[[insertion]] in front parts [[/insertion]] than [[2 female symbols]] generally. I am [[underline]] certain [[/underline]] about their coming from the cocoons, because I moved the cocoons from one jar to another last night & specimens came out [[double underline]] in both jars [[/double underline]]; [[image - hand pointing to left]] yet I saw yesterday no holes in the cocoons. No [[underline]] braconides [[/underline]] yet come out from the cocoons. NB. July 22 had 13 [[underline]] [[male symbol]] [[/underline]] come out, 5 [[underline]] with [[/underline]] the yellow spot, 8 [[underline]] without [[/underline]], but all (recent) with [[underline]] flat [[/underline]] abdomen. July 23 2 [[female symbol]] came out & 3 [[male symbol]] all spotted. [[insertion]] [The color of above varies greatly & I believe them = destructor Say = viridescens Walsh = [[viudis?]] Walsh MS. = jail cocoons glyphe [[cross symbol]] [[line]] [[/insertion]] [[line]] July 23. Bred [[female symbol]] Gnophria vittata from a dirt cage filled with dirt this spring, in which had leaf-feeding caterpillars on oak & perhaps on birch & thorn. Harris makes larva feed under stones on lichens. Was it among the dirt when put in? Bred last night [[male symbol]] [[female symbol]] of sphingicampa distigma which [[underline]] copulated [[/underline]] in the cage, and were stuck 1/2 an hour. [[line]] July 25 had noticed 10 days ago a mass of cocoons ^[[insertion]] (Jail cocoons) [[/insertion]] (braconidae) in process of formation. The larvae had already spun a mass of white floss, & sat each in a kind of hollow in it, moving to & fro [[strikethrough]] his [[/strikethrough]] the fore [[end page]]
63) part of her body much as a Syrphid larva does groping for Aphides. Today secured the mass, containing cocoons as usual. July 26. [[female symbol]] Sphingicampa distigma came out today which had the whole spot next the Costa invisible & the other very small & scarcely noticeable. [[line]] I was mistaken in thinking that in Cordulina the ant. [[image - triangle]] is always full as robust as post. [[image of triangle]], & always slenderer in Lebillulina. In Macromia flavipennis [[underline]] ant [[/underline]] [[image - triangle]] is slender, & in Celithemis eponina [[image - triangle]]'s are nearly alike. [[line]] From Baird's N.A. Ornithology Order - Grallatoris Suborder Grallae Tribe Limicolae family (always) - idae subfamily - -inae section - -eae then genus & species [[line]] [[underline]] Amphepneustic [[/underline]] means a dipterous larva with two pairs of speracles, one anterior the other posterior. When the number of speracles is normal, that is one pair on the thorax & one on [[underline]] all [[/underline]] (?last [[insertion]] ¶ p. 64 [[/insertion]]) abdominal segments, then the larva is called [[underline]] peripneustic![[/underline]] Finally, when there is only one pair [[end page]] [[start page]] (64 (as in Ctenophora) at the end of the body, the larva is [[underline]] metapneustic. [[/underline]] The terms have been invented, I think, by Haliday. MS. Osten Sachen May 13, '63 [[line]] N. B .Fig. of Tabanus (Westw. II. p. 538) is represented with spiracles on all abd. segments [[underline]] but anal [[/underline]] [[image - hand pointing to left]] Larva of Bibio albipennis is amphipneustic, & has the supernumerary false segment between head & true 1st segm. found "in all Cecidomyiadae" Loew p. 181 O.S. ubi vide [[image - three bold vertical lines]] segment 2 easily mistaken for 2 segments. [[image - detailed drawing of larva with labels]] [[image - close up drawings of details of larva]] [[labels]] (bend head & segm .1 down more ^[[insertion]] also 12 [[/insertion]]) 12 (above) [[/labels]] [[line]] [¶ see p.63] Loew p. 181 "Number & position of the stigmata are normal, viz. one pair on the 1st thoracic segment, & 8 pairs on the 1st 8 abd. segments, so that the 9th or last segment bears none." Westwood says "larvae of Bibio have 20 spiracles" B. albip. has a distinct labrum & mandibles & maxillae ^[[insertion]] & labium [[/insertion]] - an eruciform mouth. Segments 1 & 2 have [[underline]] each [[/underline]] a double row of thorns; [[strikethrough]] ter [[/strikethrough]] 3-11 single row (terminal) 12 none. [[insertion]] see p.67 [[/insertion]] [[line]] [[line]] Aug. 20. on R.R. bottom saw Anax junius [[male symbol]] light on a tall weed, When a swallow rushed on to it & carried it off under my very nose. Hence, birds [[underline]] pro tanto [[/underline]] injurious. [[line]] Aug. 21. Noticed a lot of bald-face hornets swarming like a swarm of bees round the trunk of an oak, from a part of which ([bored with holes by some borer or tapped by sap-sucker?]) they had apparently stripped the bark. ^[[insertion]] [No.] [[/insertion]] They did not enter the holes. No nest on the tree [a week or two afterwards saw them there, as well as ^[[insertion]] many [[/insertion]] vespa - & [[strikethrough]] poss [[/strikethrough]] sphea caeruleus. Tree badly bored by sapsucker & probably exudes sweet sap.]
65) Aug. 25 Examined 5 [[male symbol]], 8 [[female symbol]] of acanthus niveus & [[underline]] all [[/underline]] had hind tarsi 3-jointed; 1st long, spined at tip; 2 short, 3 moderate. Breadth [[male symbol]] elytrum varied from [[strikethrough]] 14 [[/strikethrough]] .15 - .30 inch, specimens nearly same size. But see aphid. Fitch II. § 131 p. 94 my note on tarsus. [[line]] [[underline]] Psocus venosus [[/underline]] Burm. Miss Almeria L. Bliss Aug. 19. 1863 saw a "squad" of these insects covering four square inches perhaps, marching up & down the trunk of an apple-tree with the regularity of well-drilled soldiers. (specimens sent me.) They were so close together, that looking across them their feelers [antennae] resembled a thin growth of hair. Below them, on the bark of the tree, were hung many of their shed skins. What, from her description, must have been [[underline]] Aphis avenae [[/underline]] occurred on almost ^[[insertion]] every [[/insertion]] field of wheat in her vicinity, sticking close between the kernels, but were not noticed by her after the grain ripened. It was not supposed that they had injured the wheat by the farmers. Sep 5. '63 Took 80 heterocerus ^[[insertion]] [[circled]] mollinus [[underlined]] ([[male symbol]] ?) & [[female symbol]] see [[/underlined]] [[insertion]] 20 [[male symbol]] 60 [[female symbol]] [[/insertion]] Westw. I. 114 [[/circled]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] (3 sp) [[/strikethrough]] 3 omophron ^[[insertion]] americanum [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] n sp 1 - Glaphms cicatricosus? [[insertion]] viscarius [[/insertion]] &c [[/strikethrough]] on brinks Roth R. by "sluicing." [[line]] Sep. 6 opened 2 oak apples (c. q. spongifica gathered in Spring) & found a black pupa, apparently [[underline]] aciculata, [[/underline]] in each. [[end page]] [[start page]] (66 Sept 7 Found a Tabanus larva with his fore-part in the mouth of a planorbis shell - mollusk on cracking it apparently all night. Of 9 mollusks cracked two, replaced 7 - cracked ones had meat in them. Sep. 13 of the 7 [[strikethrough]] two [[strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] three [[/insertion]] were mere empty shells, (a fetid odor having been observable in the jar since [[underline]] before [[/underline]] Sep. 7) The other 4 were alive (certain): replaced 4 in jar. - Larva was most vigorous at night. When water had got very stale floated at surface; when changed, went below the surface. Sep. 15 Watched tab. larva work his way into a planorbis. After he had withdrawn found he had eaten the contents of all but the tail end. His pseudopods great help working his way in. Sep. 16 Into another planorbis (morning). At noon emptied the jar; one of the four was partly devoured, leaving as with the others the tail end which apparently he cd. not reach & the foot; one (the one he worked at this morning) was ditto: one was still alive - all that remained of the original number. Sep.17 Recd. from Wm. Cutter (Beverly, Ill) Silvanus surinamensis: preys on wheat 1 year old (& very plenty) that is considerably damaged. Larvae also plenty. [Found plenty in dried peaches] [[line]] 17th. Dug Cynips q. aciculatus ^[[insertion]] (imago) [[/insertion]] out of an oak apple: next day dug out 6.
[[start page]] 67) 17th Sep. A larva of P. Turnus went to pupa & [[underline]] suspended [[/underline]] itself, not spinning any loop. Had been a little injured in the nuchal fork & near it. [Devoured by Dermestide before maturing] Sep. 23 The remaining Planorbis & 3 more I had grown the Tabanide larva all devoured. Shells empty. Gave him fresh water & a lot [[mon?]] 12 - 15. Sep 30. Saw him into another Planorbis. [[insertion]] between Sep. 23 & 30th had eaten [[underline]] 6 [[/underline]] planorbis [[/insertion]] [[line]] Sep. 29 Dr. Parry's niece informed me of an insect (like [[strikethrough]] Re [[/strikethrough]] Pirates picipes she thought) being taken out of the [[underline]] ear [[/underline]] of a [[piesid?]], where it had staid 6 weeks. She thought Dr. Fountain had the insect preserved. [Could not get to see this insect.] [[line]] A Papilio turnus larva has suspended itself by the [[underline]] tail [[/underline]]. It was a little injured in the nuchal fork & in the larva state [[line]] [[newspaper clipping:]] The Utica Observer says that the hop crop is generally picked in Southern Oneida and Madison, some in poor condition, from blight and the plague of lice, a pest which made its first appearance on the vines of this locality the present year. [[/clipping]] Rural N.Y. Oct 10, '63 [[line]] The Elephant is sd to be retromingent & to copulate by backing up together [[line]] Westw. (II. 239 [[insertion]] ^ - 40 [[/insertion]]) describes larva of odynerus with a body of 13 segments, 1st & 2 last without spiracles. Probably the 1st so called segment is analogous to the "supernumerary false segment" in Bibio & Cecidomyia. (See above p. 67) The so-called 2 - 11 are figured by Westwood as bearing spiracles. Fig 87.5 [[end page]] [[start page]] 68) Oct 25. Bred 4 [[underline]] Cynips q. aciculata [[/underline]] from galls gathered [[underline]] very [[/underline]] early spring: 3 of them shell thinnish, one shell [[underline]] very [[/underline]] thin, as thin as any seen by me. Preserved it. It had also a distinct nipple at tip. [See Sep. 17th]. Bred also 3 other from galls gathered early in spring or summer, one of which had a decided nipple. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Omophron [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] If [[underline]] spongifica & aciculate [[/underline]] are distinct species, why sd. they occur in the same locality, when 99 out of 100 localities have [[underline]] neither [[/underline]] species? If [[underline]] aciculata [[/underline]] does not propagate by parthenogenesis [[insertion]] ^ or otherwise [[/insertion]], then diposition to [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] propagate that type of the insect wd run out in a course of many generations. [[insertion]] ^ [But it does not run out in honey-bee *] [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Aciculata [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ I believe [[/insertion]] lays eggs which produce perhaps [[2 male symbols]] only or chiefly [[2 male symbols]]; & those couple with the produce of [[underline]] spongifica [[/underline]] in June. [[strikethrough]] Seems in [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ It is [[/insertion]] [[underline]] possible [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ also [[/insertion]] that aciculata [[female symbol]] (coming out in [[insertion]] ^ April or [[/insertion]] May) may live till June, when [[male symbol]] spongifica come out. My [[male and female symbols]] spongifica in gauze bags lived but a short time. The rains &c of summer wd. naturally take off the "bloom" from the spring oak-apples. [[line]] In honey-bee workers [[underline]] occasionally [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] [[may]] [[/strikethrough]] lay drone-eggs. Bevans apcid. Westw. II 279 [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]]
69) Oct 27 Cynips (q. aciculata O.S.) several came out from nippled galls, & from galls covered with nipples all over. In all 11 or 12, came out. [[line]] Female of Cordulegaster bidentatus seen by Selys to oviposit "on herbage, on land a little marshy but almost deprived of water" in June & July "which proves that the larva can live almost without water". But probably in other months these places were full of water (Mon. Gomph. p. 342 note) [[line]] In Aeschua quadriguttata the basal area has crossveins [[symbol]] all my other Aeschna & Anax. [Noticed in Synopsis in A. News.] [[line]] The queen-bee, as Lt. Fargeau well observes, (I. p. 253) being unable to gather pollen, there cannot have been primordially only [[female symbol]] & [[2 neuter symbols]] [[underlined]] afterwards [[/underlined]]. :. Dimorphism primordial [[line]] What [[underlined]] can [[/underlined]] be the use of the [[underlined]] oreillettes [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] or anal [[male symbol]] wing-angle [[/insertion]] in Gomphina & Aeschnuia? = tuft on breast [[male symbol]] Turkey. [[line]] Larva {=Ephestia zeae, Fitch (BDW & Clemens) {infesting dried peaches - lepidopterous - 16 - footed - legs normal - length .40 inch, breadth .07 inch. Head rufous, [[strikethrough]] [[image [[/strikethrough]] [[image - pen drawing of head of insect larva]] - 1st segment [[image - pen sketch of segment]] rufous-horny ^[[insertion]] above [[/inesrtion]] interrupted in the middle - rest all yellowish white, with long sparse hairs - ^[[insertion]] legs & prolegs yellowish white [[/insertion]] spins a thread & hangs by it - Dec 17. '63 Also ^[[insertion]] may [[female symbol]] [[male symbol]] [[strikethrough]] [[2 female symbols]] specimens of a small parasitic Braconide Lepidop spins a thin white silken cocoon [[line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (70 Larva of Silvanus surinamensis found abundantly with the imago in dried peaches has antennae (filiform) as long as the body is wide. [[text obscured by two scraps of paper attached to page one on top of another]] [[top piece of paper, some text cut through]] r, & stick to it as erally speaking have given satisfaction & trust that we may n. [[underlined]] "We study to please" [[/underlined]] ck on almost every [[/top piece of paper]] Honey in abundance is "the production of a small wasp called [[underlined]] Matajeh [[/underlined]], which builds its nests on the branches of the trees in the shape of a large ball. The sting of the insect is so distressing that persons affected by it become feverish & benumbed. Therefore, in order to possess ourselves of its delicious honeycombs, we took the precaution to smoke out the wasps &c. Paez, Wild scenes in 5. & p.345 In the Bay of Maracaibo garden "vegetables are raised on [[underline]] barbacoas [[/underline]], several feet from the ground, for the purpose of protecting the tender shoots from the depredations of red ants. Were this precaution neglected, the entire crop wd. disappear in a single night, the time usually chose by these pernicious insects for their marauding excursions. ibid. p. 390.
[[underlined]] [[strikethrough]] yellow female of [[hirnus?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[/underlined]] One of our members says that he has a specimen [[insertion]] of [[female sign]] P. Turnus [[/insertion]] reared by him I believe, that has one [[insertion]] pair of [[/insertion]] wings black, & the other dark-yellow. It is a fresh specimen, & in no wise rubbed. It is a curious variation indeed. [[note in pencil written between the above three lines]]]] = Hope's specimen of Dytiscus, W.I. p 105 afterwards told that [[double underline]] both [[/double underline]] right wings are the same color. [[strikethrough]] With many [[l]] return of insects I [[ly]] E.T. Cresson
We always use camphor, & stick to it as the best preventative, generally speaking. I am glad that we have given satisfaction on printing your paper, & trust that we may continue to do so hereafter. [[underlined]] "We study to please," [[/underlined]] altho' a common phrase, stuck on almost every theatre curtain, ye [[page cut]]
69) Oct 27 Cynips (q. aciculata O.S.) several came out from nippled galls, & from galls covered with nipples all over. In all 11 or 12, came out. [[line]] Female of Cordulegaster bidentatus seen by Selys to oviposit "on herbage, on land a little marshy but almost deprived of water" in June & July "which proves that the larva can live almost without water". But probably in other months these places were full of water (Mon. Gomph. p. 342 note) In Aeschua quadriguttata the basal area has crossveins [[?]] [[image]] all my other Aeschna & Anax. [Noticed in Synopsis in N.A.News.] The queen-bee, as Lt. Fargeau well observes, (I. p. 253) being unable to gather pollen, there cannot have been primordially only [[symbol for female]] & [[symbol for 2 ?]] afterwards. [[symbol for "therefore"]] Dimorphism primordial What can [[underlined]] be the use of the oreillettes ^or anal [[symbol for male]] wing-angle ^ in Gomphina & Aeschnuia? = tuft on breast [[symbol for male]] Turkey. Larva {=Ephestia zeae, Fitch (BDW & Clemens)} infesting dried peaches - lepidopterous - 16-footed - legs normal - length .40 inch, breadth .07 inch. Head rufous, [[image]] - 1st segment [[image]] rufous-horny ^above^ interrupted in the middle - rest all yellowish white, with long sparse hairs - ^legs & prolegs yellowish white^ spins a thread & hangs by it - Dec 17'63 Also [[srike 2 symbol for female]]^many [symbol for male]]^ specimens of a small parasitic Braconide Lepidop spins a thin white silken cocoon [[end page]] [[start page]] (70 Larva of Silvanus surinamensis found abundantly with the imago in dried peaches has antennae (filiform) as long as the body is wide. [[large empty space on right of page, paragraph on left reads:]] The ruff necked oriole of Latham has the same habits as the N.A. cow bird & the European cuckoo. Edwards p.37 [[continue with text:]] Honey in abundance is "the production of a small wasp called Matajeh [[underlined]], which builds its nests on the branches of the trees in the shape of a large ball. The sting of the insect is so distressing that persons affected by it become feverish & benumbed. Therefore, in order to possess ourselves of its delicious honeycombs, we took the precaution to smoke out the wasps 1st. Paez, Wild scenes in 5. & p.345 In the Bay of Maracaibo garden "vegetables are raised on [[underline]]barbacoas [[/underline]], several feet from the ground, for the purpose of protecting the tender shoots from the depredations of red ants. Were this precaution neglected, the entire crop [[would?]] disappear in a single night, the time usually chose by these pernicious insects for their maurading excursions. ibid. p. 390. [[end page]]
71) In Diplax rubicundula (flavesc. wings [[symbol indicating male]]) foeces ejected [[underlined]] beneath [[/underlined]] inf. appendage & between that & the anal inferior process. [[strikethrough]] Oken's theory (adopted by [[Afalng?]]) that the pupa state represents crustacea [[symbol for "therefore"?]] head is conjoined with thorax = cephalothorax won't hold water because this is so only in Lepid. & Diptera (mostly?)so Latreille's theory that metathorax never bears spiracle in larva state, is founded upon an imperfect generalization viz. Lepid. larva & lamellicorus = other larvae (Hymenopt. & Elateridae) have it. [[/strikethrough]] Jan 20 1864 Almost all my galls of Cynips q. inanis ^(15 or 16)^ when opened contained 8 or 9 chalcide larvae, & one found today on the tree contained the same. A single one in jar contained a dead & very mouldy ([[symbol for female]]?) of C.q. inanis, as seen by the sculpture of thorax on washing off the mould. - on opening 30 or 40 galls of aciculata, found [[underlined]] one [[/underlined]] with precisely similar Chalcide larvae, clinging together, like the others, so as to form a round ball. In these 30 or 40 galls found [[underlined]] nine [[/underlined]] aciculata [[strikethrough]] either[[/strikethough]] dead [[strikethrough]] or perfectly torpid [[/strikedthrough]] but not dried, [[end page]] [[start page]] 72) & two dead & dried. Also several dead pupae, & some dead callimome pupae, ovipositor curved over back. Also one spotted-winged chalcide, (body rufous & black,) in the imago. The New York measurer is {Ennomos Erannis subsignaria Hubner} (Fitch Vth. Rep. p.62 Nominuni haec continua subversio scientiani occidit Latr. IV p.19. [[[underline next]] [Quercus ovuar [[?]] [[end underline]] = Coccus] Found many such (specimen preserved) attached [[image]] to twigs of white oak ^near [[?]] mostly^. Most perforated - 20 or 30 gathered unperforated were full of milk white elongated pieces [[image]]. Shell very thin & brittle like humming-birds' egg & speckled & freckled with blood-brown on a yellowish-white ground. [[strike: Aphidous galls?]] Tree full of them West of the 204th R.R. tie after passing Dunlap's field, about 30 yds from the R.R. [[strike: top of]] Limb near top broken down [[image]] thus. Feb 20 1864 [[Strike: Cynips]] Cecidomyia calices strobiloides - larva. Length .16 inch breadth .07 all, including head; ^deep^ pale orange ^March 29^}-color - ^legless^ - ovate [[image]] - head small - +12 segments - surrounded by a ^very^ [[thick?]] ^filmy^ white cocoon - [[strike: like film of vegetable origin (from its]] with some longitudinal veins [[image]] in the stalk-end of which it lies very closely so as to be detached with difficulty. Tip end of cocoon [[strike: open]] ^closed (at B)^ Many galls contained it which had been extensively mined by the Lepid. and were full of its [[?]][[image]] with an external hole through which it had made its exit. [[large image]] larva ought to be imbedded [[symbol for male??]] in A [[end page]]
73) Feb 20 [[underline]] [viminalis] = S. ovium [[/underline]] [[image - pencil drawing of gall on twig]] [[label]] gall [[/label]] on willow twigs - { [[strikethrough]] probably a Nematus [[/strikethrough]] Euura viminalis Walsh {one contained a tenthred. larva - .22 long, ^[[insertion]] very [[/insertion]] pale dusky - greenish or cinereous - head darker, with a large blackish ^[[insertion]] round [[/insertion]] spot on the face & a smaller lateral one looking like eyes. Legs 6, prolegs on all but ^[[insertion]] antepenult & [[/insertion]] penult jt. but very short & tuberculiform & flat - mandibles blackish - Head [[underline]] not [[/underline]] [[image - pen drawing of larva head]]. Found an exactly identical larva burrowing in gall strobilana - legs long but porrect backwards & apparently functionally impotent. [So also in [[underline]] viminalis [[/underline]] ] [[line]] In gall [[underline]] S. strobiloides [[/underline]] between scales several orange-colored [[strikethrough]] ( [[/strikethrough]] cecidomyiade [[strikethrough]] ?) [[/strikethrough]] larvae enclosed in semi-transparent whitish cocoon .07 inch long pointed at both ends. Placed some 12 - 14 in small vial. In one case 2 cocoons glued together. One gall contained 12-16 cocoons. [bred from these [[underline]] Cec. fulviventis [[/underline]] ] [[line]] Feb 20, '64 Larva in [[underline]] brassicoides [[/underline]] willow gall - ^[[insertion]] Breadth .06 inch [[/insertion]] length .12 inch ^[[insertion]] white March 29 [[/insertion]] yellowish ^[[insertion]] sometimes with [[/insertion]] a broad [[strikethrough]] dark stripe [[/strikethrough]] dusky ^[[insertion]] dorsal [[/insertion]] vitta on 3 or 4 of the middle jts. Legless & head same color as body. In a thin whitish cocoon ^[[insertion]] .15 inch long [[/insertion]] but little longer than itself. In one gall the Lepid. had eaten out heart & destroyed the larva. One larva contained 15 (Chalcide?) larvae showing plainly thro its skin ^[[insertion]] These probably are the yellow minute Chalcidide bred from these galls ^[[insertion]] rhodoides [[/insertion]] May 13 [[/insertion]] [[image - pencil drawing of larvae]] ^[[insertion]] So with a Platygaster bred by Westw. "from the gall-making Cecidomyia of willows." II 170 & 167 fig 14 [[/insertion]] Found 8 or 9, all in larva state, & [[strikethrough]] seven chalcidae [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] 11 - 12 [[Proglobrupel?]] [[/insertion]] imagos [[underline]] inside [[/underline]] the cocoons ^[[insertion]] (one in each) [[/insertion]] which were very lively when disengaged. [[end page]] [[start page]] 74) Feb 21. Found galls [[underline]] q. erinacei [[/underline]] on white oak. A number of half-confluent central cells, empty, ^[[insertion]] holes [[underline]] next [[/underline]] the stem of gall, [[/insertion]] & a number next the skin (as in spongifica) with larvae in them. Seem too prickly for [[underline]] q. pisum [[/underline]]. (Fitch) & 4 ^[[insertion]] of them [[/insertion]] grew on veins below but 3 on veins [[underline]] above [[/underline]] [[symbol]] [[underline]] q. pisum,[[/underline]] & besides q. pisum (Fitch & O.S.) has only 2 central cells "divided by a thin partition". [One gall is less prickly & seems not to be bored Feb 25] [[line]] Feb. 24 Found almost all the Solidago lepid. galls perforated & empty, some containing the lepid. pupa skin. In one, cut open, found a white larva .2 long, in another a glossy white cocoon - both preserved, with some uncut. [[line] In two larvae of [[underline]] Trypeta solidaginis [[/underline]] (black retractile horny pair of hooks to head) noticed egg-like appearance [[image - pencil sketch of 5 circles touching each other to indicate eggs]] on hind segments, with a dividing dorsal space free from it. [[line]] In a [[underline]] veronica fasciculata [[/underline]] gall, gathered last summer (two confluent galls) one (hollow) contained a whitish larva ^[[insertion]] 1/2 inch long [[/insertion]] with a large ^[[insertion]] whitish [[/insertion]] lepidopteroid head & large brown hooks or mandible, 6 legs, no prolegs, & a large pseudopod on [[underline]] top [[/ underline]] of jts. 6-11. Probably I may have mistaken this for lepid. larvae. It has not the [[image - pen drawing of larva head]] head. Tenthrednid? Curculeonid? [[line]] Feb 25 Found 4 quite recent (dark purple) q. tuber galls, [[underlined]] unbored [[/underlined]]; preserved them. [failed] [[line]] Larva of {[[strikethrough]] pussy willow brassica [[/strikethrough]] S. rhodoides - gall is .15 long, pale orange concealed mostly except the sutures ^[[insertion]] sometimes [[strikethrough]] [[?]][[/strikethrough]] 3 anterior jts. & a dorsal line by [[insertion]] milky [[/insertion]] whitish markings that look like large intestines convoluted [& are probably masses of [[insertion]] no [[/insertion]] eggs] ([[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] many specimens.)
75) Feb. 26, 1864 Larva in salicis [podagrae] ^batatas^ [[underlined]] galls (recent) is deep orange color - almost sanguineous - Cutting into old last years bored galls, found several pale greenish white larvae. (Inquilines? [Bred from these galls no Cecid. but Chalcidoidae] In one of the small [[underline next]] salicis podagrae batatas [[end underline]] galls found a Tenthred.? larva, pale greenish white. Guests. Found on the bluffs [[underlined]] a single spongifica [[underlined]] gall on a small black [[underlined]] (?) oak (dead) 2 inches at butt, 1/2 mile beyond lib.-4 maculata corner. Galls (terminal) {S. [[? underlined]] on pussy willow [[image]] one contained an orange-color cecidom. [[strike: Cynip]] larva in cocoon just like strobilanae cocoon. Feb. 28. Found a {s. rhodoides} [[strike: pussy-willow brassic.]] gall, where a Lepid. larva had eaten thro to central cell & destroyed it. At the base [[underlined]] of an old half rotten gall [[image]] found several orange colored [[image]] larvae, probably dipterous, embedded in cells in the moist decayed matter, the appearance of "intestines" (p.74) ^(only in one specimen)^ caused (no!) by very numerous Chalcide ? larvae inside, visible on pricking the skin & slowly squeezing out the contents. In one gall [[strike two unreadable names]] rhodoides gall found no [[underlined]] cocoon, but the hollow as usual, & a white-hyaline hairy [[underlined]] larva ^about .13 long, &^ parasitic? Hence it must be a true cocoon & not a mere vegetable production In this gall cocoon is {^mistake^ not abruptly truncate at top, as in S. strobilanae galls, but it is, as in that gall, 2 1/2 times as long as larva [[symbol]] R.R. galls In the same [[underline next]] salicis [podagrae] batatas] [[end underline]] gall found one orange color & several whitish [[underlined]] larvae. [[strike: Inguilines]] Parasites [[end page]] [[start page]] (76 March 1. Larva of [[underline next]] salicis siliquae [[end underline]] ^= C. rigida O.S.^ is pale sanguineous orange, freckled with bright sanguineous .18 long. A silky whitish cocoon - Anthonomus scutellatus Schonk bred from willow=twig gall [[image]] (summer of?) 1863. March '64 found in same gall a whitish apod larva; [[symbol?]] The same? March 5. Diastrophus? larva - ^(2 in one gall)^ straight, 4 [[strike: 1/2]] times as long as wide, pale orange, .15 long - Body apparently 9 sd.- + head. In other galls ^several (5 or 6)^ whitish-hyaline aulax (?) larvae .06 long, of normal shape, 2 or 3 in a gall. March 6 "q. tuber" galls on laurel oak contained whitish-hyaline Cynipide-inguiline (?) larvae on the Salix nigra near Sandy Ford no [[underlined]] galls of any kind but the "Merodosia fuzz" March 6. Cut into many [[image]] willow twig galls near Chippiannock. Some, both bored & unbored, contained the greenish tenthred. larva, one of wch had spun its cocoon. Some were full of the cork-[[?]], ^From some the^ uneaten ^Tenthred. had gone out^ [[arrow to lower page reads]] leaving its tracks. [[return to line]] One contained a small whitish larva [[image]] - parasite? or Anthonomus scutellatus? See above. March 6. Found many of the Sal. {amaranthus [[strike: gnaphelioides]]} galls had been dug into sideways. (by birds?) They contain now a [[strike: cynipidous]]^cecidomyious^ larva. [[end page]]
27) March 7. Found a hyaline-whitish [[underline]] hairy [[end underline]] larva in one of the very smallest of the [[underline]] strobiloides [[end underline]] galls near R.R. Culvert. March 9 - Found immense numbers of bloomy-black eggs .04 inch long & twice as long as wide, on a brassicoides willow just beyond cutout opposite lime-quarry to the left. Whole twigs blackened on one side. Aphis? March 16. Found a "seminator" gall ^(preserved)^ on a last year's (dead) shoot of blackberry, 1 1/4 inch long & 1 inch across, egg-shaped & woolly, pale dirty brown. Wool about .30 inch long, the cells ^.10 inch long^ united apparently in a roundish mass by [[corkey?]] matter & pretty close together. Cells empty. Found egg-shaped hollow galls 3/4 by 1/2 inch on tips of shoots of red osier dogwood. Aphidous? Rind about as thick as stout spongifica galls. Empty [[arrow to bottom of page reads:]] June 1864 noticed these galls [[?]] from flower [[return to main text]] Found many "brassicoides" like galls on tips of twigs of young stunted plums. [[image cells.]] Cells all empty. Found on q. ficus gall [[image]] one [[underline]] undoubted [[end underline]] cell on the circumference beside central cell. Ditto, Ditto. Cell empty. Found a small black chalcidide inside [[underline]] cocoon [[end underline]] of c.s. [Amaranthus.] [[underline]] gnaphalioides [[end underline]] The larger-sized conotrachelus nenuphar are probably a [[underline]] race [[end underline]] feeding on nuts (as Clytus pictus March 29. Lep. larva had eaten thro the cecidomyia cell & destroyed in [[underline]] C.s. strobiloides [[end underline]] gall [[end page]] [[start page]] (78 Found {.16 ^inch^ long = eggs, of orchelimum^ pupae in [[underline]] c.s. strobiloides [[end underline]] galls (as before) preserved specimens - .17 inch long & very narrow - 7 times as long as wide. ^More tapered at one end & no [[sutures?]]^ Also an Ichneumon pupa among the [[grass?]] full [[underline]] outside [[end underline]] part of strobilana. ^Parasite of nematus?^ Placed in small vial with small Cecid? pupa ^[came out - Braconide April 7?^ Cecidomyide still in larva state. [[underline]] R.R. brassicoides still in larva. [[end underline]] [[strike next]] one in pupa probably ichneum? from appearance of antennae. 3rd jts not long [[strike next]] Pussy willow brassec.[[end strike]] Rhodoides galls - opened two - [[underline]] one in larva, one in pupa; [[end underline]] pupa with 16 or 17 terminal jts antennae. [[strike ??]] base indistinct. Anus no ovipositoreal [[organs?]] abd, not peduncled. Head inferior. Thorax [[hunched?]] At bottom of jar containing C.S. [podagrae / batatas F.] galls found several ^bright^ sanguineous cecidomyiade pupae with the pair of horns ^found^ [the pupa-skin of bred cecid {S. batatas / rufiventris has such horns]^ in that [Asynapta] tree burrowing in R.R. brassic-galls [did not keep them] March 30. In [[underline]] strobiloides [[end underline]] galls [[underline]] no pupae [[end underline]] but 2 or 3 milk-white cecid, [[strike]] cynip [[end strike]] larvae & one bluish white hairy ([[strike]] Cynip? [[end strike]] Chalcid?) larva. Found in Dunlaps field a solid. gall with a large lepid larva in it. Gall hollow. Larva .55 inch long, whitish. Head reddish brown [[image]] not peduncled. Legs & prolegs normal. 1st segm. above [[image]] ^pale^ reddish brown & horny. Spiracles small, normal, dusky. A few scattering, longish hairs on body -- April 8 this gall was perforated & on the dry sand underneath it were about 24 yellowish [[arrow to more text at bottom reads:]] white larva .18 long & 4 or 5 times as long as wide. Placed them in the box. They had begun spinning. Microgaster? Inside the gall was the shrunk skin of [[Lepid.?]] [[return to main text]] From Rev. Green's Book Tin-box-oval 2 6/8 x 2 inches & about 4 inches high Green uses "treacle & a little rum" for sugaring? a saturated solution of oxalic acid & a steel tin for killing. [[end page]]
79) Moths cease flying from a little after 9 to a little before 11 P.M. Moonlight & windy & cold nights bad. A warm misty rain good. [[line]] [[male symbol]] [[underline]] more [[/underline]] liable by far to grease than [[female symbol]] [[line]] Soak [[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] ^ & boil [[/strikethrough]] small [[/insertion]] greasy insects in benzole, [[strikethrough]] in a water bath [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] entire. [[/insertion]] [[line]] [To kill mites - invert the drawer over a cloth moistened with naptha or an hour or more - (Haliday) [[line]] Larger insects "Take off abdomen & expose to heat of fire at 6 inches distance. If grease has run into thorax &c, [[strikethrough]] they [[/strikethrough]] those parts must be soaked in benzole. If [[strikethrough]] bo [[/strikethrough]] abd. very full of grease, the fire brings it to the surface. Simple soaking for a few days will remove the [[underline]] exterior [[/underline]] grease. Slit open abd, & soak for 24 hours, then boil rapidly as possible in about 1 1/2 oz. benzole in a water bath & a covered vessel (adding a little occasionally). Remove & wash with fresh benzole & dry on blotting paper. If done enough, abd. again exposed to fire will not dry out. This is the test of time" Dr. Wallace (Label abd.) [[line]] April 3. Cut into my Spongifica galls. Out of 137 gathered June & July, came 28 aciculata (all dead) 13 larvae do [[ditto for: all dead]] & 2 pupae ditto [[ditto for: all dead]]; also 7 dead & dry Chalcid. (2 Decatoma & rest Callimome) & 2 [[female symbol]] callimome pupae, dead & decayed. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Note on piece of paper overlaying text]] June 25 * had opened 2: large larva alive & [[kicks?]] [[/note]] 80) Out of 36 galls gathered Sep. 17 came 1 acciculata (dead), 2 larvae do & 1 pupa do; also 2 Callimome [[text covered by note]] & decayed), one mass of Chalcid. larvae ([[text covered by note]] & 5 whitish hairy Chalcid? or Ichneum? [[text covered by note]] Opened Aug 4 & found 1 callimome (imago alive) & 2 or 3 ditto pupae.* Possibly the "mass" & one of the 5 came [[text covered by note]] June & July lot of galls. May 22 came out hundreds = q. inanis chalc. May 8 {They grow on Red oaks; found lots under. From "pseudo - {tinctorieae centricola}" galls, some of which were mixed with the [[underline]] spongifica [[/underline]] galls [[strikethrough]] & may therefore [[underline]] possibly [[/underline]] have grown on Black Oak]] [[/strikethrough]] came 8 Chalcid. alive & kicking { n. genus? ant. 6 - jointed]] see p.102 [[line]] April 6. [[strikethrough]] Asynapte [[/strikethrough]] Cecidomyia of [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] (larger cecidomy.) laid very numerous [[strikethrough]] dark crimson [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ blood red [[/insertion]] eggs (cylindrical) 3 times as long as wide .03 inch long & blunt pointed at each end) in the bottle where placed. [[strikethrough]] What becomes of their eggs in nature? Strobil. galls not yet formed]] [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] April 8. 14 Pseudo-tinctoriae gall gathered [[underline]] on the ground [[/underline]] under [[underline]] the [[/underline]] Red oak at Lib. 4-maculata corner. Two (opened) contained each one [[image - pen drawing of larva]] whitish larva. April 10 gathered many more in the same place. The cell is spherical & the filaments adhere to it strongly. Noticed a black oak on the bluff with 12 - 20 [[insertion]] of [[/insertion]] spong. galls on it ( [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] 4 or 5 [[/insertion]] gathered) ^[[insertion]] all of [[underline]] cocciulae [[/underline]] kind [[/insertion]] & 10 yards from it a red oak with [[underline]] inanis [[/underline]] galls A red oak (?) from which I gathered [[underline]] inanis [[/underline]] galls had [[underline]] q. pilulae [[/underline]] galls on its leaves. [[strikethrough]] [Doubtful?] [[/strikethrough]] Yes: 18/5 Most of [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] still contain [[strikethrough]] Nematus [[/strikethrough]] cecidomyia larvae. One or two have it in pupa, tinged with sanguineous [[text obscured by torn page]] head especially eyes [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] strongly sanguineous.
large [[image - pencil drawing of larva]] white pilose larva - spong afica gall April 3, 65
June 25th *had opened 2 large larva aleothids
79) Moths cease flying from a little after 9 to a little before 11 P.M. Moonlight & windy & cold nights bad. A warm misty rain good. [[line]] [[male symbol]] [[underline]] more [[/underline]] liable by far to grease than [[female symbol]] [[line]] Soak [[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] ^ & boil [[/strikethrough]] small [[/insertion]] greasy insects in benzole, [[strikethrough]] in a water bath [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] entire. [[/insertion]] [[line]] [To kill mites - invert the drawer over a cloth moistened with naptha or an hour or more - (Haliday) [[line]] Larger insects "Take off abdomen & expose to heat of fire at 6 inches distance. If grease has run into thorax &c, [[strikethrough]] they [[/strikethrough]] those parts must be soaked in benzole. If [[strikethrough]] bo [[/strikethrough]] abd. very full of grease, the fire brings it to the surface. Simple soaking for a few days will remove the [[underline]] exterior [[/underline]] grease. Slit open abd, & soak for 24 hours, then boil rapidly as possible in about 1 1/2 oz. benzole in a water bath & a covered vessel (adding a little occasionally). Remove & wash with fresh benzole & dry on blotting paper. If done enough, abd. again exposed to fire will not dry out. This is the test of time" Dr. Wallace (Label abd.) [[line]] April 3. Cut into my Spongifica galls. Out of 137 gathered June & July, came 28 aciculata (all dead) 13 larvae do & 2 pupae ditto; also 7 dead & dry Chalcid. (2 Decatoma & rest Callimome) & 2 [[female symbol]] callimome pupae, dead & decayed. [[end page]] [[start page]] 80) Out of 36 galls gathered Sep. 17 came 1 acciculata (dead), 2 larvae do & 1 pupa do; also 2 Callimome pupa (dead & decayed), one mass of Chalcid. larvae (alive & preserved) & 5 whitish hairy Chalcid? or Ichneum? larvae (preserved) Opened Aug 4 & found 1 callimome (imago alive) & 2 or 3 ditto pupae.* Possibly the "mass" & one of the 5 came from the June & July lot of galls. May 22 came out hundreds = q. inanis chalc. May 8 {They grow on [[underlined]] Red oaks [[/underlined]]; found lots under. From "pseudo - {tinctorieae centricola}" galls, some of which were mixed with the [[underline]] spongifica [[/underline]] galls [[strikethrough]] & may therefore [[underline]] possibly [[/underline]] have grown on Black Oak [[/strikethrough]] came 8 Chalcid. alive & kicking { n. genus? ant. 6 - jointed} see p.102 [[line]] April 6. [[strikethrough]] Asynapte [[/strikethrough]] Cecidomyia of [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] (larger cecidomy.) laid very numerous [[strikethrough]] dark crimson [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] blood red [[/insertion]] eggs (cylindrical) 3 times as long as wide .03 inch long & blunt pointed at each end) in the bottle where placed. [[strikethrough]] What becomes of their eggs in nature? Strobil. galls not yet formed [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] April 8. 14 Pseudo-tinctoriae gall gathered [[underline]] on the ground [[/underline]] under [[underline]] the [[/underline]] Red oak at Lib. 4-maculata corner. Two (opened) contained each one [[image - pen sketch of larva]] whitish larva. April 10 gathered many more in the same place. The cell is spherical & the filaments adhere to it strongly. Noticed a black oak on the bluff with 12 - 20 [[insertion]] of [[/insertion]] spong. galls on it ([[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] 4 or 5 [[/insertion]] gathered ^[[insertion]] all of [[underline]] coccidae [[/underline]] kind [[/insertion]]) & 10 yards from it a red oak with [[underline]] inanis [[/underline]] galls A red oak (?) from which I gathered [[underline]] inanis [[/underline]] galls had [[underline]] q. pilulae [[/underline]] galls on its leaves. [[strikethrough]] [Doubtful?] [[/strikethrough]] Yes: 18/5 Most of [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] still contain {[[strikethrough]] Nematus [[/strikethrough]] cecidomyia} larvae: One or two have it in pupa, tinged with sanguineous ^ [[insertion]] [[page torn obscuring text]] [[head?]] especially eyes [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] & [[ulra?]] [[/strikethrough]] strongly sanguineous
81) X "The larva of [[underline]] Cecid. terminalis Lw. [[/underline]] sometimes goes under ground & sometimes transforms within the willow leaves deformed by it" Loew Dipt. p. 184 note. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] [Hugh Miller] "fell short of that highest faith which knows that all truths must harmonize; & which is therefore content trustfully to follow the evidence whithersoever it leads". Herbert Spencer's Illustrations of Universal Progress. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] As so-called coarctate cocoon of Cecidomyia have no transverse impressions, it cannot be a [[underline]] coarctate [[/underline]] pupa. O.S. quotes an author who says Cec. pupa [[underlined]] exudes [[/underlined]] not [[underlined]] spins [[/underlined]] its cocoon. This explains all. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Apr. 10. 3 or 4 [[underlined]] Cecidomyia ^[[insertion]] s. [[strikethrough]] podagre [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[rufiventris?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] batatas [[/insertion]] bred from S. podagra galls. Found on [[strikethrough]] one or [[/strikethrough]] two of the large [[image - pencil drawing of gall on branch]] galls ^[[insertion]] 5 or 6 [[/insertion]] pupae-skins half enserted from holes in them. Preserved them with the insects on card. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] Cecidomyia [[/underline]] is to [[underline]] Nematas [[/underline]] what the Inqulines are to the Pseuides. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Apr. 12. Cecidomyia [[strikethrough]] strobil [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] RR. brassic. [[/underline]] one ^[[insertion]] + 2 [[/insertion]] still in larva ^[[insertion]] one tinged with yellow, 2 immaculate white & parasite? different shape & smaller [[/insertion]], one ^[[insertion]] + 2 [[/insertion]] in pupa. Abd. ^[[insertion]] pupa [[/insertion]], orange ^[[insertion]] tinged with sanguineous (one) [[/insertion]], rest bright sanguineous. Length .16 inch. Horns at base of antennae [[image - pencil sketch of pupa horns]] very minute. Head of the pupa lies upwards. [[line]] In Cecid. [[strikethrough]] rufiventris [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] s. batatas [[/insertion]] 2nd vein does not attain the tip of the wing so nearly as in Strob. & [[strikethrough]] pupey trap [[/strikethrough]] rhodoides. In all three [[underline]] in certain lights [[/underline]] 3rd vein joining 4th [[image - sketch showing veins joining]]. Strob. is same species as [[strikethrough]] pupy - brafs [[craniboides?]] [[/strikethrough]] rhodoides No! [[end page]] [[start page]] (82 Willows No 1., ^[[insertion]] South of [[/insertion]] Rail road culvert, ^[[insertion]] near thorn - tree [[/insertion]] just south [[insertion]] [[underlined]] discolor [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] of Switch ([[female symbol]] flower April 9.) Galls on this willow = s. podagrae [[curly bracket]] No. 2. Rail road Culvert. α) lst bush, β) 2nd bush less mature? both [[female symbol]]? Yes, & = strobiloides. S [[underline]] Cordata [[/underline]] [[line]] No. 3 Strobiloides willow, Bluff field [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]] (bush near Chippiannock [[male symbol]], [[strikethrough]] ) [[/strikethrough]] larger specimen) = No. 2 [[/curly bracket]] [[line]] No. 4 ^[[insertion]] [[underline]] discolor? [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] Last willow towards NW near RR. Culvert (tall) (apparently = No. [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] 1 May 7th) [[insertion]] June 11th foliage is identical on comparison. [[/insertion]] [[line]] No. 5. Brassicoides willow = flowers May 7th. [[underline]] longifolia [[/underline]] [all 1 - 5 ^[[insertion]] & 7 [[/insertion]] flower before leaf; 6 does not] No. 6 Salix [[underline]] nigra [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] Merodosia fuzz gall No. 7 Salix [[strikethrough]] tristis [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] [[underline]] humilis [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] Bluff [flowering specimens from near Railroad ^[[insertion]] in [/insertion]] Dunlap's field [2 = 3, & 1 = 4, :. 5 species in all] NB. May 7. The row of [[underline]] tall [[/underline]] willows beneath the R.R. embankments & East of it, is [[underline]] S. nigra [[/underline]] & has the [Aphidan] ^[[insertion]] S. aenigma [[/insertion]] galls in abundance. NB. Apr 27. Salix [[strikethrough]] nigra [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] of brassicoides gall [[/insertion]] (Sandy ford Slough) only one tree a little out in leaf & showing young catkins. Rest still bare. [[strikethrough]] April [[/strikethrough]] May 1st. This as well as others mixed on Rock River bank with nigra is the brassicoides sp. Salix (R.R.) brassicoides a little out in leaf & showing young catkins.
83) In [[underline]] strob. [[/underline]] [[male symbol]] ant. are 20 or 21 - jd. the last 2 - jts [[image - pencil drawing of three segments of insect numbered 1 to 3]] apparently connate, 1 + 2 = 3 + 4 in length. In dry [[male symbol]] [[strikethrough]] joints seem [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] in recent [[male symbol]] [[strikethrough]] [[pupey?]] brass [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] rhodoides [[/insertion]] joints are globular [[image - pencil drawing of three segements]] [[strikethrough]] otherwise [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] & [[/insertion]] both ^[[insertion]] are [[/insertion]] alike in number of jts. &c. April 12. Dug a somewhat flaccid yellowish ^ [[insertion]] opaque [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] Cyn [[/strikethrough]] Cecidomyiad larva ^ [[insertion]] .16 long [[/insertion]] out of [[underline]] R.R. brass. [[/underline]] gall, to the side of which was attached a single whitish ^ [[insertion]] hyaline [[/insertion]] (parasitic) larva, ^ [[insertion]] .107 long [[/insertion]] external & attached by its mouth. x Cecid. contained no other larvae. The white larva was similar to the (solitary) whitish ones found in the Cecid. cells. Found also 2 more of the black parasitic imago found in these cells long ago. Found four cells empty. Parasite gone? The use of "horns" to rub thro' cocoon. Antennae lie in a groove formed between the front legs & the ant. edge of the wing. Cec. [[underline]] [batatas podagrae] [[/underline]] (pupa) has longish thorns at base of antennae [[symbol]] strobilae. in { [[strikethrough]] cranaboides [[puple?]] brass [[/strikethrough]] thodoides} [[male symbol]] apparently a brislle [[symbol]] throw In Cec. [[underline]] s. siliquae [[/underline]] the wing-cases of the pupa skin are decidedly dusky; in cec. s. strobil. [[insertion]] ^ &c [[/insertion]] scarcely. [Depends upon maturity.][[insertion]] ^ All these willow cecid. pupae anteriorly turn black a day or so before coming out. [[/insertion]] In Cec. {[[strikethrough]] cramboides [[pufsy?]] brass [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] rhodoides [[/underlined]] [[insertion]] ^ 3 [[/insertion]] [[male symbol]] 3rd vein unites obviously with 4th [[image - pencil drawing of veins]]; in siliquae & [[underline]] strobili. [[/underline]] scarcely, [but in middle specimen of c.s. siliquae it seems to unite distinctly] & often it is continued straight towards the base of wing as in Asynapta Origin of wings {fulvous rufous} [[insertion]] ^ May 12th [[/insertion]] both in recent [[strikethrough]] [[?]] brass [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ rhodoides [[/insertion]] [[symbol for male]] & recent [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] -- venter whitish pulverulescent [[line]] Cumming's Hunter's Life in Africa I. p.280 [[insertion]] ^ & append. 295, &c [[/inseriton]] mentions [[strikethrough]] an [[/strikethrough]] elephants having scooped out the gravel with their trunks in order to clear a hole to get water. Remarkable reasoning powers. [[image]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[NOTE: This page not well organized; there are notes and side notes. Difficult to tell which apply to which]] 84) (Gall Makers) A) [Abdomen rufo [[strikethrough]] ous [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ sanguineous in life, brown in death [[/insertion]] (thorus pupa long, having woody matter to work through like that of guest gall-midge of Brassicoides) [[NOTE: To the right of the above paragraph:]] S. [[underline]] Podagrae [[/underline]] B [Abdomen brown black [[insertion]] ^ in life & death [[/inseriton]] (thorns pupa short) a. Bifurcation complete ([[underline]] (cocoon long, [[/underline]] (see p.88) [[strikethrough]] [[not]] [[/strikethrough]] truncate; front pupa skin pale) } S [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] Cramboides [[/underline]] [[/strikethrough// [[strikethrough]] [[?]] brass. [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] Bifurcation complete. [[underline]] Cocoon short [[/underline]]; front pupa [[?]] pale. [[note at right side of paragraph reads:]] [[underline]] amaranthus [[/underline]] + gemmae [[note at left side of page reads:]] [[underline]] gemmae [[/underline]] has front pupa-skins a little dusky. [[end note]] b. Bifurcation incomplete antennae broken, but from pupa skin about 20 j. & cocoon brown not white + front pupa-skin dusky (p.89) p.94 (cocoon [[^ long; [[strikethrough]] (not truncate?) [[/strikethrough]] p. 89. & cocoon [[underline]] brown [[/underline]] not [[underline]] white [[/underline]] p. 94.[[underline]] S. siliquae [[/underline]] [[note on right of page between S. Siliqua and S. Strobiloides: ]] imago alike ++ front pupa-skin pale (cocoon long; [[strikethrough]] truncate [[/strikethrough]] [[note at right of page]] [[underline]] S. strobiloides [[/underline]] [[line]] (Gall-makers) [[marginal note on left]] remaining S {[[strikethrough]]cramboides [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Brassicoides [[/underline]] thorns pupa [[insertion]] ^ singular? [[/insertion]], shortish, cocoon short. S [Amaranthus] gnaphalioides cocoon short [underline]] S Gemmae [/underline]]cocoon short? [[end marginal note on left]] [[symbol for Alpha]]) galls polythalanious [[insertion]] ^ (cocoon short) [[/inseriton]] [[NOTE: refers to:]] (S. [[strikethrough]] podagra [[/strikethrough]] batata [[Symbol for Beta]] ) galls [[insertion]] ^ monothalamous body [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] or at [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] many growing continuously together ([[inseriton]] ^ cocoon short [[/insertion]] bifurcation [[strikethrough]] [[rather]] incomplete & often runs past [[for?]] = asynaptic [[NOTE: refers to:]] = S. brassicoides [[symbol for Gamma]]) galls monothalamous always growing [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] singly [rest] [[NOTE: refers to:]] coccoon long} S.rhodoides (1 S.siliquae [[insertion]] ^ not a deformation of a single bud [[/insertion]] (5 S. stroblioides (3 cocoon short} S. gemma (4 S. [[strikethrough]] amaranthus [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ gnaphalioides [[/insertion]][[/strikethrough]] (2 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] fulvi- [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] ventris [[image]] on strob. & rhodoides [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] (1 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [?]] [[/strikethrough]] cornutus horns (on brassic) pupa [[line]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] (on strobili) [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] orbitalis on euura gall [10 species +] [[end page]]
85) April 15) [[underline]] C. Strobiloides [[/underline]] pupa [[insertion]] ^ alive [[/insertion]] (week out of cocoon - still alive all [[underline]] bright [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ pinkish [[/insertion]] scarlet or sanguineous - thorns antennae rounded [[image - pen drawing of rounded thorn antennae]] with a short bristle protruding from their tips. Another bristle twice as long behind [[strikethrough]] [ [[/strikethrough]] [[overwritten]] or [[/overwritten]] & above the origin of each antenna [[line]] [pupa of] C. {[[strikethrough]] cramboides [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] rhodoides [[/underlined]] [[insertion]] ^ alive [[/insertion]]. Color yellowish a little mottled with sanguineous. The rest the same C. [[underline]] brassicoides [[/ underline]] (R.R.) dead [[insertion]] ^ abd. wounded. [[/insertion]] Palish sanguineous, thorns in an angle of 100° or 110° with the same short bristle & the other bristle C. S. [[strikethrough]] [[sit?]] [podagra] [[/strikethrough]] batatas [[strikethrough]] (rufiventris) [[/strikethrough]]. Horns [[insertion]] ^ long, 1/4 as long as the diam. of thorax [[/insertion]] in 45° [[strikethrough]] or 50°[[/strikethrough]] terminating in a short brislle: post antennal brislle [[insertion]] ^ 1/2 as long as diam. of thorax & [[/insertion]] proportionally twice as long as in preceding [[insertion]] ^ & basally whitish, terminally black. [[/insertion]] General color (dead [[insertion]] ^ but recent [[/insertion]] ) [[strikethrough]] front [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ hind [[/insertion]] 1/2 dull luteous, [[strikethrough]] hind [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ front [[/insertion]] 1/2 blackish [this specimen came of itself out of gall] [[line]] X [[vertical line]] Evident from Westw. II. p.520 that pupal cocoon of C. destructor is [[underline]] not [[/underline]] the skin of larva [so also Harris quote of 10.3] [[/vertical line]] [[line]] √ [[vertical line]] [[female symbol]] C. destructor Say "tail more or less acute in proportion as the oviduct is enserted" Say II. 5 [[/vertical line]] [[line]] My [[underline]] q. pilulae gall [[/underline]] is evidently, in O.S.'s opinion, cecidomyiadous & is described under an allied gall C. symmetrica Lw. Dipt. p. 201 [[line]] Early in April I cut into 40 or 50 cells of C. [[underline]] seminator [[/underline]] &cd. find no larvae as described by Wm. Bassett. His were probably Chalcididous. [[line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (86 In Cecid. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] etc. [[insertion]] ^ (recent) [[/recent]] upper surf. of abd. blackish, with [[strikethrough]] tufts [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ long [[/insertion]] white hair on each side; lower surf. covered with dense short appressed hairs. Origin of wings [[underline]] sanguineous [[/underlined]] [[line]] [[underline]] pulviventris [[/underline]] [[male symbol]] strobil. Apr. 16" [[strikethrough]] & [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] & 3" R.R. Culvert [[insertion]] ^ (Apr. 10, 15 & 16) [[/insertion]] (1 supposed [[male symbol]] of S. podagrae [[insertion]] ^ No. 3 and [[symbol]] [[/insertion]]) All have rufo-sanguineous abdomen. From the cocoons under the scales of strobil? [= Cec. fulviventris] [[line]] Apr. 17. [[underline ]] C. S. brassicoides [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] abd. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ venter [[/insertion]] dark [[strikethrough]] rufous [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ sanguineous [[/insertion]] covered with short dense whitish hair; dorsum abd. [[insertion]] ^ blackish or dark sang. [[/insertion]] with cinereous hair longer & whiter laterally at the tip of the joints; 3 - 6 with a subterminal glabrous transverse [[strikethrough]] stria [[/strikethrough]] impressed line [[insertion]] ^ & the suture also glabrous [[/insertion]]. ant. [[female symbol]] [[insertion]] ^ about [[/insertion]] 21-jd. (2 + 19) - origin of wings [[strikethrough]] rufo-sanguineous [[/strikethrough]] orange colored or pale [[insertion]] ^ sanguineous [[/insertion]]. Legs whitish beneath, blackish above, tarsal tips all black, wings dark, bifurcation incomplete [[line]] NB In [[underline]] Strobiloides [[/underline]] & [[underline]] rhodoides, [[/underline]] the abd. dorsum is opaque brown black [[insertion]] ^ without the subterminal glabrous line [[/insertion]], not hairy above, but laterally with a silvery white term brush of hairs on each jt. Venter also is blackish not [[insertion]] ^ dark [[/insertion]] rufo-sanguineous. [mistake] [[line]] In S. [podagrae] [[insertion]] batatas [[/insertion]] abd. [[insertion]] ^ [ [[female symbol]] ] [[/insertion]] above & below is sanguineous, with short whitish hairs & generally lateral subterminal tufts. Thor. [[insertion]] ^ red brownish or blackish [[/insertion]] with a row of whitish hairs in each stria, making 2 whitish vittae. [[line]] Apr 17. Insect received from Platt's sister, been in her ear ever since last summer: got out 2 or 3 days ago. Put in sweet oil last summer & killed it. [[line]] April 18. Cec. [[underline]] rhodoides [[/underline]] has blood - red eggs like strobil. One damaged [[female symbol]] bred & destroyed. [[line]] Apr. 19 C. S. [podagrae] [[underline]] batatas [[/underline]] has on dors. of abd. [insertion]] ^ [in immature sp. obsolete] [[/insertion]] a broad vitta of brown hairs covering nearly entire dors. surface, rest white hairs with a [[insertion]] ^ very [[/insertion]] definite divid by outline. Pleura [[insertion]] ^ & origin wings [[/insertion]] sanguineous.
87) nobum umber brown, brown hairs [[line]] Apr. 19. [[underline]] Brass. [[/underline]] galls fresh gathered. In central cocoon of 2 [galls] a [[underline]] hairy [[/underline]] Chalcid. larva, white 1 (cecid) at one end (head?) [[image - pen drawing of cecid]] a bifurcated "breastbone"? [[insertion]] ^ 3 or 4 [[/insertion]] middle [[underline]] dorsal [[/underline]] segments with a dark vitta [[strikethrough]] scarcely [[/strikethrough]] yellowish, opaque with [[insertion]] ^ opaque [[/insertion]] curdy [[insertion]] ^ yellowish [[/insetion]] white mottlings Another cecid. contained 10 chalcid? larvae [[line]] Found at large on S. Brass. galls a remarkable Cynips [[female symbol]] ant. 14-jd. 14 1/2 longer than 13, thorax & abdomen [[insertion]] ^ except towards venter [[/insertion]] strongly pubescent, as in [[underline]] gallae-tinct [[/underline]]., abd. nearly as in [[underline]] aciculata [[/underline]] - two subterminal mesonotal striae (or carinae) each side of middle one - ventral valve with a long appendage - dorsal valve long, hairy: 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] abd. dors. circ. arc of 45° & occupying dorsally [[insertion]] ^ not quite [[/insertion]] 1/2, laterally 1/3 of abd. exclusive of 1[[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] j. Sheaths concealed in dorsal valve: 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] transverse vein crooked at [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 90° with a "stump of a vein" Apr. 21 - C. [[underline]] Rhodoides[[/underine]] [[insertion]] ^ male symbol [[/insertion]] emerged from pupa under my eyes as it came out abd. had the [[strikethrough]] stu [[/strikethrough]] sutures [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ & tip [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] widely sanguineous, & the tip [[strikethrough]] & venter [[/strikethrough]] ditto, the dorsal space between the sutures covered with appressed brown hairs occupying medial 1/2 of each joint venter was dull yellowish. The pupa had the long cases &c fuscous & abd. pale sanguineous. Shortly after coming out, voided creamy matter - In 3 hours dorsum abd. [[underline]] entirely fuscous [/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ & also venter except tip which was yellowish [[/insertion]] [[line]] [[underlined]] Small [[/underlined]] {cecid. [[insertion]] fulviventris [[/insertion]] pupa from strob. Wing-cases &c fuscous, abd. sanguineous, horns rectangular [[image - sketch of horns]] divergent, seta longish slender [[line]] Found a Chalcid. pupa in c.s. [[underline]] gemmae [[/underline]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (88 Pupa of [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] (from [[insertion]] ^ a single specimen off S. tristis [[/insertion]] of strobil. like gall) horns [[image - sketch of horns]] rounded, [[strikethrough]] very slender [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ no short [[/insertion]] bristle behind horn, thor. bristle rather robust at base, moderately long, tapering. [[line]] A [[female symbol]] specimen of [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] (mature) has the sutures [[strikethrough]] scarcely [[/strikethrough]] slightly [[insertion]] ^ brick- [[/insertion]] red. Another (immature) has the whole dorsum a dirty red or red strongly obfuscated & the [[strikethrough]] abd. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ venter [[/insertion]] brick red. [[line]] I cannot distinguish [[insertion]] ^ except by average larger size of [[underline]] podagrae [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] recent [[female symbol]] of S. [[overwritten]] podagrae [[/overwritten]] [[underline]] batatas [[/underline]] from the small [[strikethrough]] rufi [[/strikethrough]] "fulviventris" [[female symbol]] from strobiloides, [[insertion]] ^ placed [[/insertion]] side by side. Is [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] c. s batatas [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] podagrae [[/strikethrough]] an inguiline? But the pupal horns of [[overwritten]] podagrae [[/overwritten]] [[underlined]] batatas [[/underlined]] are much longer & are acute [[symbol]] [[underline]] "rufiventris" [[/underline]] & the number [[male symbol]] ant. j[[superscript]] ts. [[/superscript]] [[symbol]] [[[line]] Apr. 22. Proctotrup. (small) still continues to come out in small numbers from S. [[overwritten]] podagrae [[overwritten]] [[underline]] batatas [[/underline]] galls. [[line]] Apr. 21. R.R. [[underline]] brassic [[/underline]] still in larva - breastbone [[image - sketch of breastbone]] bifurcated at 60° 3 parts all equally long [[line]] Apr. 22. [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] [[female symbol]] abd above [[strikethrough]] brown [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ blackish with [[insertion]] ^ a few [[/insertion]] appressed brown hairs [[/insertion]] with [[underline]] no [[/underline]] rufous sutures, conspicuous white tufts on lateral dorsum, venter [[insertion]] ^ dull rufous [[/insertion]], [[strikethrough]] yellowish [[/strikethrough]] with short appressed white hairs - ovipos. rufous (2 or 3 jts.) [[line]] {it is to this that cancelled label refers {R.R. culvert (small) {2 [[male symbol]][[insertion]] [[underline]] fulviventris [[/underline]] very mature [[/insertion]] abd. honey yellow, with a very narrow dorsal fuscous line or vitta. ant. about 14-jd. bifurcation distinct - ([[male symbol]] same day from strob. [[underline]] without [[/underline]] the dorsal line on abd. but abd. is much fuller, as full as in most [[female symbol]] cecid. & abd. dors. shows brown hairs) Exam[[superscript]] n [[/superscript]] of my galls [[line across page]] Apr. 23 [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] gall - frass of boring lepid, which had eaten the substance of leaves, leaving the veins, found in 2 + 2 + 2 galls Tip of [[underline]] Rhod [[/underline]] cocoon truncate, about [[strikethrough]] twice as [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 1/2 [[/insertion]] longer than pupa. In heart of [[underline]] Rhod [[/underline]] gall found a hairy white larva, tail pointed .15 long. Chalcid? 2 1/2 times as long as wide [= Chalcid. coppery thorax & green abd. bred from &c] Larva [[underline]] Rhodoid [[/underline]] 1 [[g?]] long .07 wide, yellowish opaque, with whitish bowel-like markings, & a broad dorsal fuscous vitta. T.O.
89) Breast bone [[insertion]] as in strobil. [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[image - sketch of breast bone]] prongs acute tapering at [30°] 45° [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] 3 [[underline]] Rhod. [[/underline]] pupae, one pale sanguieous, [[insertion]] ^ wings & 1 legs pale yellowish [[/insertion]] abd. with yellowish mottlings between the sutures : 2 blackish [[insertion]] ^ including wings and legs [[/insertion]] with abd sanguin. or dull lake red, broadly vittate dorsally with fuscous | dark pupa came out in an hour thor. setae 1/8 width of thorax : none behind horn [[line]] [[underline]] Rhod. [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ larva [[/insertion]] lies [[underline]] now [[/underline]] head upwards [[line]] [[underline]] Strob. [[/underline]] larva - breastbone [[strikethrough]] a circular [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ two confluent oval [[/insertion]] plates with two slender parallel (not divergent) thorn-like [[insertion]] ^ very ^ acute [[/insertion]] prongs [[strikethrough]] [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] [[image - sketch of prongs]] yellowish opaque, with whitish mottlings .12 long, .071 wide: 4 or 5 or 6 [[insertion]] ^ central [[/insertion]] dorsals with a honey yellow vitta occupying 1/3 of dorsum [[insertion]] ^ another specimen yellowish immaculate [[/insertion]] [outer sides parallel, inner sides slightly divergent]. Found 2 [[underline]] hairy [[/underline]] (chalcid) bright yellow larvae, tail pointed about .08 long, curled up, & very wide under scales of strob. galls, among [[image - sketch of cocoon]] & [[image - sketch of cocoon]] cocoons. These 2 last very generally found in company [[line]] C. S. [underline]] siliquae [[/underline]] - tip of cocoon truncate as in [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] [[line]] [[line]] C.s. [[overwritten]] podagrae [[/overwritten]] [[underline]] batatas [[underline]]. [[insertion]] ^ .09 inch long, .04 wide [[/insertion]] breastbone [[image - sketch of breastbone]] long, black & clove-shaped - larva orange-colored - white chalcid. pupae intermixed - cells like those of lasioptera solidaginis. one found in regular gall, several in a siliquae-like gall, mixed in with siliquae [[line]] [A [[female symbol]] callimome pupa - yellowish [[insertion]] ^ some blackish abdomen [[/insertion]] - tail recurved on back] found dozens in s. podagrae galls [[line]] T.O. [[end page]] [[start page]] (90 Found another apparently [[underline]] siliquae [[/underline]] galls full of these [[image - sketch of larva]] orange larvae, in [[underline]] solidaginis [[/underline]] - like cells. Are they [[strikethrough]] [[ underline]] rufi-ventris [[/underline]] [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] s. batatas [[/underline]] & inguilines? No cocoon, but a smooth cell [[line]] C.s. {[[strikethrough]] amaranthus [[/strikethrough]] gnaphalioides 1 [[female symbol]] callimome [[insertion]] ^ pupa [[/insertion]] yellowish [[line]] Pupa cecid [[overwritten]] amaranthus [[/overwritten]] [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] gnaphalioides [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] just like (3 spec.) rhodoides. [[image - rounded part of pupa]] rounded [[strikethrough]] & scarcely so deeply imarginate [[/strikethrough]] on one side behind horn seems a very short slender seta 2/3 [[insertion]] ^ the [[thorxcus?]] one [[/insertion]] thor. seta short [[insertion]] ^ = 1/6 of thor. diameter [[/insertion]]. Pupa almost as long as gall, wing cases & legs blackish. Thor & abd. dull red tinged & marked with fuscous, nearly as in rhodoides, thor. almost fuscous [[line]] Apr. 25 Bred cecid. [[insertion]] ^ [[male symbol]] [[/insertion]] {[[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] orbitalis [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] n. sp? from a tenthredinous (euura) gall on s. [[overwritten]] [[?]] [[/overwritten]] humilis only gall bored in the bottle & the pupa skin, which has no horns like {batatas podagrae preserved. It resembles otherwise {batatas podagrae. Gall preserved, evidently from the skin tenthredinous. Ant. 17 jd. (2 + 15) last joint double and very large & long. Abd. dull rufous, brownish with brown hairs on back, laterally & beneath white hairs. Thorax dull umber brown above, with a double row of white hairs in the suture. Origin of wings fulvous. Bifurcation pretty distinct. Scutel blackish, a little polished. In a cell in the gall found a slightly hairy chalcid.? larva. head [[image - sketch of larva head]] no breast-bone. [[line]] C.s. [[strikethrough]] amaranthus [[/strikethrough]] gnaphalioides. From pupa dug out April 23, came out in an hour. Butchered today (25th), abd. dors. [[insertion]] ^ deep [[/insertion]] brown with the sutures bright sanguineous, brown = 2, sanguin. = 1. Venter sanguineous with short appressed whitish hairs. Bifurcation distinct. Origin of wings scarcely sanguineous. Dorsum thor. blackish [[line]] C.s. [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] [[female symbol]] Abd. blackish dors. sutures, when viewed from behind [[underline]] only [[/underline]], narrowly sanguineous. Venter densely covered with [[insertion]] ^ short [[/insertion]] whitish appressed pubescence, on removing a part
91) of which it is seen to be dark blood-red. Dors. thorax blackish, origin of wings fulvous. Dense white hairs sides of abd. Dors - ovipos retracted so as to appear [[male symbol]]. Found 7 or 8 wingless blackish aphides [[image - sketch of aphid]] on fresh gathered s. brassic. galls. Gathered numerous [[underline]] q. podagrae [[/underline]] galls & noticed almost all were much bored. By primary dimorphous [[male and female symbols]] type in the preceding autumn? [[line]] Apr. 27. C.S. [podagrae] [[underlined]] batatas [[/underlined]] [[insertion]] ^ [bred no cypnips q. podagrae this year: :. a few days too late.] [[/insertion]] [[female symbol]] came out, abd. sanguineous: but with the dorsum, except a narrow suture completely covered with [[insertion]] ^ 1 short [[/insertion]] brown hair, [[lill?]] rubbed off when underneath sanguineous; ovip. also brown. [[line]] Apr.28 [[underline]] Rhodoides [[/underline]] [[image - hand pointing to right]] { [[insertion]] ^ other [[male symbol]] [[strikethrough]] pussy - trap [[/strikethrough]] rhodoides, have only about 21-j. [[/insertion]] [[male symbol]] ant. distinctly 25-jointed (23 + 2) last jt. longish. Dors. abd. brown black, [[underline]] no red, [[/underline]] venter covered with white hairs, on removing a portion of which it is seen to be dark blood-red. On removing dorsal hairs, sutures narrowly blood red when viewed from behind. [[underline]] Strobiloid [[/underline]] [[two female symbols]] Dors. abd. brown-black, sutures dark blood red narrowly, especially when viewed from behind. [[strikethrough]] Abd. [[/strikethrough]] Venter covered with whitish hairs, on removing which it is very dark blood red. [[line]] Apr. 29 The {[[insertion]] ^ [[underlined]] fulvi-ventris [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] orange-colored larva enclosed in cocoon under scales of s. strobil. has a distinct clove-like [[image - clove-like breastbone]] breast-bone. Lasioptera? not bred yet. Found in one such cocoon, with [[end page]] [[start page]] (92 its head protruding, a proctotrupid (broken but preserved) & another at large under scales of same gall. Both preserved on same card. It is singular that under scales [[image - vertically elongated oval]] & [[image - circular oval]] occur in company so often. Found [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ three galls [very many in May] [[/insertion]] with very numerous [[image - circular oval]] & no [[image - vertically elongated oval]]. Found [[insertion]] ^ among numerous [[image - circular oval]] & [[image - vertically elongated oval]] ]] [[/insertion]] a deep yellow [[underline]] hairy [[/underline]] larva [[insertion]] ^ (.09 - .10 inch long .40 wide - 4 of these) ) [[/insertion]] [[image - circular oval]] under strobil. scales, [[strikethrough]] [ [[/strikethrough]] in a brown [[insertion]] ^ silken [[/insertion]] cocoon [[strikethrough]] ] [[/strikethrough]] .15 long Produces small {[[underlined]] yellow [[/underlined]] chalcid? [[insertion]] no: too small [[/insertion]] No breastbone. [[line]] Found large chalcid. [[strikethrough]] oak [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ pupa [[/insertion]] inside central cocoon [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] There are only [[underline]] thoracic [[/underline]] thorns [[image - sketch of pupa with thorns]] on c.s. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] pupa. Found two [[image - elongated oval]] that had been eaten into [[image - elongated oval with part missing indicating it had been eaten]] by the lepid. larva. Therefore, must have been in that state since summer of 1863, when lepid. larva existed. Two or three [[underline]] c.s. strobil. [[/underline]] still in larva state. (Apr 29 Apr. 30. [[male and female symbol]] small c. [[strikethrough]] rufi [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ "fulvi [[/insertion]] [[underline]] ventris" [[/underline]] R.R. culvert [[insertion]] ^ strobil. galls [[/insertion]] dorsum of abdomen brown hairs with widish red sutures. Also ditto 1 [[female symbol]] s. strobil. galls. Found 2 recent & several old [[underline]] "S. siliquae" [[/underline]] galls on [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] willow. Placed with others. Short stalk. Many (4 or 5) C. S. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] still in larva in the field. One [[strikethrough]] st [[/strikethrough]] in pupa. Some [[insertion]] ^ cocoons [[/insertion]] empty. The [[image - elongated oval]] were plump & full in the field: in my cocoons almost all shrivelled more or less. Very numerous callimome & other chalcid. (same as those from s. [podagrae] [[insertion]] [[underlined]] batatas [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] ) obtained today & previously from the [[underline]] bored [[/underline]] galls s. [podagrae] [[insertion]] [[underlined]] batatas [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] in a separate jar, which have produced no [[insertion]] ^ cecid. [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] cid [[/strikethrough]] s. [podagrae] [[insertion]] [[underlined]] batatas [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]]
93) In Chalcididae the ramus is the basal side of the radial area, which in some species is completed by a hyaline vein. The anal vein (as in Cynips) is present & hyaline. The areolet & 2nd transverse vein & cubitus are obsolete, but there is a trace of a 1st transverse vein. [[line]] May 3. Bred [[male and female symbols]] [[strikethrough]] rufi [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ small [[underline]] fulvi- [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] [[underline]] ventris [[/underline]] from strobil. cocoons (under scales of gall [[image]]) [[strikethrough]] pr [[/strikethrough]] isolated in bottle. Identical with numerous specimens bred from strobil [[insertion]] ^ galls? [[/insertion]] (cocoons). Its pupa, which had worked its way out of cocoon [[underline]] in the bottle [[/underline]], thor. parts [[insertion]] ^ & legs [[/insertion]] brown black, abd. sanguineous. Horns [[image - sketch of horns]] diverging at 130°, acute and terminating in a [[insertion]] ^ very [[/insertion]] minute acute thorn. No perceptible bristle behind horns. Thoracic bristle slender, 1/2 as long as width of thorax. Notum of thorax dull sanguin. with two brown vittae the scutel sanguineous. Dors. abd. tinged with brown. A lot [[insertion]] ^ of [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Strobil. [[/underline]] galls, [[insertion]] ^ examined, contained [[/insertion]] 2 or 3 chalc. solitary pupae [[image - sketch of pupae]], 3 or 4 with (each) 7 or 8 chalcid. pupae (bred from & ascertained) 2 cec. s. strob pupae & 2 larvae. Found a [[underline]] second [[/underline]] case on the Bluffs today where a red oak with [[underline]] q. inanis [[/underline]] galls grew within 50 or 60 ft. of a black oak with q. sponifica galls. Judged the { [[insertion]] black oak [[/insertion]] species} by the highth that the rough bark ascended the stem. Each was 4 or 5 inches in diameter at butt. [It was a black oak June 26.] Some weeks ago noticed a [[underline]] single [[/underline]] spongifica gall on the clump of trees near slaughter-house, previously supposed to be [[destr?]] of that gall. [[end page]] [[start page]] (94 The long cocoons [[image - sketch of cocoon]] under scales of s. strobiloides galls gathered today were [[insertion]] ^ very [[/insertion]] many of them flattened & not plump (just as those a long time in my jars). Found a very large rough subspherical gall on a [[underline]] red oak [[/underline]]; 2 1/2 - 3 inches in diameter. Cells old & exposed mostly: dug one whitish cynipide [[male symbol]] pupa in the field out of it. Gall q. punctata, Bassett? [Bred anomalous inquilines from it [[image - sketch of gall]] ]. [Turned the "R.R. culvert" strobiloides galls along with the others in the big jar] [[line]] "The impression that the living species, connected by such a close link of relationship to some Amber diptera, are not new additions to the number of old species, but are so to say, the transformed old species, is in my opinion irresistable to any unprejudiced observer" Loew 1861 on Amber Diptera Silliman's Journal XXXVII. p. 315 "Analogous species (plastic [or structural [[symbol]] colorational] distinctive characters.") "There is not a single instance on record which wd. justify the conclusion that under the now prevailing natural conditions, any species could be modified in that way, either through climatic influences, or in consequence of a compulsory change of food or through the contact with some other species" ibid. p. 324 May 4 Opened 30 or 40 [[underline]] s. gemmae [[underline]] galls. Found no cecid. larva or pupa, but in 5 of them, 5 chalcid. pupae. Cocoon of cecid. in one gall apparently [[underline]] brown [[/underline]] not [[underline]] white [[/underline]]
95) [[strikethrough]] Apr [[/strikethrough]] May 6. More than a dozen of the s. [podagrae] [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] batatas [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] callimome (as previously) from s. [podagrae] [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] batatas [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] galls bored [[insertion]] ^ last February [[/insertion]] & placed in separate jar. They had already produced the other pod. parasites autumnal crop of c. s. podagrae? [[insertion]] ^ batatas? [[/insertion]] C. S. [[underline]] [amaranthus] [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ gnaphalioides [[/insertion]] [[female symbol]] [[insertion]] ^ immature [[/insertion]] abd. sanguineous. dorsum with sutures [[insertion]] ^ widely [[/insertion]] sanguineous, rest with [[insertion]] ^ pale [[/insertion]] brown hair. sang. = [[underline]] pale [[/underline]] brown in extents. [[^ No lateral erect white brushes of hair]] Venter. sang. with white hairs [[line]] Cec. s. [[underline]] strobiloides [[/underline]] [[female symbol]]. Venter dark blood-red, with white [[insertion]] ^ appressed [[/insertion]] pubescence. Dorsum brown, sutures [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ distinctly blood [[/insertion]] red, [[^ but only when viewed from behind]], but few brown hairs even when unrubbed, lateral brush of white hairs. A medial transverse [[strikethrough]] [[ca?]] [[strikethrough]][[^ stria]] on each dorsal jt., behind which surface is glabrous & shows red from behind. Another [[symbol for female]], more mature, venter is very dark blood red, almost red-brown, & space behind transverse stria shows dark blood red both above and & from behind, from behind [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] paler & brighter. Two other [[symbol for female]], ditto, but venter paler. In about a dozen [[symbol for female]] {[[underline]] fulviventris [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] [[^ sanguine - more properly]] [[/strikethrough]] examined, abd. was bright sanguineous, one or two scarcely brown above between the sutures, the rest more or less brown (by brown hairs) between the sutures. Ovip. pale yellow in all. Sang. color seems due to eggs inside. [[line]] May 7. C.s. [[underline]] brassic. [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] venter rather deep blood-red. Abd dorsally [[strikethrough[[ brownish [[/strikethrough]] [[^ obscure brownish blood red (a few]] brown hairs) & laterally longer cinereous hairs. Transverse stria rather indistinct; behind [[end page]] [[start page]] 96) them viewed from behind color is dark blood red. Bred [[symbol for female]] [[strikethrough]] sanguini [[/strikethrough]] fulvi-ventris (from strob [[strikethrough]] cocoons [[/strikethrough]] [[^ galls]]ant. 2/3 of abdomen creamy yellow with a [[underline]] narrow [[underline]] linear [[^ sub-]] fuscous vitta in an acute stria; post. 1/3 blood-red ~(sanguineous), & normal, without any stria or vitta. Therefore [[^ yellowish]] appearance caused by extrusion of eggs & the 2 [[underline]] [[symbol for male]] [[/underline]] bred before [[^ p. 88]] = [[strikethrough]] sanguini [[/strikethrough]] fulvi-ventris? yes: see below Bred [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] strobiloides. [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] Abd [[/strikethrough]] [[^ venter]] dull yellowish brown white pubescence. Dorsum brown; transverse stria rather distinct; space behind them dull yellowish brown, more especially when viewed from behind [[line]] Bred [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] fulviventris;[[/underline]] abd. yellowish fulvous; with a dorsal long[[?]] stria showing a subfuscous linear irregular vitta antennae about 14 - jd = 2 [[symbol for male]] bred before (p. 88) [[line]] A [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] fulventris [[/underline]] has abd. [[underline]] bright [[/underline]] sanguineous as usual, but shows a dorsal long[[?]] stria. [[line]] May 8. Bred Lasioptera solidaginis o.s.from Laurel oak galls. A [[symbol for female]] C. s. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] that was extruding her sanguin. eggs and when abd. was sensibly smaller than usual, had the dorsum entirely brown-black, even when viewed from behind. Venter, where denuded of whitish pubescence, dull [[ ^ yellowish brick]] red. Another [[symbol for female]] venter very dark dingy blood red, dorsum brown-black immaculate. Legs [[underline]] reflect[[/underline]] silvery [[^ beneath]] even to tips of tarsi, otherwise terminal 1/2 of tarsi fuscous beneath. [[line]] Bred from the [[underline]] bored [[/underline]] lot of s batatas [podegrae] the same decatoma with spotted wings as yesterday from the others. Thus of 3 chalcidides all identical in the bored and unbored galls. Hence [[underline]] autumnal [[/underline]] brood of c.s. batatas] [podagrae]? [[end page]]
[[start page]] 97) Gathered a lot (15 or 16) fresh s. strobiloides galls. Found in them two [[image - elongated]] which had manifestly got the yellow gathered at the one end (the small end) thus [[image]] Cut off the [[^apparently]] empty end & found [[strikethrough]] A [[/strikethrough]] whitish fluid & the yellow squeezed out shapeless & yolk-like. Eggs? In the gall the [[underline]] small [[/underline]] end always uppermost or next the tip of the gall; the [[underline]] large[[/underline]] end is often embedded in the solid stalk. Of 29 obtained, 14 were plump & 15 flattened & apparently dead. [[bracketed]] X May 9. I have a gall similar to small [[underline]] s. batatas [podagrae] [[/underline]] found on "[[strikethrough]] strobiloides willow [[/strikethrough]] salix cordata" which I notice today has been bored probably by Chalcididae. It is in miscellaneous jar. No Cecid. yet from that jar, though lots of s. pod. chalcid. [[Image]] Found a larva apparently of c.s. podagrae in one of the bored galls, clove breastbone & color orange. [[/bracketed]] [[line]] c.s. [[underline]] brass. [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] Anterior [[/underline]] [[^ (sec)]] [[strikethrough]] part [[/strikethrough]] 1/2 of dors. abd. sanguineous, hind 1/2 pale yellowish brown, venter sanguineous [[^ front]] 3/4, rest as above. Brown hairs only occupy 1/2 of each segment. 2 [[symbol for female]] c.s. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] one venter bright sanguin., one venter brown tinged in front with sanguineous. Both dorsum brown, sutures sanguineous, especially behind the stria when viewed from behind. [[line]] May 10. 2 [[symbol for female]] [[^ [[underline]] brassic [[/underline]] ]] 1 [[^ (immature)]] entirely sanguineous dors. abd., 1 entirely brown-black except from behind sutures slightly sang. [[symbol for male]] abd. dull luteous [[line]] 1 [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] strob. [[/underline]] whole abd. obscure pale yellowish brown [[line]] 1 [[symbol for male]] [[^ wasp [[underline]] orbitalis [[/underline]] ]] enura galls on s. [[strikethrough]] [[t?]] [[/strikethrough]] humilis whole abd. luteous, 2 or 3 basal jts of dorsum transversely brown on middle half. Ant. [[symbol for male]] 2 + 20 jd. [[end page]] [[start page]] 98) 1 [[symbol for male]], 1 [[symbol for female]] from small batatas [podagrae]. Inquilinous & = J. p. 90? Pupa skin no horns as [[underline]] fulviventris [[/underline]]. Otherwise like that species. [[symbol for male]] dors. abd. dull luteous, basal segments brown, 2 or 3 next each less & less brown, [[strikethrough]] lat [[/strikethrough]] medially only. [[symbol for female]] [[^ whole]] abd. sanguineous, dorsally except sutures as little brownish by brown hairs. [[line]] cecid. [[underline]] orbitalis [[/underline]] [[^ recent [[symbols of male and female]] ]] Walsh has a [[strikethrough]] bright [[/underline]] conspicuous white linear orbit behind each eye [[^ meeting above]] on the occiput. Rest of occiput blackish. In other sp. e.g. brassic. this is gray & not very conspicuous. [[line]] May 12. Today the callimome had just coming out of s. batatas [podagrae galls], & the spotted winged rufous & black eurytomid almost - [more of eurytomid to May 13] [[line]] c.s. [[underline]] Brassic. [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] whole abd. dorsum dark sanguineous. In this species [[^ dorsal abd.]] whitish haris are laterally not in bunches, or scarcely so. Varies, see May 13th. [[line]] c.s. gnaphalioides [amaranthus]. very 1st gall opened contained a [[underline]] living[[/underline]] pupa; front part [[^ & legs]] blackish, hind part [[^ dark blood]] red. Horns [[image]] as in strob. etc. Thoracic thorns 1/8 as long as width of thorax, whitish. Preserved it. [[line]] May 13. Came out of s. [[underline]] brassic.[[/underline]] galls a white larva, a little yellow [[^ on the]] 2 or 3 ant. segments, with a clove [[^ shaped]] breastbone. [[image]] arrow headed at base. Length .1 inch, 3 1/2 as long as wide. Preserved it, with "laurel oak gall" sm. bottle. [[line]] [[symbol for male]] c.s. [[underline]] brassic. [[/underline]] venter (hair removed) pale brown; dorsum entirely brown. [[symbols of two females]] brass. Dorsal hairs in one twice as long & dense (especially laterally) as in the other one. Both dorsum red. Specimens unrubbed. [[image]] [[end page]]
[[NOTE: This page has a note overlay covering a portion of the text. The note is on digital page 89. The text without note is on digital page 90]] [[start page]] 99) c.s. gnaphalioides [amaranthus] cocoon is no longer than pupa and about 2/3 - 3/4 as long as the gall. Dug out of one 6 specimens of the Chalcidide bred from so many of these galls, [[symbol for male]] rufous. ant. [[symbol for female]] black ant. thorax [[image: square]] no sutures. Opened 20-30 galls. Pupae all apparently dead. Anterior part black, posterior dark sanguineous. [[line]] May 14. The callimome has ceased coming out of s. batatas [podagrae] galls for many days: the spotted winged decatoma? still coming out. the [[symbol for male]] callimome had come out [[^ ]]numerously]] [[underline]] at least [[/underline]] a week before a [[symbol for female]] appeared. [[line]] Found [[underline]] loose [[/underline]] among s. strobiloides galls one of the yellow hairy chalcidide? larvae. Placed in vial. [[line]] A spotted winged decatoma? from [[underline]] small [[/underline]] [[^ [^[failed?] ]] s. pod. batatas galls. [[line]] 3 [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] fulviventris. [[/underline]] Abd. of all [[underline]] not [[/underline]] sanguineous but clay-yellow or pale fulvous, Banded above between the sutures indistinctly with brown, one insect more than the others. Ant. 2 + 12 jd. (about). Back of the head uniformly dusky, no orbital white or gray line as in [[underline]] orbitalis.[[/underline]] [[line]] May 15. [[symbol for female]] c. [[underline]] fulviventris, [[/underline]] ten minutes after it came out of pupa, showed dark brown dorsum except sutures & also 2 last segments. Ovip. as usual yellowish. Venter sanguineous. 2 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] other [[symbol of 2 females]] showed 7 basal dorsal segments brown, [[^ except sutures sanguineous]], [[^ 8th 1 or]] last sang. --- had only terminal 1/2 of 6 basal segm. slightly brown -----------------------------3----------------------------------------------- [[end page]] [[start page]] 100) [[underline]] C. orbitalis [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] ( from small s. podagrae galls) has orbits conspicuously white in a line behind next the eye. 7 dorsal abd. jts slightly brown medially above, 8th or last sang., ovip. yellowish. Epistoma(?) with conspicuous white hairs. Bifurcate complete. [[line]] May 20. [[underline]] Small s. batatas [podagrae] galls produced several [[symbols for male and female]] callimome, same as [[underline]] large [[/underline]] s. batatas [podagrae] which also today produced a few [[symbols for male and female]] but no more spotted [[underline]] Decatoma? [[/underline]] [[line]] Bred 5 specimens [[underline]] Saperda [[covered by note]] rnata [[/underline]] Say from willow branches. This species [[covered by note]] dentified" by LeConte ([[?]] Say's works) [[line]] May 21. Bred 2 [[symbol for female]] n. [[covered by note]] of Inquilines on q. punctata [[?]] galls [[^ found Oct. 65 to be black oak]] (red oak[[covered by note]] dorsally, & 5 - 7 gradually smaller till 7 is = 1/2 of 2 dorsally]] [[strikethrough]] 2nd joint dorsally [[^ scarcely]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 1/3 of [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] V.V. indistinct; [[covered by note]] short [[^ sheaths protruding from its tip]] with ovipos. protruding ant. [[symbol for female]] 14 jd. [[^ [[symbol for male]] 14 - jd. also, June 2]] [[covered by note]] than 13. Abd. rufous [[^2 [[?]] ]] basal [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] basal 1/2 of 3 [[covered by note]] (but not laterally)]] black: [[strikethrough]] 3 nearly as long as 2: rest gradually shorter. [[/strikethrough]] Radial area closed, closing vein extending beyond it along [[costal?]] edge. Areolet moderate, distinct, 1/4 of the way from base of rad. area. [Parasites on abd. as in many rhoditifornus 1864] [[line]] May 22. 4 or 5 callimome from small s. batatas [podagrae] noticed in almost every [[image-elongated]] forms. Strobiloides gall, a fuscous dot [[^ [on each side] ]] formed near the [[underline]] small [[/underline]] or upper end thus [[image]]. Maturing to pupa? [= eyes of orchelimum] [[line]] May 24. 1 [[symbol for male]] 2 [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] brassicoides [[/underline]] came out - threw away [[line]] May 26. 2 [[underline]] ditto [[underline]] came out [[line]] - [[image - elongated]] under strobiloides scales (insulated in bottle), prove to be eggs [[?]] orchelimum. Four hatched out. [[end page]]
[[penciled line at top]] .48 .30 .12 .08 [[drawn line]] .98
[[NOTE: This is the same as digital page 88 without the overlay note]] [[start page]] 99) c.s. gnaphalioides [amaranthus] cocoon is no longer than pupa and about 2/3 - 3/4 as long as the gall. Dug out of one 6 specimens of the Chalcidide bred from so many of these galls, [[symbol for male]] rufous. ant. [[symbol for female]] black ant. thorax [[image: square]] no sutures. Opened 20-30 galls. Pupae all apparently dead. Anterior part black, posterior dark sanguineous. [[line]] May 14. The callimome has ceased coming out of s. batatas [podagrae] galls for many days: the spotted winged decatoma? still coming out. the [[symbol for male]] callimome had come out [[^ ]]numerously]] [[underline]] at least [[/underline]] a week before a [[symbol for female]] appeared. [[line]] Found [[underline]] loose [[/underline]] among s. strobiloides galls one of the yellow hairy chalcidide? larvae. Placed in vial. [[line]] A spotted winged decatoma? from [[underline]] small [[/underline]] [[^ [^[failed?] ]] s. pod. batatas galls. [[line]] 3 [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] fulviventris. [[/underline]] Abd. of all [[underline]] not [[/underline]] sanguineous but clay-yellow or pale fulvous, Banded above between the sutures indistinctly with brown, one insect more than the others. Ant. 2 + 12 jd. (about). Back of the head uniformly dusky, no orbital white or gray line as in [[underline]] orbilatis.[[/underline]] [[line]] May 15. [[symbol for female]] c. [[underline]] fulviventris, [[/underline]] ten minutes after it came out of pupa, showed dark brown dorsum except sutures & also 2 last segments. Ovip. as usual yellowish. Venter sanguineous. 2 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] other [[symbol of 2 females]] showed 7 basal dorsal segments brown, [[^ except sutures sanguineous]], [[^ 8th 1 or]] last sang. --- had only terminal 1/2 of 6 basal segm. slightly brown -----------------------------3----------------------------------------------- [[end page]] [[start page]] 100) [[underline]] C. orbitalis [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] ( from small s. podagrae galls) has orbits conspicuously white in a line behind next the eye. 7 dorsal abd. jts slightly brown medially above, 8th or last sang., ovip. yellowish. Epistoma(?) with conspicuous white hairs. Bifurcate complete. [[line]] May 20. [[underline]] Small s. batatas [podagrae] galls produced several [[symbols for male and female]] callimome, same as [[underline]] large [[/underline]] s. batatas [podagrae] which also today produced a few [[symbols for male and female]] but no more spotted [[underline]] Decatoma? [[/underline]] [[line]] Bred 5 specimens [[underline]] Saperda inornata [[/underline]] Say from willow branches. This species was "not identified" by LeConte ([[?]] Say's works) [[line]] May 21. Bred 2 [[symbol for female]] n.sp. & genus of Inguilines on q. punctata [[?]] galls [[^ found Oct. 65 to be black oak]] (red oak). Abd. [[^ 2 = 3 = 4, dorsally, & 5 - 7 gradually smaller till 7 is = 1/2 of 2 dorsally]] [[strikethrough]] 2nd joint dorsally [[^ scarcely]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 1/3 of [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] V.V. indistinct; dorsal v. short [[^ sheaths protruding from its tip]] with ovipos. protruding ant. [[symbol for female]] 14 jd. [[^ [[symbol for male]] 14 - jd. also, June 2]] 14 a little longer than 13. Abd. rufous [[^2 [[?]] ]] basal [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] basal 1/2 of 3 [[^ & 4 on the dorsum (but not laterally)]] black: [[strikethrough]] 3 nearly as long as 2: rest gradually shorter. [[/strikethrough]] Radial area closed, closing vein extending beyond it along [[costal?]] edge. Areolet moderate, distinct, 1/4 of the way from base of rad. area. [Parasites on abd. as in many rhoditifornus 1864] [[line]] May 22. 4 or 5 callimome from small s. batatas [podagrae] noticed in almost every [[image-elongated]] forms. Strobiloides gall, a fuscous dot [[^ [on each side] ]] formed near the [[underline]] small [[/underline]] or upper end thus [[image]]. Maturing to pupa? [= eyes of orchelimum] [[line]] May 24. 1 [[symbol for male]] 2 [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] brassicoides [[/underline]] came out - threw away [[line]] May 26. 2 [[underline]] ditto [[underline]] came out [[line]] - [[image - elongated]] under strobiloides scales (insulated in bottle), prove to be eggs [[?]] orchelimum. Four hatched out. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 101) Several subsequently came out. Lie in the shell of egg thus [[image]] - Green in the egg & when they first come out: shortly become much marked with black. [[line]] June 5. [[underline]] Lucidota [[/underline]] atra bred from a pinkish white pupa found May 22 under bush, with a blackish larva skin near it. [[line]] X Even the eurytomades on [[underline]] q. punctata [[/underline]] galls were full of those octopod? parasites that infest both its inguilines. [[line]] Found two of larva No. 66 (Hagen) under stones on rapids, one preserved in alcohol. The other swims with its 3 caudal appendages alone [[^ held at 45° with axis, guiding itself occasionally by moving some of its legs]] (no lateral branchae) which it {[[^ thrashes]] vibrates up & down vigorously. Kept alive & vigorous three days in cistern water changed twice a day. Other (Ephem. & Pert.) larvae mostly died, except one Perlad. [[line]] June 8. [[underline]] Cec. orbitalis [[/underline]] from small s. podagrae galls [[symbol for female]] orbits normally white; 3 linear vittae on notum; scutel white hairs: pleura [[underline]] fulvous [[/underline]] sanguin: venter sanguineous with short appressed white pubesc. longer whiter & denser towards notum of abd: dorsum brown (7 segm), rest & ovip. [[underline]]sanguin. [[/underline]]fulvous. Hind edge of abd. dors. segm. [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] cinerous hairs. Sutures same as dorsum & notum of thor. c.e. dark umber brown. [[line]] June 9. No. 66 still alive. Crawls quite slowly [[image]] swims strongly [[end page]] [[start page]] June 10. Noticed in the opening behind the carapace, on taking the No. 66 out of water, filmy branchia vibrating strongly [& also pair of [[^ appendages]] [[ (image]) ]] behind attached to notum [[image]] origin on base of branchiae? These last not seen on a second inspection.] [[line]] June 11. Attacus Cecropia ([[symbol for female]] came out) holds its wings [[underline]] vertically [[/underline]] closed [[image]] [[strikethrough]] [[D?]][[/strikethrough]] Cerato-campadae. [[line]] Found [[strikethrough]] 5 or [[/strikethrough]] 6 more [[underline]] baetisca [[/underline]] larvae. The last ventral but 4 is twice is long as the others as in the [[underline]] imago, [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] In [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[^ but with an indication of a central obsolete suture]] under the tip of the carapace, attached to the basal ventrals on each side is large soft membranous branchia [[image]] The head articulates with the carapace by membrane, freely. No [[underline]] dorsal [[/underline]] abdominals visible before the 5 external ones. Dissected one, put one in alcohol. Four placed alive in jar. [[line]] Found many Nematus leaf galls [[^ [[underline]] s. pomum [[/underline]] ]] [[image]] on [[strikethrough]] : strobiloides [[/strikethrough]] [[^ s. cordata]] willow. Contained a white tenthred larvae 1/10 or 1/8 inch long. [[line]] June 12. The first c. q. pseudotincloriae opened contained a large white larva, apparently alive, & cynipidous(?). The fasciations, not vittation, of legs proves Batisca (?) larva Ephemerinous not Odonatous. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 103) In the living baetisca larva, on its elevating its carapace, looking under it there seem to be the basal dors. abd. segments normally arranged. Are they membranous? The branchia, after the water had dried out, adhered to the carapace & left a clear view. There are [[underline]] laterally [[/underline]] dorsal abd. of a horny texture but narrow. X Today opened about 8 q. spongifica galls, which were on the average not full grown yet. One contained a mass of 12 or 16 chalcidide larvae [[image]]; 1 a half grown cynipide larve; the rest nearly or quite fullgrown ditto. Strung 21 galls on the S. W. side of a larger black oak (nearly 2 ft thro at butt) S W from the slaughter house. 0 Found Authonomus prunicida on a plum on a wild plum tree, almost all the fruit of which had 1 - 5 [[underline]] round [[/underline]] perforations, & a few were gnawed out or excised. A string of gum exuded from almost all the round holes. No [[image]]incisions. [[end page]] [[start page]] 104) A large [[^ ash]] gray caterpillar about [[^ 2 -]] 2 1/4 [[strikethrough]] or 2 [[/strikethrough]] inch long, anal prolegs, very long & slender, two segments behind thorax much elongated with which it loops as it progresses, th[[strikethrough]] r [[/strikethrough]]ough it is 16-footed. Under 3 or 4 of the middle segments a larger squarish black patch. Food plant ___ ? Spun up between leaves June 13. In glass-[[?]] dirt cage. [July 7 came out a Catocala.] [[line]] June 13. Baetisca obesa [[symbol for female]] came out from larva No 66 obtained 8 days ago. [[line]] June 15. The three caudal setae B. obesa are very distinctly feathered on both sides. [[image]] The smallest specimen had crawled out of water yesterday & is there motionless still. [[line]] Are the lateral thorns of carapace the wing cases? Yes. [[line[[ June 16. The "smallest specm June 15" was apparently dead, having remained in the same place 2 days. Put in alcohol. In the evening a [[symbol for male]] [[^ imago]] came out & a [[symbol for female]] split open on back and partly came out & died. It was found floating [[underline]] in the water; [[/underline]] not on the cork; put in alcohol. Also remaining specimen put in alcohol, which was convulsively moving & apparently just going to come to subimago. Thus they lived over 5 days in clear water, & 1st spcm. 6 or 7 days. [[end page]]
1050 June 19. In Diplax, anus [[symbol for female]] is [[underscore]]below [[/underscore]] middle sup. process & [[underscore]] above [[/underscore]] two inferior processes. [[image - M-shape]] Had one void excrement in my hand [[checkmark]]. [[Same?]] gomphus Found 3 galls = q.sculptus Btt. but on black not red oak. Diamr .60-.85 inch [Dug a dead sculptus out of one afterwards] Found Myodites [[strike]] stylopidus [[/strike]] Walshii in the mouth of Harpactor cinctus in beating oaks on Dunlap's farm. Opened 3 spongifica galls: all in larva. None bored yet. Placed 21 more on the same tree, & 20 on the large black oak beyond fork of road overhanging Jon. Case's east fence, on the overhanging bough. -- On recent "[Merodosia fuzz]" ^s. aenigma^ (willow) noticed a larva of Thripide. Internal larvae barely visible as yet & small, but space whre they work discolored & brown.-- Found a spherical gall, internally like pseudotinctoria, on Black oak. Externally undistinguishable from small q. spongifica -- June 23. Gathered 15 spongifica galls below sawmill. None yet bored by [[underscore]] spongifica [[/underscore]]. Three pin-holes (loviventris?) in 3 galls, 1 in each. -- June 26. ^ previously^ scarce a [[underscore]] q. inanis [[/underscore]] gall to be met with. Where they were abundant last year. Those found all but one contained bunches of chalc. larvae. [[end page]] [[start page]] (106 June 28. The "[Merodosia fuzz]" ^s. aenigma^ full of [[underscore]]anthocoris pseudochinche [[/underscore]] Fitch, & its larva or pupa which is orange-color, immaculate -- s. [[underscore]]strobiloides [[/underscore]] grown to 1.2 inch in diameter, spherical white ^with green at base^ old galls still on tree. July 3. 1 [[symbol for male] c. nubilipennis came out. No spongifica came out yet out of about 18 galls. In the [[symbol for male]] [ita] Hetaerina anus is long slit [[double underscore]] between [[/double underscore]] the inferior appendages. (Ent. Soc. Spec, with long excrement protruding) July 10. gall [[underscore]]s. rhodoides [[/underscore]] slightly conical, leave except at tip round-ovate, green outside changing to pale yellowish green slightly tinged with rosy in the middle. Leaves in the extreme middle lanceolate. The shrub on which I found Pap. [[Jhons?]] last yaer is not pawpaw but Ptelea trifoliate Linn. (Rue family) shrubby trefoil or Hop-tree. -- July 16 Found anthonomus 4-gibbus s. abundant on Crataegus. -- July 17. The leaves of [[underscore]] s.brassic.[[/underscore]] galls are ovate-lanceolate, centrally lanceolate. Found plenty of ^winged^ Aphis on leaves [[image]] galls (galls also but noticed none winged)
[[start page]] 107) "Salix rostrata, a northern sp. occurring in Winnebago Co. frequently bears cones". M.S. Bebb [[line]] July 24. Found pupa-skin of Carpocapsa pometella half protruding from an apple in the breeding jar. [[line]] Tenthredinous larva in [[strikethrough]] leaf [[/strikethrough]] S. pomum galls of Salix numilis now .15 inch long. [[line]] Larvae (orange) in S. batatas [podagrae] .09 long & with [[^ slender]] clove-shaped breastbone. Another larva (white) no breastbone. Callimome? [[line]] Dimorphous [[2 symbols for male]] of Dicranota rivularis, (some long, some short antennae. O.S. Limnol[[?]], p. 250.) [[line]] July 25. Took 4 Tetyra fimbriata Say (Scutelleridae) in a caterpillar's (gregarious) nest on some plants. Myriads of little caterpillars [[image]] then fed on them? [[line]] Found larva (lepid) in [[underline]] S. strobil. [[/underline]] gall. Youngish? [[line]] July 26. Noticed swarm of Chinch bug on the wing in the air close to Jonah Case's farm. Pettit noticed the same in town. Flew freely. [[line]] Saw two or three Reduvius raptatorius on wild umbelliferous on Bluff-bottom farm. July 27 took [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] one there with a small Crabro in its mouth. [[line]] The caterpillars of Pap-asterius when they first appear [[^ (1/2 - ]] 3/4) inch long) are marked like Pap. thoas mature larva. [[end page]] [[start page]] 108) The fact of Dytiscidae dropping down upon glass frames, mistaking them for water as Westw. well suggests, as proof that they have perception of color. [[line]] July 27. Found many orange-color Cecid. larvae under scales of [[underline]] S. strobil. [[/underline]] gall. [[^ Largest]] about .07 inch long when extended 3 [[^ 3-1/2]] times as long as wide. Breast-bone clove-shaped, but not slender. [[line]] July 28. Took a pure white variety of Callimorpha militaris [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] near Dunlaps farm [[line]] Took [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] [[^ the large]] red Anthracide with a bee (Panurgus?) in its mouth. The bee had it feet entangled in Asclepias particles. [[line]] July 29.{ [[^ Came out an Orgyia [Parorgyia achatina [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] Packard [[strikethrough]] according to [[Grota?]] [[^ who borrowed the imago]] Tussock caterpillar on Salix ovata. Gray - Length .90 inch. Head [[^ shining[[?]] ]] black. On the dorsum of body joints 4-7 a brush-like [[^ transverse]] whitish tuft [[^ 3 [[?]] ]] 8 - 10 two dorsal small diverging tufts - [[image]] a long black pencil [[image, possibly a strikethrough]] on the jt. 1 (next head) a pair of such pencils. On {11} [[^ [12 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] ? see p. 153] ]] A less obvious [[^ taken under back [[?]] so yes; larva ]] & slenderer pair [[strikethrough]] nearly [[/strikethrough]] horizontal body with warts & diverging [[^ gray]] airs. On the same bush a cocoon = caterpillar? [No: this came out a [[underline]] Trichiosoma.][[/underline]] [[line]] The [[^ [[strikethrough]] leaf [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] S. [[Pomum?]] [[/underline]] ]] gall on S. cordata must be made by Anthonomus. [[^ [No. see p.110] ]] Found many larva & 2 pupae in them but no tenthred. larvae. The Nematas must be [[end page]]
[[start page]] 109) an inquiline. Found one gall [[underline] along with [[/underline]] an Anthonomus pupa a singular [[^ blue]] black polished pupa, hard thorny, abd bordered like scutel in Perilampus. [[image: abdomen?]]. Found 3 others by themselves in other galls. Placed in vial. Galls often rosy like an apple. Leaf galls { [[^ desmodioides ]] on S. humilis different shape. [[image]] [[line]] July 30. Noticed young Coccus hatched out from the body of the hickory Coccus gathered 5 or 6 days ago, & crawling about on its surface. Also long slender larva [[image]] protruding & twisting their bodies about like a Syrphus larva, the tail remaining on the body of the Coccus. [[line]] A large green Tortrix? larva (3/4 inch long) found bored into [[underline]] S. strobil. [[/underline]] gall. Evidently not its regular habitat? Placed in jar. [[line]] S. [ batatas/ podagrae ] larvae [[^ orange &]] already [[^ apparently]] full size, with slender clove-shaped breastbone. Some curdy white gut like markings above and below. [[strikethrough]] [ [[/strikethrough]] Cells [[^ irregularly shaped, placed]] at centre of gall about .1 or .07 from surface external part [[^ of gall]] white & fleshy. No cocoon apparent & surface of cell brown [[^ opaque]] & rather rough & scaly. May [[strikethrough]] spi [[/strikethrough]] make cocoon afterwards? Several white larva (Callimone [[ 6 decatoma?]] ) in the cells, not hairy & no breastbone. [[line]] Insect of gall not discoverable yet in S. [[gnaphalioides written over]] [[underline]] amaranthus [[/underline]] [[End page]] [[Start page]] 110) [[^ Lepidopt.]] larva of [[underline]] S. rhod. [[/underline]] gall greenish white, 1st jt. of body glossy blackish with slender pale dorsal line or vitta. Head blackish glossy, 6 legs dusky. [[line]] Larva (Cecid.) of [[underline]] S. rhod. [[underline]] hyaline with opaque curdy white marking & a longitud. [[strikethrough]] central [[/strikethrough]] yellow stripe in centre of body, 0.7 inch long. Breast-bone indistinct, but "curdy white" denotes it not a Chalcide. [[line]] [The lepid. of S. brassic. [[brassicoides?]] sent Clemens is not described yet by him; neither is that of solidago gall.] [[line[[ July 30. {Found [[^ [[underline]] S. pomum [[/underline]] ]] today numerous 20-footed Tenthredinous larvae (Nematus?) on leaf galls of S. cordata. [Anthonomus scutellatus must be an Inquiline.] Eyes large, blackish & distinct. Length about .20 inch. X Found in Chippiannock a bush partly S. [[underline]] longifolia [[underline]] & partly [[underline]] S. cordata. [[/underline]] The former had [[^ many]] brassicoides galls, the latter many strobiloides galls, & never vice versa. These two willows readily distinguishable by foliage. [[line]] July 31. [An inquilinous [[strikethrough]] Cy [[/strikethrough]] Cecidomyia see O.S. apud Loew pp. 180 & 184 [[image]] & 186.] Bred today [[symbol: 2 males, 1 female]] Cec. [[underline]] fulviventris [[/underline]] from [[underline]] new [[underline]] strobiloides galls. [[symbol for therefore]]species is double-brooded. [[line]] "Merodosia fuzz" = salicis aenigma [[line]] C. S. [[underline]] brassicoides [[underline]] larva already about [[strikethrough]] 0.4 - 0.6 [[/strikethrough]] [[^ 0.3 - [[strikethrough]] .09 [[/strikethrough]] .10 ]] inch long & whitish [[^ hyaline]] with curdy opaque gut-like markings breastbone indistinct. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 111) Several different kinds of caterpillars moving among the [[underline]] leaves [[/underline]] of[[underline]] S. brassic. [[/underline]] gall, not properly [[underline]]mining [[/underline]] in them. One very large one bores into the heart of S. [[underline]] Strobil. [[/underline]] gall (see p.109). [[line]] Several Anthocoris pseudochinche on S. [[underline]] strobil. [[/underline]] galls in my jar. [[line]] Found [[^ [[underline]] S. pomum [[/underline]] ]]in one [[^ willow leaf (S. cordata)]] gall the black chalcide? pupa & Anthonomus scutellatus Sch. [[^ In another Anthon larva + black chalcide]]. Apparently in different cells. One gall with two distinct holes bored to it [[^ & one Anthonomus only in it.]] One gall (bored) contained a Tenthred. larva, pale greenish white, head pale brown with two large blackish eyes [[^ 6 legs [[underline]] not [[/underline]] impotent. Length .15 inch. [[^ Legs 6, 0, 12, 0, 2 ]] A gall bored with one hole only contained 2 Anthonomus in separate cells separated by a thin partition. The black chalcide? pupa all [[^ but one]] suspended by a pale stout fibre [[underline]] by the tail [[/underline]] in the gall = larval spin. Anthon. larva IIIII; Anthon pupa II; Imagos about 12. [[^ 6 or 7]] galls not bored contain tenthred. larva; rest not opened. One gall 1 anthon. + 1 ditto larva. Gall [[^ fleshy like an apple but almost [[?]] very rarely kidney shaped on the underside of the leaf [[^ extending from midrib to edge]] & projecting but very slightly on the upper side, say [[strikethrough]] 1/6 or 1/4 [[/strikethrough]] of its volume. Occasionally almost 1/2 projects &[[strikethrough]] occasionally [[/strikethrough]] [[^ often]] the gall grows beyond edge of leaf & is almost spherical. Color [[^ greenish ]] yellow [[^ often]] with a rosy cheek like an apple [[^ especially on the upper suface ^& with dark white dots]] . Gall sometimes eaten into from the outside, so as to [[underline]] appear [[/underline]] bored [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] - contained Anthon pupa. [Eulophus attacks similar galls in Europe Westw.] [[End page]] [[start page]] 112) One bored [[strikethrough]] & [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] gall which had been vacated by the Anthon. Was tenanted by over 12 willow Aphis. [[line]] S. humilis {[[underline]] [[desimodroides?]] [[/underline]] } leaf gall. Differs in being not globular or oval [[^ & in being flatter & projecting more upper side[[image]] like one of the so called [[^ quarters of an orange [[strikethrough]] or a brazil nut [[/strikethrough]]. The inside edge of the quarter closely hugging the midrib of the leaf, but the outer surface not triangulated but rounded off. ]] [[image]] Often 2 galls on same leaf, either same side or opposite side of midrib. Not rosy. one leaf with 3 galls. Other gall (S. cordata) always solitary. Two galls (bored) contained Anthonomus _______? 3 or 4 not bored a Nematus larva, not differing from that of other gall. [[line]] S. cordata {viminalis} twig-gall. An oval or roundish swelling .3 - .5 inch long on [[^ the]] side of small twigs, green wherever smooth but [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] mostly covered [2 with longitud. cracks & [[^ irregular rough]] scales [1 like the skin of a melon] which are [[^ pale]] brown opaque. Its substance fleshy, like an apple, but with transverse internal fibres. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]]] When ripe filled with [[^ reddish]] brown spongy matter, with [[^ close-set]] transverse internal fissures. On cutting down to the twig at any time, a large [[?]] slit about .2 inch long becomes plainly visible. [[line]] A Balaninus "S. pomum in company occasionally with a Nematus in fleshy willow-leaf galls" Westw. I. p. 342 [[end of page]]
[[start page]] [[line]] 113) Aug 1. Saw what appeared a [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] Cecid. fulviventris [[underline]] in S. brassicoides jar. Lost it. [[line]] Found another "[[image vertical squiggle line]] S. [[underline]] [[^ siliqua]] [[underline]] ] rigida" gall on S. cordata, but the beak of the gall recurved [[image: of gall]] like the tongue case of Sphinx 5 maculata. Larva .06 inch long, bright opaque orange, with a ventral & dorsal polished semi-translucent broad orange vitta. [[line]] [[NOTE: section defined with 2 parallel vertical squiggle lines]] "On the insects, Coleopterous, Lepidopterous & Dipterous, inhabiting the galls of certain species of willow; by B.D. Walsh n. A." [[second half of page blank except for very bottom. Then:]] [[line]] Marmara (n.g. salictella or sp. Clemens mines twigs of yellow willow. Clemens. P.E.S.P II p.7 [[End page]] [[Start page]] 114) Microlep. larva "without feet" Clemens P.E.S.P. # p.13. Chlaenius pennsylvanicus differs from allied species (bicolor, etc.) by the rough & distinctly punctured interstices of elytra, while the striae are only faintly punctured. Sec. Analyt. Table of Chlaenius p.27. [[line]] X Aug 8.9 Found at Coal Valley young cottonwoods with just such pseudogalls as those of Saperda inornata Say, containing legless larvae 1/2 - 3/4 inch long. [[line]] Took 3 or 4 Nisoniades Brizo at Coal Valley & saw many more, all smaller than Juvenalis & apparently distinct. [[line]] Took 5 sp. of a new [[underline]] Cordulia [[underlined]] & saw haunting the creek [[^ at Coal Valley]] either a Cordulegaster or a Gomphus (spinosus?) very wild & could not catch it. [[line]] Argynnis Bellona pretty abundant there. Took 3 or 4 for the first time this year at Rock Island. [[line]] Found [[underline]] Haltica alternata? [[underline]] [[?]] & pale varieties flying abundantly in a patch of Salix humilis. X Found leaves of a Salix [[^ = S. semen]] (nigra from memory) covered [[^ all over]] with little irregular warts, similar to the "curl" on peach leaves [[^ as]] described by Harris. (Report Pomological Society p.4) Perhaps my S. aenigma a similar origin. No larvae in the warts, [[^ as also black knot on plums]] but noticed a larva of [[underline]] Anthocoris pseudochinche [[underline]] crawling on the 2 or 3 leaves brought home. This larva & imago too occur both on S. brassic. (very abundantly) on S. rhodoides & S. strob. more rarely. [[End page]]
115) Aug 12. Took today at Chippiannock 13 Catocala on trunks of trees. Yesterday took 5 & could have taken more. Tried choloroform today 1st time. Aug. 13. In bottle of [[underlined]] salices pomum [[/underlined]] found 4 or 5 Anthonomus scutellatus come out. - Found ^ [ [[underlined]] q. prunus [[/underlined]] ] several dozen subspherical galls on the ground under a red [[strike through "?"]] rough]] oak (acorn picked up) ^& not [[underlined]] black oak. Diameter 1.15-.73 inch, smooth surface, occasionally with a few subobsolete knobs or teeth. Color [[strike: purple or dark blood red]] crimson with numerous round or oval spots occupying 1/2 surface & about .05 - .10 inch ^in diameter^ of a ^ very^ pale yellowish brown, the spots often ^quite^ preponderant so as to show only a net-work of crimson. Inside ^solid juicy &^ fleshy, with fibre indistinctly radiating from centre, ^externally^ 1/4 of diameter pink, gradually shading into yellowish ^central 3/4 of diameter.^ Central cell, with a larva in it .2 inch long when straightened, whitish, lead colored vitta above & slightly below. Paria? b-notata Say [[underlined]] bred from S. brassic. galls, 1 spec & unless I misremember, another a few days ago Also another Anthonumus? [[underlined]] besides Lessellatus Walsh. Chrysopa infilatris Brown (No 26) bred from a Brassic [[underlined]] galls Aug 6. Noticed Chrys. larva there. Also the black Tiphia (common) but galls had been renewed a day or two before - by accident. [[end page]] [[Start page]] [[ a large leaf specimen covers top half of page and obscures field notes. Leaf Labelled: Pinned 6/w pp. 115-116 (pinned to p. 116)]] [[Second half of page]] Aug 17. Found on S. aenigma a Coleopterous? larva 1/2 inch long, head large, 6 legs & a very long proleg & two anal thorns [[image of thorns]] (profile). Color gray with dorsal pale fuscous [[strike: blackish]] vitta. Placed in bottle (quinine)[[?]] Aug 18. Microlep. from willow galls stopped [failed] coming out today. But few yesterday. From beginning to middle of August took over [[strike: 30 or]] 35 Catocala on trunks of trees in Chippiannock Cemetery. Pecularily thick on hill opposite the slough south of the East gate of Widow Brazlen Lane. Took 13 one afternoon & 13 the next. Aug 19. A bright orange larva .12 inch long came out of S. strobiloides [[underlined]] galls. = the winter larva in brown cocoon? [[end page]]
115) Aug 12. Took today at Chippiannock 13 Catocala on trunks of trees. Yesterday took 5 & could have taken more. Tried chloroform today 1st time. Aug 13. In bottle of Salices pomum found 4 or 5 Anthonomus scutellatus come out. Found ^ (q. prunus) several dozen subspherical galls on the ground under a red [[strike: ?]] oak (acorn picked up ^& not [[underlined]] black oak). Diameter 1.15->3 inch, smooth surface, occasionally with a few subobsolete knobs or teeth. Color [[strike: purple or dark blood red]] crimson with numerous round or oval spots occupying 1/2 surface & about .05-.10 inch ^ in diameter^ of a very pale yellowish brown, the spots often ^quite^ preponderant so as to show only a net-work of crimson. Inside ^ solid juicy &^ fleshy with fibres indistinctly radiating from centre, ^externally^ 1/4 of diameter peak, gradually shading into yellowish ^central 3/4 of diameter^. Central cell with a larva in it .2 inch long when straightened, whitish, lead colored vitta above & slightly below. [[underline next]]Parea? b-notata [[end underline]]Say bred from S. brassic. [[underlined]] galls, 1 spec & unless I misremember, another a few days ago. Also another anthonomus? [[underlined]] besides Lessellatus Walsh. Chrysopa enfilatris Brown (No 26) bred from Brassic [[underlined]] galls. Aug 6. Noticed Chrys. larvae there. Also the black Tiphia (common) but galls had been renewed a day or two before, as by accident. [[End page]] [[start page]] (116 Mixed leaf of cottonwood --Coal Valley Aug. 8-9 [[large shadow print of leaf that is on previous page fills the right side of page]] Aug 14 - Found 2 newbored nubilipennes galls - opened one; it contained a larva apparently cynipidous. Larva of Callimome is hairy. This was not. Other one placed in quinine bottle. Bred 1 Loxotaenia rosaceana from [[underline next]] S. strobil. [[end underline]] galls. Aug 17 Found on [[underline next]] S. aenigma [[end underline]] a coleopterous? larva 1/2 inch long, head large, 6 legs & a very long proleg & two anal thorns [[image]] (profile). Color gray with dorsal ^pale^ fuscous [[strike: blackish]] vitta. Placed in bottle (quinine) [failed] Aug 18. Microlep. from willow galls stopped coming out today. But few yesterday. From beginning to middle of August took over [[strike: 30 or]] 35 Catocala on trunks of trees in Chippiannock Cemetery. Peculiarly thick on hill opposite the Slough South of the East gate of Widow Brazlen Lane. Took 13 one afternoon & 13 the next. Aug 19. A bright orange larva .12 inch long came out of s. strobiloides [[underlined]] galls. = the winter larva in brown cocoon? [[end page]]]
117) From [[start underline]] S. aenigma [[end underline]]galls recently gathered (5 or 6 days ago) came out about 12 Cecidomyious larvae .05 inch long & rather elongate & head more elongate & pointed than usual. Breastbone? [[image]] so far as distinguishable. May [[underlined]] be inguilinous. Distinct very from larva of fulviventris [[underlined]]. Found one inside[[underlined]] the gall. Aug 20 Found on Salix longifolia, projecting from a gall brassicoides, a sprig with 2 of the leaves of it so "curled" as to strongly resemble at 1st sight [[underline next]] S. aenigma [[end underline]]. Dried them. Stung again by [Anomalon flavicorne Say ^ophron Morio^] Aug 1 - 15 the time for Catocala at Chippiannock Aug 22. Great numbers of [[underline next]] Cec. {fulviventris ^albofasciata^} [[end underline]] continue to come out from S. strobil. Had noticed much [[?]] from C-q-prunus galls. Today a 10-footed Lepid. larva came out .4 inch long, ^sparsely^ hairy, dirty ^greenish^ white, 1st thor. & anal segments blackish, 1st thor. [[image]] only behind. Other segments [[image]] with eight darker spots. Head testaceo-rufous. Bred a small black [Anthonomus?] ^apion^ from [[underline next]] S. strobil.[[end underline]] [Anomalon flavicorne ^ophron Morio^] is not [[underlined]] monotrematous, but Pelecinus [[symbol for female]] seems to be so. [[end page]] [[start page]] (118 Noticed a mass of Aphides on a twig of Salix cordata enclosed in a gall-like envelope by ants, apparently formed of cow-dung like fibres, not of earth [[underlined]] certainly. Inside were aphides & numerous ants. [[next paragraph crossed out but reads:]] Lepid larva in [[underline next]] Sal. pomum [[end underline]]. Length .2 inch. Whitish opaque [[image]] brown shining 1st jt. behind head, 2nd [[image]] an interrupted opaque brown band on ant. edge, 3-12, ditto uninterrupted, 11 with also a terminal band. Head yellowish. Legs & [[?]] immaculate whitish, a few short whitish hairs on body. Spins a thread, wriggles much, & walks backwards easily. [[end crossed out paragraph, return to text]] Aug 24. ^1^ Anthon {scutellatus ^sycophanta Walsh^} came out of [[underline next]] S. pomum [[end underline]] Aug 25 Found a lepid larva (Gelechia gilla genitella?) just under rind of q. spongifica gall in the [[?]]. Length .16 inch, whitish, 1st segment behind head ^obsemicircularly horny & ^ as well as head yellowish. A dorsal & two lateral rows of irregular sanguineous spots on body. A few whitish hairs on body. Legs pale dusky. [[underline next]]Cecidomyia {sanguiniventris [[end underline]] ^fulviventris?? albofasciata}, bred from s. brassic. [[end page]]
119) ^No 2^ Glass-[[?]] cage. Gone under-ground X 1 Ceratomia quadricornis X 1 Sphingicampa distigma X in willow - ^in larva^ sphingide - a lateral & also oblique subab. yellowish streaks; 2 rows of lat. purple spots, lower one on spiracles a lateral purple stripe on head. 2 green & c larvae - ([[?]] up) 2 larvae like Acronycta oblinita 1 1/2 - 2 in long, pretty robust. See p. 131 2 larvae of Limenitis [[strike ?]] diseppus (1 came out) (two greenish ^or brownish^ prickly horns behind head fashion of Dryocampa) in pupa A dozen or more 20-footed Tenthred. larvae feeding on leaves ^black leaf willow^. Black with a round yellow spot (lateral) on jts. 2-11. About 3/4 inch long. Legs 6 + 0 + 12 +0 + 2. Also some volunteers off Salix negra [No pupa or cocoons from them] [[end page]] [[start page]] (120 No 1 Oak (wire) cage [1 Dryocampa larva (p.123)] Shifted to 3 [Lost] X 1 __________________ p. 126 stigma X 1 __________________ seratona 2 sphingide [shifted to No 3] 1 Limacodes scapha? [lost] Sep 2 X 5 Larvae dryocampa stigma No 3 Oak - 3 or 4 sphingide larvae [one pupa only] No 6 Cabbage - see p. - Tenthred. larvae 3/4 inch long on Dogwood. [No pupa or cocoons from them] [[end page]]
121) Aug 26. On cabbages [agrees with characters of Euclidia Westw. II p.395] 1) A ^slender^ pale green larva, ^came out Plusia cota Sep-1^ 1 1/4 inch long with ^numerous^ more or less distinct whitish longitudinal lines & often a broader lateral one: 12 legs, 2 anal, 0+0, 2 + 2 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + legs. Tapers from middle of body to head. Numerous, very restless. 8 or 10 specimens. Spun a loose cocoon under the leaves of the cabbage. 2) A nymphalide, prickles (1 spec) suspended by tail 3) An {arctian rolls up} ^variety of Arctia virginica?^ with longish hairs 1 1/4 long, hairs black ^body^ yellow a broad fuscous stripe each side of dorsum leaving only a narrow central yellow line, two transverse lateral red warts on each side of each segment before & behind which some small black freckles. Head black with a narrow white vitta & mouth white. 16 footed. About 3 spm. [Sep 2 hairs had got coal-black & very dense] 4) A Noctuide? ^1 1/4 inch long, very robust & eats heart [[underlined]] of cabbage^ broad velvety black dorsal stripe, then a narrow yellow vitta, then a similar black vitta dotted & spotted with 3 or 4 series of ^longitudinally^ confluent yellow dots, then a yellow line, then black with yellow & white freckles & dots, head black with [[image? or ink blot?]] white fork. Variable, when large & small. 3 or 4 specm. -- very robust, when large, less so when small. [[end page]] [[start page]] (122 5) A dull-green 16 footed noctuide? ^moderately robust^ 1-inch long, head green. A dark ^abbreviated^ [[image]] on each side of dorsum of each segment & a similar one above spiracle ^or place of spiracle^ beneath which a ^brownish white^ [[strike: very pale brown]] longt. stripe whole length of body. Another without the dark streaks, or subobsolete. Variety? Some quite small, & differing. Maybe P. Protodice. 6). Common white Arctia Virginica. Aug 26. [[Underline next] Salicis verruca [[end underline]] gall. On S. humilis an irregularly spherical ^smooth^ greenish-yellow gall, 1/2 projecting from each side of leaf, on midrib ^or^ on some of principal veins. Upper side flattish or with a minute point or nipple, lower side branching out into a ragged wart-like excrescence. Substance rather woody ^with central cell^ 1-12 on a leaf. Often several confluent, but internal cells separated by a thin partition. Larva orange, ^.07 inch long^ breast-bone sub-round, small, indistinct. Aug 27. Noticed a blackish microlep larva on [[underline next]] S. aenigma [[end underline]]. Larva of c.s. gnaphalioides [[underlined]] now .06-.07 inch long, yellowish^-orange^ with dominant white gut-like markings -- breastbone ^indistinct^. Why are Tipulides [[underlined]] of large size & the closely allied Cecidomyiades of small size, if no genetic connection? [[end page]]
123 [[start page]] Aug 28 {Dryocampa [[^ bicolor Harris? ]] larva — oak — [[^ (just moulted) ]] 1.20 inch long. Head greenish yellow. Body pale greenish brown [[^ very ]] thickly covered [[^ or frosted over]] with [[^ small]] whitish granulations. Each side an obscurely-defined [[^ bright or rather dull]] sanguineous stripe above the spiracles, which are black mirrored by yellowish, and another beneath them [[strikethrough]] interrupted at the sutures [[/strikethrough]]. [[?]] transversely placed black ^ [[ humps]] [[strikethrough]] dots [[/strikethrough]] 1st segment behind head [[^ & beneath a black spine (lateral) ]]; 2nd jt with two long [[^ slender ]] recurved [[^ smooth]] black horns directed forward .2 inch long [[^ [hind [[image]] front] with a few white granules on their lower half [[^ & 2 lateral black thorns]] [[strikethrough]] other [[/strikethrough]] jts [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] except 12 [[/strikethrough]] [[ 3 - 5 & 10 [[strikethrough]] - 11 [[/strikethrough]] with [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] 6 short black thorns .03 - 05 inch long, two between the [[^ dorsal]] sanguineous stripes, & 1 [[^(lateral)]] beneath each [[strikethrough]] lateral [[/strikethrough]] stripe all transversely [[^ & medially]] arranged, [[^ & sometimes with a white basal granule or two) ]]. Anal jt. greenish yellow [[^ joints 6 - 9 [[^ - 11]] ]] with only 1 lateral thorn]]. Legs greenish yellow, proleg [[^ with black patch [[?]] & venter pale greenish brown. [Different from stigma and a yellowish anal hair close together & directed backwards, [[?]] bl. tips as described by Fitch & from Abbott by Harris;] [[strikethrough]] [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] may [[/underline]] [[^ cannot]] be [[underline]] pellucida [[/underline]]as described by Harris & Fitch [[^ p. 45xx]] shifted to cage No. 3; no other Dryocampas. [[underline]] Lepid. larva [[/underline]] [[^ [came out 6 or 7] ]] Burrowing in singular [[^ fleshy ]] [[image]] smooth brown-black [[strikethrough]] galls [[/strikethrough]] [[^ fungi powdered with pale brown, subspherical & irregular or [[strikethrough]] burnt [[/underline]] [[^ scorched ]] sycamore maples & elms on R.R. bank. Internal structure of these [[strikethrough galls [[/underline]] [[^ fungi]] [[image]] like a hornet's nest. Length [[^ of larva]] .8 - .9 inch. Very pale greenish fuscous. Head & 1st jt. black shining, latter with pale longt. dorsal line. Spiracles black. Each jt. with a dark dot above & below the spiracle, & 2 dorsal ones (6 in all) all trans- [[end page]] [[start page]] 124) versely arranged, & another pair rather wider apart behind the two dorsal ones [[image]] venter on each side also with two transverse dots above the legs or prolegs, & where none with 6. Anal jut. with [[^ large]] black shiny transversely oval [[^ dorsal]] spot and penult. with a smaller one between the 2 hinder dots. From each dot proceeds a long pale fuscous hair. Spins a thread, wriggles much, & walks rapidly backwards more than forewards. Spins a loose cocoon. [[^ Moth ( [[symbol for male]] not [[symbol for female]]?) has bunch of hairs under subcostal of front wing ]] Sometimes burrows in the wood, leaving the gall. [[line]] Found most q. pitulae galls solid, no cell or larva. In one found cells & a short squat larva with large horny head, probably rhynchophorous. 1/2 as long again as broad & about .05 inch long. Others much smaller. Whitish, stomach above largely blackish, [[^ in another specimen yellow ]] [[image]] beneath not at all. [2 In another cell of same gall found 2 yellowish larvae, probably cecidomyious. [1 Tips of mandibles black, mandibles moved very distinctly]. [[line]] Noticed galls of a very similar structure but rougher & more wart-like on [[underline]] upper [[/underline]] surface mostly or almost entirely of betula (black birch) leaves, not much bigger than head of large pin & similarly often confluent. Also similar but still more densely confluent & rougher & more ragged galls on upper surface of Cephalanthus leaves. Whole bushes covered with them. Single galls about = head large pin. [[line]] Similar small pin-head-sized ragged galls mostly on upper surface of leaf of Salix nigra [[^ = [[underline]] s. semen [[/underline]] p.120. ]] In non of these 3 last could I find larvae. Small. Some of them on willow were burst open at top like q. [[underline]] pilulea. [[/underline]] -- It does not follow because the galls are so small, that therefore their cecidomyiae [[?]] be abnormally small. C.S. rhodoides & c.s. gnaphalioides = size; yet galls very unequal. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 125) [[underline]] Salicis [[^ nodus]] ramuli. [[/underline]] On s. longifolia. Tree 6 inches thro at butt, (& on some small ones) opposite Bass Creek. A mere swelling of a twig from .10 to 1/4 inch in diameter [[image drawing of a twig section wider in the middle ]] about an inch long or so [[^ & pithy inside.]] Inside a 20 [[image]] footed pale [[^ greenish white]] Tenthredinidous larva about .15 inch long [[^ mouth dark &]] with dark eyes as usual. In one gall on a twig 1/4 inch in diameter noticed a streak brown outside & 2 1/2 inches long by 1/8 wide, perforated with pin-holes in irregular quincunxe [[image of grouped dots]]. Each hole pointed a little upwards from the inside, & in each was a (cicada ?) egg, cylindrical perfectly, rounded at each end, [[^ shining]] greenish - subhyaline, .13 inch long & 6 [[^ - 7]] times as long as wide. The [[strikethrough]] outer & up [[/strikethrough]] end that lay outwards was whitish opaque for [[strikethrough]] 1/6 or [[/strikethrough]] 1/7 [[^ - 1/8]] of the length of the egg. Not straight but curved in a circular arc of about 25°. Preserved 4, & placed 1/2 the twig in a quinine bottle Several [[underline]] S. ramuli [[/underline]] were bored & in one I found Anthon. scutellatus [[^ yes]]. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] spec. [[?]] preserved. The others were empty. [[line]] Aug. 29. From [[underline]] s. pomum [[/underline]] another anth. scutellatus came out. X The [[^ [opposite] ]] dorsal band being broad & of a [[^ much]]darker subfuscous tawny or orange - color, with a narrow lateral band of the same color [[end page]] [[start page]] 126) [[underline]] Salicis semen. [[/underline]] Salix nigra. Subspherical hollow greenish yellow galls .04 inch - .02 in diameter, 2 or more often confluent. Mostly on upper side of leaf, with a corresponding circular depression on the lower in the middle of which is a flattish [[strikethrough]] rounded [[/strikethrough]] hemisphere. Often but not always, with a pointed nipple above. Today many are burst open at top. In one cell of a double one found a minute large-headed larva with a back [[image]] (see p.124), rhynchophorous. [[^ Very ]] many cells when opened, contained nothing, yet not bored. Have noticed a few such galls (2 leaves, dried) in S. longifolia, & [[underline]] I think [[/underline]] many on R.R. [[underline]] S. [[^ discolor]] cordata [[/underline]] leaves. [[line]] Aug 30 {Tenthred. [[^ [[underline]] S. viminalis [[[/underline]] ]] larva in twig-gall of S. cordata now about [[^ .10 -]] .12 inch long. Uses its [[underline]] legs [[/underline]] well. [[image]]Imbedded in the slit at base of gall. Pale [[^ yellowish]] with [[^[very]] pale fuscous head. [[strikethrough]] Most [[/strikethrough]] Many galls apparently not yet hatched. On placing side by side six of these larvae with 6 from twig-gall of S. humilis, the latter are all decidedly pale [[underline] greenish [[/underline]], not [[underline]] yellowish [[/underline]], whence I infer them a distinct species. These also use their legs. Eyes in all distinct, large, blackish. No other difference apparent. Tips of [[strikethrough]] mouth [[/strikethrough]] mandibles blackish. Today had a Litargus (Mycetoph.) from [[underline]] S. aenigma [[/underline]] Yesterday an Apion from [[underline]] S. strobil. [[underline]] [[line]] A Dryocampa larva found today agrees with Fitch's description of Stigma [[^ * [opposite] ]] & has a white annulus near the tip of its [[?]] & a white fork tipped with black from the side of the two [[?]] ones & [[^ of]] the lowest lateral (6 in a row) long horns [[underline]] not recurved.[[/underline]] Black spots on 1st segment, mixed with white granules. Penultimate [[image]] 1 long medial [[?]] & several others [[end page]]
[[start page]] 127) In [[underline]] s. pomum [[/underline]] jar, a much larger Lepid. larva greenish with [[^ many (5, 6 or 7)]] linear dark vittae; about .3 long [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Sep. 1. [[/strikethrough]] Aug. 31. I mistook in saying the pencils of Antiphola are on the [[strikethrough]] [[?]] //strikethrough]] 1st & 2nd seg. instead of 2nd & 3rd as in tessellaris [[Check mark]] { They are on 2nd & 3rd. I have a larva found on oak with the pencils [[underline]] all [[/underline]] white, the ends incurved as if apparently fresh moulted, or unhealthy. [[^ Sept. 1st normal, except hind pencils white & front one scarcely black & head rufous. See p.130]] [figure of lophocampa caryae in Harris [[?]] [[?]] disagrees with his desc. [[?]] I have noticed specimens of [underline]] Datana ministra [[/underline]] on oak [[underline]] without [[/underline]] the yellow spot behind the head, but [[underline]] with [[/underline]] the pale vittae. & similar ones on hickory. [[line]] Aug. 31 Cec. [[underline]] 3-fasciata [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] (recent) eyes coal-black. Body pale luteous. A spot [[strikethrough]] at [[/strikethrough]] [[^ above]] the origin of each wing, tip of scutel, [[conae?] ]] a terminal dorsal spot on abd. jts 1 - 5 medial spot on abd jts 1 - 6 [[^ scarcely interrupted at sutures]] pale fuscous. [[^ spot external on & a [[^ larger]] lateral]] Femora pale fuscous above & below with a white basal annulus, tib. white with a pale fuscous annulus at base & tip. 1st tarsal jt base & tip of 2nd & 3rd [[^ & 4th & whole of 5th] pale fuscous, the rest white. Wings with an [[strikethrough]] subbasal [[/strikethrough]] [[^ irregular]] pale f. fascia [[^ 1/3 of way to tip]] enclosing a [[^ large]] [[image]] hyaline spot on {[[^ interior]] anal edge, another a little over 2/3 of way to tip enclosing a [[^ large]] hyaline spot on costa, another on the disk & another on the interior edge, & another narrower terminal one subinterrupted in the middle. [[line]] Cec. [[strikethrough]] pallida [[/strikethrough]] [[^ [[underline]] subflavescens [[/underline]] ]] [[underline]] (q.?) [[/underline]] recent. All yellowish but eyes coal black. Tips of tarsi & sometimes [[^ nearly]] whole of ant. tarsi tinged with fuscous. [[end page]] [[start page]] 128) 2 [[symbol for male]] came out Sep.1: cut one gall, & central cell stuffed full of castings, leading to the external hole. No other cell to be found. ]][[underline] Synergis n. sp. [[/underline]] [[symbol for male]] came out from [[underline]] q. prunus [[/underline]] today. Traced in a bored gall the hole to the central nucleus, which was full of brown powder [[underline]] only [[/underline]]. Therefore, if inquiline, must kill psenide & take its place, as I believe does [[^ to c.]] q. globulus. [[strikethrough]] q [[/strikethrough]] c. oneratus from [[?]] finding but [[underline]] one [[/underline]] cell in [[strikethrough]] that [[/strikethrough]] gall. [[line]] [[check mark]] Placed one [[^ nearly]] full grown & 2 half-grown larvae of Halesidota tessellata on oak [[^ in No.3]]. They did not all, when captured, have two pair of orange pencils in front. Some none? Lost? Another (captured) either lost or placed in No.4 [[line]] Sep.1 - proteella (1) came out s. brassic. & another Aug.31 [[line]] Placed in cage No.4(sycamore leaves) 4 larvae of [[^ H.]] Antiphola, [[vig?]]. 1 whitish [[^ dusky]] nearly full grown from oak, 1 yellowish brown nearly full grown from elm (or possibly from oak) & 2 whitish half grown from oak. Not in very good order, being mussed up & wet. (The whitish antiphola larva in No.1; see p.127) next morning two large larvae [[strikethrough]] [[alike?]] [[/strikethrough]] alive & healthy but off leaves. One & perhaps both small ones dead, where first placed. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 129) [Sep. 2?] Psocus rufus? bred from [[underline]] S. brassic. [[/underline]]. Took 5 Dryocampa stigma, [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] 1 Dryoc. bicolor. latter placed in Cage No. 3 {In [[underline]] stigma [[/underline]] white granules are mostly arranged in a transverse row on each segment. [[symbol]] [[underline]] bicolor [[/underline]]} The crookedness of the horns in [[underline]] bicolor [[/underline]] is not destructive : some [[underline]] stigma [/underline]]have them similarly bowed. But in both my [[underline]] bicolor [[/underline]] the body is [[underline]] very much more [[/underline]] covered with white granules, so as to appear hoary, & the prickles are [[underline]] not [[/underline]] forked as in the stigma. The arrangement & number of prickles same in both sp. In senatoria [[^ besides]] the [[strikethrough]] subterminal [[/strikethrough]] [[^ normal ]]rows of thorns on anal segment [[strikethrough]] =6 [[^ small ones]] not 2 & the terminal row = 4 not 2, [[/strikethrough]], the exterior edge of [[^ its]] upper surface is thorned laterally with unequal [[^ sized 2n & 5 long]] thorns [[image]] [[line]] Placed in cage 4 [[^ (sycamore)]], 3 Antiphola larvae, 2 dirty whitish fuscous, 3/4 grown, & 1 [[strikethrough]] 1/2 [[/strikethrough]] half grown bright yellow, pencils normal. From oak. Another (brownish) stray one [[^ put in No. 4 Sep.3)]] [[line]] Until Sep. 1 I had had some oak galls (q. pisum) in [[underline]] s. pomum [[underline]] jar; so that insects marked as "s.pomum" [[underline]] may [[/underline]] be from them. Think not. [[line]] Sept. 4 Shifted cage No. 3 [[^ (oak leaves)]] (p. 128 [[check mark]]) Larvae scarcely grown, but had [[underline]] all 3 [[/underline]] become a dirty white like Antiphola: heads still rufous & pencils (what remained of them) orange. The large one vigorous, the two small ones very dull. The two [[underline]] Dryoc. bicolor [[/underline]] all right, the 1st one scarcely grown; but I had carelessly put in this cage the D. stigma with left horn broken. Shifted him to No.1. [[end page]] [[start page]] 130) Shifted cage No. 4 (sycamore) from this cage (leaky) other larvae notodontide? had been daily escaping) ought to have contained 5 or 6 Antiphola larvae. Found only 1st dirty white, half grown, seedy with one black pencil only in front & one behind. Head black. 2nd dirty white, half grown. Had just moulted skin by it. Perfect pencils, & normal. Brownish along the back. 3rd dirty white, dead, half-grown. Added this dry the antiphola larva from No.1 = p. 127 [[check mark]]. Today it was gamboge-yellowish, pencils normal, except that [[^ 2]] front black pencils & 2 hind ones were only [[^ lightly]] tinged with dusky, instead of black. The other two black as usual. [[[symbol for therefore]] 3 [[^ antiphola]] larvae now [[^ in No. 4]]. Mended the leaks in cage.] Next morning this larva, that I had shifted on a piece of oak-leaf 1 1/2 inch square, had remained on it & eaten it pretty well up. Took it away from him. The other two larvae had strayed off the sycamore. [[line]] Sep. 5 Put 3 3/4 grown Antiphola larvae off oak in cage No.4 (sycamore). Dirty white, crest along back a little brownish. Heads all black. Pencils black. Two in first-rate order & one lost some pencils & some hair. All lively. [end page]]
[[start page]] 131) Placed in cage No. [[strikethrough]] 6 [[strikethrough]] 5 (bass-leaves) 3 antiphola larvae off oak, 1/2 grown, all very lively, two tolerably perfect, 1 considerably rubbed. The 2 first white, or nearly so, with black pencils & [[strikethrough]] red [[strikethrough]] rufous heads, the last dirty whitish or gray, black pencils, & blackish head. [[line]] Found in [[underline]] c. q. spogifica [[underline]] galls 4 larvae [[^.2 - .3 inch long]] (lepidopt.) legs normal. Color opaque fuscous, head rufous fuscescent segments with four anterior transversely arranged black dot (bearing a hair?) & two posterior ones (ditto?) [[image of dot arrangement]] [[line]] Sep.6 In cage No.5 (bass) the rubbed Antiphola was off the leaves. Other two not visible. In cage No.4 (sycamore) 3 good & perfect Antiphola were visible (last night's 3?) one off the leaves & two one. No gnawings where the 2 on the leaves were sitting. In cage No.3 (oak) 1 [[strikethrough]] anitphola [[strikethrough]] [[^ tessellate]] was dead & shrivelled up . Other 2 not visible. In cage No.2 (willow) a larva (that like acronycta oblinita?) had spun a cocoon on the roof of the cage, cutting away, a large piece of the millinet to make it. Mended with paper. [[line]] Placed in cage No.1 (oak) 4 antiphola larvae, off bass. 1 very small [[image of size]] [[^ lively but]] seedy; 2 1/2 grown & 1 3/4 grown all in good order. All black heads, including the small. one. [[end page]] [[start page]] 132) Placed in No.5 (bass) 3 more antiphola larvae 1 nearly 3/4 grown & 1 1/2 grown, both in good order, & 1 1/2 grown livley but nearly naked. All black heads. [N.B. Noticed many [[underline]] young [[underline]] Antiphola, 1/2 grown & under, with rufous heads.] [[line]] Sep.9 In [[underline]] S. pomum [[underline]] jar noticed 3 nematus larvae .35 - .40 inch long, pale cinereous [[^ with pale dusky markings]] with legs active, crawling about. Eyes dusky as usual [[line]] (A) spun up in cage No. 1 (oak) a large 2 inch long hairy [[Arctian?]]?, white, with spreading long sparse white hairs [[^ proceeding from warts]]. head whitish with a transvers black [[^ fuscia]] [[image]] above [[^ & below]]. [[strikethrough]] From memory. [[strikethrough]] Also a 2nd spec. n e Hair of body 1/2 as long as body. [Another sp. got today] [May 23 cocoon empty mysteriously] Found Doryphora 10-lineata today on Danforth's sidewalk. [[line]] One larva (the first obtained) of Dryocampa bicolor? dead; placed in alcohol in decagonal vial. In [[underline]] Stigma [[underline]] larva the white granules on each segments are much more sparse & there is always one tranverse row of them [[strikethrough]] of [[strikethrough]] on each segment. In [[underline]] bicolor [[underline]] they are irregularly arranged, with no vestiges of any tranverse row. [[line]] Sep.12 Found Aphis bella W. in company with numerous larvae on black oak. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 133) [[underline]] Antiphola [[underline]] 2nd segm. 1 [[^ lateral]] black pencil 2 white ones under it. 3rd segm. 1 lateral bl. pencil & one white one under it. 11th segm. 1 [[^ lateral]] black pencil 12 -- white pencil behind the black one on 11 & a few [[^ long]] black hairs above it. When less than 1/2 grown head is rufous & only pencils on 3rd segm. black: on 2nd only slightly tinged. None behind. [[line]] Sep.14 Yesterday brought home c. q. Spongifica galls from near Slaughter-house, 21 + 21 = 42 only two, so far as visible, bored. Found under black oaks 85 q. prunus galls. None bored. Specimens [[^ .6 inch in diameter]] found on tree grew one on each side from [[underline]] cup [[underline]] of acorn. [[image]] two acorns connected by prunus galls growth [[/image]] Another grew one only in the same way, but was as yet small & green [[^ .4 inch in diameter]], showing but little of the reddish markings externally & internally all yellowish green X [[marginal note]]:[[underline]] Mature gall [[underline]] is blood red throughout, in red oak specimens, not centrally greenish.]] A dried & bored specimen grew almost from the stem of the acorn. On cutting into it, it contained a large larva. Substance of the gall when dried [[underline]] very [[underline]] hard, but [[^ brown &]] spongy-looking to the eye. When green, intensely bitter. [[image]] * [[image]] q. scuplta Bassett on [[underline]] Black oak [[ underline]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 134) Mrs. Barbour (from No.3) brought me a Doryphora 10-lineata caught on her door-step. [[line]] [[underline]] Cec. subflavescens (& trifasciata?) [[underline]] belong to Diplosis " Diplosis [[?]] [[W?]] reared from the same gall with Cec. salicina Schr. O.S. p.179 [[line]] X flagellum of ant. in Cec. destructor, according to Wm. Herrick, varies from 14 - 17 7 jd. Harris NY Ms. p 570 [so also Lw. of one species, which has one more jt. in one antenna] [[line]] Lagoa = [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] Trichetra operculuris [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] Fitch II. [[symbol for section]] 67. Larva found on Sycamore, but though placed on sycamore leaves on a piece of oak-leaf about 1 1/2 inch square has eaten good part of the latter. Length 1.10 inch, breadth .60 inch, midsection [[image - semisphere, flat side down]] with a slight dorsal ridge of hairs (measurements include hair.) Body covered with dirty white close-set hair sloping backwards on joints 3 - 12, upright on 2, & sloping forwards on 1. Head [[^ entirely]] retractile [[^ within 1st segm.]] Segments plain thro the hair. Hair below line of spiracles (which are [[image - circle]] black annulus, dirty gray. Abdomen naked & as well as [[^ anus]], skin round spiracles, & legs and prolegs [[^ dull]] flesh-colored. Hair about .20 -s.25 inch long. Head flesh-color varied with pale dusky. When disturbed, rolls into a ball, like an [[image]] [[^ hedgehog]] Arctian. Hair [[strikethrough]] app [[strikethrough]] in bunches, apparently rising from [[^ large]] shallow warts, soft [[^ & almost curly]] & more like hair of mammal than that of other arctians. [[line]] Apathus [[image of symbol for male]] works on flowers steadily [[image: *]] [[^ Many or most]] Bombus [[image: symbol for male]] flies about idly on leaves, (trusting to its nest?) But B. vagans [[image: symbol for male]] & B. virginicus [[image: symbol for male]] works. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 135) Cecidomyia larva of [[underline]] q. pilula [[/underline]] has a slender clove-shaped breast-bone. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] "Phytophagic races" [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Cage No.3? [[underline]] oak [[/underline]]. Placed therein a large Saturnian black, black tufts, [[insertion]] ^ = [[Parthenope?]] [[auct?]. Grote [/insertion]] head black, skin [[underline]] between [[/underline]] segments sanguineous. Found on Black Hawk Rocks. [Sep.27 found him feeding on oak] [[line]] In cage No. 4? Willow a few green Tenthred. larvae (volunteers) speckled with dark dots. [[line]] X Sep.26 Caught the (brown) Niphidium lineatum Walsh MS. ovipositing in the tip of a broken-off stem of golden-rod, stem growing, but dead & dry where egg was laid. Egg 5 times as long as wide, [[prep?]] & about .16 or .17 long. [[line]] Oct. 2 Found on a willow (cordatum?) 3 full-grown amber umicola? [[insertion]] ^ but with the double stripe along the back [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] indigo blue [[/underline]] connected by sky-blue instead of black. [[/insertion]] [[insertion]] ^ Many whitish granules laterally [[/insertion]]. One of the varieties? Phytophagous? [[line]] Found in an old nest of Hyphantria textor 2 [[symbol for male]] 2 [[symbol for female]] of a { [[strikethrough]] n. sp. Rhaphigaster [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ n. [[g?]] [[?]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [[underline]] Arma [[/underline]] n. sp. [[/insertion]] & 5 or 6 of a shortwinged subapterous Pentatoma? with 4-jointed ant., 1 [[insertion]] ^ very [[/insertion]] short 2 long, 3 < 2, 4 < 3, Pupa? Do they feed on the larvae, like [[strikethrough]] Tetyra [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ Stiretrus [[/insertion]] fimbriatus , found in another caterpillar next in the summer (August)? [[insertion]] [Yes] [[/insertion]] Can the subapterous sp. be the pupa of the [[insertion]] ^ Arma? [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] Rhaphigaster? [[/strikethrough]] [Yes] It is common in the summer, but is [[underline]] very [[/underline]] unlike the imago. Lots of Scutelleride [[enuriae?]] in the nest. [[line]] The legs of the larva of [[underline]] {Eucera. [[strikethrough]] [[vimenalis?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[/underline]] [[insertion]] [[nemat?]] [[/strikethrough]] S. ovum. [[/insertion]] Walsh are not impotent [[line]] Oct. 4 Saw [[underline]] distinctly [[/underline]] the pupa of the above Scutelleride with its beak porrect & plunged into the abd. of a Lepid. larva 1/2 [[/insertion ^ -3/4 inch long [[/insertion]]feeding on mulberry. Had placed 2 among them. Close [[end page]] [[start page]] 136) by was a dead lep. larva, which he had apparently already sucked. Three [[insertion]] ^ or 4 [[/insertion]] hours afterwards saw him again with his beak inserted into another or probably the same lepid. larva. [[line]] Colorational lines in Noctuidae (Grote from [[Cy?]]) (Catocala example) [[NOTE: 1st through 5th are bracketed with designation "lines"]]: 1st basal 2nd tranverse anterior 3rd [[strikethrough]] then dis [[/strikethrough]] transverse posterior (toothed) 4 subterminal [[image]] 5th terminal ([[insertion]] ^ mere [[/insertion]] dots often) Spaces 1st basal space (inside basal line) 2nd subbasal between 1st & 2nd lines 3rd median space - 2nd & 3rd line Superiorly above median vein called discal space; below it no nerve contains orbicular vent base, reniform & subreniform 4th subterminal space between 3rd & 4th 5th terminal - - 4th & 5th & balance [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Herrick Shaeffer [[/strikethrough] [[end page]]
137 In Lepid. (Grote) median vein of Neuropterides = subcostal, submedian of Neuropterides = median, next vein = submedian. - Chrysopa - (specms. preserved) & Hippodamia maculata prey extensively on the Chinch-bug. Auctore Henry Shimer, see his letter. - Hipparchiscus venustus Walsh may be Geomtra? secci-folea Fitch (larva only known) N.Y. Rep II. section 86, but that sp. spins a cocoon; mine did not. - "Follow truth whithersoever she leads us, & don't be afraid that one truth will contradict another or will not explain all the heiroglyphs of Nature" (to Hagen) = Oct. 29. Placed 5 or 6 Cynips aciculata [[symbol for female]] on an oak 50 yards from timber (isolated) east of s. end of causeway over flat s. of town (2 ft nearly at butt. Also ditto on isolated oak east of slaughterhouse, 100 yds from timber. Day warmish, no frost of nights now. No galls seen on or under these 2 trees. - Oct. 31 Bred Prodeura commelinae sin. Abb. from cabbage larva end of August. See p. 121 = No.5 or No.6? Packard (Rep. p. 168) says pupa of Cer. 4-cornus ahs the tongue-case detatched. wrong? = Four modes of cortus in Insects. 1st The normal mode. 2nd Ranatra & perlina 3rd. Diapheromera 4th Libellulide = Nov.6. 8 [[symbol for female]] c.q. aciculata came out in last 7 days, all lively. Placed them all on the trunk of a black [[end of page]] [[start of page]] oak 12 inches at butt in Jonah Carr's upland pasture [[image - map showing location of black oak, burr oak in pasture]] No galls on it & no other black oak near it. [May 21 full of galls. see p.149] = Nov. 26. Dug out from nubilipennis oak-gall a cynipide larva. Dimorph. form? Preserved but came to nothing 10 June mississippi the 7th 1865 Nov.15 Found in a [[strike]] cell or [[/strike]] cocoon (open at top) of c.s.strobil. numerous remains (30 say) of Aphideaus (known by tarsi) & intermixed & attached to them o cocoons? yellowish-hyaline of Proctotrupide? [[section crossed out, but reads: Dec. 4 Black knot plum on left fork leading to bluff bottom field on top of hill near bass, to the right [[gory?]]. A little beyond inside bass to the right a basswood slump with terminal (mostly) galls on shoots.]] Dec.15 cut into a q.prunus gall. Found a larva (cynip) still alive & kicking. Put those from read oak on the ground east of privy. [[strike]] Torturing of Nature to fit the Procrustean bed which they have predetermined in their own mind she shall be upon, whether or nay - [[/strike]] Dec.25 Found a tenthred. larva, yellow .18 long in the gall of Trypela solidaginus, burrowing near its base the trypela larva begin these. - Alcohol specimens of Caloptenus {a n.Sp. (colorado) Uhler femur-rubrum have the femur almost always sanguineous; others never. Hence the name.
139 [[strike]] N.Y.Tribune Jan 24. 1865 Dr. Velie's Colorado Lepidoptera 1.Parnassuss smintheus doubled = nomron = clarius = clodius 2nd Pieris var. casta 3. Col. eurytheme 4. Nath. Iole 5. C. huntera 6 Limenitis weidemeyerii 7 var. milberti 8 Argynuis columbina 9 " zereme 10 " aglaia? atlantis? 11 " myrina? front wings only 12 Melitae editha 13 " palla 14 " mylitta 15 " phaon 16 Polyommatus acuion? 5 [[symbol for male]] 17 " n. sp? 18 Chionobas n. sp. 19 Caenonympha ochracea 20 Pamphila n.sp. 21 Syrichthus n. sp. 22 ornoiata vermiculata 23 Saturnia eglanterina [[?]] 24 5 underdetermine heterocera [[left margin notes]] Four Nuities - not structured, colorational, phytophagic, unity of size (N.E.Nat. p.244) [[image]] of variability Three structural, habits, voice & motion = Cec. Tutice (from Harris's description) must be a Diplosis NY Ins p.593 [[end left marginal notes]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (140 Sent Mus. Comp. Zool. *621 - 2. [[symbol for male and female]] large dotted wings Oedipoda - proth. bifid ^[[note at bottom of page referenced here]]*unknown to Scudder^ *623-4 - scarlet wings 625 Aequalis [[symbol for female]] Say. Ita Scudder, impromptu. *626 largest proth. trifid (like Oedip. maritima) *627 Oed. trifaciata Say *628 - near 3-fasciata, but antennae shorter & slenderer *629 Gr. formosus Say *630-1. Black short wings; chloealtis? nubilis Say 632 - Acr.alutaceum "Not: Alutaceum & rubiginonum, have spots on elytra. A. emarginatum Uhler (Scudder) 635 Cal. flavovittatus [[symbol for female]] 636-7 - femur-rubrum. (??Wings too long. Scudder. C. [[spretus?]] Uhler 638-9 Blue tred = very abundant in Kansas 640-2 Like Romalea = [[symbol]] the Florida Romalea 644-5 Ephippigger [[symbol for male and female]] = abundant west of Mississippi Anatrus purprivasceum Uhler? P.E.S.P. III p.550 647-8 --------- pupa 649 Con. ensiger [[symbol for female]] Yes. "Brachys - forms several very distinct groups, which I should consider as genera, but that Lacordaire states that they emerge imperceptibly together." Lec. [[underscore]] Bupsest [[/underscore]] p.251 see also Lec. N. Sp. Cols. p.8 "Larva of Agrilus ruficollis lives in the interior of the stalks of Rubus" (S5. Halderman ibid p.243)
141) Noticed in Feb. in Union Square many Salix longifolia with [[underscore]] brassicoides [[/underscore]] galls in abundance among S. alba in Union Square. No galls on S. alba. -- Superda carcharias (Eur) & S. populum (Eur) both feed on Poplar. So S. inornata Say on willow and S. -- on Cotton-wood. Phylophagic Unity? But S. asphodelis on asphodelus luteus & S. cylindricum on "nut pear & plum" See Westw. Intro. I p.365. S. calcarata Say on Lombardy poplars, (Harris [[?]] Ins. p107) But S. vivittata Say The ashopalus{n.sp. near robiniae was infaustus Sec found in the middle of September on the Platte River in Colorado (the plains) near Baker's Ranch. No trees but cottonwoods growing within many miles. [Ita Dr. Parry.] on apple & S.vestita Say on Lindens S.tristentata Oliv. on elms & s. laterales (closley allied) on elm (Fitch) s. discorda Fa. on Hickory (Fitch) thus, out of 10 superdas when habits are known, 4 feed on willow & Poplar, which cannot be chance. -- The so called "chilocorus vivuluems" that copulated with Cocc. abdominalis is not Chilocorus but Coccinetta, marked similarly. A hybrid? [[end page]] [[start page]] (142 "Modern German anatomists have established that the viviparous Aphides have no ovaries & reporduce by budding. They are :. no real [[symbol of two females]] according to their opinion" o.s.ms. "It was the Dane Strenstrup who first suggested in 1842 that the reproduction of the Aphides was a form of alternate generation. Later Carns, Leydig, Siebold & principally Leuchart (in his pamphlet in 1858) have by direction come to the conclusion, 1st that the viviparous aphides are distinct from the oviparous [[symbol of two females]] 2nd that the development of the embryos in them belong to the class of phenomena called alternate generation, & that the viviparous aphides therefore are no true [[symbol of female and male]] but "Ammen" (neuters.) Both Leuchart & Seibold expressly state that this form of alternate generation has nothing in common with the parthenogenesis of bees; that the viviparous aphides have no true ovaries & no receptaculum seminis, which otherwise occur in all [[symbol for female]] insects & that the ovaries (eirstocke) are replaced in them by Keimstocke (keim = bud or embryo". o.s. note
[[start page]] 143) Sphinx 5 - maculata - "Transfth. very rarely delayed to 2nd summer" Lentner P.E.S.P. III p. 650 So Sphinx drupiferarum [[underline]] ibid [[/underline]] p. 659 [[line]] [[underline]] Larva [[/underline]] of Stylops (Westw.) said to be really a [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] imago [[underline]] by Siebold P.E.S.P. III p. 44 (see quotation from Westw. in the Ohio Secretary's printed letter) Now there [[underline]] must [[underline]] be winged dimorphous [[symbol of two females]], otherwise how can the race be propagated? [[line]] Sep.22. Split 1 sp. Stenosphenus notatus out of hickory [[line]] X March 12. Examining 40 - 60 galls of c. q. spongifica, which had lain on my table thro' the winter, found 4 or 5 acciculata (dead) that had come out, & in about 12 - 14 galls found in two masses of chalcidide larvae (10 - 15) & in one a cynips larva apparently alive. [[line]] March 27. Found white hickory (in Case's field close to [[stubb?]] grape-vine & [[underline]] q. prunus [[/underline]] tree) full of woody galls whence I once bred a Trochileum. Found in one of them 4 larvae 1/4 inch long, front 1/2 very robust & apparently from head Curculionidous. [Bred a black Curculionide [[underline]] magdalis? [[/underline]] May 22 from these galls.] [[line]] March 31. Taeniopteryx fasciata Burm. does [[underline]] not [[/underline]] hybernate in imago but comes out from Mississippi River now. Found numberless spms. under rejectamenta, some mature, some just come or coming out & preserved. [[end page]] [[start page]] 144) One perfect pupa. Found in company about a dozen Capnia pygmaea? Burm. All [[symbol of two females]]? [[line]] X Apr.3. A [[underline]] q. prunus [[/underline]] gall opened (on shelf all winter) contained healthy & living large Cynip. larva, size of aciculata. [[line]] Apr.4. A remarkable [[symbol for male]] S. siliqua from s. humilis, length (recent) .25 inch [[(ita?)]] . Kept it 24 hours alive: dorsum of abdomen deep brown black with very definite edges, the sutures (= [[image]] 1/2 length of other part) & venter fulvous. Venter white hairs & laterally up to dorsal brown-black. Eight distinct abd. jts. last smaller & narrower & bearing the genitals. Fulvous suture between 1st jt. & metathorax. Abdomen evidently abnormally swelled as often in [[underline]] Gomphus, [[/underline]] for thor. & head not much larger than in [[symbol for male]] s. siliqua from s. cordata which came out same day & when alive measured only .15 inch. All from s.cordata hitherto (4 [[symbol for male]] 5 [[symbol for female]]) had dorsum abd. brown black & venter nearly the same, or slightly sang. How easy, if only this one bred, to separate it as a distinct species by glaring & obvious characters! Those from S. cordata had the thor. sub-bivittate with whitish hairs. [[line]] Apr.7. In a recent [[underline]] s. cornu [[/underline]] gall found [6 or] 7 orange colored larvae (Chalcididous). The normal diaphragm, & gall bored with 2 or 3 minute holes. Head & 3 thoracic segments [[underline]] perfectly [[/underline]] hyaline, rest deep orange. [underline]] No breastbone. [[/underline]] Placed in vial {May 14 5 came out Chalcidide, + 1 pupa + 1 larva. [[line]] Mangrove-seeds germinating in the calyx of the flower analogous to [[underline]] viviparous [[/underline]] animals. Meth. St. p. 179 [[end page]]
[[start page]] 145) Apr 11. Larva [[underline]] C. S. triticoides [[/underline]] .09 [[^ - .10]] inch long, [[strikethrough]] full [[/strikethrough]] 3 times as long as wide, [[strikethrough]] luteous- [[/strikethrough]] fulvous with whitish bowel-like markings. Breast-bone Y-shaped as in [[underline]] Brass. [[/underline]] &c. Entire cell .5 long, .05 wide. Cocoon [[strikethrough]] [[^ largely]] attached in wood-part of cell, [[/strikethrough]] fine; [[strikethrough]] in bud part. [[/strikethrough]]. One extracted whole contained point of cocoon. One living sp. & a dead & partially dried up one, which had become lutes-fulvous instead of fulvous. Head very large [[image]], as long [[^ & wide]] as segments are long, so that when retracted ant. end. of body seems truncate. [[line]] X { Two [[underline]] S. Gemma [[/underline]] opened contained each a white Chalcide (?) larva (no breastbone) about .1 inch long. See p. 148X [[line]] S. Strobiliscus? 7 or 8 spms. more or less deflexed or reflexed, instead of porrect. [[line]] Apr. 9 Placed 2 pupa & 2 larvae of S. Strobiliscus? (S. discolor) in a vial. Apr. 14 one larva had changed to pupa, but legs just as long as other [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] [[^ 2]], or all 3 alike. [[line]] Apr. 14 Imago [[symbol for female]] from S. discolor? [[underline]] siliqua [[/underline]] N.H. undistinguishable from imago [[symbol for female]] same day from S. humilis gall [[underline]] siliqua [[/underline]]. [[line]] Apr. 16 Bred 3 [[symbol for female]] 2 [[symbol for male]] Nematus S. pomum. [[^ [[symbol for female]] ]] Compared (recent) with recent [[symbol for female]] S. desmod. bred yesterday but killed today, abd. & legs of all (except of course abd. dorsal black parts) is [[strikethrough]] pale [[^ dull]] greenish shite; so also in dried sp. In [[/strikethrough]] fulvous or dull fulvous whitish. In S. Desmod they are pale dull greenish white, & so also on all dried sp. so far as legs at least. In [[two symbols for female]] same [[image]] but [[underline]] abd [[/underline]] [[symbol for male]] pomum is greenish. [[line]] 5 [[symbol for female]] from S. discolor potato-like smooth gall = C. S. batatas. Scutel [[^ densely]] covered in 2 or 3 with forked while hairs [[image]] in a dense brush. in several on Apr. 18 [So in [[underline]] [[/underline]] Cec? ] So none bred 1865. [[end page]] [[start page]] 146) Apr. 17 Cec. S. batatas (7 [[symbol for female]] bred from S. discolor gall have a whitish [[^ cinereous narrow linear]] eye orbit (like Cec. orbitalis) & disk of each ventral brown, when [[^ wh.]] hair is removed, forming square brown plates. Dry [[underline]] c. s. batatas [[/underline]] apparently has white orbits too. [[line]] Apr. 18 10 [[symbol for female]] [[underline]] C. s. batatas [[/underline]] from S. discolor had all the eye orbit as above, but (being killed immediately after coming out, the others having lived 7 or 8 hours) had venter [[^ all]] sanguineous immaculate [[line]] Found [[strikethrough]] Rhaphigaster [[symbol for female]] [[/strikethrough]]] [[^ Arma spinosa Dallas (tip elytra vittate dusky) ]] (cabt.) in copula, one of them with its beak into an [[underline]] Andrena [[/underline]] on willow blossoms. On April 19 fixed him under a glass with wetted sugar. May 3. sick. May 4 died. No result. [[line]] Apr. 21 3 [[symbol for female]] c. s. batatas from S. discolor galls (no [[symbol for male]] yet) nor any parasites. [No [[symbol for male]] afterwards, but [[underline]] decatoma [[/underline]] parasites.] [[NOTE: the rest of the page is X'd out] [[strikethrough]] April 18 Found numerous larvae (apparently of {Limenitis disippus} [[^ came out May 21 & 2 May 24]] on S. humilis, which had hybernated in cases like pitcher-plant make out of willow-leaf. Lintner (P.E.S.P. II p. 620 supposes it to hybernate in [[underline]] imago [[/underline]] state. [[^ [[Nar?]] in pupa state]] Apr. 23 Found one similar case on S. cordata, old & empty. Base of leaf always tied to twig with silken cords. Leaf cut thus: [[image]] At this time S. humilis was in flower but [[underline]] no leaves [[/underline]] & larvae were crawling about on the flowers & apparently feeding on them. May 5 one had gone to pupa. [[^ 4 subsequently by May 15.]] N.B. according to Harris Cynthea Atalanta normally draws leaves together in the same way. [[underline]] [[?]] [[?]] p. 295 [[/underline]] [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]]
[[NOTE: a piece of paper reading '"Carya Pilula" cover portion of second page. Full text is shown on digital page 117]] [[NOTE: Written to side of piece paper: Legs blackish Spir. blackish]] [[start page]] 147) Apr.30 Came out 1 [[symbol for male]] 3 [[symbol for female]] C. S. strobiliscus? on S. discolor? [[symbol for male]] (certain) right ant. (3 last jts. sessile) 23-jointed, left ______ (1 last _______) 24-jointed. All [symbol for male, symbol for female]] with a white annulus of hairs next eye on occiput. scutellum with a forked brush of wh. hair. White hairs of dors. thor. nearly in two vittae; 1 [[symbol for female]] [[strikethrough]] cross [[/strikethrough]] (x on card) with origin of anterior brnch of 3rd long. [[underline]] very[[/underline]] distinct. Rest indistinct [[symbol for male, symbol for female]]. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] The gall in gall-insects is an [[underline]]additional [[/underline]]criterion of distinctness of species, besides larva, pupa, & imago, or imago only according to some writers. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] May 1. [[underline]] C. S. cornu [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] scarcely distinguishable from [[underline]] C. S. [[/underline]] batatas [[symbol for female]]; kept from overnight so that thorax nearly bare; ant. branch 3rd longitudinal straighter? _ A 2nd specn. on May (recent & just come out) has dorsum of thor. entirely bare. A linear whitish orbit. [[line]] May 4. Opened one q. prunus gall. Larva then, recent [[^ healthy]] & [[underline]] probably [[/underline]] alive. [[line]] May 7. S. strobiliscus 5 [[symbol for female]]. Antennae [[symbol for female]] apparently 22 - 24 jtd. A narrow ocular whitish orbit. [[line]] May 10. Larva of Nymphalis disippus? Willows. Cylindrical, 1.2 inch long, .25 inch diameter. Whitish. Head dull olive, with [[^ dense]] minute prickles & a pair transversely arranged on vertex [[^ which is bifid]] of prickly cylindrical horns about .03 inch long. On segment 2 ditto black & .16 long. On [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 3, 10 & 11 a pair of [[^ large dorsal]] tubercles transversely arranged, each crowned by a little bunch of 8-12 robust prickles. On jt.5 ditto larger [[^ yellowish]] mamma-like. On 4, 6 & 9 ditto, smaller [[end page]] [[start page]] 148) than on 3 10 & 11. On [[^ jt]]12 4 black prickly [[^ dorsal]] horns, quadrangularly arranged & about .03 inch long. Dorsum speckled & mottled with olive of different shades above line of spiracles, except jts. 2 & [[strikethrough]] 7/8[[/strikethrough]] 7/8 & the upper part of 7 & 9, [[underline]] leaving [[/underline]] [[^ but with]] a continuous [[^ pure]] white line above the spiracles, beneath [[^ white line]] which [[^ on jts.]] 4-10 is a[[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] [[^ large]] olive patch extending to external [[covered by note]] of prolegs. Legs blackish. [[^ [[covered by note]] May 9. 2 [[symbol for male]] S. cornu. A linear whitish orbit. One thorax nearly bare: [[covered by note]] with a subobsolete [[covered by note]] row of grayish whi[[covered by note]] about as in Strobilis[[covered by note]] Ant. 21 jt last [[covered by note]] 20-jd last [[image]]. Only [[covered by note]] with [[covered by note]] not developed well. [[covered by note]] pair of black trans[[covered by note]] [[^ dorsal]] dots in the suture behind jt. 2 & a less [[covered by note]] one above 2nd & 4th proleg surmounting the lateral white line. Joints [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] [[^ 3]] - 7 & 9 - 11 with more or less shining, elevated blue dots. Spiracles blackish.] Three specimens. [[line]] X May 14. S. gemina all mouldy. Dug out of 4 of them a black (Chalcidide?) pupa about .1 inch long, preserved. In one noticed much large-sized frass. Does the Tenthredinide come out in the [[underline]] fall [[/underline]]? See p. 145x [May 26 found in this bottle 1 [[symbol for male]] 1 [[symbol for female]] cecid. which must have come out since 14th. Preserved.] [[end of page]]
Carya [[underlined]] Rilula [[underlined]]
[[start page]] 147) Apr.30 Came out 1 [[symbol for male]] 3 [[symbol for female]] C. S. strobiliscus? on S. discolor? [[symbol for male]] (certain) right ant. (3 last jts. sessile) 23-jointed, left ______ (1 last _______) 24-jointed. All [symbol for male, symbol for female]] with a white annulus of hairs next eye on occiput. scutellum with a forked brush of wh. hair. White hairs of dors. thor. nearly in two vittae; 1 [[symbol for female]] [[strikethrough]] cross [[/strikethrough]] (x on card) with origin of anterior brnch of 3rd long. [[underline]] very[[/underline]] distinct. Rest indistinct [[symbol for male, symbol for female]]. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] The gall in gall-insects is an [[underline]]additional [[/underline]]criterion of distinctness of species, besides larva, pupa, & imago, or imago only according to some writers. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] May 1. [[underline]] C. S. cornu [[/underline]] [[symbol for female]] scarcely distinguishable from [[underline]] C. S. [[/underline]] batatas [[symbol for female]]; kept from overnight so that thorax nearly bare; ant. branch 3rd longitudinal straighter? _ A 2nd specn. on May (recent & just come out) has dorsum of thor. entirely bare. A linear whitish orbit. [[line]] May 4. Opened one q. prunus gall. Larva then, recent [[^ healthy]] & [[underline]] probably [[/underline]] alive. [[line]] May 7. S. strobiliscus 5 [[symbol for female]]. Antennae [[symbol for female]] apparently 22 - 24 jtd. A narrow ocular whitish orbit. [[line]] May 10. Larva of Nymphalis disippus? Willows. Cylindrical, 1.2 inch long, .25 inch diameter. Whitish. Head dull olive, with [[^ dense]] minute prickles & a pair transversely arranged on vertex [[^ which is bifid]] of prickly cylindrical horns about .03 inch long. On segment 2 ditto black & .16 long. On [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 3, 10 & 11 a pair of [[^ large dorsal]] tubercles transversely arranged, each crowned by a little bunch of 8-12 robust prickles. On jt.5 ditto larger [[^ yellowish]] mamma-like. On 4, 6 & 9 ditto, smaller [[end page]] [[start page]] 148) [[NOTE: written to the right of following entry: Legs blackish Spir. blackish]] than on 3 10 & 11. On [[^ jt]]12 4 black prickly [[^ dorsal]] horns, quadrangularly arranged & about .03 inch long. Dorsum speckled & mottled with olive of different shades above line of spiracles, except jts. 2 & [[strikethrough]] 7/8[[/strikethrough]] 7/8 & the upper part of 7 & 9, [[underline]] leaving [[/underline]] [[^ but with]] a continuous [[^ pure]] white line above the spiracles, beneath [[^ white line]] which [[^ on jts.]] 4-10 is a[[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] [[^ large]] olive patch extending to external [[covered by note]] of prolegs. Legs blackish. [[^ A pair of black transversely arranged [[ ^dorsal]] dots in the suture behind jt 2 & a less obvious [[ ^lateral]] one above 2nd & 4th proleg surmounting the lateral white line. Joints [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] [[^ 3]] - 7 & 9 - 11 with more or less shining, elevated blue dots. Spiracles blackish.] Three specimens. [[line]] X May 14. S. gemma all mouldy. Dug out of 4 of them a black (Chalcidide?) pupa about .1 inch long, preserved. In one noticed much large-sized frass. Does the Tenthredinide come out in the [[underline]] fall [[/underline]]? See p. 145x [May 26 found in this bottle 1 [[symbol for male]] 1 [[symbol for female]] cecid. which must have come out since 14th. Preserved.] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 149) May 20. Tramea n. sp. [[symbol for male]] Anus is [[underline]]beneath [[/underline]] inferior appendage. [[line]] May 21 Found very numerous{[[^ acaridous]] [[image]] galls like Tubicolus s. on leaves of wild plum; also terminal vestiges of galls like S. Brassicoides. X The oak on the flats [[^ east of slaughterhouse]] had no spongifica galls. That in Case's field was [[underline]] full [[/underline]] of them - 50 or 60 at least. Galls now some small, some 1/2 - 3/4 inch in diameter. [No signs yet of any new black knot.] The black oak on the Flats north of Jones' House had 4 galls only: those south of it all the way along had a few galls (spongifica) each. The one most to the south had a new kind of gall, white, woolly [[^ outside]], fleshy inside & polythalamous, 1 - 1 1/2 inch in diameter, growing round the base of the catkins [[^ [[strikethrough]] q. flosculus [[/strikethrough]] [[^ = q. operator]] [[line]] May 26. Two (dead) Cec. (1 [[symbol for male]] 1 [[symbol for female]]) found in s. gemmae vial are probably inquilines, [[symbol for because]] 1st eurytomides therefrom, 2nd pedicles of [[symbol for male]] ant. = globular part of jt. [[line]] May 26. Orchelimum larva bred S. stobiliscus [[line]] May 28. Microrhopala laetula [[?]] occurred very abundantly at Chippiannock on Silphium perfoliatum. Very many in coitu. No colorational [[image]] in sexes. [[line]] May 29. Found Microrhopala { [[^ n. sp. [[?]] ]] S. Capularis in coitu: [[symbol for therefore]] my form with orange pectis [[^ = Scapularis [[?]] [[?]] ]] is a species [= lateralis Say [[^ =]] scapularis [[?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 150) May 30. X Anus in Gomphus [[underline]] below [[/underline]] inferior appendages but [[underline]] above [[/underline]] the two anal appendages. [[line]] Took a [[symbol for male]] [[underline]] Leptura bivittula [[/underline]] Say in coitu with a [[symbol for female]] var.[[?]] elytra entirely black & thorax entirely red. Thorax [[symbol for male]] entirely black. Preserved. June 2. Saw Deilephila lineata flying freely 2 P.M. on [[^ wild ]] iris flowers [noticed by Edwards P.E.S.P.] [[line]] X June 4. Captured [[symbol for female]] Syaergus rhoditiformis on a green q. podagrae gall at large. Many of these new galls bored; [[^ the]] others not. The borings lead to empty [[underline]] brown [[/underline]] cells, [[underline[ promiscuously [[/underline]] inter-mixed with which are greenish white semipellucid [[underline]] solid [[/underline]] cells [[^ [[underline]] not [[/underline]] projecting at all from surface as in [[underline]] q. cornigera [[/underline]] O.S. [[?]] vide]] containing no larva, & about size of grain of rice, axis perpendicular to surface of gall. [Bassett right about his species being double-brooded.] These last mostly adhere to bark on pulling it off & are fleshy but moderately solid & hard. Out of about 30 galls, nearly 1/2 are thus partially bored. [[line]] X Gathered lot of [q. flosculus] [[^ = q. operator]] galls (Black oak, see p.149) Now tinged externally with reddish brown, smooth & with no [[underline]] knubs [[/underline]] like seminators. Cells very hard & woody. One contained chalcid. larva & one a cynipidous pupa. They adhere [[end page]]
[[start page]] 151) X scarcely to stem, like seminator galls of over 25 spongifica galls opened today, only 2 contained pupa of cynips & those had been eaten into by tortrix larva 3/4 inch long found therein & were thus prematurely ripened. Then 2 came off oak an flats East of road "necrophorus corner". Two Chalcid. larvae found in spong. galls were hairy. [[underline]] Callimome? [[/underline]] or [[/underline]] Decatoma? [[/underline]] Must be [[underline]]Callimome; [[/underline]] [[symbol for because]] hairy larvae found in strobiloides &c galls, which produce no [[underline]] decatoma.[[/underline]] [See p.154 X] [[line[[ X [ C. q. strobilana O.S. (like my C. q. prunus) has whole abd. pubescent (P.E.S.P. II p.691) [[line]] X June 5. on tree in Jonah Case's field, found about 40 pseudotinctoriae, [[insertion]] ^some [[/insertion]] intermixed promiscuously on same bough with spongifica. Only 6 or 7 [[underline]] Spongifica [[/underline]] in all, besides 2 or 3 destroyed by Lep. larvae. [[underline]] Pseudot. [[/underline]] grow from under side of leaf like spongifica &c. When ripe, are detached by the least touch. As I am certain that I found very numerous [[underline]] pseudot. [[/underline]] under the [[/underline]] Red [[/underline]] oak at [[?.]] 4-maculata corner, this species also (like q. prunus) must be common to Red & Black oak. (??) Osten Sacken thought it (M.S.) an undeveloped [[underline]] spongifica. [[/underline]] Is it not his [[underline]] q. centricola? [[/underline]] No! Filaments of [[end page]] [[start page]] 152) that gall with a [[underline]] "silky [[/underline]]gloss" [[symbol]] [[underline]] q. inanis.[[/underline]] This pseudotinctoriae has filaments very stout & [[underline]] cottony. [[/underline]] X June 6. One [[underline]] q. prunus [[/underline]] (opened) still in larva state on black oak close to J. Case's east fence (large tree) strung 36 spongifica galls. Then galls on flats all still in larva west of Road; opened 20. Pseudo-tintoriae gall on Red Oak different rather from that on Black Oak. When [[strikethrough]] young [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^recent, [[/insertion]] green & [[insertion]] ^smooth & [[/insertion]] pellucid (like inanis & nubilipennis) & [[insertion]] ^often [[/insertion]] with brown dots [[image of circle with dots]] [[insertion]] ^as also some q.inanis. [[/insertion]] That on Black Oak when [[strikethrough]] young [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] recent [[/insertion]]opaque & [[insertion]] very [[/insertion]] powdery & no dots. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] & [[/strikethrough]] the radiating fibres of the latter are coarser. [[line]] June 7 & 8. From galls [[/underline]] q. flosculus [[/underline]] (= operator o.s.) came out these days 86 [[symbols for male]] without a single [[symbol for female]], (the [[symbol for male]] has a penis pointed & curved under abdomen [[image]] ) besides at least a dozen more [[symbols for male]] left in bottle. [[line]] June 9. Ditto 85 [[symbols for male]] & only 4 [[symbols for female]] [[line]] June 10. Ditto. Out of 54 counted promiscuously, 52 [[symbols for male]]. [[line]] 0 June 11. Gathered galls off [slaughterhouse oak [[insertion]] [this was oak S. of slaughterhouse, on which I had hung strings of galls spring of 1864. [[strikethrough]] Necrophorous corner See P.149 X [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] - 5 of them, 3 badly eaten by Lep. larvae (found in one noctuide green, white striped larva), & one small & shriveled. The other one good. From one of the eaten ones, imago cynips had [[/underline]] apparently [[/underlie]] issued. [[line]] Today from Case's field spongifica came out one [[symbol for female]] spongifica [[image]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 153) June 10. Took [[underline]] G. vastus [[/underline]] in coitu [[male symbol; female symbol]]. The [[male symbol]] embraces the [[underline]] occiputs [/underline]] (not neck) with his appendages, the superior ones behind the occiput the inferior ones before it. [[line]] June 11. On a basally trifid Red (?) Oak at West side of Gomphus rupinsulensis Plateau, strung 30 + 20 (?) spongifica galls. [all gone by revellers on 4th July] [[line]] On a Black (?) oak Sapling, with leaves almost as broad as long & very large, found [[strikethrough]] 6 [[/strikethrough]] 7 spongifica galls. Sapling on Bluff, beyond fork going to Bluff Valley field, left of Road, opposite stump marked with brush. Sapling also marked with Brush & blazed on East side thrice. Galls mostly badly eaten. Bark rough high up. [[image of sketch of leaf with indications of largest and narrowest features ]] See p. 108 & p. 155 for another [[underline]] orgyia [[/underline]] larva [[line]] June 12. Three [[underline]] Orgyia [[/underline]] larvae on hickory. Length [[insertion]] ^ largest [[/insertion]] 1 1/4 inch. The two normal black pencils on jt. 1 & similar [[underline]] two [[/underline]] on 12. [[insertion]] ^ Long [[/insertion]] Black [[insertion]] dorsal [[/insertion]] tufts close docked as usual on 4 - [[strikethrough]] 6 [[/strikethrough]] 7 & on 11, with a few grayish-white hairs intermixed. The short tufts [[strikethrough]] white [[/strikethrough]] on 1 - 3, [[strikethrough]] 7 [[/strikethrough]] 8 - [[strikethrough]] 9 [[/strikethrough]] ^10, & 12 yellowish with many white hairs intermixed. The lateral tufts all round [[insertion]] ^ short above but beneath [[/insertion]] 4 inch long, the hairs of all lengths & whitish. All the hairs throughout (including pencils & docked tufts) bipectinate like a bird's plumage under the lens. Skin Dorsally black freckled with whitish, laterally whitish. [[end page]] [[start page]] 154) Head [[insertion]] ^ unipunctate [[/insertion]] black. Body beneath [[strikethrough]] lead color [[/strikethrough]] pale greenish black. Prolegs yellowish, with a [[insertion]] ^ medial [[/insertion]] external black spot. Legs blackish [one spun up July 5; one came out July 25] [[line]] June 15 [[strikethrough]] Let go under-ground (glass-box cage) larva answering description of Deilephila lineata. [died] [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] June 16. Bred 1 [[symbol for female]] Callimome (of q. spongifica) from pseudotinctoriae galls from "Case's field." [[line]] June 23. Found a living larva, evidently from its larger head & pointed tail chalcididous, in the central cell of [[underline]] q. globulus. [[/underline]] [[underline]] Not [[/underline]] hairy. [[line]] X Q. Sculpta Bass. also has abd. punctate but not hairy. (see p.151x) [[line]] June 26. Examined closely 20 black-knots gathered yesterday. Cut into 3 or 4. No cells or cecid. larvae visible [[insertion]] ^ nor minute borings [[/insertion]]. Noticed on one a vermilion red Thripide larva [[insertion]] ^ .03 or [[/insertion]] .04 long. Two or three had been already (frass &c) bored by Lepid. larva which had gone. Distinct Cecid. cells in some [[underline]] old [[/underline]] black knots. A week ago out of 6 [[insertion]] B [[?]] [[/insertion]] galls gathered had found a lepid. larva in one, which I preserved. These B. [[?]] galls arise from a slit which extends down to the pith are now fleshy (but not juicy) with radiating fibres from axis of twig. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 155) [[underline]] Gall prunus Tubicola [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^(see July 2) [[/insertion]] a clavate [[insertion]] ^soft, hollow thin-shelled [[/insertion]] gall .07 - .10 inch long, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] ^ greenish yellowish but [[/strikethrough]] generally [[strikethrough]] [[?]] at towards [[/strikethrough]] except at base [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] rosy [[insertion]] ^ red [[/strikethrough]] 20 [[strikethrough]] 40 [[/strikethrough]] - [[strikethrough]] 30 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 50 [[/insertion]] of them growing from the upper surface of the leaf end of June (26th) with many young ones coming forwards. Inside most (12 about [[insertion]] ^ opened [[/insertion]] empty, but from one [[strikethrough]] found [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ extracted uninjured [[/insertion]] an elongate larva 4 - 5 times as long as wide & about .02 long, whitish with 3 or 4 [[strikethrough]] tip [[/strikethrough]] caudal jts. opaque yellowish. Head when exserted very long & pointed & blackish at [[insertion]] ^ extreme [[/insertion]] tip. Breastbone small dusky indistinct. Cecidomyiidous? Four or 5 galls had already burst open at tip. [[insertion]] & one gnawed or burst open sideways [[/insertion]] Gall opaque, with short rather sparse whitish hairs. Very abundant on wild plum Similar gall on choke-cherry. See p. 153 & 108 [[line]] June 27. [[underline]] Orgyia [[/underline]] larva (1) taken on thorn today differs from that of hickory [[insertion]] ^ (p.153) [[insertion]] (the 2 compared) only in there being a central dorsal pencil of clavate hairs on jt. 11 instead of an evenly shorn brush, & in these being on jts. 4 - 9 a single lateral [[insertion]] long [[/insertion]] long black clavate hair surmounting the lateral whitish hairs. [Had spun up July 8; came out a [[underline]] Parorgyia [[/underline]] Packard July 24.] [[end page]] [[start page]] 156) [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] June [[strikethrough]] [[2?]] [[/strikethrough]] 29 [[/underline]] Larva of [[underline]] Arhopalus robinae. [[/underline]] Is [[/strikethrough]] it scarcely [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] not at all [[/insertion]] clavate in front as drawn by O.S. Spiracles on meso thorax [[insertion]] {normal see I. p. 119 P.E.S.P. [[/insertion]] & on 1st 8 abd. segments. Length [[insertion]] ^ .06 - [[/insertion]] - .07 inch. Prothorax not flattened above and below. Prothorax [[underline]] not [[/underline]] brownish yellow, but whitish like rest of body with 4 transversely arranged dorsal brownish-yellow roundish spots. Six specimens. Had completely honey-combed a branch 1 1/2 inch in diameter, heartwood & all. [larva preserved in alcohol.] [[strikethrough]] The larva of Sphingicampa distigma (?) when only .05 or .06 long, has [[strikethrough]] a [[insertion]] ^ the [[insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] pair of [[strikethrough]] double [[/strikethrough]] [[/underline]] horns [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] on jts 2 & 3 [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] each pair [[insertion]] ^ transverse & [[/insertion]] bifid to the base, capable of divaricating & [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] armed with with little prickles, about 1/3 as long as body, [[strikethrough]] on jts 2 & 3 [[insertion]] & keeps the 2 left & the 2 right horns generally closely appressed. [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]]. On jt. 11 is the normal horn, sprangled & fully equal to diameter of body. Joints 4-10 have [[insertion]] small [[/insertion]] thorns, [[underline]] all alike [[/underline]] on the different jts. Preserved in alcohol. [[line]] June 30. Found Brachygaster reticulatus S. under a [[insertion]] ^ flat [[/insertion]] log, alive. Feeds on subterranean larvae? [[line]] X July 1. opened 3 q. prunus; 1 with 7 or 8 chalc.? larvae; 1 empty; one healthy cynipides larva. [[line]] July 2. Attacus Cynthea will eat elm. One .50 inch long. [[line]] X [[underline]] Prunus tubicola [[/underline]] is now [[insertion]] ^ (fresh gathered) [[/insertion]] .20 long & 5 times as long as wide, neck about 1/2 width of other part or more. [[insertion]] ^ slit [[/insertion]] open [[strikethrough]] ed [[/strikethrough]] 20 [[insertion]] ^carefully [[insertion]] on 3 different leaves [[/insertion]] [[insertion]] but found [[underline]] no larva. [[/underline]] A few drying & turning brown at tip. No young ones now. None burst open now. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 157) [[underline]] July 2 [[/underline]] [[underline]] Orgyia [[/underline]] larva on thorn still there. [[line]] July 4. Opened 3 Pseudotinct. galls [[strikethrough]] gathered [[/strikethrough]] gathered April 8, '62 on ground (q. rubra) & [[symbol for therefore]] over 2 years old. Two contained perfectly shrivelled larva & one a plump (& living?) one. A dorsal dark vitta. Cynip. or Chalcid? [[line]] July 9. Leped. larva (head [[image - pencil drawing of head of larva]]) of black-knot has neither legs nor prolegs, & yet walks tolerably on a smooth table. [Conotrachelus nenuphar?] [[line]] X July 12. Examined black-knot, & seemed to recognize a minute orange-colored larva in one of the Cecid. like cells like those of [[underline]] C. S. batatas. [[/underline]] Two kinds of Lepid. larvae, one with a brown shield on 1st segment, the other simple. Found galls (bk kt.) intermixed with old galls along the longitudinal slit formed by bursting of bark [[symbol for therefore]] not caused by Tenthredo. [[underline]] May [[/underline]] be caused by ovipositional slit of [[underline]] Ceresa [[/underline]]. But why not on other [[underline]] Ceresa [[/underline]] slits, as in those detected by myself on Crab? [[line]] July 11. The oak-apples on [[insertion]] ^ Black oak [[/insertion]] tree E. of Case's field were all torn off & the string gone. Of the 36(?) picked up 27 under the bough. Could not have been torn off [[underline]] sooner [[/underline]] than July 4 & probably by German crowd celebrating there on that day. Those on Red Oak inside s [[superscript]] d. [[/superscript]] field were all gone - none on ground. [[line]] July 17. In one of the last-gathered Black-knots found a Lepid. larva [[underline]] with distinct legs. [[/underline]] Head yellowish [[image - pen drawing of larva head with portion indicated A]] the emargination at A [[underline]] while [[/underline]] like the rest of the body. [[insertion]] No shield on joint. [[/insertion]] While cutting into another Bk Kt. a scarlet [[end page]] [[start page]] 158) Thrips larva suddenly emerged from the [[strikethrough]] eaten [[/strikethrough]] inside when it had been eaten & left full of frass by Lep. larvae also a small white [[underline]] acarus.[[/underline]] Re-examined the [Lepid?] [[insertion]] ^ curculio? [[/insertion]]larva (head [[image of head]]) in the 2nd lot of galls & it was [[underline]] most certainly [[/underline]] without legs & [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] prolegs. Length .20 inch [[insertion]] ^ 4 times as long as wide [[/insertion]]. Body yellowish white, [[strikethrough]] hairy [[/strikethrough]] with whitish hairs, head pale rufous. [[insertion]] ^ A subobsolete double rufous shield on jt. 1[[/insertion]]. Inserted it in a hole of a B.Kt. much [[strikethrough]] bored [[/strikethrough]] frass (& which [[underline]] may [[/underline]] contain another lep. larva) & placed in separate bottle. [[insertion]] ^ [July 2 [[?]] dead] [[/insertion]] Found no Cecid. larvae. [[line]] * July 18. Leaf gall [[insertion] (See p. 166) of [[strikethrough]] Vernonia fasciculata? [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [[?]] //strikethrough]] Asteris [[/strikethrough]] bulla aster (common) [[insertion]] just over Chippk. fence, end of Myodites Slough. Pale gall. Fleshy, diameter [[insertion]] ^ .20 - .30 inch. [[/insertion]] Pale [[/insertion// Green, [[insertion]] often rosy above [[/insertion]] globular, projecting from both sides of the leaf, [[insertion]] generally [[/insertion]] most of it above, & hollow with quite thin walls. [[strikethrough]] Often [[/strikethrough]] Opens always below, in a round hole. Larva .15 inch long, 4 [[insertion]] ^ - 15 [[/insertion]] times as long as wide, tapered at both ends. Anal segm. [[image with "12" ]]. Head large, rounded. [[strikethrough]] Slight vestige of [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ No [[/insertion]] breast-bone. Orange with not very distinct curdy, bowel-like markings: 12 segments + head [[underline]] very [[/underline]] distinct; 3 thor. segm. less hunched than abd. A dorsal? or [[strikethrough]] abd. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ ventral? [[/insertion]] series of fleshy carnucles [[image]] on abd. jts. 1-7, by aid of which it rolls rapidly over sideways: 2 spms Pupa. Length .15 inch including [[strikethrough]] antennal thorus [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [capital? or [[strikethrough]] prothoracic? capital? thoracco horns[[/strikethrough]] bristles [[/insertion]] which are = 2/3 diam. of body, [[insertion]] placed immediately [[strikethrough]] placed [[/strikethrough]] behind ant horns [[/insertion]] setose, their basal 1/5 suddenly thickened [[insertion]] ^ breadth 1/5 = 1/4 length [[/insertion]]. Ant. horns conical in [[symbol for angle]] angle of 60°, [[insertion]] ^ acute [[/insertion]] divaricating at 90°. Legs [[strikethrough]] not [[/strikethrough]] scarcely extending beyond centre of body. Segments much hunched laterally & rolls over like larva. Color [[insertion]] ^ pale [[/insertion]] sanguineous [[insertion]] ^front parts tinged with dusky [[/insertion]], abd. with same markings as larva. No thor. bristles. Front parts, especially wing-cases almost black, [[insertion]] ^ just before coming out [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] sometimes [[/strikethrough]]: 2 spms Many galls were bored & empty July 17. Some 17 on one leaf, partially confluent. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] 3 more (young) larvae examd. Breast-bone pale [[insertion]] ^ but distinct in two of 3 [[/insertion]] clove-shaped. Pseudopods abd. not dorsal. On [[strikethrough]] two [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ many [[/insertion]] larvae found a small external feeding parasitic larva, probably {[[?onide]] chalcid. [[insertion]] ^ in one case [[underline]] two [[/underline]] such on a pupa found one July 19^ -- imago [[symbol for female]] a Diplosis: ant 2 & 12 jd - many cells - T.O [[end page]]
[[start page]] 159) contained July 19. chalcide pupae, with a black [[image]] probably exuviae of larva. Found in [[^ all]] [two [[^ + 3]] ] galls which contained pupae the exuviae of the larva, milk-white, but distinctly showing segments of larva. Preserved. In [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] [[^ two]] found hairy, orange larva, probably [[underline]] Callimome [[/underline]]. In one cell (where many were confluent together) found [[underline]] two [[/underline]] pupae [[underline]] diplosis [[/undlerline]] & two exuviae. Larval exuviae easily seen because gall is [[underline]] green. [[/underline]] [[line]] July 20. Larva of [[underline]] Saperda cretata [[/underline]] bores apple trees. (Henry Shimer MS.) [[line]] July 21. Found in a bk knot much eaten by Lepid.? & coated inside with gummy matter a larva .03 inch long, head-end pointed & groping about with this end like a Syrphus larva. [[^ Yellowish]] white[[strikethrough]] ish [[/strikethrough]], a [[^ very distinct]] black speck very like a breast-bone. Replaced it in gall. - Same time, found on my blotting paper, on which I had emptied the bk knots, a nemocerous imago, [[^ dead but recent]] probably not a gall-maker. Cannot be referred to Anaretina or Cecidomyina. [[image - pen drawing]] Near [[underline]] Sciara? [[/underline]] Preserved it. [Named by O.S. as Ceratopogon = a very different genus] [[line]] July 22. Examined a fresh lot of Bk Kt gathered yesterday. One gall about .5 long & .2 wide contained [[underline]] positively [[/underlined]] no larvae, & was still quite green & fleshy. Found another [[underline]] legless [[/underline]] [Lepid?] larva. x [[vertical line]] Found a 3rd species of lep. larvae, [[underline]] with [[^ normal]] legs [[/underline]] [[^ & prolegs]], .18 long, 6 times as long as wide. Head polished, black. Body pale yellowish brown with a few short dusky hairs, [[end page]] [[start page]] 160) a polished brown [[image - pen drawing of half-circle]] shield on jt. 1 & another [[image - pen drawing of half-circle]]on anal jt. spins a thread & wriggles. [Bred it [[^ isolated]]; no other [[^ Lep. larva]] in gall] No recent black knots yet bored by the minute holes supposed to be [[underline]] cecid. [[/underline]]: all cut into still quite green & fleshy & may be distinguished externally from old ones by browner & more opaque surface. The [[underline]] sphaeria morbosa [[/underline]] just beginning to appear on some of them. In [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] the jar, with sand containing earliest gathered bk. Kt found a [[^ living]] [[underline]] Conotrachelus nenuphar. [[/underline]] The legless (Lepid.?) larva probably belongs here. Hence the Black Knot "curculio" cannot be a 2nd brood of the Plum insect, which are sd. to "leave the fruit & enter the ground early in July" ([[underline]] Fitch [[/underline]] p. 20) [[line]] [[strikethrough]] The "butternut" [[underline]] con. nenuphar [[/underline]] of larger size (Fitch p.24) are probably a Phytophagic species. Say states ([[fide?]] Bartram) that it "destroys the European walnut in this country." [[underline]] No intermediate size[[/underline]] between plain size & walnut size. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Gall [[underline]] Prunus tubicola [[/underline]] [[^ see. p. 155)]] Some now .25 long, 4-5 times as long as wide. First one opened contained a larva .05 inch long, 5 times as long as wide, head pointed & elongate, & works round with it like a [[underline]] syrphus[[/underline]] larva (& the larva in Bk. Knot.) Whitish with an abbreviated dorsal [[^ (?)]] fuscous vitta; both extremities of of body [[^ especially]] yellow [[&^ above]]. A series of [ventral?] caruncles opposite side to [dorsal?] fuscous vitta. Of 20 galls opened, two contained a larva size of above, one a larva only .025 long, & 17 nothing at all. A few opened or grawed into at tip, & one or two gnawed into (?) laterally. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 161) A [[strikethrough]] very[[/strikethrough]] similar but larger gall on wild cherry almost all now split open laterally, so as to show inside fuzzy like [[insertion]] ^ brown [[/insertion]] woollen cloth. A great many had broken off from the peduncle, [[strikethrough]] leav [[/strikethrough]] & gone. Of 22 [[insertion]] ^ slit [[/insertion]] open[[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] carefully [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] that had not burst open, one contained a chalcide pupa .05 long, & 21 were absolutely empty. Appears to be a second crop of these galls just springing up from same leaves. Is the insect double-brooded, the 2nd brood going underground for the winter? Otherwise how propagate? [[In middle of page is a table, as follows]] X Larvae of [[underline]] orygia [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Dasychira [[/underline]] [[table has four rows, will enter data as Line 1, Col. 1, etc.]] [[Col. 1 (untitled) and four additional column headings, as follow]] [[Col. 2]] leucostigma [[Col. 3]] Willow D. [[Col. 4]] Thorn D. [[Col. 5]] Hickory D [[Line 1, Untitled Col. 1]] joint 1 [[Line 1, Col. 2]] 2 black pencils [[Line 1, Col. 3]] 2 black pencils [[Line 1, Col. 4]] 2 bk. pencils [[Line 1, Col. 5]] 2 [[bl.?]] pencils [[Line 2, Col. 1]] joints 4-7 [[Line 2, Col. 2]] dorsal yellowish brush [[Line 2, Col. 3]] dorsal whitish brush [[Line 2, Col. 4]] dorsal black brush [[Line 2, Col. 5]] dorsal black brush [[Line 3, Col. 1]] joint 11 [[Line 3, Col. 2]] dorsal bk. pencil [[Line 3, Col. 3]] dorsal bk. pencil [[Line 3, Col. 4]] dorsal bk. pencil [[Line 3, Col. 5]] dorsal black brush [[Line 4, Col. 1]] joint 12 [[Line 4, Col. 2]] 0 [[Line 4, Col. 3]] less obvious & slenderer bk pencils (2) [[Line 4, Col. 4]] 2 black pencils [[Line 4, Col. 5]] 2 black pencils [[end of table]] [[NOTE: Or:]] leucostigm Willow D Thorn D Hicory D jt 1 2 black pencils 2 black pencils 2 black pencils 2 black pencils joints 4-7 dorsal yellowish brush dorsal whitish brush dorsal black brush dorsal black brush joint 11 dorsal bk pencil dorsal bk pencil dorsal bk pencil dorsal black brush joint 12 0 less obvious & slenderer bk pencils 2 2 black pencils 2 black pencils [Compiled from pp. 108, 153 & 155. [[Leucostigma?]] from Morris [[underline]] Synopsis [[/underline]] ] The 3 [[underline]] Dasychira [[/underline]] have probably all been confused under [[underline]] Achatina [[/underline]] Hubner, though they differ essentially in larva. [[underline]] Rossii [[/underline]] & [[strikethrough]] bl [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] basiflava [[/underline]] Packard don't agree, the former having hind wings yellowish & the latter the base of front wings So. Probably the 3 [[underline]] Dasychira [[/underline]] are Phytophagic species, differing in larva only. [[underline]] Orgyia [[/underline]] leucostigma varies so much in the markings of imago, that probably Willow D = Thorn D = Hickory D. [[strikethrough]] Sorry to disturb the self-satisfied repose of certain [[strikethrough]] entomologists [[/strikethrough]] lepidopterists who describe [[insertion]] ^ variable [[/insertion]] species from solitary specimens & have the most supreme contempt for larval & pupal characters; but science is science & her calls must be obeyed. [[strikethrough]] Though ] [[/strikethrough]] It is only in the field & the woods that we can arrive at a correct knowledge of specific [[end page]] [[start page]] 162) distinctions. The closet-naturalist is at the mercy of any collector who [[insertion]] in [[insertion]] the case of [[/insertion]] variable species [[/insertion]] is mischievous or careless or dishonest enough to send him [[insertion]] ^ only [[insertion]] the two ends of the series [[strikethrough]] [[only]] [[/strikethrough]], retaining or suppressing the intermediate grades. Thus Dr. Harris made 5 species out of [[underline]] Tetrix ornate [[/underline]] Say & Fitch has made 3 species out of [[underline]] Athysanus variabilis [[/underline]] (Tettigon.) The closet-naturalist again, can know nothing of larval forms or the plants they feed on, & so long as two imagos agree in their characters, though the larvae may differ either structurally or colorationally or both, [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] he [[insertion]] dogmatically [[/insertion]] pronounces the two to be identical. Of the 3 states in which an insect exists, he knows only the third & judges & decides only from the third, which is just as irrational as if he were to cut off [[/insertion]] & throw away [[/insertion]] the wings & legs of an imago & judge & decide [[strikethrough]] specific [[/strikethrough]] questions of specific destinction from a consideration of [[strikethrough]] body [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] its [[/insertion]] body alone. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] N.B. Hairs of larvae of Arctia [[insertion]] ^ virginiana [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Isabella [[/underline]] & [[underline]] parthenope[[/underline]] [[image]] under lens. Par [[underline]] Orgyia [[/underline]] more [[image: tiny sketch of insect leg hairs]] perpendicularly so. How Halesidota? [Feathered also.] --line]] July 26. Cut open one of the Willow [[Ciruben?]] cocoons. Still in large & quite lively. [[insertion]] ^ [Oct. 10 all 3 larvae dead] [[/insertion]] [[line]] July 25 Larva of Thyreus Abbotii had gone underground yesterday, Cage No. 6 [[line]] July 28. Gathered a green, fleshy, apple-like, subglobular terminal gall, imbricated outside with deformed leaves, from Silphium perfoliatum. Inside many cells containing Curculionidous larvae .1 inch long. [rotted & = 0] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 163) [[NOTE: a piece of paper or newsprint is pasted on page with the following words]] A flock of butterflies, four miles long, passed over one of the inland towns of California recently, for the North. [[end printed note]] N.Y. Tribune July 25. 1865 [[line]] July 30. Gathered some more Black-Knot. Less juicy now, but still fleshy, like a very juiceless apple. Surface covered with short, cylindrical, densely-set, blunt prickles, which in places have apparantly fallen off, leaving the [[underline]] Sphaeria morbosa [[/underline]] consisting of naked, round disks. X Cut into 2 or 3 [[insertion]] ^ Bk knot [[/insertion]] galls. Found one whitish larva .07 inch long, partly damaged, about 3 times as long as wide. Curculio? Was on cell with frass. Also, one minute larva, about .02 long, elongate (5 [[insertion]] ^ or 6 [[/insertion]] times as long as wide) & traveled rapidly. Dipterous? Considerable appearance of incipient Cecid. cells, but still solid. External surface now deep black, not brown-black, as before. [[line]] July 31. Found numerous [[underline]] Lytta marginata [[/underline]] feeding on [[underline]] Silphium perfoliatum [[/underline]]. Leaves much eaten. [[line]] On tame grape. [[image]] A bunch of fusiform green galls, each about .6 inch long & .4 in diameter, the basal 2/3 smooth, the term. 1/3 pubescent, growing on stem. Inside fleshy, juicy, subacid with a long central cell .25 long & .06 in diameter. Larva [[strikethrough]] deep [[/strikethrough]] orange, the disk of dorsum paler: segment [[end page]] [[start page]] 164) bearing breastbone hid above; breast bone [[drawing]] Length .11 inch. One specimen. [[line]] [From Silliman May 1865 p. 362-3. by Dr. W.C. Minor] Dr. Wagner's classificaton of generation in Articulata. "I. A non-sexual spontaneous multiplication of the larve-nurse [[(Aninie)?]] with sexual generation of the developed animal. Germ metamorphosed out of the fat or granular substance of the larve-nurse, & the animal has 3 or 4 transformations. - [[underline]] Cestodes [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Trematodes [[/underline]]. "II. Larves with sexual organs. - [[underline]] Aphides [[/underline]]. "III Multiplication only in the perfect sexual animal; [[underline]] a [[/underline]]. in both [[male and female symbols]] but without sexual influence - [[underline]] Daphnidae [[/underline]]. [[underline]] b [[/underline]], in one sex only, without sexual influence - [[underline]] Bees [[/underline]] & some [[underline]] butterflies [[/underline]]. [[underline]] c [[/underline]], in one sex only, under the influence of fructification "Parthenogenesis is a germination of buds in [[underline]] special sexual organs [[/underline]], though without fructification; [[underline]] alternate genesis [[/underline]] is a self-transformation, also unfructified, of tissue into germs or buds, without any special organ for the transformation. No. I belongs to Alternate genesis; II & partly III to Parthenogenesis." It is perhaps not premature to state here, that the writer has found a number of large, oval germs in some minute larves observed lately. [[insertion]] ^ *** [[/insertion]] To judge from the difference in shape of the larve's head, these were not of the same genus. [[line]] Aug 5 Saw a [[underline]] Vespa maculata [[/underline]] (bald-faced hornet) with a muscide or Tachinide about size of a house-fly in its mouth. Aug 6. Saw one actually eating a muscide? or Tachin? [[end page]]
[[start page]] 165) [[underline]] Aug 6.[[/underline]] Bk Knot still as green as before most of them, though a few are dried & turned inside of a reddish brown. Noticed on the naked twigs becoming bk knot the [[underline]] Sphaeria morbosa [[/underline]] filaments [[insertion]] ^ not very [[/insertion]] thickly studded on bark [[/insertion]] ^ to [[/insertion]] some distance from it. [[line]] [[underline]] Aug 8.[[/underline]] The Ichneumonidae (bred [[Pelo?]] lunatus) & the similar species without antennal annulus & areolet, [[underline]] both[[/underline]] have nearly the peculiar smell of [[underline]] Bombus.[[/underline]] [[line]] Aug.10 Found Tetyra fimbriata Say on the back of a larva 1 inch long Papilio Asterias, which it had sucked half dry. [[line]] As some believe that there are genera of printed calicoes as that genera have a real existence in nature. Mr.Gow informs me that at his home in western Penna. eight years ago Arhopalus robiniae (he knows the the insect) was [very] [[insertion]] not so very [[/insertion]] abundant & destroyed many [or most] locusts. Returning there this year he found no sighns of its work & the locusts flourishing, many of them [[?]] trees much older than eight years. Hence the insect must migrate. [[line]] Aug.15 bred Limenitis Disippus from pupa found a fewdays ago on a grass-stalk. [[end Page] [[start page]] 160) Aug.16. [[insertion]] Diplosis Asteris globulus [[/insertion]] On [[strikethrough]] Aster? [[/strikethrough]] Helianthi (same [[insertion]] plant [See p. 158] [[/insertion]] as supposed vernonia gall producing a [[underline]] Diplosis [[/underline]] -- see above [[/insertion]] ^ p. 158 [[/insertion]] ). A [[insertion]] ^ sub- [[/insertion]] globular [[/insertion]] ^ [[/strikethrough]] or oval [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] [[or irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ smooth, [[/insertion]] green, solid, fleshy, polythalamous gall .4 - [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 1.4 inch in [[/insertion]] ^ largest [[/insertion]] diameter, growing [[insertion]] ^ attached by about 1/4 of diameter [[/insertion]] often in bunches of [[strikethrough]] 1 or [[/strikethrough]] 2 - 6, some of them [[insertion]] ^ almost [[/insertion]] perfectly confluent, on the [[insertion]] ^ main [[/insertion]] stem. Surface often partially covered with brown roughness like that of a russeting apple [[insertion]] & occasionally cracked often at tip shallow cracks [[/insertion]]. [[underline]] Pupa [[[/underline]] .18 long [[insertion]] ^ full 3 times as long as wide, [[/insertion]] fulvous. Antennal horns [[insertion]] ^ piceous, darker at tip [[/insertion]] 1/3 diameter of body [[/strikethrough]] cylindrical [[/strikethrough]] parallel & [[insertion]] a little tapering, rather robust [[/insertion]] contiguous basal [[strikethrough]] 1/3 [[/strikethrough]] 2/3, whence they diverge at about 30°. Dorsal abd. surface of all the jts. (except the two basal "bogus-abd" joints, [[strikethrough]] & the small anal joint [[/strikethrough]] 7 in number, with two transversely arranged [[strikethrough]] ment [[/strikethrough]] rows of blackish minute close-set thorns equidistant from each other & from sutures. Thoracic bristle very slender, 2/3 as long as ant. horns. Legs [[attaining/attaching?]] base of penult. abd. On the lower surface of head 2 robust conical thorns long [[superscript]] y [[/superscript]] arranged, the last near the suture with thorax. No postantennal seta. Found a hairy white,chalcide larva in gall, .17 long; [[strikethrough]] also an elongate whitish [[/insertion]] ^ yellowish [[/insertion]] Syrphidon or tachnidous? larva, .1 inch long. Another (smaller) chalcid. hairy larva had [[insertion]] ^ abbre [[superscript v [[/superscript]][[/insertion]] interior blackish. [[underline]] Larva[[/ underline]] lives in cells [[strikethrough]] near [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ towards [[/insertion]] centre of gall. [[insertion]] very often 2 in 1 cell. [[/insertion]] [Another small chalk larva an [[underline]] external [[/underline]] feeder on cec. larva.] Largest seen .15 long, 4 times as long as wide, yellow [[strikethrough]] ish [[/strikethrough]] with the usual curdy-white markings. Head pointed, with a distinct black dot on dorsal surface. Breast-bone [[insertion]] ^ blackish [[/insertion]] clove-shaped, [[insertion]] ^ stem slender [[/insertion]] [[image]] with two [[insertion]] ^ robust [[/insertion]] terminal divergent [[insertion]] ^ at 45° [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] curved [[/strikethrough]] pointed horns, each 1/3 as long as whole b.b. Spiracles black & distinct. One pair on mesothorax & one on abd. jt except anal. No metathoracic one. Often lies curved back concave, unlike all willow larvae. Jumps like a cheese-maggot, one under the lens was seen to jump [[underline]] abd. [[/underline]] concave by [[?ing]] head & tail together. [[end page]]
[[NOTE: Same as digital page 129, but has a small note covering part of second page. Note is on digital page 128.]] [[start page]] 167) Aug. 17. Opened 12 or 14 [Aster] [[insert]] Helianthus [[/insert]] leaf - qalls; found 3 or 4 [[image - larvae]] with Proctotr. larvae like Westw. figure. Preserved [[insertion]] ^ [died] [[/insertion]]. Also 2 with external feeding Chalcide? larvae. No healthy larvae or pupae. Larva does not certainly jump, like Asteris globulus larva, but rolls over laterally. The galls containing the above were [[underline]] not [[/underline]] open as with the empty ones. hence hole must be bored by pupa, not natural growth. One [[underline]] [Asteris] [[insertion]] Helianthi [[/insertion]] globulus [[/underline]] found yesterday was bored by 7 holes, the Cec. pupal integument still projecting from one hole. [ [[2 symbols for female]] came out [[written over]] 17/18 [[/written over]] & 19th [[strikethrough]] ] [[/strikethrough]] = Diplosis] [[strikethrough]] [The "bullae" in wings of so many Ichneumon a clear proof of genetic origin. Always 5 (of any) & always in the same location. Might be arranged in a billion different ways, on other veins, more fewer or nearer or further &c &c.] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 21 three larvae of a Cuterebra taken out of the neck of a rabbit [[insertion]] ^ about [[/insertion]] 1.40 inch long & .75 inch in diamr. very pale [[insertion]] ^ brownish [[/insertion]] color, covered by very close set black tubercles or short [[insertion]] robust [[/insertion]] thorns [[/insertion]] ^ so as to appear blackish [[/insertion]]. Two buried themselves in 3/4 hour under more sand; the other still restless [Can progress as fast as a slow caterpillar by [[strikethrough]] alternat [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] successive [[/insertion]] contraction of segments.] Buried himself two hours afterwards. [[line]] Aug 22. Gall [[underline]] celtidis [[lit?]] [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^[[underline]] Cecids. [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] A trumpet-shaped, hard, polished [[insertion]] ^ glabrous [[/insertion]] green gall on the under side of the leaves of hackberry [[strikethrough]] in company with Psyllade gall [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] attached by only the central portion of the [[?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 168) end of the trumpet to the under side of the leaf. [[insertion]] ^ Hollow & walls thin. [[/insertion]] Tip extreme tinged with pink. Length .16 - .20 inch, the tip often slightly curved. Basal diameter .10 - .13 inch Larva milky white, .075 inch long 2 1/2 times as long as wide, breast bone [[insertion]] ^ yellowish brown, [[/insertion]] [[image]] shaped, [[insertion]] distinct [[/insertion]] the 3 arms subequal, the basal arm robust, the terminal arms exactly parallel. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] [[?]] cucurbita [[/underline]] (Cecids.) An irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ or subglobular hard [[/insertion]] gall of an [[insertion]] opaque [[/insertion]] greenish white color with a pink or sometimes purple cheek like an apple, its sides [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] more [[?]] [[/insertion]] obsoletely striated & [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ in the most mature specimens with [[/insertion]] an irregularly bulging cordon round their middle, so as to resemble somewhat a summer squash. Length .08 - .12 & diameter a little less except in the mature specms. when it is a little [[covered by note]] Attached by a point only to under side of [[covered by note]] A small terminal nipple surrounded by an [[covered by note]] Larva like [[underline]] [[?]] [[/underline]], but arms [[image]] diverge slightly. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] celtidos mamma [[/underline]] (Psylladous.) A large [[insertion]] ^ nipple-like [[/insertion]] pale [[insertion]] ^ opaque [[/insertion]] green [[insertion]] ^ glabrous [[/insertion]] hard but somewhat fleshy gall growing from the under side of the leaf, [[insertion]] ^ & attached by its entire base [[/insertion]] often 12 or 15 in number. Length .20 - .33 inch, & diameter about .20. A deep hollow [[insertion]] ^ corresponding in size [[/insertion]] on upper side of leaf with [[strikethrough]] aureole & [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] central [[/insertion]] minute nipple occasionally [[?]] confluent [[insertion]] sub [[/insertion]] cylindrical, tip rounded & generally a lateral [[insertion]] ^ medial [[/insertion]] construction. On cutting into it it is found to be composed of a [[insertion]] ^ rather hard [[/insertion]] fleshy cap surmounting the hard [[insertion]] ^ woody [[strikethrough]] semiglobular [[/strikethrough]] arched or semiglobular [[/insertion]] base of the gall, like a large inverted teacup surmounting a small inverted tea-saucer; & in the space between the "saucer" & the "cup" lives the larva. The above 3 often occur on the same leaf, but are very distinct, & each may be recognized at a glance. [[end page]]
[[image - cell structure]] [[underlined]] celtidos cucurbita [[/underlined]] . Sep 6, 1869
[[NOTE: Same as digital page 127, without overlaying note]] [[start page]] 167) Aug. 17. Opened 12 or 14 [Aster] [[insert]] Helianthus [[/insert]] leaf - qalls; found 3 or 4 [[image - larvae]] with Proctotr. larvae like Westw. figure. Preserved [[insertion]] ^ [died] [[/insertion]]. also 2 with external feeding Chalcide? larvae. No healthy larvae or pupae. Larva does not certainly jump, like Asteris globulus larva, but rolls over laterally. The galls containing the above were [[underline]] not [[/underline]] open as with the empty ones. hence hole must be bored by pupa, not natural growth. One [[underline]] [Asteris] [[insertion]] Helianthi [[/insertion]] globulus [[/underline]] found yesterday was bored by 7 holes, the Cec. pupal integument still projecting rom one hole. [ [[ 2 symbols for female]] came out [[written over]] 17/18 [[/written over]] & 19th [[strikethrough]] ] [[/strikethrough]] = Diplosis] [[strikethrough]] [The "bullae" in wings of so many Ichneumon a clear proof of genetic origin. Always 5 (of any) & always in the same location. Might be arranged in a billion different ways, on other veins, more fewer or nearer or further &c &c.] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 21 three larvae of a Cuterebra taken out of the neck of a rabbit [[insertion]] ^ about [[/insertion]] 1.40 inch long & .75 inch in diamr. very pale [[insertion]] ^ brownish [[/insertion]] color, covered by very close set black tubercles or short [[insertion]] robust [[/insertion]] thorns [[/insertion]] ^ so as to appear blackish [[/insertion]]. Two buried themselves in 3/4 hour under more sand; the other still restless [Can progress as fast as a slow caterpillar by [[strikethrough]] alternat [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] successive [[/insertion]] contraction of segments.] Buried himself two hours afterwards. [[line]] Aug 22. Gall [[underline]] celtidis [[lit?]] [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^[[underline]] Cecids. [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] A trumpet-shaped, hard, polished [[insertion]] ^ glabrous [[/insertion]] green gall on the under side of the leaves of hackberry [[strikethrough]] in company with Psyllade gall [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] attached by only the central portion of the [[?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 168) end of the trumpet to the under side of the leaf. [[insertion]] ^ Hollow & walls thin. [[/insertion]] Tip extreme tinged with pink. Length .16 - .20 inch, the tip often slightly curved. Basal diameter .10 - .13 inch Larva milky white, .075 inch long 2 1/2 times as long as wide, breast bone [[insertion]] ^ yellowish brown, [[/insertion]] [[image]] shaped, [[insertion]] distinct [[/insertion]] the 3 arms subequal, the basal arm robust, the terminal arms exactly parallel. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] [[?]] cucurbita [[/underline]] (Cecids.) An irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ or subglobular hard [[/insertion]] gall of an [[insertion]] opaque [[/insertion]] greenish white color with a pink or sometimes purple cheek like an apple, its sides [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] more [[?]] [[/insertion]] obsoletely striated & [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ in the most mature specimens with [[/insertion]] an irregularly bulging cordon round their middle, so as to resemble somewhat a summer squash. Length .08 - .12 & diameter a little less except in the mature specms. when it is a little [[mo?]] Attached by a point only to under side of leaf. A small terminal nipple surrounded by an "aureole" [[image]]. Larva like [[underline]] [[?]] [[/underline]], but arms [[image]] diverge slightly. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] celtidos mamma [[/underline]] (Psylladous.) A large [[insertion]] ^ nipple-like [[/insertion]] pale [[insertion]] ^ opaque [[/insertion]] green [[insertion]] ^ glabrous [[/insertion]] hard but somewhat fleshy gall growing from the under side of the leaf, [[insertion]] ^ & attached by its entire base [[/insertion]] often 12 or 15 in number. Length .20 - .33 inch, & diameter about .20. A deep hollow [[insertion]] ^ corresponding in size [[/insertion]] on upper side of leaf with [[strikethrough]] aureole & [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] central [[/insertion]] minute nipple occasionally [[?]] confluent [[insertion]] sub [[/insertion]] cylindrical, tip rounded & generally a lateral [[insertion]] ^ medial [[/insertion]] construction. On cutting into it it is found to be composed of a [[insertion]] ^ rather hard [[/insertion]] fleshy cap surmounting the hard [[insertion]] ^ woody [[strikethrough]] semiglobular [[/strikethrough]] arched or semiglobular [[/insertion]] base of the gall, like a large inverted teacup surmounting a [[?]] inverted tea-saucer; & in the space between the "saucer" & the "cup" lives the larva. The above 3 often occur on the same leaf, but are very distinct, & each may be recognized at a glance. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 169) Aug 22. Found two [[underline]] S. Coryloides [[/underline]] on the S. discolor in Chippiannock. Gathered one for Armistead, left the other. [[insertion]] [Heart eaten out next spring] [[/insertion]] Noticed Tetyra fimbriata sucking the honey of a flower. Noticed the Orchelimum of willow apparently chewing up a muscide? about .15 long. [[line]] X Aug. 23. [[underline]] Q podagrae [[/underline]] galls. Noticed two or 3 bored out of many in the field. Cut into bored one & found a black pupa, apparently cynipidous. Other (unbored) contained only larvae. Gathered very many [[underline]] q. erinacei [[/underline]] galls. One was [[underline]] bored, [[/underline]] & others apparently so. Of [[strikethrough]] 52 [[/strikethrough]] 58 galls [[strikethrough]] 26 [[/strikethrough]] 31 top of leaf, [[strikethrough]] 26 [[/strikethrough]] 27 below, one double gall contained 2 whitish larvae (Curculionide, black, snapping mandibles) & 1 inch long; [[insertion]] ^ & disk of body blackish [[/insertion]] another much bored a [[underline]] very [[/underline]] elongate lipid. larva, & another with frass outside had suck a larva outside. Of 22 galls opened, one was 6 - 8 celled, 1 4-celled, 5 3-celled, 8 2-celled & 7 1-celled. Of the whole number of cells, [[strikethrough]] about [[/strikethrough]] 11 contd. what were apparently cynipidous larvae, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] three of them with a blackish oval body (egg [[insertion]] ^ case [[/insertion]] of an Ophion?) attached to them by a [[insertion]] ^ slender [[/insertion]] peduncle 1/2 as long as itself, 11 contained what were apparently Curculionidous larvae judging from black-tipped snapping mandibles, 5 contained chalcid. pupa, one a chalcid. imago & one what [[insertion]] ^ was [[/insertion]] evidently from ant. [[end page]] [[start page]] 170) a cynipidous [[strikethrough]] larv [[/strikethrough]] pupa, the [[remaining?]] 17 being empty. One of the curcul. larvae had the [[strikethrough]] sucked [[/strikethrough]] empty integument of the victim cynip. attached to it, & one was distinct from the others with dorsal caruncles. Curcul. perhaps = [[strikethrough]] chalcid [[/strikethrough]] cynip.? Their cells no frass. Found no galls without prickles, but longer in some than others. Wear off in winter? [[line]] Aug 25 Gall Salicis pisum on S. discolor. An irregularly spherical, [[insertion]] ^ hollow, [[/insertion]] pale yellowish green gall always growing on the under side of the leaf & attached by only a very small portion of its surface .18 - .28 inch in diameter & a few which were probably immature only .08 in diameter. [[insertion]] ^ Almost invariably there is but one ball to one leaf, but on [[strikethrough]] 3 or 4 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 4 [[/insertion]] leaves there were [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] 3 [[insertion]] & in 2 leaves 3 [[/insertion]] of them, & occasionally two are confluent. [[/insertion]] The surface of the gall is [[strikethrough]] glabrous [[/strikethrough]] without pubescence, in some smooth & even, in others a little shriveled, [[insertion]] ^ generally [[/insertion]] studded in the medium-sized ones with 4 - 12 small [[insertion]] robustly conical [[strikethrough]] pointed [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] nipples, which in the large[[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ ones [[/insertion]] have burst [[strikethrough]] at tip [[/strikethrough]] into a scabrous brown scar. Only in 3 out of 62 galls was there any rosy cheek as in S. pomum. The point of attachment is marked on the upper side of the leaf by a brown [[insertion]] ^ sub [[/insertion]] hemispherical depression, about .04 in diameter. Described from 62 galls. Wall of gall [[underline]] Larva. [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^[3,0,[[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 6,0,1?] 3,0,6,0,0 -anal [[/insertion]] [20] [[insertion]] ^ 18 [[/insertion]] footed, whitish-hyaline .17 [[insertion]] ^ - .23 [[/insertion]] long, 6 times as long as wide, head [[insertion]] ^ slightly [[insertion]] tinged with dusky, mouth dusky, eyes circular & black. Holds its body behind 6 legs in the air (Westw II .104 x) Anal segment - 2 others divided by an apparent medial suture. Could discern no anal prolegs. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 171) On the same tree with above (road to B. [[?]] cave) occurred 13 galls scarcely distinguishable from S. Nomum except by having the same rough bursting nipples as the above. [[^ S. Nonum has them]] One or two of them, as well as preceding, were bored probably by anthon. scutellatus, & empty. [[line]] [[pencil]] Aug 26 - a curcul? [[underline]] hairy [[underline]] larva came out of hickory woody gall. about 19 long. & yellowish [[line]] Q. fusus (beat off black oaks) ovate, length .40 - .83, diameter .30 - .60, generally pointed at tip [[image of oval with pointed ends]] like an ovate leaf, & attached at base by a [[strikethrough]] small [[strikethrough]] minute portion & apparently in bunches from the[[^ very]] pale ^ [[^ rather compressed]] base of most [like g. formosa Bassett] Color green, gradually paler towards base & except at base [[^ closely]] dotted with [[^ slightly]] elevated purple [[strikethrough]] papillae [strikethrough]] dots. Punctured today most of them with 2 or 3 minute pin sized holes. One is not [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] pointed at tip, & almost entirely dull purple, dots still plainly visible. {Preserved.} Found one on a Red Oak Sep. 26 growing from terminal bud. added it. [[line]] Aug 25 Q. pilula (cecid. gall) just beginning to appear. [[line]] Aug 27 - [ The [[^ Q [[underline]] eruca [[underline]] swellings] along principal veins of black oak leaves common in spring & through the summer, contain now each 1 cecid. larva, whitish, .04 long, tip of head blackish & breast bone (a mere point) blackish. [[end page]] [[start page]] 172) Examined 3 specimens. [Found annexed gall on leaves of blade in [[underline]] [[?]] [[underline]] tinged with red [= C. q. modesta O.S. on Red oak?] oak in river-lot W. of A. B. Warren's lot, facing the river.] [[underline]] Q. eruca. [[underline]] [[^ Differs from O.S. Q. erubescens [[strikethrough]] gall as not being [[?]] [[strikethrough]] ]] cecid. gall) [[^ on Q [[tructoria?]] An elongated, [[^ pale green]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] in pubescent but rather rugose swelling [[^ [[strikethrough]] sometimes on the edge of the leaf but far more generally [[strikethrough]] ]] along the midrib & principal veins, [[^ & attached to them for its entire length by about 2/3 its diameter]]looking [[^ somewhat]] like a green [[midlepedopterous?]] larva [[strikethrough]] attached to them[[strikethrough]], .20 - .35 long, & about .05 in diameter; internally hollow, thin with [[strikethrough]] thin [[strikethrough]] hard woody walls. Its general shape is cylindrical, tapered at each end, & it is [[^ generally]] constructed at irregular intervals by [[^ 2 or 3]] transverse veinlets proceeding from the vein to which it is attached. [[^ Usually one larva, sometimes 2 or 3 , no separate cells. [[line]] Found about Aug. 20 [[underline]] Q. ficus [[underline]] [[^ pale]] green with pink cheek. Apparently recently grown. [Bassett scarcely ever gives [[underline]] dates [[/underline]] of breeding his n. sp. Great defect: [[therefore symbol]] others have to do his work over again.]] [[line]] X Aug 27. Aciculata all now in pupa state. Found 8 pupae & no larva. Found in [["pseudo?]] galls"]] Case's field 3 [[male symbol]] 4 [[female symbol]] Callimome (1 [[female symbol]] alive, rest dead) of q. [[spongifica?]]. Must have come out since 1st week in July. [[line]] August 28. 88 spms. Q. erinacei; 44 above, 44 beneath, on leaf. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 173) Aug 28. A specimen of q. ficus gathered today was brown & unbored. Another gathered about 18th or 20th was pale yellowish green with pink cheeks. [[line]] Gall [[insertion]] q. [[underline]] plica [[/underline]] (on q. tinctoria) [[insertion]] similar to q. [[underline]] eruca [[/underline]] but on [[underline]] edge[[/underline]] of leaf (often same leaf with eruca) & containing an [[underline]] orange [[/underline]] larva [[insertion]] ^ .10 - [[/insertion]] .11 long, [[insertion]] ^4 times as long as wide [[/insertion]] breast-bone fuscous [[insertion]] ^ sub [[/insertion]] round? & [[underline]] jumps [[/underline]] [[symbol for therefore]] a diplosis. [3 specimens] [[insertion]] or clove-shaped, stem of clove very slender? [[/insertion]] Larva of [[underline]] q. eruca [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] milky [[/underline]] [[/strikethrough]] whitish, .04 inch long, 3 - 3 1/2 times as long as wide. Breast-bone subround. Does not jump, but rolls over sideways like larva of Aster leaf-galls. Found 11 similar [[insertion]] ^ but 1/2 longer [[/insertion]] larva in one of [[underline]] edge [[/underline]] galls. One larva inquilinous one [[pseu?]] The orange one, being the largest, [[?senidous]]; the pale one [underline] only [/underline] occurs 2 & 3 in a gall: iquilinous But dry out 15 - 20 of the [[underline]] small [[/underline]] q. eruca larvae from galls on veins, none larger than .04 & none orange or even yellowish. [[symbol for therefore]] two distinct species & the two white ones on [[underline]] edge [[/underline]] galls (= q. plica) inquilines only? [[line]] [q. patella] [[insertion]] = poculum o.s. [[/insertion]] (oak-[[?]]) [[insertion]] (Cecid??) [[/insertion]] On white oak. A saucer-shaped, flattened gall on the lower side of leaves 2 - 15 together, the inner surface attached by a central very short peduncle to leaf, the outer surface a little hollowy with a central nipple & [[insertion]] ^ subobsolete [[/insertion]] fibres radiating from it to the circumference like spokes of a wheel. Color generally pink, [[insertion]] ^ with centrally a plum like bloom [[/insertion]](3 leaves) [[end page]] [[start page]] 174) on one leaf which [[strikeout]] may [[/strikeout]] [[insertion]] ^ appears to [[/insertion]] be a distinct species as the gall [[?]] cupped and the [[?]] [[?]] very [[?]] centrally pale green, [[enteriorly?]] dark green [[?]] with purple. Could find no larva. [[line]] Aug 28. Found many Bruchus abbreviatus? Melsh on pods &c of Cassia Marylandica L./ determined by Dr. Parry.) [resembles Amorpha fructicosa] My [[underline]] asteris globulus [[/underline]] & [[underline]] ast. bulla [[/underline]] must be [[underline]] helianthi [[/underline]] blobulus &c. [[?]] Dr. Parry. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] The skin of larva of H. Harrisii is whitish (mature larva), the humps only blackish [[symbol]] tessellaris [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Aug 30 Cedar fungus (old) unbored, except 2 in, which I found with plenty of frass a [[insertion]] ^ [[?]] [[/insertion]] larva (hairy) much like that of Bibio albipennis. Not tenthred. [[symbol for because]] sign?]] no lateral eye-spots. Not Lep [[symbol for because]] head [[underline]] not [[/underline]] [[image. looks like circle with Y drawn within]] Callimone? or Ichnum? [[line]] On compressing abd, there are [[?]] or [[?]] abd, there are "two small oval [[?]] [[?]] (hairy or pubescant) at tip of oviduct in [[fmeale symbol]] asteris (= helianthi) globulus. [[line]] Aug 31 Of 3 Sphing. bicolor in Cage No. 6 2 had gone under apparently. The other healthy. (see p 175) [[line]] The [[image]] shells found adhering to twigs of white oak beyond Dunlap's field contain now hundreds of minute, oval, white eggs, 2 - 2 1/2 tim[[?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 174) [[?]] as long as wide [[insertion]] ^ same helicida [[/insertion]] & resembling grains of rice. Length about .02 inch. [Spiders eggs?] Coccidae. [[line]] Aug 31. Bred [[insertion]] ^ 1 [[insertion]] Conotrachelus Nenuphar from Black Knot. Bred another early in season. Date recorded. [July 22] [[line]] Found 3 or 4 large [[underline]] Orgyia leucostigma [[/underline]] larvae on sycamore. This feeds on nearly same trees as Hal. tessellaris + sycamore: [[symbol for therefore]] nothing peculiar in that tree universally inimical to arctian larva. [[line]] X Sep. 2 larva [[insertion]] ^ (2 specimens) [[/insertion]] in q. ficus now .07 long, white, with large, scaly head, & tips of jaws fuscous [[insertion]] ^ & snap together [[/insertion]] larva in q. [[underline]] erinacei [[/underline]] [[underline]] curcul. [[/underline]] is really { [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] cynipidous? [[/underline]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] chalcididous? [[/insertion/]] ?? One [[insertion]] ^ +1 [[/insertion]] larva showed no mandibles. [[insertion]] ^ Cynipidous? [[/insertion]] All from central cell. One chalcid.? larva with pointed tail showed subfuscous mandibles, & 3 others with disk of body blackish towards tail [[strikethrough]] the same [[/strikethrough]] very plain fuscous-tipped mandibles, which snapped. Several bunches of galls gathered yesterday had galls alternately pale yellowish green & bright rosy. Some now brown & partially ripe, some pale yellowish green & some ditto with rosy cheek. [[line]] Found 2 large white larvae 1/4 each long & 3 1/2 times as long as wide embedded each in a cell in the lateral [[sponge?]] of [[underline] q. globulus. [[/underline]] Head larger & scaly & tips of mandibles fuscous. Ichienniouidous? on some inquilinous lipid? [[end page]] [[start page]] 175) gall [[underline]] q. pilula [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ on red oak [[/insertion]] now contained, beside [[underline]] 1 [[/underline]] orange cecid.? larva, [chalcid.] [[insertion]] ^ cynipidous (bred 1866 synergus [[/insertion]] with fuscous-tipped snapping mandibles; One cell had [[underline]] two [[/underline]] in it. Almost every gall was hollow with 2 cells (about) & contained one or more of them chalcid? [[insertion]] Bred April [[?]] of [[C ero?]] inermis? [[insertion]] larvae. Examined 12 or 14. [[line]] Two crops of the gall-like fungus on red Cedar about Aug 25. The old, dry, last year's ones are free [[underline]] from borings [[/underline]] (except a lep. in two which had bored and perished there in larva state.) [[symbol for therefore]] Not galls: [[symbol for therefore]] Bk Knot (analogous) not a gall, but an epiphytous fungus. [[line X From very small and immature galls, apparently of [[underline]] q. globulus [[/underline]], recently found, this must be an [[underline]] [[underline]] autumnal [[/underline]] gall. Sep. 3 Dryoc. bicolor larva still on leaves [2 had gone under]. Now 2 inches long. Sep. 4th [[insertion]] ^ & 5th & 7th [[/insertion]] Ditto. 8th off [[?]]. [[strikethrough]] [If it had so happened that larve were easily preserved in Cabruets and imagos not so, then I have no doubt that the closet naturalists would neglect and undervalue [[strikethrough]] imaginal [[/strikethrough]] the characters of the imago just as [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] many of them now do those of the larva. Genera and species wd. then be characterized almost exclusively [[strikethrough]] [[?]] by the [[/strikethrough]] from the consideration of the larva, just as they are now characterized almost exclusively from the consideration of the imago; and [[insertion]] closet [[/insertion]] Entomologists wd. be no more disconcerted at finding two distinct imagos undistinguishable than they now are at finding 2 distinct larva undis- [[end page]]
[[NOTE: right side page has note covering portion text; uncovered text on digital page 136]] [[NOTE: Same page as digital page 134, without notepaper covering part of text.]] [[start page]] 176) [[strikethrough]] tinguishable, as happens so frequently both in Hymenoptera & Diptera & to a less degree in Coleoptera. [[strikethrough]] [[ ] ]] [[/strikethrough]] Just in the same way the closet conchologists have based their systematic distinctions almost exclusively upon the characters of the shell, neglecting or undervaluing the characters of the other parts of the animal; whereas if it had so happened that the shell of a mollusk was perishable & the other parts of its body easily preserved, instead of [[underline]] vice-versa, [[underline]] then I have no doubt, they wd have neglected & undervalues characters drawn from the shell & laid the chief stress on those drawn from the other parts of the body. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Sep 6. Examined 22 D. 10 tineata on egg-plant. All had two stripes next sutural confluent behind, except 2 which on one elytrum only had them non-confluent. [[line]] [Constant characters in Ichn. & Ischnus 1. Shape of abdomen, whether ovate or subcylindrical but [[image of female symbol]] abd. more robust than [[image male symbol]] (rufiventris Br.) 2. Color of wings, fuscous or hyaline. 3. Annulation of antennae (but [[underline]] not [[/underline]] so in [[underline]] Ich. [[/underline]] near [[underline]] parvas [[/underline]] 4. Coloration of legs ( but variable in [[underline]] Ich. grandiste [[/underline]] 5. If [[image of male symbol]] ant. are annulate, [[image of female symbol]] are so too. ([[symbol]] Bralli p.58 [[end page]] [[start page]] 177) In cage no. 6 a green cerura? larva, 1 1/2 inch long, two [[image]] in place of anal prolegs, a whitish narrow dorsal vitta, & oblique whitish lateral lines like a sphinx. [Sep. 12 had disappeared] [[line]] X Sep. 8 Found a q. erinacei full as smooth as a strawberry, between two normal ones on the same rib-vein, the 3 contiguous. [[insertion]] ^ greenish [[/insertion]] Whitish [[image - pentagon with lines extending from outside points]] like [[underline]] q. pilula [[/underline]] & a whitish hair from each [[image - pentagon]] [Conducted my experiment carefully & conscientiously) [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Doryphora juncta [[covered by note]] 1st . bk spot [[covered by note]] 2nd. Thor. spots [[covered by note]] [[Check mark]] 3rd. [[Gly?]] [[covered by note]] large punctures - [[covered by note]] [[Check mark]] 4th. 2 [[underline]] submarginal [[covered by note]] 2 [[subsatural?]] stripes [[strikethrough]] [[line]] X Sept 17 many Cynipidous pupae now in q. podagrae, evidently, from 2nd abd. shortish, not synergus. are they next April [[image of female symbol]] c. q. podagrae? 2 examined were [[image two female symbols]] [[line]] Sept 18. Found a dead 1 1/2 inch Dryocampa on floor outside cage: must be an escaped bicolor. Horns on 2 very plain. [[line]] Sept 24 Bred Con. nenuphar from Black Knot. [[end page]]
Barley found in nests of "Cutting ant" of Texas (myrmica tenana) along with other extraneous substances stable rear. Proc-Ac-N.Sc. 1260 p. 233
[[NOTE: Same page as digital page 134, without notepaper covering part of text.]] [[start page]] 176) [[strikethrough]] tinguishable, as happens so frequently both in Hymenoptera & Diptera & to a less degree in Coleoptera. [[strikethrough]] [[ ] ]] [[/strikethrough]] Just in the same way the closet conchologists have based their systematic distinctions almost exclusively upon the characters of the shell, neglecting or undervaluing the characters of the other parts of the animal; whereas if it had so happened that the shell of a mollusk was perishable & the other parts of its body easily preserved, instead of [[underline]] vice-versa, [[underline]] then I have no doubt, they wd have neglected & undervalues characters drawn from the shell & laid the chief stress on those drawn from the other parts of the body. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Sep 6. Examined 22 D. 10 tineata on egg-plant. All had two stripes next sutural confluent behind, except 2 which on one elytrum only had them non-confluent. [[line]] [Constant characters in Ichn. & Ischnus 1. Shape of abdomen, whether ovate or subcylindrical but [[image of female symbol]] abd. more robust than [[image male symbol]] (rufiventris Br.) 2. Color of wings, fuscous or hyaline. 3. Annulation of antennae (but [[underline]] not [[/underline]] so in [[underline]] Ich. [[/underline]] near [[underline]] parvas [[/underline]] 4. Coloration of legs ( but variable in [[underline]] Ich. grandiste [[/underline]] 5. If [[image of male symbol]] ant. are annulate, [[image of female symbol]] are so too. ([[symbol]] Bralli p.58 [[end page]] [[start page]] 177) In cage no. 6 a green cerura? larva, 1 1/2 inch long, two [[image]] in place of anal prolegs, a whitish narrow dorsal vitta, & oblique whitish lateral lines like a sphinx. [Sep. 12 had disappeared] [[line]] X Sep. 8 Found a q. erinacei full as smooth as a strawberry, between two normal ones on the same rib-vein, the 3 contiguous. [[insertion]] ^ greenish [[/insertion]] Whitish [[image - pentagon with lines extending from outside points]] like [[underline]] q. pilula [[/underline]] & a whitish hair from each [[image - pentagon]] [Conducted my experiment carefully & conscientiously) [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Doryphora juncta [[image]] 10 - [[?cata]] 1st . bk spot (anterior) on middle of 6 thrips [[symbol]] on knees 2nd. Thor. spots [[symbol]] [[Check mark]] 3rd. [[Gly?]] stripes bordered by ]][[underline]] regular [[/underline]] row of large punctures - [[image]] irregularly double or treble rows. [[Check mark]] 4th. 2 [[underline]] submarginal [[/underline]] stripes confluent behind [[symbol]] 2 [[subsatural?]] stripes [[strikethrough]] [[line]] X Sept 17 many Cynipidous pupae now in q. podagrae, evidently, from 2nd abd. shortish, not synergus. are they next April [[image of female symbol]] c. q. podagrae? 2 examined were [[image two female symbols]] [[line]] Sept 18. Found a dead 1 1/2 inch Dryocampa on floor outside cage: must be an escaped bicolor. Horns on 2 very plain. [[line]] Sept 24 Bred Con. nenuphar from Black Knot. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 178) Sep. 27 Cut an apterous Cynips [[image]] pezomachoides) out of Q. erinacei. [[line]] Oct. 2 Found in [[^ 2]] S. gemma [[^ along with much [[?]] ]] 2 tenthred. 20-footed larva .12 [[^ - .19 inch]] long, greenish white, head tinged with dusky & the usual fuscous eye-spots - mouth dusky. Also [[^ in another]] a robust chalcid? larva .15 long, tinged with dusky & with a few hairs on fore-part of body. Inside of gall a green, fleshy matter. A few galls already bored. [line]] X Oct. 3 Found in one "pseudotinctoria" from Case's field " a cynip. larva fresh and probably living. [[line]] O Oct. 11 opened all q. prunus galls of last year. Found 1 larva (large, cynip.) living, moving its mandibles [[9 tally marks]] [[^ [+ 2] ditto [[^ 2 of them]] apparently dead but fresh [[11 tally marks]] imagos living of C. q. prunus[[?]] [[2 tally marks]] small cynip. larva; 5 or 6 bunches of chalcid? larvae preserved in closed galls, [[^ gummed together]], the 2 small cynip. larvae + 12 large ditto. [[^ April 12, 1867 came out 1 C. q. prunus from them]] [[line]] [[image]] No [[underline]] pupae [[underline]] found in galls. [[line]] Oct 11. Of 61 q. inanis galls opened [[^ today]] exclusive of those which had central cell bored, 32 contained balls of chalcid? larvae, 26 empty or irrecognizable matter, 2 dead & dry [[underline]] c. q. inanis [[underline]] imago broken up, & 1 a cynipidous? larva, [[^ [[underline]] alive [[underline]] ] & moving. 4 [[pseudo?]] galls intermixed each contained [[end page]] [[start page]] 179) a cynip ? larva, one of them very lively. There were also a few [[pseudo?]] galls empty. [[line]] Oct 14. [[underline]] Salicis [[pisum?]][[underline]] About 1/4 or 1/5 now have a slightly rosy cheek. Found 4 Sal. [[?]] on S. discolor in company with S. [[?]], all empty & bored. [[check mark]] Found several [[underline]] Sal. verruca [[underline]] on S. discolor. Larva in [[strikethrough]] one [[strikethrough]] [[^ three (one of 3 bored) ]] [[strikethrough]] sanguineous [[strikethrough]] [[^ orange]] with [[strikethrough]] yellow [[strikethrough]] [[^ whitish]] markings as usual, (breastbone [[^ black]) [[image]], .08 long, 2 1/2 - 3 times as long as [[strikethrough]] usual [[ [[^ wide], flattened, head large. On leaves on S. cordata found numerous galls analogous to S. semen. No larva in them, except perhaps in one. [[line]] Oct 15. Q. caducus [[^ (near deciduous Bassett [[^what oak? Burr. [[strikethrough]] or white [[strikethrough]] ( [[?]] must be one or other) see p. 190]] monothalmous dull [[^opaque]] sanguineous subscabrous, the fleshy galls growing from the midrib of the leaf on the under side, [[^ & attached loosely by a [[?]] [[?]], diameter [[^ of each]] .06 - .20 inch, sometimes compressing each other a little as in q. ficus. Larva mostly invisible, but in one quite large & wall of gall only about 1/5 or 1/6 of diameter. [[image]] at base often. [[line]] [[check mark]] Found one q. erinacei [[^Q. hystrix]] on burr oak, & 2 others closely resembling it [[^ but more woolly reserved. First had been gnawed by lep.? & perhaps wool gnawed off. [[line]] The tree (supposed red oak) on which I found [[?]] Q. punctuata gall is a black oak, from leaves & acorns. [[end page]]
180) Oct 15. Opened (16) spongifica from Case's field [[7 tally marks]] empty [[3 tally marks]] bunch of chalcidides [[5 tally marks]] * aciculata (living) [[1 tally mark]] larva dried up (sponge eaten all away) [[line]] Necrophorus corner (4) [[3 talley marks]] + aciculata (living) [[1 talley mark]] empty (cell eaten away) [[line]] Slaughter-house (5) (1 of them "Callimome July 5". [[1 tally mark]] empty [[3 tally marks]] bunch of Chalcid. [[1 tally mark]] no cell, (small & thin) [[line]] All my [[strikethrough]] [[sph?]] [[/strikethrough]] Dryocampa bicolor had escaped: nothing to bury but Nessus? [[line]] * Oct. 16. Placed these on an isolated black oak (on the trunk) close to Jones's North place, a few [[panels?]] from NE corner. + Oct. 16. Placed them on isolated Bl. oak at the SW corner of the bunch of Ditto farthest north from the sycamore N.W. of old graveyard. [[end page]] [[start page]] 181) Oct. 21. Dug out from galls 22 aciculata, all very lively. On the N.W. black oak in the clump of trees in the NE corner of Jones's field placed on the trunk 9 specimens. Day very warm & still. [[image]] Picked up one [[strikethrough]] empty [[/strikethrough]] barren spongifica gall under the SE tree but saw no others there. On the black oak (formerly mistaken for Red Oak & bearing supposed [[underline]] c.q. punctata [[/underline]] gall) South of the E end of the Brasier Lane placed on the trunk 10 specimens & on the East overhanging bough 3. [[line]] X Oct. 31. The Decatoma? (spotted wasps) seem to have quit coming out from [[underline]] q. Podagrae [[/underline]]. Up to yesterday more or less every day. [[insertion]] Nov 13 2 more. [Nov 10 2 more in warm room came out] [[/insertion]] [[line]] Nov. 5 Cut open one [[pseudo?]]. gall from tree in Case's field inoculated with aciculata. Contained on [[underline]] living [[/underline]] larva, evidently cynipidous. [[line]] ✓ Out of 21 remaining spongif. galls 4 [[underline]] acic. [[/underline]] had come out, all lively. Dug out of the rest 3 lively acic. + 1 callimome (living?) [[insertion]] [[image of female symbol]] [[/insertion]] pupa. Placed the 7 on (Day sunny, [[insertion]] ^ still [[/insertion]] & pleasant but nights now frosty;) wind NW & moderate) A, one of a group of 4 in Davenports Pasture field on brow of hill NW of Pump. Three put on N boughs, 2 on trunk & 2 fell on grass under N. boughs. [[image lower right-hand corner: map: four dots, topmost labelled "a tree: ]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 182) Nov. 10 The [[image/squiggle]]Tomicus? [[^ came out [[?]][[Mag?alinus]] armicollis. Still in larva state under elm bark of Leas's block. X Nov 25. Opened about 80 fresh spongifica galls, found one 1 living aciculata & 1 dead one. Also many branches of chalcide? larva, & one large hairy (Callimome?) larva. Placed the living [[underline]] acic. [[/underline]] on the S. cenywer [[???]] tree (small)[[^(& isolated)]] of the slough-side group N. of Sand pits. But it fell on grass under tree & got lost. X Dec 4. Recd. from Bebb specimens of S. [[?]] on S. Negra from G. W. Clinton, Buffalo N. Y. [[line]] X Dec 17. Gathered over 100 [[^-150]] spongifica galls, all but about 20 bored. Of these 20 all but 2 were abortive; in 1 of the 2 found dried & broken remains of an [[underline]] aciculata [[/underline]] imago & in same cell a full grown [[^large]]large hairy chalced. larva, probably the usual [[callimome?]] In the other found the same larva, solitary. The S. E. 2 oaks on the NE corner of Slaughter house as fall of these galls as an ordinary apple tree of apples. [[line]] [[NOTE: The following paragraph has been X'd out]]. Glover, Entomologist of Agr. Dept. at Washington [[^(p. 561)]] was called on to do hosts of things besides entomologize. This is like hiring a single cradler to cut 10,000 acres of wheat, & then expecting him [[^in addition]] to cut & fetch in wood, peel & wash the potatoes [[strikethrough]] &c. &c. [[/strikethrough]] & be always on hand ready to wait on the good woman of the house. [[end page]] [[start page]] 183) On inherited mutilation & inherited obsolescence [[^ & on a case of Mimicry in the diurnal sp. of N.A. by Benj. D. Walsh. [[line]] disippus [[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] common, Ursula rather rare Kirkpatrick III. p.329 Artemis very rare, disippus [[^: very]] common [[?tner]] III. pp. 62-4 ursula rare [[line]] "P. from Honduras & Brazil" Polydamas is found all over Tropical America. I have had it from Honduras & Brazil" (Edward ms.) "P. Calverleyi Grote is a suffused Asterias". (Edw. ms) "One of the collectors that came out with me [to VA] last summer reported seeing a big dragon-fly pounce upon Glaucus & carry him away as a hawk does its prey [[strikethrough]] " [[/strikethrough]]. I have heard from another collector of a similar case that he saw." (Edw. m.s.) [[line]] The much greater tendency of the southern birds, or those belonging to the cotton region, to go northward in the Mississippi Valley than along the Atlantic Slope is explained not only by the ascent there of the isothermal lines, but by the absence of any such obstacle to their journey as is furnished by the Appalachian Range. *** We have [[underline]]Amia,[[/underline]] [[underline]] Lepidosteus,[[/underline]] [[underline]] Micropterus,[[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] (Gryptes) [[/strikethrough]] [[/underline]] [[underline]] (Grystes)[[underline]] & various other forms of fishes throughout the Mississippi Valley as far North as the Great Lakes, while on the Atlantic slope they do not pass the James or lower Potomac except as stragglers. [[underline]]Baird [[underline]] Sill Journ. XI.I. p.87 [[end page]]
[[NOTE: second page has overlaying note; same as digital page 143]] [[start page]] 184) March or April [[Cera?]]larva in heartwood of white oak near sapwood, has spiracle mesothoracic & prothoracic fold closely united with prothoracic beneath. March 29, 1866 [[line]] Apr. 8. 1866. New Cedar fungus now nearly full grown. Surface with [circle] depressions, often with a central (aureole or) very flat nipple. [[line]] X Bred 5 [[image of female symbol]] q. podagrae, from galls in warm room through winter Apr.12 bred 2 [[symbol for female]] -----------(all 7 black abdomen) -- 15 --- 9 [[symbol for female ]] -----(all 9 ----- -- 18 --- 17[[sign for female]]--(all 15 ---- -----) also 2 [[symbol for female]] rhoditiformis) Apr 19 8 [[symbol for female]] (+2 rhod. 1 [[symbol for male]] 1 [[symbol for female]]) (all 8 ---- ----- -- 20 [[strikethrough]] ?]] [[/strikethrough]] 1 [[symbol for for female]] (1 -- --) -- 22 2 [[symbol for female]] 44 [[strikethrough]] 39 [[/strikethrough]] in all ----------- both -----) -- 23 4 [[symbol for female]] (all 4 ---) -- 24 0 (4 rhodit.s) -- 25 0 ( ---------) -- 26 0 (5 -------) ---28 1 [[symbol for female]]_______________(abd. black) X Preserved alive for 4 days 4[[symbol for female]] with red abdomens from [[underline]] new [[/underline]] lot of galls. Abdomen still as red as ever. [[end page]] [[start page]] 185) [[clipping from newsprint:]] Astronomers have discovered that the moon is drawing gradually nearer to the earth, by about an inch every year. They also discovered that the day is about one hundredth of a second longer now than it was two thousand years ago. [[end clipping]] Chic. Republican April 17? 66. X Apr. 18 Q. Podagrae galls gathered about April 1st. Bred 34 [[symbol for female]], 12 with abd. decidedly rufous, rufo-piceous or rufous base of segments, others partly so. Kept 4 alive in vial. See p. 184X. April 19 Bred 190 [[symbol for female]], many abd. rufous or subrufous. - 20 about 100 taken to field (not closely examined but apparently all [[symbol for female]] + 114 [[symbol for female]] examined (many with rufous abdomen) Apr. 22 About 175 - 200 [[symbols for female]] (?) taken to field, but apparently all [[symbol for female]]. April 23 53 [[symbol for female]] (early in the morning) about 1/3 abd. more or less red). -- 24 35 [[symbol for female]] ------ ------- -- 25 14 [[symbol for female]] ------ 34 -- 26 6 [[symbol for female]] ------ 190 -- 28 6 [[symbol for female]] ------ 114 53 35 X Apr 20. Opened 1 pseudotinctoriae gall from Cases' field, that lay on table through winter. Larva plump & [[underline]] apparently [[/underline]] alive (line over top) 26 X April 20. Placed about 50 [[symbol for female]] q. podagrae [[/underline]] on East bough of supposed "q. punctata" Black oak on Bluff. Also about 20 on East bough of another Bl Oak 45 yds south, & west of road. Also on both a few on trunk. [No galls came [[line]] O Apr. 22 In a querc. erinacei (unbored & 3 cells) found 1 large Cynip. pupa, abd. with many joints, [[symbol for therefore]] not Synergis &c? Other 2 cells cynip. larvae. [[end page]]
-Astronomers have discovered that the moon is drawing gradually nearer to the earth, by about an inch every year. They have also discovered that the day is about one hundredth of a second longer now than it was two thousand years ago.
that country, particularly between New Orleans and Vicksburg, or between New Orleans and Jackson. Wm. F. Downs made a trip down the Mississippi, and across the country to Atlanta in December, as revenue agent of the Treasury. He found the people generally bitter in their apposition to the Government. Brevet Brig. Gen. Jno. Torbett, after being mustered out of the army, purchased a plantation in Scott county, Mississippi, and travelled thought the state generally. He thinks the planters and the [[end of newspaper clipping]]
184) March or April ) Cerambycidous larva in heartwood of white oak near sapwood, has spiracle mesothoracic & prothoracic fold closely united with prothoracic beneath. March 29, 1866 [[line]] Apr. 8. 1866. New Cedar fungus now nearly full grown. Surface with [[image - circle]] depressions, often with a central (aureole or) very flat nipple. [[line]] X Bred 5 [[underlined]] [[female symbol]] [[/underlined]] q. podagrae, from galls in warm room through winter Apr. 12 bred 2 [[female symbol]] ---- (all 7 black abdomen) -- 15 --- 9 [[female symbol]] ---- (all 9 ------------ ) -- 18 --- 17 [[female symbol]] ---- (all 15 ------------) (also 2 [[female symbol]] rhoditiformis) Apr. 19 8 [[female symbol]] (+2 rhod. 1 [[male symbol]] 1 [[female symbol]]) (all 8 ------------) -- 20 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 1 [[female symbol]] (1 ----------------) -- 22 2 [[symbol for female]] (both -----) _____ 44 [[strikethrough]] 39 [[/strikethrough]] in all -- 23 4 [[female symbol]] (all 4 ------------) -- 24 0 (4 rhodit?) -- 25 0 ( ---------) -- 26 0 (5 -------) ---28 1 [[female symbol]] --------- (abd. black X {Preserved alive for 4 days 4 [[female symbol]] with red abdomens from [[underline]] new [[/underline]] lot of galls. Abdomen still as red as ever. [[end page]] [[start page]] 185) Chic. Republican April 17? 66 X Apr. 18 Q. Podagrae galls gathered about April 1st. Bred 34 [[symbol for female]], 12 with abd. decidedly rufous, rufo-piceous or rufus base of segments, others partly so. Kept 4 alive in vial. See p. 184X. April 19 Bred 190 [[symbol for female]], many abd. rufous or subrufous. - 20 about 100 taken to field (not closely examined but apparently all [[symbol for female]] + 114 [[symbol for female]] examined (many with rufous abdomen) Apr. 22 About 175 - 200 [[symbol for female]] [[symbol for female]] (?) taken to field, but apparently all [[symbol for female]]. April 23 53 [[symbol for female]] (early in morning) about 1/3 abd. more or less red). -- 24 35 [[symbol for female]] ------ ------- -- 25 14 [[symbol for female]] ------ 34 -- 26 6 [[symbol for female]] 190 -- 28 6 [[symbol for female]] ------ 114 53 35 X Apr 20. Opened 1 pseudotinctoriae gall from Cases' field, that lay on table through winter. Larva plump & [[underline]] apparently [[/underline]] alive. ___ 26 X April 20. Placed about 50 [[symbol for female]] q.[[underline]] podagrae [[/underline]] on East bough of supposed "q. punctata" Black oak on Bluff. Also about 20 on East bough of another Bl Oak [[underline]] 45 [[/underline]] yds. south, & west of road. Also on both a few on trunk. [No galls came [[line]] O Apr. 22 In a querc. erinacei (unbored & 3 cells) found 1 large Cynip. pupa, abd. with many joints, [[symbol for therefore]] not Synergis &c? Other 2 cells cynip. larvae. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 186) X Apr.22 Placed about 100 [[female symbol]] Cynips q. podagrae on a smallish Black Oak, bifid near the base, South of the riverside road beyond Paper mill; 2nd tree beyond the 1st. lawn & about 50 yds. W. of a larger Thorn on the sand-beach. Also about 70 or 80 [[female symbol]] on another Bk Oak trifid near base S. of same road & opposite the 2nd Sycamore on the sand-beach. [[line]] ✓ Apr. 24 Opened 8 last year C.q {singularis, nubilipennis galls. 6 were empty or = 0; 1 a dead Callimome; 1 a plump & healthy looking cynipidous larva, which I wrapped in a piece of paper + replaced in the bottle. [[line]] X Apr. 27 Nematus s. pisum came out. Out of about 50 galls all but 3 plump & a few shrivelled ones bored, empty + full of frass [[insertion]] ^ nothing but a shell as thin as paper remaining [[symbol]] S. pomum [[/insertion]] [[symbol for therefore]] Larva went under sand bottom of jar. [[line]] 0 Cut open one [[underline]] q.prunus [[/underline]] gall of those that contained larvae last fall. Larva still there & [[underline]] apparently [[/underline]] alive, but cut it in opening gall. [[line] Noticed in the Rabbit [[underline]] Cuterebra [[/underline]] jar a large round hole bored thro the sand to the surface. Insect preparing to come out. Another hole Apr. 30 [[line] Dug up in Garden 2 Areoda lanigera [[line]] New Cedar [[strikethrough]] gall [[/strikethrough]] fungus have now put forth their filaments, which are covered with ferruginous dust = spores [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] are about 1/8 inch long, & 5 times as long as wide, cylindrical but slightly tapered. [[end page]] [[start page]] 187) May 8. Thyreus Abbottii [[male symbol]] came out from larva supposed to be that of [[underline]] Nessus. [[/underline]] specimen larva in alcohol. [[line]] May 10. Bred [[underline]] Leptis thoracica [[/underline]] from white larva found in garden-mould (preserved one in alcohol). Eleven-jointed, anus truncate [[symbol similar to Greek Sigma]] (profile) [[symbol like uppercase "W"]] (above) Head much as in [[underline]] Tabanus. [[/underline]] N.Y. Trib. May 8, '66 [[newspaper clipping pasted in:]] "Will Rabbits Eat Flesh? -- A FARMER'S BOY, who writes from Cornwall, Vt., says rabbits will eat lean flesh greedily and sometimes they will eat fat, which is generally fatal to them. Hence greasing trees prevents rabbits from gnawing them. The best preventive, however, in a country where white birch abounds, is to roll strips of birch-bark around the apple-trees in Autumn. It should be removed in Spring and laid away for future use. This bark is a complete shield against mice or rabbits, as no animals will eat it." [[end clipping]] [[line]] May 11. Elm [[underline]] Tomicus? [[/underline]] [[insertion [Magdalinus] [[/insertion]] (from Leas) now in pupa state. In larva all a few weeks ago. [[line]] May 15. New cedar fungus have now filaments 1/2 inch long, ferruginous, 7 or 8 times as long as wide & somewhat tapered. Some had now fallen off, leaving depressed round scars. [[line]] May 16. Sent Clemeus No. 1 [[strikethrough]] Hedge [[/strikethrough]] Cook's (Miss) Tineide & pupa & cocoon. No. 2 [[underline]] Hedya [[/underline]] -- (bred Bk Knot - 1 remaining) No. 3 Ditto, 2 remaining. No. 4 H. Sanborni No. 5 Captured [[image]] [[?]]. 3 palpi [[???]] specimens in store-box [[line]] May 17 Sal. desmodiodes now [[insertion]] ^ about [[/insertion]] full size & [[insertion]] ^ mostly [[/insertion]] pink-cheeked. [[line]] Found {2 Cicindela 6-punctata under bark. [[insertion]] May 20 found another [[insertion]] [[line]] Found on naked [[strikethrough]] bark [[/strikethrough]] sapwood of cherry, [[insertion]] ^ a [[insertion]] white larva, had a [[insertion]]^ black [[/insertion]] & black [[image]] 1st j 1 large sg. [[insertion]] ^ black [[/insertion]] spot, 2nd. 2, 3rd 2 smaller, 12 tip black & 2 black prongs [threw away] [[line]] Larva of [[underline]] Micropteryx [[/underline]] (a Lepid. [[insertion]] ^ leaf [[/insertion]] miner) is entirely apod. Ent. Annual 62 p. 123. Also pupa is [[underline]] not [[/underline]] obtected. Ditto 1863. fig 8 & 8* &c. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 189) May 20. Bred { 20 - 30 [insertion]] + 43 [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Magdalinus armicollis [[/underline]] from subcortical larvae which had destroyed a young elm for Mr Leas. [[underline]] All [[/underline]] red elytra & black thorax to most of them; a few red thorax. [[line]] May 19. Took [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] 30 Donacia confusa. All either metallic brown or indigo blue, [[strikethrough]] which last smaller & slenderer. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Blue ones [[2 female symbols]] or [[2 male symbols]]? [[/insertion]] [[line]] May 20. In Cedar fungus terminal 1/2 of filaments had now withered up & shed their ferruginous spores. Red ferruginous still. [[line]] When Sesia first comes out from pupa, it has scales over hyaline part thinly arranged, which afterwards fall off. [[line]] X May 31 Gathered off "Jones' fence tree" 5 spong. galls, 4 badly eaten. Put twigs in water: + 1 not eaten, but off twig in paper. All very young. Saw on "Pasture-field tree" 1 spong. gall tip of N.E. bough. [[line]] Cuterebra cunicularis came out. [[line]] X June 10. Many spong. galls on "Tree in Case's field" experimented on last year. One contained spong. [[underline]] pupa. [[underline]] June 14. A distinct 2nd.(badly eaten) gall high up on Grave-yard Black Oak experimented on. [[line]] Came out 1 [[female symbol]] [[underline]] Spongifica [[/underline]] from Jones' fence tree, galls [[end page]] [[start page]] 190) X June 17. Came out a second [[female symbol]] [[underline]] Spongifica [[/underline]] from Jones's fence tree galls. June 26. Lecanium (plum) from Vermont. Eggs hatching out yesterday & [[underline]] pink [[/underline]] now. They were [[underline]] white [[underline]] 3 weeks ago. June 25 Lecanium vitis - eggs hatching out & [[underline]] all [[/underline]] now pure white. X June 26. A large Synergus [[insertion]] ^ same as bred last year [[/insertion]] bred from the [[underline]] old [[/underline]] Q. prunus galls kept over with [[insertion]] ^ a [[/insertion]] larva in [[underline]] central [[/underline]] cell. [[line]] ✓ June 29 Found 2 large Q. erinacei (very red) after long search in usual place. Young apparently. O July 6. Found among my [[underline]] Q. fragaria [[/underline]] galls (Burr oak) a leaf which had evidently born Q. caducus p. 179. [[Therefore symbol]] that grows on Burr oak. Of Q. fragaria found 6 bored, [[insertion]] ^ one [[/insertion]] with a large hole which must have produced a Synergus bred today (found dead) & 5 with small holes [[insertion]] ^ & empty [[[/insertion]] which must have been bored when galls were gathered by Psinide? [[line]] Bred 3 [[female symbol]] C. q. clavula Brass. [[line]] X July 8. Found a case attached to oak leaf composed of little pieces of stems (Phryganea fashion). Larva pale chestnut, [[underline]] legless [[/underline]], head + 12 jd., spiracles, 3 last distinctly [[underline]] none[[/underline]]. [[insertion]] ^ short, 2 - 8 bearing tail truncate squarely [[insertion]]. Length .35 inch. Case .70 inch. Preserved in alcohol & case dried. [[underline]] Peraphora[[/underline]] larva, according to Harris, [[underline]] has [[/underline]] legs. Case moored very solidly by silk, & silk inside. Found another afterwards [[insertion]] ^ & bred from it a singular blackish moth, [[pect?]] ant. [[/insertion.]] [end page]
191) July 17. [[double underline]] Gall vitifolia? [[/double underline]] Fitch abundant on wild grape NE corner of Jone's field. [[insertion]] ^ vitis cordifolia [[/insertion]]. Contains now, besides mother louse, about equal quantities of [[underline]] eggs [[/underline]] & [[underline]] young larvae [[/underline]] just hatched. Galls now about .10 inch diam., pale green, uneven & nipply with a few hairs. [[insertion]] ^ always on lower side of leaf & very abundant, a white woolly spot on corresponding place on leaf above. [[/insertion]] Mother-louse alive, a [[underline]] coccus, [[/underline]] with distinctly 1-jd. tarsi: ant. Very short. Body, yellow, round; 03 in diameter. Ant. & legs obfuscated. Beak (at tip) black. Same gall, rather larger, on Clinton grape: rest all the same. No woolly matter among eggs & young larvae. [[double underline]] Gall Crataegi plica [[/double underline]] - n. sp. & fusiform pale green fold on lower surface of leaves of Crataegus Crus-galli; opening above by a slit, & [[strikethrough]] always [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ generally [[/insertion]] on one of chief side-veins, [[insertion]] ^ or on midrib [[/insertion]] 1 - 7 on a leaf. Length .35 - .50, diam .10 - .15 inch. Walls thin & hard; inside polished. Larva single, cecid [[s ?]]., sanguineous with distinct black breastbone, & now .02 long. July 24. 2 distinct yellow eggs; on 2 galls no dust. [[double underline]] Gall carya-semen [[/double underline]] A very minute coccidian [Aphid.] Gall [[insertion]] ^ .06 - .10 in diameter [[/insertion]] on Carya glabra, subhemisph. above, [[insertion]] ^ flatter below [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[?]] below [[/strikethrough]] with a[[strikethrough]] n [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ nipple like [[/insertion]] opening as in Caryafoliae. Inside [[strikethrough]] numerous [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 4 or 5 yellowish [[/insertion]] young Aphidians. Spec. preserved. greenish yellow above, pale green below, the open central nipple whitish. Often a hundred on one leaflet. [[end page]] [[start page]] 192 July 17. A gall like [[underline]] holotricha [[/underline]] O. S. on [[underline]] upper [[/underline]] side of leaf of Carya alba; larva cecid. with clove breastbone, hyaline whitish with [[insertion]] ^ large discordate [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] central [[/strikethrough]] black internal spot [[line]] [[double underline]] Ulmi loculus [[/double underline]] A round gall [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ Epiphytous fungus.[[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion, in pencil]] Acaridan [[/insertion]] [[image of female symbol]] on leaf of Ned Elm. Inside not hollow but with [[image: drawing of cross-cut filament]] [[insertion]] ^ stout [[/insertion]] filaments converging from [[image of circle]]. No larva [[line]] [[double underline]] Tilia loculus [[/double underline]] A fusiform gall very like that of wild cherry on Basswood leaves either above or below. Inside woolly. No larva. [[line]] Baird (Sill. Journ. May 1866 pp. 337-347). proves that "European birds, especially the land species, reach Greenland by way of Iceland, & N.A. [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] continent by autumnal movement from Greenland" North Am. birds reach Europe (especially England & Heligoland) by direct course from about Latitude 45˚. The resultant motion of [[insertion]] ^ surface [[/insertion]] wind between 32˚ & 58˚ in N.A is from the west. Iceland is in the latitude of the reverse current from east to west. [[line]] p.407 of ditto 13 blunders are exposed in [[underline]] Geological Sketches [[/underline]] by L. Agassiz [by Prof. Dana?] [[line]] [[double underline]] Ulmi Crumena [[/double underline]] July 17. [[insertion]] [Epiphytous fungus] [[/insertion]] Found many fusiform galls similar to those on wild cherry on upper face of leaves of White Elm. [[line]] [[double underline]] Aceris loculus [[/double underline]] Found many ditto [[image: drawing]] almost 1/4 inch on upper face of leaves of Soft Maple. Epiphytous fungus? [[strikethrough]] No larva [[/strikethrough]]. In two specimens found 10-20 hyaline young cocci? & in one what seemed a much larger one with longish antennae, but lost it. [[line]] [[double underline]] Caryaevenae Fitch [[/double underline]] is [[underline]] Coccidan [[/underline]] not [[underline]] Aphidian [[/underline]]. One opened contained 4 wingless [[image of female symbol]] .025 long & many [[strikethrough]] minute [[/strikethrough]]
[[NOTE: Same as digital page 149, but without overlaying note]] [[start page]] 192*) [strikethrough] lice [[/strikethrough]] eggs. No powdery dust. On Carya alba? Yes [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Corni tuba [[/underline]] dbwalsh. A [[insertion]] ^ more or less [[strikethrough]] generally doubly curved [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] curved pale green [[?]] purple cylindrical gall slightly tapered towards tip when it is squarely truncate with a slightly flaring tuberculate surface, as if broken off them, 1/2 inch long & .10 inch in medial diameter, hard but fleshy, externally subopaque with some fine white pubescence, internally [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ solid except [[/insertion]] a cell close to its base containing [[insertion]] ^ small [[/insertion]] whitish Cecid. larva with clove b.b. Three galls together on lower surface of leaf; a [[strikethrough]] wrinkled [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ rounded [[/insertion]] space opposite each on upper surface on cornus [[insertion]] ^ red osier [[/insertion]] Stolonifera. { 1 - 6 on a leaf. [[line]] Cecid. vein-gall (with bastard leaves fringing slit on upper edge of gall) on Crataegus [[insertion]] tomentosa [[/insertion]] [[image/strikethrough?]] (not crus galli) Larva b.b. [[image Y]] -shaped subround. = [[underline]] crataegi limbus [[/underline]]. Differs from C plica [[insertion]] ^ (p. 191) [[/insertion]] in being densely covered below with white pubescence & in the slit above very fringed with a crumpled narrow bastard leaf. Noticed 1 or 2 young [[underline]] coccus? [[/underline]] crawling about among the freshly opened galls. Inquilinous? So [[?]] Maple Epiphytous fungus, p.191? [[line]] Noticed ants tending Acutalis (large) n. sp. on Amorpha fruticosa? on R. R. bottom, as they do Enchophyllum binotatum. [[end page]] [[start page]] 193) July 19. [[insertion]] (see p 206) [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Aceris loculus [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ Acarus [[strikethrough]] Epiphytous fungus [[/strikethrough]][[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [ [[/strikethrough]] gall [[strikethrough]] ] [[/strikethrough]] on upper face of leaf of Soft Maple. [[insertion]] ^ Acer subitum [[/insertion]] An irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ coarsely [[/insertion]] rugose, but non pilose or pubescent hollow, pale green fleshy gall [[insertion]] ^ with a short robust peduncle & [[/insertion]] with thin walls & the interior walls rough with dark mealy looking [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] branching excrecenses. [[insertion]] [rosy or blackish [[?]] [[?]] ] [[/9]insertion]]. Inside scores of very minute oval pellucid lice & occasionally a larger one with long antennae & legs, all very vigorous. No powdery dust as yet. In 12 out of [[strikethrough]] 19 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 20 [[/insertion]] galls & in one, when cut open, there was a minute chalcis. Another was bored (by chalcis?) but empty. A mark but no slit on corresponding part of leaf below. Length about .20 inch. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall crataegi globulus [[/underline]] n. [[covered by note]] (on [[strikethrough]] same [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ different [[/insertion]] thorn) by being [[covered by note]] below, length .38 - .45 [[covered by note]] No fringe above. On [[covered by note]] from Cr. limbus in having no fringe. July 18 mostly dried up, & those still green were empty, but are no doubt Cecid. Many bored by parasites. [June 17. 1867. [[insertion]] ^ mostly [[/insertion]] empty; inside smooth walls 1/5 diameter of gall.] One gall [[insertion]] contained hyaline-whitish larva .10 long, Bb. [[insertion]] ^ rufous [[insertion]] [[image]] stem [[underline]] very [[/underline]] thin [[/insertion]]]. (Cecid. larva orange with [[image Y]] -shaped breastbone) On the main-rib, generally below, sometimes above, a gall branching out into long slender branching filaments [[insertion]] ^ which are [[/insertion]] green tipped often with rosy, the whole subglobular & about .50 in diameter. Like rose bedeguar. On Crataegus tomentosa [[image]] very Rare [On Island.] [[end page]]
On June 12, 1868, galls tenanted. Contain 1 to 10 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] larvae in company; largest .16 long: tail [[image - pen drawing of shape of tail]]. Bb as in T.
192*) [strikethrough] lice [[/strikethrough]] eggs. No powdery dust. On Carya alba? Yes [[underline]] Gall Corni tuba [[/underline]] Walsh. A [[insertion]] ^ more or less [[strikethrough]] (generally doubly curved [[image]]) [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] curved [[strikethrough]] ^ [[/strikethrough]] pale green [[insertion]] v or purple [[/insertion]] sub cylindrical gall slightly tapered towards tip when it is squarely truncate with a slightly flaring tuberculated surface, as if broken off them, 1/2 inch long & .10 inch in medial diameter, hard but fleshy, externally subopaque with some fine white pubescence, internally [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ solid except [[/insertion]] a cell close to its base containing [[insertion]] ^ small [[/insertion]] whitish Cecid. larva [[insertion]] ^ .10 inch long, yellow with curly white markings [[/insertion]] with clove b.b. Three galls together on lower surface of leaf; a [[strikethrough]] wrinkled [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ rounded [[/insertion]] space opposite each on upper surface. On cornus [[insertion]] ^ [[underlined]] red osier [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] Stolonifera. { 1 - 23 (1869) { 1 - 6 on a leaf. [[line]] Cecid. vein-gall (with bastard leaves fringing slit on upper edge of gall) on Crataegus [[insertion]] tomentosa [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[line]] [[/strikethrough]] (not crus galli) Larva b.b. [[image Y]] -shaped subround. = [[underline]] crataegi limbus [[/underline]]. Differs from C. plica [[insertion]] ^ (p. 191) [[/insertion]] in being densely covered below with white pubescence & in the slit above very fringed with a crumpled narrow bastard leaf. Noticed 1 or 2 young [[underline]] coccus? [[/underline]] crawling about among the freshly opened galls. Inquilinous? So in Maple Epiphytous fungus, p. 191? [[line]] Noticed ants tending Acutalis (large) n. sp. on Amorpha fruticosa? on R. R. bottom, as they do Enchophyllum binotatum. [[end page]] [[start page]] (193 July 19. [[insertion]] (see p 206) [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Aceris loculus [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ Acarus [[strikethrough]] Epiphytous fungus [[/strikethrough]][[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [ [[/strikethrough]] gall [[strikethrough]] ] [[/strikethrough]] on upper face of leaf of Soft Maple. [[insertion]] ^ Acer subitum [[/insertion]] An irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ coarsely [[/insertion]] rugose, but non pilose or pubescent hollow, pale green fleshy gall [[insertion]] ^ with a short robust peduncle & [[/insertion]] with thin walls & the interior walls rough with dark mealy looking [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] branching excrecenses. [[insertion]] [rosy or blackish Aug 4] [[/insertion]]. Inside scores of very minute oval pellucid lice & occasionally a larger one with long antennae & legs, all very vigorous. No powdery dust as yet. In 12 out of [[strikethrough]] 19 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 20 [[/insertion]] galls & in one, when cut open, there was a minute chalcis. Another was bored (by chalcis?) but empty. A mark but no slit on corresponding part of leaf below. Length about .20 inch. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall crataegi globulus [[/underline]] n. sp. differs from Cr. plica (on [[strikethrough]] same [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ different [[/insertion]] thorn) by being subglobular, wooly below, length .38 - .45 [[insertion]] - .60 [1867] [[/insertion]] inch, diam. .20 - .37 inch. No fringe above. On Crataegus [[image]] tomentosa. Differs from Cr. limbus in having no fringe. July 18 mostly dried up, & those still green were empty, but are no doubt Cecid. Many bored by parasites. [June 17. 1867. [[insertion]] ^ mostly [[/insertion]] empty; inside smooth walls 1/5 diameter of gall.] One gall [[insertion]] contained hyaline-whitish larva .10 long, Bb. [[insertion]] ^ rufous [[insertion]] [[image]] stem [[underline]] very [[/underline]] thin [[/insertion]]]. (Cecid. larva orange with [[image Y]] -shaped breastbone) On the main-rib, generally below, sometimes above, a gall branching out into long slender branching filaments [[insertion]] ^ which are [[/insertion]] green tipped often with rosy, the whole subglobular & about .50 in diameter. Like rose bedeguar. On Crataegus tomentosa [[image]] very Rare [On Island.]
[[start page]] 194) 194 [[underline]] Gall Crataegi vermiculus [[/underline]] n. sp on Cr. crus-galls. The fold in the leaf below (not above) & not confined to a vein, accompanied on the [[insertion]] ^ glossy dark green [[/insertion]] upper side by a much elevated, crinkled, [[insertion]] ^ tubercled [[/insertion]] much sinuated [[insertion]] ^ very [[/insertion]] pale green ridges, [[insertion]] ^ looking like a wriggling worm or snake, whence the name.[[/insertion]] Scarcely fleshy as yet inside, but in small [[insertion]] ^ dark discolored elongated [[insertion]]hollow in the middle scores of very minute hexapod pale rosy lice, 4 times as long as wide [[image - oval like a grain of rice with three legs protruding from the upper half of each side]], not very vigorous. July 18. on island. Sometimes 3 or 4 on a leaf, oftener single. [[line]] X July 19. Found a yellow chalcis? Pupa in carya - vena gall., mother lice gone, but still a few eggs left. [[line]] Out of 20 or 30 S. pomum galls (gathered on Island) all contained [[underline]] Nematus [[/underline]] larva, now [[underline]] Anthonomus[[/underline]] larva. [[line]] July 19. Noticed where a sprout of Carya glabra grew among C. alba that it bore a few caryaecaulis galls. [[line]] Ash on island is F. [[strikethrough]] Sambucifolia[[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] viridis [[/insertion]] (BDW) Cornus two sp. only, stolonifera & paniculata (& possibly C. asperifolia [[strikethrough]] (= alternifolia BDW)) [/strikethrough]] (Dr. P.) [[line]] Crataegus crus galli - [[underline]] gall Cr. plica [[/underline]] Cecid. - [[underline]] Cr. vermiculus [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] aphid?? [[/strikethrough]] Coccid?? - tomentosa [[underline]] gall Cr. limbus [[/underline]] Cecid. - [[underline]] Cr. globulus [[/underline]] Cecid? - [[underline]] Cr. bedeguar [[/underline]] Cecid. - Cr. vermiculas { [[strikethrough]] aph?? [[/strikethrough]] Coccid?? [[end page]] [[start page]] 195) July 20. 20-footed larva. [[insertion]] ^ Croesus latitarsus[[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]](Nematus)[[/strikethrough]] on Birch 1 inch long; [[insertion]] ^ often [[/insertion]] sits [[image - side view curved body with segmented head and three legs]]: pale gla[[^ u]]cous green: a double (transverse) row of black spots on each side. [[insertion]] ^ (i.e. 4 on each segment [[image - two dots, a space, two dots) [[/insertion]] head black. Legs black outside towards tip & a short black vitta above every proleg [[insertion]] ^ & indistinct spot above every [[/insertion]] leg. Joint 12 1 lateral & one terminal spot only. Anal legs not very obvious, but used in walking, jt 1 immaculate. [[line]] [[X and bracket in left margin encompassing following:]] July 21. Eggs & young lice (& old ones) still in caryavenae. In one found 5 or 6 [[underline]] Thrips [[/underline]](preserved). In another a niche orange syrphidous larva. In others 1 or 2 yellow Chalcid? larvae & 1 pupa. [[line]] [[check mark and bracket in left margin]] Eggs still in Vitifolia. Found in one 1 orange syrphidi larva & 1 ditto pupa. [[insertion]] [Bred] [[/insertion]] In another 4 coccus & lot of eggs [[line]] July 20 Found 1 [[underline]] caryaecaulis [[/underline]] on C. glabra growing in middle of C. [[strikethrough]] glabra bush.[[/strikethrough]] alba bush. [[line]] [[box drawn around]] Gall [[/box drawn around]] [[double underline]] Fraxini verruca [[/double underline]] [[insertion]] ^ [Aphidians] on Fr. [[strikethrough]] sambucifolia [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ Ephiphytous fungus [[/insertion]] (Island, S. Side) July 31. A pale [[insertion]] ^ greenish [[/insertion]] yellow [[strikethrough]] ish green [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ irregularly [[/insertion]] spherical swelling bisected by the plane of the leaf & not confined to a vein, [[insertion]] ^ sometimes blood-red above,[[/insertion]] 1-9 on a leaftet, smooth above, below opening in a ragged brownish wartlike more or less open [[insertion]] ^ crater-like [[/insertion]] mouth, [[insertion]] ^ sometimes mouthlike [[/insertion]]. Diameter .10 inch or less. Inside [[insertion]] ^ smoothish [[/insertion ]] [[insertion]] ^ with a few] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] partly brownish [[/strikethrough]] rough & [[spraufing?]] [[insertion]] ^ brownish excrescences [[/insertion]]. Found in 1 a [[insertion]] ^ [[?]] [[/insertion]] [[underline]] Thrips [[/underline]] pupa with much excrement. Found in [[strikethrough]] 2 or 3 a [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ 4 or [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 5 a [[/insertion]]single very active & small hyaline [[strikethrough]] Aphidian?[[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ acarus [[/insertion]]. Open'd 30 - [[insertion]] ^ [40] [[/insertion]] 41 galls. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall? Negundinis pisum [[/underline]] A white Globular subsessile [2 gall .10 inch [[insertion ^ or less [[/insertion]] in diameter [opaque smoothish or somewhat rugose] on the midrib above of [[insertion]] ^ leaflet on [[/insertion]] Neg. aceroides; 2 only on 1 leaflet, a very minute hyaline Aphidian? running about in each. [Aug 5. pale green outside. [[insertion]] ^ with white bloom [[/insertion]] opening on one side of rib below with a [[image - arc]] slit. No larvae. Dark coarse filaments inside. [[end page]]
196) [[double underline]] Ulmi [[strikethrough]] loculus [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] crumena fungus [[/insertion]] [[/double underline]] on [[underline]] true [[/underline]] White Elm R.R. bottom. July 20. An irregularly oval [[insertion]] ^ or fusiform [[/insertion]] pale green, gall on the upper face of leaf, 1-8 on a leaf, with a short robust peduncle, springing [[insertion]] ^ often but not always [[/insertion]] from mid rib or one of principal veins, with a few white hairs. [[insertion]] ^ Opposite side a small pubescent spot [[/insertion]] inside with dense filaments [[insertion]] ^ strongly [[/insertion]] clavate [[image]] at base radiating from the thin external shell [[strikethrough]] & some of them [[/strikethrough]] white some [[insertion]] ^ of them occasionally [[/insertion]] pink. [[insertion]] ^ Inside wall of gall rarely crimson [[/insertion]]. Opened 10 & found no living insect. Very like [[underline]] Aceris loculus. [[/underline]] Length .25 & under. [[line]] Our upland ash = Fraxinus americana = White ash. [[line]] [[underline]] Rhois [[strikethrough]] bursa [[/strikethrough]] tomatas [[/underline]] July 20 - on Rhus typhina [[insertion]] ^ staghorn sumach [[/insertion]] - grows from the mid rib of leaflet, rarely from one of [[covered by note]] 1-3 on a leaf, pyriform, small [[covered by note]] green & downy now. Largest about [[covered by note]] [[?xylum]] "Colden". [[line]] Probably = o. s. No. 23 [[covered by note]] [[underline]] [[?lequa]] [[/underline]]. (On vine in yard.) [[insertion]] ^ Vitis cordifolia & [[strikethrough]] on V. vulpina [[/strikethorugh]] Sep. 4 [[/insertion]] A smooth, green [[covered by note]] oval [[insertion]] ^ or fusiform [[/insertion]] enlargement of the leaf: stalk, generally [[covered by note]] the leaf, rarely on the [[insertion]] ^ small [[/insertion]] twig bearing the leaf, [[covered by note]] long, .20 - .30 in diameter. Polythalamous. [[covered by note]] [[?cid.]] [[strikethrough]] pale [[/strikethrough]] greenish hyaline, [[insertion]] ^ with pseudopods [[/insertion]] breast-bone [[covered by note]] [[?soese]] black dots. [[image - cross shape]] [[image]] [[covered by note]] [[underline]] [[?lula]] [[/underline]]. [Noticed 1 aphidian vigorously running out [[covered by note]] opened green gall.] An irregularly round or oval, single pale green gale, bisected by the plane of the leaf, not confined to veins, flattened above & below & generally tinged with rosy on the [[image of circle]] [[Note: Note overlaying text reads as follows:]] [[image - cross shape]] Gall on twig April 26 woody, with a bony internal hollow containing 3 larva, .75 long, .25 wide. Larva yellowish 3 1/2 times as long as wide, Bb black [[image vertical line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 197) above & below, both surfaces coarsely reticulate & with 4 or 5 stria radiating from [[insertion]] ^ a small [[/insertion]] central depression. Mostly now burst open below (like q. pilula) & the cap of the gall fallen off having only a rough brown surface [[image two concentric circles]], the upper surface entire but changed to a deep blood-red color. Found 1 cedid. larva orange, [[insertion]] ^ oblong short, & bb. [[image]] [[/insertion]], & 3 or 4 callimome & 1 or 2 other chalcid. in green galls, one in each. [[image]] monothalamous. 1 - 20 on a leaf, 2 or 3 often confluent. Diam. gall .13 - .30 inch. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall tiliae. vena [[/underline]]. A simple enlargement of a main vein .20 long & containing 1 elongate white cecid. larva, breastbone [[image, 2 dots]] .10 inch long. [[line]] X [[underline]] Tiliae loculus [[/underline]] - epiphytous fungus - like Aceris loculus - No larva in it. 1 specimen [[line]] [[underline]] Juglandis caulis [[/underline]] (Black walnut) a solid fleshy [[reversal line of the following two words]] oval irregularly subsessile swelling .35 - .42 in diameter [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ clasping the [[/insertion]] leaf stalk, [[insertion]] ^ or mid rib of compound leaf [[image]] but not so as [[?nite]] on the opposite side [[/insertion]], internally grass green, externally except next leafstalk with a dense opaque reddish brown wooly-pubescent surface like cheek of peach. No larva, but indistinct incipient cells? vent outside. Cecid? gall? [[line]] [[underline]] [[Juglandis loculus. [[/underline]] on Bk. Walnut. [[insertion]] ^ many specimens [[/insertion]] much like [[underline]] aceris [[/underline]] loculus; inside white wooly fibres. No insects. Epiphytous fungus? On upper face of leaflet. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Crataegi vermiculus. [[/underline]] on Cr. tomentosa July 23; = that Davenports field. n. tree. [[checkmark]] on Cr. crus-galli; & larva the same.
+ gall on twig April 26 woody, with a long internal hollow containing 3 larvae, .75 long,.25 wide. Larva yellowish 3 1/2 times as long as wide, Bl-black, [[vertical line]]
196) [[underline]] Ulmi [[insertion]] ^ crumena [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] loculus [[/strikethrough]] [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ fungus [[/insertion]]. On [[underline] true [[/underline]] White Elm R.R. bottom. July 20. An irregularly oval, [[insertion]] ^ or fusiform, [[/insertion]] pale green, gall on the upper face of leaf, 1-8 on a leaf, with a short robust peduncle, springing [[insertion]] ^ often but not always [[/insertion]] from mid rib or one of principal veins, with a few white hairs. [[insertion]] ^ Opposite side a small pubescent spot, [[/insertion]] Inside with dense filaments [[insertion]] ^ strongly [[/insertion]] clavate [[image]] at base radiating from the thin external shell [[strikethrough]] & some of them [[/strikethrough]] white some [[insertion]] ^ of them occasionally [[/insertion]] pink. [[insertion]] ^ Inside wall of gall rarely crimson. [[/insertion]] Opened 10 & found no living insect. Very like Aceris loculus. Length .25 & under. [[line]] Our upland ash = Fraxinus americana = white ash. [[line]] [[underline]] Rhois [[strikethrough]] bursa [[/strikethrough]] tomatas [[/underline]] July 20 - on Rhus typhina [[insertion]] ^ Staghorn Sumach [[/insertion]] - grows from the midrib of leaflet, rarely from one of side-veins, 1-3 on a leaf, pyriform, small end basal, green & downy now. Largest about 3/4 inch long. Zanthoxylum "Colden" [[line]] July [[underline]] 24 [[/underline]] Gall vitis siliqua [[insertion]] ^ Probably = O.S. No.23 [[/insertion]] (On vine in yard). [[insertion]] ^ Vitis cordifolia [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] on V. vulpisia? [[/strikethrough]] Sept. 4 A smooth, green shining oval [[insertion]] ^ or fusiform [[/insertion]] enlargement of the leaf: stalk, generally close to the leaf, rarely on the [[insertion]] ^ small [[/insertion]] twig bearing the leaf, .50 - .85 long, .20 - .30 in diameter. [[Polythala?]]. Larva Cecid. [[strikethrough]] pale [[/strikethrough]] greenish hyaline, [[insertion]] ^ with pseudopods [[/insertion]] breast-bone = 2 transverse black dots. [[image]] [[image]] [[line]] gall [[underline]] Tilia pilula [[/underline]]. [Noticed 1 aphidian vigorously running out or freshly-opened green gall.] An irregularly round or oval, sessile pale green gall, bisected by the plane of the leaf, not confined to veins, flattened above & below & generally tinged with rosy on the [[image - pen drawing of circle]] [[end page]] [[start page]] (197 above & below, both surfaces coarsely reticulate & with 4 or 5 stria radiating from [[insertion]] ^ a small [[/insertion]] central depression. Mostly now burst open below (like q. pilula) & the cap of the gall fallen off leaving only a rough brown surface [[image - two circles, one within the other]], the upper surface entire but changed to a deep blood-red color. Found 1 cecid. larva orange, [[insertion]] ^ oblong, short & bb. [[/insertion]] [[drawing]], & 3 or 4 callimome & 1 or 2 other chalcid. in green galls, one in each. [[drawing]] monothalamous. 1 - 20 on a leaf, 2 or 3 often confluent. Diam. gall .13 - .30 inch. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Tiliae. vena. [[/underline]]. a simple enlargement of a main vein .20 long & containing 1 elongate white cecid. larva, breastbone [[image -pen drawing of two small circles]] .10 inch long. [[line]] x [[underline]] Tiliae loculus [[/underlined]] - [[insertion]] acaridan [[/insertion]] epiphytous fungus - like Aceris loculus - no larva in it. 1 specimen [[line]] [[underline]] Juglandis caulis [[/underline]] (Black walnut) a solid fleshy [[reverse the following]] oval irregularly [[reverse the preceding]] subsessile dwelling .35 - .42 in diameter [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ clasping the [[/insertion]] leaf stalk, [[insertion]] ^ or midrib of compound leaf [[image - pen drawing of leaves]] but not so as unite on the opposite side [[/insertion]] internally grass green, externally except next leafstalk with a dense opaque reddish brown wooly-pubescent surface, like cheek of peach. No larva, but indistinct incipient cells? next outside is Cecid? gall? [[line]] [[underline]] Juglandis loculus. [[/underline]] on Blk Walnut. [[insertion]] ^ many specimens [[/insertion]]. Much like [[underline]] Aceris [[/underline]] loculus; inside white woolly fibres. No insects. Epiphytous fungus? On upper face of leaflet. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Crataegi vermiculus. [[/underline]] on Cr. tomentosa July 23; = that on Cr. crus-galli, & larva the same. Davenports field. n tree
198) [[underline]] Gall Carya semen [[/underline]] p. 191. (Carya glabra bottom of graveyard hill.) Besides the sluggish yellow, Mother-coccus & the eggs, there is a [[underline]] very [[/underline]] active [[insertion]] ^ hyaline [[/insertion]] hexapod larva in some of these galls. Inquilinous? No joints to body? Allied to Acarus? [[insertion]] ^ no: = young coccus [[/insertion]] Found in one a largish hairy Chalcid. larva, with snapping jaws & pointed tail. Found in one 8 or 9 young coccus, [[insertion]] ^ elongated [[/insertion]] yellowish & very active. Mother coccus in another roundish, yellow & dull. Evidently a coccus. In another 8 or 9 young coccus & mother. Mother deeper yellow. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Carya pilula [[/underline]] on C. glabra. abundant but local. A globular, pale green gall on general surface of leaflet, 1 - 9 on a leaflet, .10 - .20 inch in diameter, bisected by plane of leaflet, upper face a little flattened, lower with a small nipple both surfaces with a reticulate appearance from very darker and very slightly deepened. Mostly now turned blackish & lower nipple burst widely open [[insertion]] ^ in a decussate slit [[/insertion]] so as to show 4 angulated blackish lobes tipped with white. Those not burst contained now a chalcid. larva, hairy & with black jaws & wriggles much. (20 galls thus). Must be [[underline]] cecid. [[/underline]] gall, & larva gone underground. [[insertion]] ^ only on tree E of road to grave yard & S. of large cottonwood there [[insertion]] [[line]] Mr. A. Merrell, Commerceal Cottage, [[?]] knows of a breed of tailless cats in N.H. (Young [[Gaw?]]) [[end page]] [[start page]] (199 [[underline]] July 25 Gall Carya pabella [[/underline]] [[insertion] ^ sticky Aug 29 all.[[/insertion]] Cecid? on C. alba. A smooth, greenish white irregularly hemispherical [[insertion]] ^ fleshy [[/insertion]] gall, .15 or less in diameter, the O of hemisphere attached by a pouch to lower surface of leaf, the other surface excavated with a [[insertion]] ^ large [[/insertion]] conical nipple in the middle tipped with brown, rising often much above the hemisphere; edges of which are crinkled & [[strikethrough]] form an [[/strikethrough]] acutely margined [[insertion]] ^ & form a [[/insertion]] circle surrounding the central nipple. Inside a smooth cell, but no larva yet visible. Sparse, 1 or 2 on a leaf, among numerous holotricha? galls. [[line]] [Gall] [[underline]] (aceris localus [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ = fungus. [[/underline]] Coccidan? [[insertion]] No. = Epiphytous fungus [[/insertion]] Found one small gall smooth inside, no meally processes, & no larva. In one gall very many elongate, sluggish, pink lice like those in Crataegi vermiculus. Of 20 galls opened, 11 contained larvae. Found a singular Coccidan?? at large on maples leaves. Runs fast. Pale rufous. Disk of back largely brown. 3 lateral equidistant [[insertion]] ^ large [[/insertion]] white spots & another over head. [[insertion]] ^ an irregular white ventral vitta [[/insertion]] Ant. Moderate. Mouth very strange. Inquilinous on A. loculus? [Tarsi connate with [[?ae]] & 3-jtd. joints connate?] Found 1 small caryaecaulis on large isolated C. glabra. & several on another, some on [[insertion]] ^ young [[/insertion]] [[underline]] leaves [[/underline]], only partially developed at tip of young shoot. Slit decussate. [[line]] [[underline]] Sal brassic. [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ No. 1 [[/insertion]] burrowing in heart. Lep. larva .10 long grass-green, 16 footed, head black emarg. behind [[image]], an obsemicircular pale brown plate on jt. 2. A few long hairs on anal end. [Not preserved.] [[line]] No. 2 A larger one (killed) .25 long, differs in head being square behind, plate on jt. 1 black & joining head & in legs being black. Hairs same in front. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 200) [[underline]] Sal. Brassic. [[/underline]] Lep. larva No. 3. Pale grass-green, with rather open [[insertion]] ^ & long [[/insertion]] white hairs. Head greenish white; a [[insertion]] ^ dark [[/insertion]] green dorsal line & a subdorsal whitish line. 16 feet, [[insertion]] ^ immaculate [[/insertion]] normal. Length 1/2 inch. not tapered at either end, & 8 - 10 lines as long as wide. Among outer leaves, not burrowing in heart. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall Vitis [[fusar?]] [[/ underline]] or Vitis [[strikethrough]] Labrusca?[[/strikethrough]] cordifolia. A roundish mass, [[strikethrough]] 2[[/strikethrough]] 1 1/4 - 2 1/2 inches in diameter, of [[insert]] [[strikethrough]] 40 or [[/strikethrough]] ^10 - 50 [[/insertion]] opaque, wooly-pubescent, fusiform or sometimes flattish-oval [[insertion]] ^ green [[/insertion]] galls, each .50 - .75 inch long, springing from a common centre at the place for a [[?]] [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ the whole [[/insertion]] evidently a deformation of a bud, each gall representing a leaf. Occasionally an undeformed leaf with its peduncle puts forth from the common centre, bearing at the junction of peduncle with leaf a couple of galls. Each gall monothal. & cecid. See last year. [[line]] July 26) [[underline]] Fungus aceris crumena. [[/underline]] On sugar-maple. A pale green elongate hollow fusiform fungus, 1 - 26 on upper face of leaf, .10 - .25 long, & 7 [[strikethrough]] 8 [[/strikethrough]] or 8 times as long as wide, a slight depression slightly discolored on under side of leaf opposite to each. Inside roughly granulated. Tip of some blackish, & a few already blackish [[insertion]] ^ or reddish brown [[/insertion]] apparently withering, but not burst open. very abundant & not local. Two only out of 20 opened contained some larva as [[underline]] aceris loculus. [[/underline]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 201) X [[underline]] Gall carya pomum [[/underline]] On C. alba, always on upper face of leaflet 1 - 10 on a leaflet. A globular opaque [[strikethrough]] pale [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ rather dark [[/insertion]] green gall with a slight brownish terminal nipple, the whole clothed with dense long erect white hairs. A few already brown. Inside polished & shell thin but rather hard. Diam. 07 - .17 inch. Attached only by a small portion of globe. Larva robust, whitish-hyaline, .05 long, breastbone [[image]], internal dark yellowish. [[underline]] Cecid. [[/underline]] [[line]] [[underline]] Gall carya [[?]][[underline]]. on C. alba, on lower face of leaflet [[insertion]] [[image]] often more or less depressed [[/insertion]]. A [[strikethrough]] pale [[/strikethrough]] greenish [[insertion]] ^ white [[/insertion]] smooth [[insertion]] ^ elongate [[/insertion]] conical gall .15 - .24 long, the base flaring & spreading out on face of leaflet in 4 or 5 irregular teeth, tip blunt & split a little way down into about [[insertion]] ^ 2 or [[/insertion]] 3 divisions. Inside fleshy, solid except a minute cell at base. [[underline]] Cecid? [[/underline]] Differs from [[underline]] sanguinolenta [[/underline]] [[insertion]] o.s. [[/insertion]] in color & in the flaring base. [[line]] X [[underline[[ [[strikethrough]] Fungus [[/strikethrough]] Gall Tilia loculus [[/underline]]. Externally much like Aceris loculus (p.193), but internally full of hyaline [[insertion]] ^ whitish [[/insertion]] linear fibres growing from external skin. Out of 10 opened only 2 contained a larva as in Aceris loc., but one only in each. [All the above fungus examd. with Stanhope lens carefully.] On upper face of leaf, [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethough]] [[insertion]] ^ 1 - 8 [[/insertion]] on a leaf, [[insertion]] ^ sometimes on lower face [[/insertion]] not very abundant. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall? tilia batatas [[/underline]]. On twig a sessile oval sub-scabrous potato-like gall, partly grass-green, partly brown-scabrous, .65 long or less, & [[insertion]] ^ about [[/insertion]] .40 in diameter . Inside white, fleshy, no larvae or cells. [April 7 of following year, they had burst open in irregular slits & were full[[strikethrough]]y[[/strikethrough]] of [[underline]] smooth [[/underline]] oval cells. Specimens [[?]]served with powdery matter. round[[?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 202)[[underline]] Gall. Fraxenis basium. [[/underline]] On Fr. americana. A mouth-like [[^greenish white]] prominence on lower face of leaflet, about .10 cm, & projecting .02-.05 from leaflet, the tips white-woolly-pubescent, sometimes closed, sometimes open in an irregularly oval form [[^inside hollow]] often but not always on one of [[^principal]] side veins, always on a vein of some kind, never on midrib. Opposite side a very pale green smooth slight prominence. Inside not smooth but granulated. Cecid? No larva. 1-4 on a leaf. [[line]] [[underlined]] Gall carya boletus.[[/underlined]] On C. alba. A deprefied-spherical [[^ or spherical or elongate oval]] coarsely granulated, greenish white [[^ or rarely [[pruleath?]] ]] gall on lower face, .15 - .23 in diameter, attached to the leaf like a mushroom by a very short but robustly cylindrical peduncle; a minute nipple at tip. Inside smooth but finely granulated; a large hemispherical prominence opposite the peduncle. Skin thin & soft. No larva in 3 cut open. [[underlined]]]Fraxinus Ulmi loculus. [[/underlined]] On U. fulva. 1 spec. like Acerus/loculus x not opened. [[underlined]]Gall Vitifolia. [[underlined]] Mostly preyed on by [[Shyrfluide?]] [[^secofer 05]] (larva orange [[7?]] with long slender pseudopods & walls as well as any lepid. larva. A few still contain coccid. eggs & larva. [[line]] [[underline]] Sal. brafs-gall[[/underline]]. burrowing in heart. Larva of [[Aruthon?]]. Tesselatus .07 long, [yellowish mostly curdy, white above. [Twice as long as wide, curved in [[image-dome]]]. Head. honey yellow, mandibles brown black, robust, equilaterally [[image-triangle]], [[strikethrough]] [[blot]] [[/strikethrough]] with [[subteranean]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 203) tooth. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] with curved term. tooth. [[strikethrough]] July 27. Sal. Brassic. [[underlined]] Lep. larva No. 4 (saved) length .40 inch. Not tapered, 8 times as long as wide. Pale greenish yellow. Head glossy rufous. 1st [[ft/jt?]] glossy brown black [[image]] separated by whitish hue from head. 5 pale brown [[?]] (narrow). Two dots [[^lengthways]] on 2 middle interstices in each [[ft/jt??]] & 1 in outer interstice, each with a long white hair. Legs blackish. 16 legs, normal. Spins a thread, & runs backward & runs very fast. Tortrix? [[line]] July 27. [[underline]] Gall carya tuba [[underline]] on C. alba. Differs from [[underline]] C. [[?]] [[underline]] (p.201) in being hairy. [[underline]] Gall? Pruni [[cru?]] [[underline]] [[^Acan?]] on upper face of leaf of Todd plum, 1-60 in number, an elongate [[strikethrough]] fusiform [[strikethrough]] hollow blunt-tipped opaque gall, .10-.16 long, 4 or 5 lines as long as wide, [[strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] constructed at base [[^ & with a few erect hairs]]. Color [[^very]] pale green tinged often with rosy [[strikethrough]] [[^ & a few hairs]] [[strikethrough]] inside [[?]] [[^& rosy]] with scores of very minute [[^rosy elongate]] eggs. Ten opened all had lice. [[strikethrough]] Aphidism? or Coccidans? [[strikethrough]] A little powdery dust seemingly among the lice. Many (yellow) crawling on leaves outside. [[NOTE: following written between two lines; insert unclear]] [[^of 10 opened all contained lice]] [[line]] [[underline]] Gall? Cerasi crumena. [[underline]] On Cerasus, [[^serolina]] [[strikethrough]] virginianus, [[strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] a gall [[strikethrough]] .10 - .34 long, [[^ & 6-9 times as long as wide]], 1 - 17 on a leaf almost always on upper face, [[strikethrough]] very [[strikethrough]] rarely below, a very elongate, subclavate hollow opaque gall, without any hairs; [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] basal part sometimes solid [[^ & slender]] like peduncle of leaf, oftener hollow. [[^ Color very pale green]] Inside, with irregular rough [[^ pale reddish brown]] filaments, & a few [[strikethrough]] fine [[strikethrough]] [[^very minute]] whitish hyaline sluggish lice. Tip end when mature, bursts widely open, [[^laterally]] & turns brown. A few yellow lice crawling on leaves outside. Of 11 opened, 9 contained lice. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 204) [[underline]] Gall Populi globulus [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ Chippianock? [[/insertion]] On Populus [[insertion]] [tremuloides] ^ grand identata? [[/insertion]]? (quaking asp) A fleshy hollow very pale green gall upon or on one side of midrib of leaf, 1 - 5 in number; inside hollow & opening with a slit below. [[underline]] Aphid? [[/underline]] Diam. .10 - .20 inch, round or oval. [[line]] [[underline]] Gall? Pyri aenigma [[/underline]] [[insertion]]] ^ on P coronaria (Crab.) [[/insertion]] A irregularly round yellow discoloration [[strikethrough]] & thickening [[/strikethrough]] on both sides the leaf. [[insertion]] about [[/insertion]] .25 in diameter, the centre a little depressed above & with 10 - 30 minute acute black tubercles; beneath a thickening in the form of a ring with numerous round brown [[insertion]] ^ opening in a month [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] flat [[/strikethrough]] tubercles, ^[[or a mouth]] flat at tip & [[insertion]] ^ each [[/insertion]] with a coronet of brownish white hairs. Inside fleshy but no larva seen. [[insertion]] ^ with minute [[strikethrough]] with [[/strikethrough]] cells opening in a mouth fringed with hairs [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] The tubercles below connecting with solid whitish cells.[[/strikethrough]]. [[insertion]] ^ when cut open [[drawing perpendicular symbol]] plane of leaf [[/insertion]] 1 - 6 on a leaf. [[Line]] X Aug. 1. Cut open last year [[underline]] Q. erinacei [[/underline]] galls. Many C. q erinacei (apterous) In one gall found 2 cynip. larva, both plump & certainly alive. In a 4-celled gall, 1 [[underline] c. q. erin. [[/underline]], 1 such larva & 2 empty cells. In [[insertion]] ^ 1 [[/insertion]] 3-celled ones, 1 larva + 2=0. One 2-celled, 1 larva +=0. [[strikethrough]] In one _________ one [[/strikethrough]] 2 larva +1=0: [[line]] [[underline]] Gall? Populi semen. [[/underline]] An irregularly hemispherical prominence on upper side of leaf .05 - .10 in diam. opening below by a very wide [[image: round]] mouth. Inside granulated fibres. Color[[insertion]] ^outside [[/insertion]] green fading to blackish on [[insertion]] ^ grandidentata? [[/insertion]]quaking asp. July 31. No insects. [[/underline]] Acarus? [[/underline]] gall [[line]] X Aug 2. [[underline]] Crataegi vermiculus [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ on Cr. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] crus-galli [[/insertion]] [strikethrough]] crus-galli [[/insertion]] Larva as before. Elongate, pale rosy, 4 times as long as wide, legs in front glide [[end page]] [[start page]] 205) rather than walk. X [[underline]] Gall Vitifolia [[/underline]] Fitch. Old coccus still in a gall with numerous eggs. Tarsus distinctly 1-jointed. Length body .02 inch, almost motionless. Young louse in a gall twice as long as wide clearly hexapod, eyes distinct, antenna stout, shortish, [[underline]] before [[/underline]] eyes. In one gall [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] 3 old half-dead lice & a dozen eggs. X One old louse lively tarsi plainly 1-jd. + 1 young lively louse. [[strikethrough]] antenna [[?]] 3rd joint short [[?]] 2nd long [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [[image]] [[/insertion]] [[line]] [[checkmark]] [[underline]] Gall caryaevena [[/underline]] Fitch. In some young lice, hexapod, eyes black, & before eyes antenna. In other eggs. In some yellow chalcide pupa, still some eggs remaining. Old louse .015 long; tarsi apparently 1-jd. Clearly a coccus. Ant. shorter than legs, 3-jd., 3rd longest. [An aphis[[strikethrough]]idan [[/strikethrough]] larva? on surface of leaf has 1-jd. tarsi [[image]] Old lice round, young twice as long as wide. A hyaline white acaroid in one, .01 long, ant. longish, [[underline]] but only 6 legs [[/underline]] (certain). In another 2 or 3 much smaller, & a [[underline]] great deal smaller [[/underline]] than coccidi eggs. Must be inquilines. In one gall a good dozen of young lice + ditto eggs. [[strikethrough]] [[blot]] [[/strikethrough]] 0 [[underline]] Fraxini [[strikethrough]] labrum [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ basium [[/insertion]] (p.202) No larva or insects, except from one a large Thrips larva came out. ¶ [[underline]] Carya semen. [[/underline]] Larva coccidan? .01 long, 3 or 4 in a gall with some young ones. [[insertion]] ^Some gall eggs (coccidan.) [[/insertion]] Ant. 3-jd. 3rd much longest. So in vitifolia & caryavena. [[line]] Verbascum lychnitis L [[insertion]] ^ (white mullein) [[/insertion]] hybridizes freely with V. thapsus (common Mullein) in a state of nature (both introduced from Europe) Gray's Man. p 283. [[line]] Aug 3. Opening [[underline]] Caryavena [[/underline]] gall ran out 2 or 3 [[insertion]] ^ hyaline [[/insertion]] acari. Six legs, ant. long about 5 or 6-jd., no segments to body & no distinct head. Out of another came 2 Thrips imagos. [[line]] Aug 4. [[underline]] Tilia loculus [[/underline]] (see p.201) Length .10 - .25, oval, [[insertion]] ^sometimes 2 1/2 times as long as wide, [[/insertion]] or roundish, with 6 or 7 long stria , tip [[insertion]] ^ generally [[/insertion]] [[image]] split a little into several tubercles. Of 20 opened, only 2 contained a single [[underline]] Acarus [[/underline]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 206) Which was precisely like those (inquilines) escaped from other galls, e.g. [[underline]] caryaevena [[/underline]]. X [[underline]] Aceris loculus[[/underline]]. [[insertion]] ^ (p. 193) [[insertion]] Subrotund, peduncled. Largest now only .15 long. Acarus 3 pair of legs close in front,1 pair close behind, hyaline [[insertion]] ^ whitish [[/insertion]] 2 1/2 times as long as wide. Very young pale rosy, & sluggish .[[ insertion]] ^ & 3 times long as wide, like [[underline]] Crataegis vermiculus. [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] Older walk pretty fast. Of 22 gall opened & carefully examined 8 (green) contained hyaline larvae, 1 (green) pink larvae, 4 black & 1 half black = 0, & 7 (green) =0, 1 (black) pink larva. Many galls now (say about 1/5) withered & turned black. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] Populi osculum [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] may [[/underline]] be = P. globulus p. 204 [[insertion]]. On P. { [[insertion]] ^ certain [[/insertion]] ] tremuloides Aug. 3. An ovate subglobular swelling, [2 tip truncate excavated & with a mouth-like slit at bottom of excavation, diam. .17 inch, [1 on [[insertion]] ^ one side of [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] leaf stalk close to leaf.] [[insertion]] ^ Color outside pale green, with some brown roughness.[[/insertion]] Inside fleshy, [[insertion]], [[insertion]] ^ pale green [[/insertion]] with a small hollow, containing in 1 gall a chalcid. pupa. [[underline]] Byrsocrypta? [[/underline]] 2 specimens. [[insertion]] ^ of gall [[/insertion]] [[line]] Aug 3. Found many [[underline]] Rhois tomatas [[/underline]] on [[encircled]] [[underline]] Rh. glabra. [[/underline]] W of Dunlap's field, just beyond fork of road heading W, right hand fork, Larva bright yellow ant. 4-jd., 1 = 2 = 3 = 1/2 4 [[image]] Larvae 1-jd, but longish. [[line]] X Aug. 5 [[underline]] Aceris crumena [[/underline]]. Of 10 opened, 9 contained larvae, 3, 30 or 40. [[image]] [[line]] Gall [[underline]] Aceris arcus[[/underline]]. n. sp. (Cecid.) A pale green swelling semicircular in outline or irregular on lower face of one of side veins of a leaf, [[insertion]] ^ above flat & [[/insertion]] opening [[strikethrough]] above]] [[/strikethrough]] by a [[insertion]] closed [[/insertion]] slit. [[image]] Some long white hairs below. Inside hollow, only 1 or 2 on a leaf & not abundant. [[end page]] [[start page]] 207) shell smooth inside, thin & hard. Length .10 -.13 Larva dark yellow with lateral & ventral curdy white markings. BB. [[image]] linear, scarcely clove-shaped. Body 2 1/2 times as long as wide. On Acer saccharinnum. [[line]] Gall [[underline]] Ulmi semen [[/underline]] n. sp on U. americana. An irregularly spherical [[insertion]] ^ pale green opaque [[/insertion]] swelling bisected by plane of leaf & with some long white hairs, below [[image of circle]] [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ shallow [[/insertion]] [[/strikethrough]] excavated [[strikethrough]] with a [[insertion]] ^ small [[/insertion]] central nipple [[image of concentric rings]][[/strikethrough]]. So as to resemble a [[insertion ^ very [[/insertion]] shallow crater with robust walls. [[insertion]] ^ Inside hollow, rather rough. [[/insertion]] 50 or 100 on a leaf, many confluent. Diam .05 & under. Five or 6 very minute hyaline acaridan larva inside, 4 times as long as wide, sluggish & like those of [[underline]] Cr. vermiculus. [[/underline]] [[line]] X [[underline]] Fraxini basium. Of 13 open'd, 2 contained [[insertion]] ^ scores of [[/insertion]] pale pink larvae like those of Cr. vermiculus. Mouth of many now tightly closed. [[line]] [[check mark]] [[underline]] Crataegi vermiculus [[/underline]](Cr. tomentosa) Of 10 opened [[insertion]] ^ (black & smooth[[?]] inside) [[/inseriton]] all contained scores of pale pink larva as before but of several seemed to run a very lively [[insertion]] ^ minute [[/insertion]] hyaline [[underline]] Acarus [[/underline]], when opened. Mother-mite? [[line]] 0 [[ underline]] Juglandis loculus [[/underline]] on Black walnut. Almost always on upper face of leaf, a wooly-white spot on opposite side, an irregularly globular or oval [[insertion]] ^ rugose [[/insertion]] gall with a short robust peduncle, .10 - .18 long, pale green, [[strikethrough]] & rugose [[/strikethrough]]. Inside with dense white & pinkish curly filaments filling whole shell. 1-4 on a leaflet. A few already black at tip. Of 12 opened only 2 contd. each a single hyaline [[underline]] Acarus [[/underline]]; [[strikethrough]] ant. [[/strikethrough]] legs not very long. [[line]] XX [[underline]] Ulmi crumena [[/underline] on U. americana. Mostly now turned black. An irregularly globular or short oval rugose gall on upper face of leaf. .10 long or less. 1 - 15 on a leaf. Inside with dark [[end page]]
[[start page]] 208) or pale [[insertion]] ^ coarse [[/insertion]] crinkled filaments, not very dense. [[underline]] Acaridan [[/underline]] In 15 opened no larvae, except in one a dark (Thrips?) larva, lost. [[line]] X Aug 7. [[underline]] Fraxini verruca. [[/underline]] Opened 17. 8 = 0, 4 contained a single longi-corn hyaline acarus; hyaline acarus; 2 hyaline acarus with black [[insertion]] ^ internal [[/insertion]] disk; 2 brownish acarus with black internal disk; & 1 a legless? oval hyaline body? [[line]] XX [[underline]] Ulmi [[strikethrough]] loculus [[/strikethrough]] crumena [[/underline]] on U. Americana? North of U. gallifera on Island. Agrees with description p. 196, but 1 - 55 on a leaf. One .30 long, & generally fusiform thrice as long as wide. Of 25 galls opened 10 contained many [[insertion]] ^ exceedingly minute, sluggish [[/insertion]] larvae, thrice as long as wide, whitish hyaline. [[ [[?initials]] Found a single small withered gall on "Ulmicola" elm on Island.] [[line]] Aug. 9 [[underline]] Ulmi crumena [[/underline]] (on true U. Americana. Some galls .30 long.) Of 10 opened, 5 contained larva, chiefly those pinkish inside. Skin inside & bulb of hairs pink more or less in these. [[checkmark]] [[underline]] Ulmi loculus [[/underline]] (on U. fulva) Subglobular or but slightly oval, with a stout very distinct peduncle, [[insertion]] ^ whole .15 long or less [[/insertion]]. Outside rugose with dense short white hairs. Inside no clavate hairs, but irregular mostly deep dull crimson [[insertion]] ^ irregular [[/insertion]] excrescences. Of 15 opened 9 had [[insertion]] ^ sluggish whole hyaline [[/insertion]] larva & 1 [[insertion]] ^ of the nine [[/insertion]] showed 2. 1 lively long-horn acarus (white hyaline) & 1 showed 2. 0 [[underline]] Crataegi plica [[/underline]] some now .70 long & .17 wide. Larva yellowish [[insertion]] ^ walks well,, [[/insertion]] (curdy markings).10 long, [[/insertion]] pseudopods on its back [[/insertion]] b.b. [[image]] [[/strikethrough]] [[blot]] [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ black, [[/insertion]] [[carc?l]] larva & pupa inquilinous (cecid. destroyed) In [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] two + 9 tally marks [[/insertion]] galls a hairy larva (= [[strikethrough]] curcul.) [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ chalcid? [[/insertion]] attached externally to Cecid larva. bb. [[image]] rufous. In one a [[underline]] Xiphidium [[/underline]] egg? A few hairs on outside of some galls. In two galls parasite & cecid. larva at opposite ends of gall; usually [[image]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 209) X [[underline]] Cerasi [[strikethrough]] loculus [[/ strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ crumena. [[/insertion]] [[/underline]] Some now .45 long. Of 8 galls opened 2 only contained larva, both numerously, 1 subactive ones twice as long as broad, one sluggish ones thrice as long as broad. [[line]] [[underline]] Carya spina [[insertion]] ^ cecidom [[/inseriton]] [[/underline]]. n. sp (on C. glabra, oftener on upper than under side of leaf, 20 leaves to 14) [[insertion]] ^ generally more or less procumbent. [[/insertion]] An elongate conical gall .38 long or less, .10 in diameter, clavate more or less in a bulb at base & contracted at extreme base covered with dense white pubescence. Shell hard & thin. Inside cell extending almost to extreme tip, polished. Larva [[insertion]] ^ .05 long, [[/insertion]] hyaline with yellow stomach, breastb. blackish, shape squarish. In many no larva. Color pale green, tipped rarely with brown. Often a little curved. [[underline]] Persicoides? [[/underline]] O. S. on C. glabra. Diameter .15 & less. [[strikethrough]] Shell hard & thin. [[/strikethrough]] Always on lower face. [[insertion]] ^ [two on upper side]. [[/insertion]] Like gall on C. Alba. Shell thin & hard. Inside smooth. Larva milk white - hyaline, 2 1/2 times as long as wide, [[insertion]] ^ 1/8 inch long, [[/insertion]] b.b. brown [[image]] [[insertion]] ^ or slightly [[image]] [[image]] [[/insertion]] [[line]] [[underline]] Tubicola? [[/underline]] O.S. On C. glabra. Length .12 & less. Some just emerging from basal cup. None brown yet, as now most on C. alba. Shell hard and & thin. On under side [[insertion]] ^ of leaf [[insertion]] always. Cecidom. larva small, whitish. Bb indistinct. [[line]] [[underline]] Carya cylindrus [[/underline]] n. sp. On C. glabra. A cylindrical but slightly enlarged in the middle, barrel shaped [[insertion]] ^ rarely brownish or smooth pale green [[?? line with cross marks and strikethrough]], [[/insertion]] gall .10 - .12 long & 2 1/2 times as long as wide; tip squarely truncate, with a pointed [[strikethrough]] with a [[/strikethrough]] tubercle in the middle tipped with a [[insertion]] ^ blunt [[/insertion]] brown pouch. On lower face leaf [[insertion]] ^ very rarely above.[[insertion]] [[symbol]] tubicola (young) by having no acorn like cup. [[insertion]] ^ Shell thin but hard.[[/insertion]] 14 specimens [[insertion]] ^ {a single one chick was [[insertion]] brown & [[/insertion]] strongly pubescent [[symbol]] species?) contained a roundish yellow larva Bb [[image]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] only [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] On [[underline]] Carya glabra [[/underline]] n. sp. {intermediate grades noticed Like [[underline]] persicoides [[/underline]] O.S but [underline]] much [[/underline]] longer hairs. Inside nearly solid? Lower face [[insertion]] ^ of leaf. [[/insertion]] Such [[insertion]] ^ a gall [[/insertion]] on [[Cra?]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 210)[[underline]] Cynipsea? [[/underline]] O.S., on C. glabra. A small elongate swelling on [[insertion]] ^ mid rib or [[/insertion]] one of the side-veins ( [[insertion]] ^ as many as 4 [[/insertion]] [strikethrough]] 5 [[/strikethrough]] on a leaflet [[insertion]] ^ pretty close together [[/strikethrough]]) .20 [[insertion]] ^ - .37 ]]/insertion]] long, [[insertion]] ^ sometimes [[/insertion]] causing an arching [[strikethrough]] upwards [[/strikethrough]] of the vein above & a depression below, with some crinklings both side. [ 2 Cell long, smooth larva only .02 long, but manifestly cecidom. Curdy markings & Bb. black [[image]] [[bracket [ 1 Often some brown scabrities on the gall. Texture hard fleshy, not a mere shell.] [[starting from bottom of page, flipped around]]: of the Kansas Settlers' Society of that place. Carried unanimously. The Secretary offered to advance the whole available amount subscribed on the Books of the Society out of his private funds for the above object. The offer was accepted unanimously. Moved by Jos. W. Brackett that in case it should be necessary for the Secretary to go personally to Iowa City for the above object, his expenses there & back be borne by the Society. Carried unanimously. On motion adjourned sine die. President Benj. D. Walsh, Secretary [[end page]] [[start page]] 211) [[underline]] Carya [[strikethough]] patella [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] lamina [[/insertion]] [[/underline]] n. sp. on C. [[strikethrough]] glabra [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] alba [[/insertion]]. A flattened plate-shaped [[insertion]] ^ pale green rarely in largest galls tinged with pink [[/insertion]] gall on lower face of leaf, next the leaf a little rounded & attached by a point, opposite side more or less excavated, but without the circular edge of the plate being at all acute, with a minute brown nipple in the centre. [[insertion]] ^ Surface below with exceedingly short dense even pubescence. [[/insertion]] Opposite side of leaf a hemispherical pale green or rarely blood-brown protuberances, half the diameter of gall, which is .15 or less. Inside hollow, the upper & lower shell almost touching, rarely solid & fleshy. No larva yet visible. Not sticky [[symbol]] C. patella & [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] C. poculum [[underline]] & also [[/insertion]]] by rounded edges. [[image]] One large gall .21 wide is sticky. Sep. 9 almost globular but no larva yet. [[symbol]] carya o.s. [[line]] X [[underline]] Carya patella [[/underline]]. Larva now white - hyaline. [[insertion]] ^ .04 long, robust [[/insertion]]. B.b. [[image]] Gall hard but fleshy. [Galls, later, cup & saucer shaped.] [[line]] [[underline]]Carya poculum. [[/underline]] n sp. Larva white [[strikethrough]] ish [[/strikethrough]] -hyaline, .06 long, robust. Bb [[image]] dagger shaped. A pale-green gall, always on lower face of leaf, (on C. glabra) with a short stout peduncle, hemispherical, the [[image circle shape]] towards leaf, other face deeply excavated with a [[insertion]] ^ minute [[/insertion]] central blackish nipple, [[insertion]] ^ crowning [[image?]] a small tubercle [[/insertion]], the [[image of circle]] thin & acute & inflexed [[image]] so as to point to the nipple with some plaits & rugosities. Diameter .16 or less. Always sticky. [[line]] [[checkmark]] [[underline]] Carya boletus [[/underline]] Some now .26 in diameter. No larva in two cut open. Shell [[underline]] very [[/underline]] soft, internal cup very large [[image]]. [[line]] 0 [[underline]] Carya tuba [[/underline]]. Two sanguineous. Not very hairy. [[end page]]
211) [[underline]] Carya [[strikethough]] patella [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] lamina [[/insertion]] n. sp. on C. [[strikethrough]] glabra [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] alba [[/insertion]] . A flattened plate-shaped [[insertion]] ^ pale green rarely in largest galls tinged with pink [[/insertion]] gall on lower face of leaf, next the leaf a little rounded & attached by a point, opposite side more or less excavated, but without the circular edge of the plate being at all acute, with a minute brown nipple in the centre. [[insertion]] ^ Surface below with exceedingly short dense even pubescence. [[/insertion]] Opposite side of leaf a hemispherical pale green or rarely blood-brown protuberances, half the diameter of gall, which is .15 or less. Inside hollow, the upper & lower shell almost touching, rarely solid & fleshy. No larva yet visible. Not sticky [[symbol]] C. patella & [[insertion]] ^ [[underline]] C. poculum [[underline]] & also [[/insertion]]] by rounded edges. [[image]] One large gall .21 wide is sticky. Sep. 9 almost globular but no larva yet. [[symbol]] carya o.s. [[line]] X [[underline]] Carya patella [[/underline]]. Larva now white - hyaline. [[insertion]] ^ .04 long, robust [[/insertion]]. B.b. [[image]] Gall hard but fleshy. [Galls, later, cup & saucer shaped.] [[line]] [[underline]]Carya poculum. [[/underline]] n sp. Larva white [[strikethrough]] ish [[/strikethrough]] -hyaline, .06 long, robust. Bb [[image]] dagger shaped. A pale-green gall, always on lower face of leaf, (on C. glabra) with a short stout peduncle, hemispherical, the [[image circle shape]] towards leaf, other face deeply excavated with a [[insertion]] ^ minute [[/insertion]] central blackish nipple, [[insertion]] ^ crowning [[image?]] a small tubercle [[/insertion]], the [[image of circle]] thin & acute & inflexed [[image]] so as to point to the nipple with some plaits & rugosities. Diameter .16 or less. Always sticky. [[line]] [[checkmark]] [[underline]] Carya boletus [[/underline]] Some now .26 in diameter. No larva in two cut open. Shell [[underline]] very [[/underline]] soft, internal cup very large [[image]]. [[line]] 0 [[underline]] Carya tuba [[/underline]]. Two sanguineous. Not very hairy. [[end page]]
212) [[underline]] Carya [[/underline]] o.s. larva Bb [[image]] [C. alba?] [[line]] [[underline]] Populi semen [[/underline]] on P. grandidentata? S. side of Davenport's field, E. of Cases' House. Of 5 cut open one contained a Acaroid imago, yellowish with 5 or 6 dusky spots. Rest = 0. [[line]] Aug. 11 [[underline]] Carya [[strikethrough]] boletus [[strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ holotricha? knobby & sticky like [[underline]] boletus [[/underline]] but inside spherical.[[insertion]] Found a small Lepid. larva evidently [C. alba?] introduced thro external hole. In another found a bright yellow larva .08 long with black Bb [[image]]. [[line]] [[underline]] Caryaecola o.s. shell now = 1/3 - 1/4 [[insertion]] ^ cross [[/insertion]] diameter of gall. Larva whitish, Bb [[image]] [on C. alba?] [[line]] X [[underline]] Carya boletus [[/underline]]. No larva. [[strikethrough]] [[blot]] [[/strikethrough]] many galls opened. [[line]] [[underline]] Holotricha [[/underline]]: [[insertion]] ^ mostly [[/insertion]] no [[strikethrough]] galls yet [[/strikethrough]] larvae yet. {one whitish Two yellowish} Bb [[image]] [[insertion]] another Bb pale & indistinct [[/insertion]] [[insertion]] several had very minute larvae. [[/insertion]] [[line]] Gall [[underline]] vitis tendriculus [[/underline]]. [[insertion]] ^ [read tentaculum] [[/insertion]] Coccidan. On tendrils & occasionally leaf. Stalks of a three-leaved German grape from Bloomington, ILL. The part[[strikethrough]] irregularly [[/strikethrough]] enlarged to 3 - 6 times its natural diameter in an irregularly oval shape, [[insertion]] ^ placed lengthways of the part [[/insertion]] , & with some rugosites but no pubescence. Inside an irregular cell containing 2 or 3 cocci similar to those of [[underline]] vitifolia [[/underline]] but 1/3 smaller (diam. .02 not .03) Color [[insertion]] ^ deep [[/insertion]] yellow; many yellowish eggs .01 long. On the tendrils color is changed to lake red, but not on leaf-stalk. 3 or 4 galls often in the length of 1-inch, a few almost confluent. Mostly now widely burst open [[insertion]] ^ laterally [[/insertion]] but a few still closed. Texture fleshy, but pretty solid. [[line]] Aug. 12 [[strikethrough]] On [[strikethrough]] [[underline]] Carya mamma [[/underline]] n. sp. Cedidom? On C. glabra. A slight [[insertion]] ^ subcircular fleshy [[/insertion]] swelling & thickening of the blade of the leaflet, the natural color above, below several shades paler, with the veinlets as dark as [[insertion]] ^ is [[/insertion]] natural, the protuberance below [[end page]] [[start page]] 213) much larger than that above & terminating in a nipple-like point. Diam .20 or less. [[?]] about 05, with a smooth oval cell now lined with cocoon. In two were larvae, but cut in opening. In two Chalcid imago. In two [[insertion]] ^ common [[/insertion]] Acaroid imago (White hyaline). Rest mostly bored & empty. [[insertion]] Caryae pilula tree had dry 20 no fresh galls [[insertion]] [[underline]] caryae cocon. [[/underline]] n. sp. on C. glabra. On oval [[insertion]] ^ pubescent [[/insertion]] pod-like or rather cocoon-like gall, [[insertion]] on lower face of leaflet [[/insertion]] 2 - 3 times as long as wide, when young & small roundish. Color from pale green to pale brown. Shell [[insertion]] ^ thin [[/insertion]] hard & brittle inside rough, with some excrescences. Acaridan?, or Cecidomyidan? Of 16 opened, 2 [[insertion]] (large oval) [[/insertion]] contained a single acarus imago, one of them also 8 [[underline]] Xiphidium [[/underline]] eggs & one two such eggs. (Galls opening above by a minute round hole.) And near one or two more acari were running when opened. 9 oval galls were empty; 5 small empty. Attached by a single point only at one end, & always procumbent strictly. [[image]] [[symbol]] [[underline]] C. cylindrus [[underline]] by [[underline]] rounded [[/underline]] tip. [[line]] [[underline]] Holotricha [[/underline]] on C. glabra. (no larva). [[image]] [[line]] X [[underline]] Caryae semen. [[/underline]] Mostly empty now & open below. In one found a single coccide egg out of 20 or 25 opened. Out of 2 ran a single white acaroid imago. [[line]] [[checkmark]] [[underline]] Carya cylindrus. [[/underline]] 1 on C. alba [[image]] brown. [[line]] Sanguinolenta? o.s. on C. alba. 6 on same leaf, but with longish rather sparse pubescence. [[line]] [[dot]] [[left margin vertical line]] The very [[insertion]] ^ long [[/insertion]] hairy [[strikethrough]] holotricha [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] persicoides [[/underline]] [[insertion]] ^ on C. alba [[/insertion]] are [[strikethrough]] har [[/strikethrough]] soft & smaller: probably immature. [[/left margin vertical line]] [[end page]]
214) Many thrips (larva) in many of these Hickory galls. Perscoldes? On C. alba. larva .10 long, while, with distinct Y-shaped Bb.
At a Meeting held at the usual place upon Wednesday June 25. 1856, pursuant to notice duly given by the Secretary, there were present Geo. Minter, Pres. [President], Joseph W. Brackett, John G. Powars, J.J. Beardsley, J.W. Spencer, Alex. [Alexander] Steel and Benj. D. Walsh, Sec. [Secretary]. The Secretary stated that at the earnest request of Peter Page [Gr?], Chairman Executive Committee of the Chicago Board, he had attended the Kansas Convention held at Cleveland this June 20th & 21st. As an informal Delegate from this Society, & presented Bill of his expenses on the Road amounting to forty three dollars. Resolved unanimously that the Secretary be allowed the amount of said Bill. Moved by Alex. [Alexander] Steel that all available funds be appropriated towards eqiupping & forwarding a number of Kansas Imigrants now lying in Camp near Iowa City; & that said funds be paid over for that purpose into the hands of Hugh D. Downie Esq. Treasurer of the Kansas Settlers' Society of that place. Carried unanimously. The Secretary offered to advance the whole available amount subscribed on the Books of the Society out of his private funds for the above object. The offer was accepted unanimously. Moved by Jos. W. Brackett that in case it should be necessary for the Secretary to go personally to Iowa City for the above object, his expenses there & back be borne by the Society. Cararied unanimously. On motion adjourned sine die. , President Benj. D. Walsh, Secretary [The following are upside-down notes made at the bottom of the page, mostly illegible] [] [Cyncpsea] ? O.S. On C. [glalva]. A small [clonsule] swelling on [] or of the side-vein as [] ([] on a leaflet) pretty close together, 20 [long], sometimes causing an arching upward[stricken-through] of the vein above & a depression below, with some crinklings both side. (Cell long, smooth. [Curly] [Iowa] only .02 [], but manifestly [cecedom] markings & Bb. black (*) (Often some brown sca[brities] on the gall. Texture hard fleshy, not a mere shell.)
At the adjourned Meeting held June 17th 1856 there were present Geo. Minter, President, Joseph W. Brackett, J. W. Spencer, J. J. Beardsley, Alexr. Steel, John G. Powars, Hiram Pitts per proxy given to Jos. Jackman, & Benj. D. Walsh Secretary. Moved by Benj. D. Walsh that a corresponding Committee consisting of three persons be appointed, & that the President, George Minter, be a Member of said Committee. Carried unanimously. Moved by John G. Powars that Ira O. Wilkinson be the second Member of said Committee. Carried unanimously. Moved by John G. Powars that Benj. D. Walsh be the third Member of said Committee. Carried unanimously. So the Corresponding Committee was duly organized. Moved by Benj. D. Walsh that Joseph W. Brackett be Treasurer of this Society. Carried unanimously. Moved by John G. Powars that the action of the Moline Subscribers in appropriating all [[end page]] [[start page]] funds raised in that town towards the equipment & maintenance of a certain number of Kansas Settlers sent out to the Territory from that town, be approved & adopted by this Board; & that the Treasurer enter their subscriptions on the Cr. side of his account & their expenditures on the Dr. side, in the same manner as if their funds had actually passed through his hands. Carried unanimously. Moved that any Member of the Board be authorized to call a Meeting by notifying the Secretary, whose duty it shall then be to notify each Member of the Board of the time & place of such Meeting. Carried unanimously. The Committee of two appointed June 16, 1856 to draft Rules & Regulations reported progress and asked a further extension of the time. Granted unanimously. On motion adjourned sine die. , President Benj. D. Walsh, Secretary.
Kansas Settlers' Society, Rock Island Branch (consolidated Society.) [[line]] At a meeting held June 16, 1856 there were present John G. Powers, Joseph W. Brackett, J.W. Spencer per proxy given to John G. Powers & Benj. D Walsh, the other members of the consolidated board having been duly notified of the time & place of said meeting. [[??]]Mefm [[??]] Brackett & Walsh holding over as Chairman and Secretary pro tem. under the provisional organization it was Moved by Benj. D. Walsh, seconded by John B. Powers, that George Minta be President of the (consolidated) Rhode Island Branch of the Kansas Settlers' Society of Chicago. Carried unanimously. Moved by Jos. W. Brackett, seconded by John G. Powers that Benj. D. Walsh be Secretary of the said branch Society. Carried unanimously. Resolved, that Geo. Minter and Benj. D. Walsh be a Committee to draft Rules & Regulations for the government of this Society, and report to this Board at their next Meeting. [[end page]] Resolved, that the Secretary furnish subscription books to each Member of the Board, properly headed, & that each Member of the Board be a Committee to solicit subscriptions. Adjourned to Tuesday June 17th. to meet at the office of J. J. Beardsley at 8.50 A.M. the above office being declared to be the Regular Place of Meeting until further action in the case. [[right side up]] Dr. Velie, Bath, Steuben Co., N.Y. M.W. Philips (Southern Farmer), Chatawa, N.O & J RR. Mississippi S.B. Buckley, Geolog. Bureau, Austin, Texas. F.G. Sanborn, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Boston John Akhurst, 9 1/2 Prospect St, Brooklyn, N.Y. C.B. Waite, 94 Washington St, Chicago P.A.Hall, Assistant Gen. Supt. of Chic. Rd & Pacific RR. Chicago [For paper on other roads see Maj. Beardsley.] M. Hughett Esq. Gen. Supt. I.C.R.R., Chicago Isaac Hicks, North Hempstead, Long Island N.Y. Geo. Husmann, Hermann, Mo. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Penna. Wm. H. Pratt, Secr. Davenport Ac. Nat. Sc. Box 585, Davenport Agr. Dept., Washington Dr. [[?]] Houghton, Philadelphia. Rev. L. Provancher, Portneuf, Quebec, L. Canada Wm. Saunden, London, Ontarion, Canada
Kansas Settlers' Society, Rock Island Branch No. 1. At a meeting of the provisional Committee of the above Society, appointed in pursuance of the 1st Resolution of a Public Meeting held in the Courthouse Square of Rock Island June 12. 1856, and consisting of John G. Powars, Joseph W. Brachett, J. W. Spencer, John Ziegler, Hiram Pitts & Benj. D. Walsh, held on Monday June 16th. there were present John G. Powers, Joseph W. Brachett, J. W. Spencer for proxy given to John G. Powars and Benj. D. Walsh Joseph W. Brachett was appointed Chairman pro tem. and Benj. D. Walsh Secretary pro tem. Resolved unanimously, that this board do unite as one & the same Committee with a Committee appointed in pursuance of the second Resolution passed at the aforesaid Public Meeting; and consisting of George Minter, J. J. Beardsley & Alexander Steel, each of the three last named gentlemen having signified their assent to such united organization; &that the whole Board constitute the Permanent Committee of the Rock Island Branch of the Kansas Settlers' Society of Chicago, Illinois Benj. D. Walsh Secretary [[line]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left column]] [[circled]] Bretisca & N. E. Nat. sent [[/circled]] [[checkmark]] Osten Sacken (2 [[checkmark]] Edwards Grote [[checkmark]] Le Conte Clemens Uhler Norton [[checkmark]] M S Bebb [[checkmark]] A. Agassig Packard Scudder (12) Ulhe (13) Worthen Asa Gray? Dr. H. Hagen Vorder Rossgarten 24 Konisberg Prussia [[strikethrough]] C. V. Riley Bon No. 1554 Chicago. [[/strikethrough]] Dr. Chas A. Helmuth, 112 Northwells St, Chicago ¶ Aug. R. Grote Curator of [[Eutoni?]] Sec. Nat. Sc. [[underlined]] Box [[/underlined]] 3944 N.Y. Buffalo, N.Y. H. W. Bates, { [[strikethrough]] 15, Whitehall Place, [[/strikethrough]] S.W. London [[strikethrough]] 40, Bartholonew Road, Kentish Town N W [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[/strikethrough]] [N W] London [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] ¶ [[/strikethrough]] R. McLachlan, 1 Park [[strikethrough]] wood [[/strikethrough]] road Terrace, Forest Hill, London Eng. ¶ J. A. Sintner, [[insertion]] ^ N. Y. St. Caburt Albany [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[Scho?]] [[/strikethrough]], N.Y. [[strikethrough]] Utica [[/strikethrough]] ¶ Chas Soune. 47 La Salle St. Chicago [[/left column]] [[right column]] Walter Riddell, Cobouy, Canada West [[line]] H. C. Wood, 144 N. 12th St. Philad." Barthiere Bros. 520 Broadway [[line]] Mr. Couper Bon 46, Quebec L.C. [[line]] Alfred R? Wallace, 9 St. Mark's Terrace, Regents Park, London N.W. [[strikethrough]] ¶ C. V. Riley, Box 1554, Chicago [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] ¶ Wm. Manlius Smith MD, Manlius Onondaga Co., N.Y. [[strikethrough]] Bates, Darwin, [[/strikethrough]] Hagen,? Sanssure? via Brewer Char. H. Peck, Albany, N.Y. [[vertical line]] Dr. Asa Gray Prof. Clark Edr. Silliman Haldeman [[underlined]] Columbia College [[/underlined]] [[/vertical line]] [[/right column]]
Sam. O. Boardman .([[?guess]]Woolgrower[[?]]) Lincoln, Logan Co Prof. Grant Louisville, Kentucky. (College Brutomn corner of 9th. & [[?guess]]Chetluul[[?]] St. private residence No. 802 5th St. Louisville [[?guess]]Sillimary[[?]] Journal - Prairie Farmer H.F. Basset, Waterbury, Ct [[Strikethrough]]J. [[?]]Huggins[[?]], Woodburn, Macoipin Co, Ill,Grote-[[/strikethrough]] Dr. F. Brendel Peoria A.E. Eaton, 20 [[?guess]]Rufsell St, Readiy, England (Epheruerida)[[?]] [[Upside down text]] Journal of the Rock Island Co. Brand of the Kansas Settlers Society of Chicago Illinois; as finally organized June 16, 1856. [[Upside down text]] [[List on left side]][[Underline]][[?guess]]Cyrup [[underline]] Rafutt Wward Fitch Le Coute Uhler Clemens Norton Packard A. Agapig [[?]] Grote to [[?guess]]oluk P, F, [[strikethrough]] Brendel [[?guess]] Tilliman [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] Sheldon velie [[/list on left side of page]] gro. W. Pecle, Bon 4998, N.Y. Prof. John Phin, Havana n.y. (Prof. Agric. Pa agr. college.) [[list on right side of page]] [[underline]]Pseudon[[underline]] Baird Packard Scudder [[?guess]]Agapy Ulhe[[?]] Uhler B.S.N.H. Oden Lachen Edward Filch Le Coute Norton [[underlined]][[?guess]]Cynip[[?]][[underlined]] O.S., Edwards Filch LeCoute Norton Packard [[?guess]]Agapy[[?]] [[strikethrough]]V. P. F ?[[/strikethrough]] Bafsitt Uhler? Clemens [[strikethrough]][[?]][[/strikethrough]] [[end page]][[start page]] || Aphide article x Pseudon.- [[underline]]Correspondents[[underline]] -B.S.N.H. ||x Baron- R. Osten Lachen,Consul general of [[?guess]]Rafna[[?]] n.y. Coalburgh Kanawha Co. West Va ||x Wm- H. Edwards {Newburgh n.y. after Dec 1. '62 Wm. Hutchins Esq. 40 Wall St n.y. ||x Dr. Asa Filch East Greenwich P.O. n.y. || x Dr. John L. LeCorte 1325 Spruce St. Phil, [[strikethrough]]office of Apt Surgeon general St. Louis [[/strikethrough]] ||xDr.-John G. Morris Baltimore Peabody Institution, Baltimore. ||P.R.-Uhler, 164 [[strikethrough]]Franklin St.[[/strikethrough]] x||Dr. Wm LeBaron Geneva [[?]]Sh[[?]] x||[[strikethrough]]Dr. B.-Clemens Gaslon Pa x|| Prof. [[?guess]]Baird Smiths. Susl [[?]] x|| Weidemeyer (Weizel & W), 75 Gold St n.y.[[strikethrough]]liquidating Department Custom House n.y. for the weler b2-3[[/strikethrough]] x||Edu. -Norton {Farmington C. Bon 742 New Orleans Till '67 Townend Glover Esq. Md. Agr. College x|| Dr. Fred Brendel Peoria x|| Prof. Sheldon Sa x|| A. Boller [[strikethrough]]{55 West Washington St. Bon 2374[[/strikethrough]], Chic 172-4 Van Buren St. E.H. Beebe Galena ||x Prof. Turner Jacksonville TP Hamilton Spencer Bloomington [[strikethrough]] U.S. Pension Office , Washington [[/strikethrough]] TP -xM.S. Bebb Springfield, Ill near Freeport Dr. John A. Kennicott,The Grove, Ill TP Bafsett. Waterbury, Ct"
Dr. Helmuth Chicago Cyrus Thomas Murphysboro Rufus A. Slopou Morris Ill. (Entom.) Dr. Barllett Pesotum Ill. Woodworth Esq. Curator Acad. Sc Chu [[?]] Sam. B. Turner Quincy Ill. A.H. Wortheu Springfield Ill. Prof. Wilber Bloomington Acad. Sc. Phil : Entom. Soc. Phil 518 South 13th St. [[strikethrough]]1310 South St.[[/strikethrough]] E.S Crefsom [[?]] Corr. Sec. Rev. Wm H Ryder, Pastor St. Pauls Church Chicago Jos. P. Weston, Pres. Lombard Univ. Galesberg, Ill. [[strikethrough]] Wm. Cutter Beverly Ill.[[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] A. S. Coe Port Byron Ill.[[/strikethrough]] Judge Scott Bloomington Ill Ill. - Nat. Hist. Society Phil. M. Springer Springfield Addresses[[underline]] James Augus, West Farms, N.Y.[[?]]Sta.,Harlem R.R. Rev. Char. J.S. Bethune, Credit, Ontario Canada [[?]]Box 2086, Philadelphia John Akhurst, 9 1/2 Prospect Ct. Brooklyn N.Y. F.W. Christern, Importing Books [[?]] 77 University Place, New York City Terms of Importation to Order.[[chart format]] New Books. Second Hand Books. Periodicals. From England, per Shilling 33 1/3-35 cts. 37 1/2-40 cts. 37 1/2 cts. From France, per Franc 33 cts. 37 1/2-40 cts. 40 cts. From Germany,per Thaler=30 Ngr. $1.10 $1.20 $1.10 " Florin'= 60 Kr. 63 cts. 70 cts. 63 cts. Payable in Gold, or in Currency with Premium as ruling on the day of payment of bill. [[?]] Horn, 874 N. Fourth St., Philadelphia
Photo - Dr. Fitch - sent to Hagen, Scudder, Sanborn, Crepon, Horn, Bland [[maybe Blaud?]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Addresses James Angus, West Farms, N.Y. ^ [[boxes[?] address "West Farms, N.Y, Tremont Sta., Harlem R.R.]] Rev. Chas. J. S. Bethune, Credit, Ontario Canada G.T. Cresson Box 2086, Philadelphia John Akhurst, 9 1/2 Prospect St. Brooklyn N.Y. { F.W. Christern, Importing Bookseller 77 University Place, New York City [[printed table pasted into handwritten page]] Terms of Importation to Order New Books. Second Hand Books. Periodicals. From ENGLAND, per Shilling . . . 33 1/3 - 35 cts. 37 1/2 - 40 cts. 37 1/2 cts. From FRANCE, per Franc . . . 33 1/3 cts. 37 1/2 - 40 cts. 40 " From GERMANY, per Thaler = 30 Ngr. $1.10 $1.20 $1.10 " Florin = 60 Kr. 63 cts. 70 cts. 63 cts. Payable in Gold, or in Currency with Premium as ruling on the day of payment of bill. [[/end printed table]] Dr. G. H. [[? cut off by pasted page]] Horn, 874 N. Fourth St., Philada. [[abbrev. Philadelphia]] [[p. 181?]]
Dr. Helmuth Chicago x "Cyrus Thomas Murphysboro x 11 Rufus A. Slosson Morris Ill. (Entom st.). 11 - x Dr. Bartlett Pesotrum Ill. 11P ( - x Woodworth Eng. Curator Acad. Sc Chil Sam. B Turner Quincy Ill. x A. H. Worthen Springfield Ill - Prof. Wilber Bloomington Acad Sc. Phila. x Entom. Soc. Phil 518 South 13th St. (crossed out 1310 South st.) E.F Cresson Corr. Sec. (check mark) Rev. Wm. H Ryder, Pastor St. Pauls Church \ Chicago --- Jos. P. Weston, Pres. Lombard \ Univ. Galesburg. Ill. (crossed out Wm. Cutter Beverly Ill.) (crossed out - A.S. Coe Port Bryson Ill.) (check mark) Judge Scott Bloomington Ill - Ill. Nat. Hist. Society x Phil. M Springer Springfield [[end page]] [[start page]] B. Westerman & Co P.O. box 2306 N.Y. William Wood, Publisher 61 Walker st. No. 7 N.Y. [pins] Jas.W. Queen & co 924 Chestnut st. Philad. X A.S. Packard jun. {Cambridge Mass, Brunswich, Me. x S.H. Scudder, care Chas. Scudder & co Boston Mass x Boyd jun. Bloomington x A. Agassiz Engr. Cambridge, Mass. x Carleton A. Shurtleff ^dead^ Brookline Mass. 20 to send (crossed out)x John P. Reynolds Springfield Ill Jas W. Queen & Co (pins) 924 Chestnut St. Philad Wm. Mackwitz, W. Eng. 35 North 3rd st. St.Louis. S.E. corner of 3rd & Pine St. Luse & Lane, Bookbinders [[Davenport, Iowa]], Perry between 2nd & Third Fish & Hatch 38 Wall St. N.Y. Mr. Jas. Ridings, 1311 South St. Phil.(cork) x Dr. Benj. Norris M.D. Pittsfield Pike Co. Ill (crossed out - Rob.F. Kennicott Smith, Ins. Washington D.C. Dr. Parry Dt.Ia S.I. Abbot M.D. Corr. Secr. Boston S.N.H. Boston Mtts. G.D. Smith, care of Palmers & Bachelders 162 Washington St. Boston Rev. Hamlet Clark [[strike]] 12 Balstrode St Manchester Square (W) London [[/strike]] 16 Brondesbury Road, Kilburn N.W. London Henry Ulke 278 Penna. Av. Washington DC [[label in corner of page]] From Warren's Island City Bookstore Rock Island, Illinois
[[Back cover of book]]
[[purchased?]] Co 1849 1 jar of chutney [[line]] Bartlett's corn-pupa. p. 25 [[line]] Olibrus apicalis from Hessian Fly strians. p. 28 [[line]] - Leaf-roller of Apple = Loxotaenia rosaceana p. 29 [[line]] Sheathing paper (tarred) for cankerworms p. 30 [[line]] "Polistes under lintel" horizontal. p. 30 [[line]] Curtis (J) "Farm insects" &c p. 31 [[line]] [[Eamenes?]] fraterna (uses cankerworms) Harris p. 471 [[line]] X Carpocapsa pomonella came out long before Aug 23 from apples gathered in July (p. 34) [[line]] Datana ministra on thorn p. 35 [[line]] Cratonychus incertus (earth of breeding cage) p. 40 [[line]] Erythraeus telarius (mite) K & F p. 113 [[line]] Coreus tristis & Chilocorus bivulnerus under bark March 16. (p. 42) [[line]] June 6. single [[symbol for female]] in [[underline]] Vagabunda [[/underline]] gall p. 43 [[line]] June 11 much-worn [[underline]] Leuc. unipuncta [[/underline]] taken p. 53 & 28 X [[line]] Bred Corticaria pumila from C. q. inanis galls p. 58 [[line]] * Oak - straw Lepid. larvae p. 58 [[line] Perilampus [[treangutins?]] in Lepid. pupa ____ [[line]] [[checkmark]] Crab-tree leaf gall p. 61 [a fungus] [[line]] Glyphe destructor [[symbol for male]] only sometimes abd. [[bar.?]] yellow p. 62 [[line] "Amphipneustic &c" o.s. p. 63 [[line]] Bibio albipennis larva a cruciform mouth p. 64 [[line]] Hornets on sapsucker hole p. 64 [[line]] Psocus venosus p. 65 gregarious
p. 66 Papilio turnus [[underline]] suspended [[/underline]] p. 67 [[line]] * Hop Aphis in 1863. p. 67 [[line]] * Ephestia red Fitch (larva &c) p.69 [[line]] Ruff-necked oriole (S.A.) = cuckoo p.70 [[line]] Left = Turnus [[female symbol]], Right = Glaucus [[female symbol]] p. 70 [[line] Diplax (anus &c.) p.71 .105x p.106 (Hetaerina) 149x150x [[line]] Coccus of white oak p. 72 & p. 174 [[line]] - Aphid? galls on Cornus p.77 [[line]] Insect in ear [[(Tettigon)?]] p.96 [[line]] In Chilcid - ramus = base of radial area p. 93 [[line]] Anthonomus prunuicida p. 103(0) [[line]] Larva of Anthocoris pseudochinche orange [[image]]- p. 106 [[line]] * Anth. 4 gibbus abundant on Thorn (July 16) p. 106 [[line]] * July 24 ^[[insertion]] (& before) [[/insertion]] bred Carpoc. pomonella [[line]] * July 26 swarms of chinch bugs flying p. 107 [[line]] [[underline]] Reduvius raptatorius [[/underline]] preys on [[underline]] Crabro [[/underline]] - [[line]] July 30 Hickory bark Lecanium hatches p. 109 [[line]] Microlep - larvae apod (Clemens & see Stainton) p. 114 [[line]] Paria 6-notata Say bred [[underline]] S. brass. [[/underline]] gall, Aug 12. p.115 [[line]] Lep. larva [[underline]] Q. prunus [[/underline]] described p.117 [[line]] Larva Gelechia gallae genitella? ___ p.118 (p.131) [[line]] Fungus lepid. larva descr. (bred) p.123 [[line[ Dryocampa larva p. 129-132 [[line]] Aphis bella with larva on oak p 132 [[line]] Lagoa opercularis larva p.134 [[line]] Typical lines &c in [[underline]] Noctua [[/underline]] p.136 [[line]] Hipparchiscus venustus [[symbol]] Geometra siccifolia p.137 [[line]] [[Col?]] [[Text obscured by wear on bottom of page]] p.14[[0?]]
with an oval spot each side. Third segment, band gradually narrowed in the middle; fourth and fifth segments, bands slightly interrupted; [[venter?]] immaculate. Length nine-twentieths of an inch. In the collection of Mr. William W. Wood. This species would seem to be allied to the [[underlined]] serena [[/underlined]], judging by the description that Fabric[[ues?]]gives of that insect, particularly as he describes the costal margin of the wings to be fuscous. That insect, however, is stated to be only a little smaller than the [[underlined]] namea [[/underlined]] of the same authora size which at once puts that species out of the question. [[line drawn]] [[Say]], Vol. I, p. 385. [[underlined]]Tiphia [[/underlined]] Fabr. Latr.
[[underline]] Dervise in Eastern Fable. [[/underline]] To quote from the expressive language of my late friend Benj. D. Walsh, in one of his papers on galls: - "If this one little gall and the insect that produces it were swept [[strikethrough]] away [[/strikethrough]] out of existence how the whole world of insects would be convulsed as by an earthquake! How many species would be compelled to resort for food to other sources, thereby previously disarranging the due balance of Insect Life! How many others would probably perish from off the face of the earth, or be greatly reduced in numbers! Yet to the eye of the common observer, this gall is nothing but an unmeaning mass of leaves, of the origin and history of which he knows nothing and cares nothing! " The Dervise [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [in] [[/insertion]] the Eastern Fable claimed to have discovered the language of birds, while to the vulgar their notes were mere inarticulate sounds without passion and without meaning.
2 The entomologist does not indeed pretend to understand the language of Insects, for, as they all breathe through spiracles or [[insertion]] (thro' gills) [[/insertion]] branchiae [and none of them thro' their mouths], their mouths are everlastingly dumb. But from signs and tokens well known to him he can interpret their actions, and recognize at a glance what object they are pursuing, whether sport or love, or war, or food for themselves, or food for their future progeny, or the construction of habitations either for themselves, or for that future progeny which they are doomed never to behold. Under every stone, under every clod, and even under the most despised substances, there is a little world in miniature opened to his eyes. And there scarcely grows a plant but what contains in Nature's own hieroglyphs, a whole chapter [[insertion]] [volume] [[/insertion]] of Natural History written by the finger of the great author of our being."
[[2 tally marks]] cecid. o.s. ✓ [ Quercus 1 cecid? Vitis [[2 tally marks]] Cocc [[strikethrough]] [[1 tally mark]] [[/strikethrough]] [[two tally marks]] cecid. [[line]] ✓ Crataegus [[4 tally marks]] cecid, [[1 tally mark]] acaris 8 cecid. ✓ o.s. [Carya [[2 tally marks]] Coccid, [[insertion]] 7 tally marks]] [[/insertion]] [[4 tally marks]] cecid. [[1 tally mark]] acarid? [[line]] ✓ [Ulmus [[3 tally marks]] [[strikethrough]] ([[1 tally mark]]?) [[/strikethrough]] acarid. ✓ Tilia [[1 tally mark]] acarid, (1?) [[2 tally marks]] cecid. ✓ [Cornus [[1 tally mark]] cecid. [[1 tally mark]] cec. ✓ o.s. Fraxinus [[1 tally mark]] ([[1 tally mark]]?) acarid. ✓ Negundo [[1 tally mark]]] acarid. ✓ [Rhys [[1 tally mark]] Aphid. ✓ Juglans [[strikethrough]] [[1 tally mark]] cecid? ,[[/strikethrough]] [[2 tally marks]] acarid. ✓ Prunus [[1 tally mark]] acarid. ✓ Cerasus [[1 tally mark]] acarid. ✓ [Populus [[2 tally marks]] aphid? [[1 tally mark]] acarid. ✓ Pyrus [[1 tally mark]] (?) cecidom? [[strikethrough]] [[1 tally mark]] acarid? [[/strikethrough]] ✓ Corylus [[1 tally mark]] cecidom [[line]] Salix 13 sp. cecidom. 4 Total coccid. [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] 26 cecid. [[strikethrough]] 18 [[/strikethrough]] (3 doubtful) 16 acarid. [[/strikethrough]] 14 [[/strikethrough]] (2 doubtful 3 aphid. [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] (2 doubtful __ 38 [[2 tally marks]]
[[postal scrap with 3 cent postage stamp - red- and postmark: FRANKLIN JUL 23]] B.D. Walsh Rock Island Illinois [[number tallies inserted - rotated 90 degrees from above text]] Cecid d acard. d Cedid d acard d 8 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 19 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 2 1 4 total 12 + 2 2 13 total 12 total 51
1) bud { S. [[geninia?]] [[check mark]] 16 2) twigs { S.ovum [[check mark]] 17 S. ovuluni 18 S. nodus 19 3) leaves{ S. pomum 20 S. desmodioides 21 [[vis?]] S pisum 21
[[cross out entire page]] 1) having .14 (diam.) [[separation]] 2) .10 [[?]] .04 [[separation]] .04 gall .30, [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[strikethrough]] [[separation]].37 length 1.00 [[separation]] 1.23
Willow Cecidomyia. &c. [[line]] √ 15) cec. coruseta. sp. burrowing in [[underline]] brassicoides [[/underline]] stem p.60 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] one insect dependent upon another [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] "exuberance of insect life" p.60-61 [[insertion]] ^ [[circled]] T.O [[/circled]] [[/insertion]][[strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [Begin "Cecidomyia galls mistaken for Cynips"] Then "imagos identical" [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ [[circled]] { rhodoides gnaphaloides geurruae [[underline]] all [[/underline]] same willow [[/circled]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] then "cocoon exuded" not "coarctate" [[/strikethrough]] p.85X [[line]] [[large bracket in left margin]] Saperda inornata p.61, 100, 114 [[line]] 1) [[strikethrough]] strobiloides p.72, 77, 78 bis, 80 bis, 83 bis, 85, 86 bis, 89, 91, 92 bis, 116 bis, 177, 126 [[/strikethrough]] 93, 95, 96 bis, 97 bis, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111. [[line]] Euuera [vinunatis] [[insertion]] ovum [[/insertion]] p.73, 76 bis, [[strikethrough]] 102 [[/strikethrough]] [[two vertical lines]] 112, 126, 135. [[line]] 11) Cecid. fulviventris. p. 73, 81 X [[insertion]] ^ 86 [[/insertion]] 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96 bis, 97, 110, 113, 117, 118? [[line]] [[strikethrough]] 2 Cecid. brassicoides p. 73, 77, 78, 81, 83 bis, 85, 86, 87, 88, 95, 97 bis, 98 bis, 100, 106, 110, 111, 115 bis, 129 [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] 3) cecid rhodoides p.74, 75 bis, 78, 83 ter, 85, 86 bis, 87, 88 ter, 89, 90, 91, 106, 110. [[line]] 7 Cecid. batatas p.75, 78, 81x, 81 bis, 83, 85, 86 bis, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99 bis, 100 bis, 107, 109. [[line]] 6 cecid. siliqua p. 75, 76, 83, 89, 92, 113 [[line]] 4 cecid. gnaphalioides p.76, 77, 90 bis, 95, 98, 99, 109, 122 [[line] 5) [Cecid.] [[insertion]] Euura? [[/insertion]] gemma p.87, 94 / Inquiline 1 [[male symbol]] 1 [[female symbol]] p. 98 [[line]] 12) Cecid. orbitalis p. 90 [[strikethrough]] [left off this page] [[/strikethrough]] p.97, 98, 100, 101 [[line]] 13) Cec. 3-fasciata p. 127 14) Cec. subflavescens . p.127, p.134 [[line]] 9) S. Aenigma p. 105, 106, p.114x, 116, 117 bis, 122, 126 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] III [/strikethrough]] S. desmodiodes. p. 112 8) S. verruca p. 122. 10) [S. semen p. 124, 126 [[strikethrough]] bush s. longifolia + s. cordata (each its gall) 110X [[/strikethrough]] Euura? ovulum n. sp. (s. humulis.) Inquilinous cecid. See O. S. pp. 180, 184 [[image - pen drawing of hand pointing to left]] 186 [[strikethrough]] Antennal jts. cecid. variable p. 134 [[/strikethrough]] Anthocoris pseudochinche p. 114 Haltica alternata. p. 114 [[strikethrough]] IX [[/strikethrough]] sal. [ramuli] [[insertion]] nodus. [[/insertion]] p.125 (Tenthred.) bis [[strikethrough]] XI [[/strikethrough]] salicis pomum p. [[text obscured by note]] 118 bis, 125, [[text obscured by note]] [[line]] Salix rostrata con[[es?]] [[text obscured by note]] [[/large bracket in left margin]] Saperda inornata p. [[text obscured by note]] [[strikethrough]] S. batatas? [[strikethrough]] on S. cor[[data.?]] [[text obscured by note]] oviduct variable p. [[text obscured by note]] Synoptical Table. p. 84 [[text obscured by note]] [[text obscured by note]] [[bro?]]oded [[underline]] cecid. [[/underline]] [[text obscured by note]] [[Ba?]]laninus in Willow galls [[weaker?]]. I p.342 [[Note attached to page]] [[strikethrough]] 1) Twig .14 (diam.) [[line]] abn. .04 Gall .30, [strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] length 1.00 [[vertical line separating text]] 2) .10 .04 .37 1.23 [[/strikethrough]] [[/Note]]
Willow Cecidomyia. &c. [[line]] √ 15) cec. coruseta. sp. burrowing in [[underline]] brassicoides [[/underline]] stem p.60 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] one insect dependent upon another [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] "exuberance of insect life" p.60-61 [[insertion]] ^ [[circled]] T.O [[/circled]] [[/insertion]][[strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [Begin "Cecidomyia galls mistaken for Cynips"] Then "imagos identical" [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ [[circled]] { rhodoides gnaphaloides geurruae [[underline]] all [[/underline]] same willow [[/circled]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] then "cocoon exuded" not "coarctate" [[/strikethrough]] p.85X [[line]] [[large bracket in left margin]] Saperda inornata p.61, 100, 114 [[line]] 1) [[strikethrough]] strobiloides p.72, 77, 78 bis, 80 bis, 83 bis, 85, 86 bis, 89, 91, 92 bis, 116 bis, 177, 126 [[/strikethrough]] 93, 95, 96 bis, 97 bis, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111. [[line]] Euuera [vinunatis] [[insertion]] ovum [[/insertion]] p.73, 76 bis, [[strikethrough]] 102 [[/strikethrough]] [[two vertical lines]] 112, 126, 135. [[line]] 11) Cecid. fulviventris. p. 73, 81 X [[insertion]] ^ 86 [[/insertion]] 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96 bis, 97, 110, 113, 117, 118? [[line]] [[strikethrough]] 2 Cecid. brassicoides p. 73, 77, 78, 81, 83 bis, 85, 86, 87, 88, 95, 97 bis, 98 bis, 100, 106, 110, 111, 115 bis, 129 [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] 3) cecid rhodoides p.74, 75 bis, 78, 83 ter, 85, 86 bis, 87, 88 ter, 89, 90, 91, 106, 110. [[line]] 7 Cecid. batatas p.75, 78, 81x, 81 bis, 83, 85, 86 bis, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99 bis, 100 bis, 107, 109. [[line]] 6 cecid. siliqua p. 75, 76, 83, 89, 92, 113 [[line]] 4 cecid. gnaphalioides p.76, 77, 90 bis, 95, 98, 99, 109, 122 [[line] 5) [Cecid.] [[insertion]] Euura? [[/insertion]] gemma p.87, 94 / Inquiline 1 [[male symbol]] 1 [[female symbol]] p. 98 [[line]] 12) Cecid. orbitalis p. 90 [[strikethrough]] [left off this page] [[/strikethrough]] p.97, 98, 100, 101 [[line]] 13) Cec. 3-fasciata p. 127 14) Cec. subflavescens . p.127, p.134 [[line]] 9) S. Aenigma p. 105, 106, p.114x, 116, 117 bis, 122, 126 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] III [/strikethrough]] S. desmodiodes. p. 112 8) S. verruca p. 122. 10) [S. semen p. 124, 126 [[strikethrough]] bush s. longifolia + s. cordata (each its gall) 110X [[/strikethrough]] Euura? ovulum n. sp. (s. humulis.) Inquilinous cecid. See O. S. pp. 180, 184 [[image - pen drawing of hand pointing to left]] 186 [[strikethrough]] Antennal jts. cecid. variable p. 134 [[/strikethrough]] Anthocoris pseudochinche p. 114 Haltica alternata. p. 114 [[strikethrough]] IX [[/strikethrough]] sal. [ramuli] [[insertion]] nodus. [[/insertion]] p.125 (Tenthred.) bis [[strikethrough]] XI [[/strikethrough]] salicis pomum p. 102, p. 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 115, 118 bis, 125, 127, 129, 132 [[line]] Salix rostrata cones (Bebb ms.) [[/large bracket in left margin]] Saperda inornata p. 100, 101, 114 [[strikethrough]] S. batatas? [[strikethrough]] on S. cordata. p.97 X oviduct variable p. 85 √ Synoptical Table. p. 84 [[vertical line separating text on page]] double-brooded [[underline]] cecid. [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] Larva of [[/strikethrough]] Balaninus in Willow galls [[weaker?]]. I p.342
The Dervish in the Eastern Fable claimed to have discovered the language of birds, while to the vulgar then notes were mere inarticulate sources without passion + without meaning. The entomologist does not indeed pretend to understand the language of insects, for as they all breathe thro spiracles or branchiae their mouths are everlastingly dumb; but from signs well-known to him he can interpret their actions & recognize at a glance what object they are pursuing, whether sport, or love, or war or food for themselves, or food for their future progeny or the construction of habitations, either for themselves or for that future progeny which they are doomed never to behold. Under every stone, under every clod, even under the most despised substances, there is a little world in miniature opened to his eye, and there scarcely grown a plant, that which contains in Nature's own hieroglyphs a whole chapter of Natural History written by the finger of the great Author of our being.
[[?]] interrupta. Black stethidium with yellow spots; tergum with yellow spots and bands. Inhabits Pennsylvania. Antennae dull black brown, first joint polished, piceous at tip; mandibles piceous, black at tip; thorax with a spot each side before three in a line between the origin of the superior wings, yellow; scutel with a yellow, transverse line; wings hyaline, costal margin fuliginous; meta-thorax at the tip each side with a double longitudinal, yellow spot; pleura with a vertical, yellow, oblong spot beneath the origin of the superior wing; tarsi pale piceous, tibiae anterior pair blackish-piceous, posterior pairs pale piceous; thighs black; tergum a little iridescent; first segment with a band abruptly and widely narrowed above; second segment
[[This is a newspaper clipping]] Cure for Drunkenness. To the Editor of the N. Y. Tribune. SIR: I have copied this "Cure for Drunkenness" from another print, and send it to you with the request that you will publish it in THE TRIBUNE, for the benefit of all victims to this prevalent vice. New-York, July 22, 1865. There is a famous prescription in use in England for the cure of drunkenness, by which thousands are said to have been assisted in recovering themselves. The prescription came into notoriety through the efforts of John Vine Hall, commander of the Great Eastern steamship. He had fallen into such habitual drunkenness that his most earnest efforts to reclaim himself proved unavailing. At length he sought the advice of an ancient physician, who gave him a prescription which he followed faithfully for seven months. At the end of that time he had lost all desire for liquor, although he had many times been led captive by a most debasing appetite. The prescription, which he afterward published, and by which so many other drunkards have been assisted to reform, is as follows: Sulphate of iron, five (5) grains; magnesia, ten (10) grains; peppermint water, eleven (11) drachms; spirit of nutmeg, one (1) drachm; twice a day. This preparation acts as a tonic and a stimulant, and so partially supplies the place of the accustomed liquor, and prevents that absolute physical and moral prostration which follows a sudden breaking off from the use of stimulating drinks.
[[This is a newspaper clipping]] after a few weeks, months, and in some cases years, it is subject to paroxysms of darting or lancinating pain. The pain increases from time to time, and frequently extends to the lower point of the shoulder-blade; sometimes about this stage of the disease, the arm is entirely useless - the nipple frequently becomes retracted, exuding a thin, bloody discharge. After a time, the tumor adheres to the skin and the parts beneath it, so as to become fixed and immovable; then it ulcerates and forms an open cancer. The movable lump or tumor, the lancinating pain, the retracted nipple, are never failing symptoms of Cancer in the Breast. Every person laboring under the above symptoms may at once know their real condition. THE DANGER OF NEGLECTING CANCER. I was consulted by a lady in June. I found in the right breast, under the skin, a small tumor or lump, not as large as a common pea, perfectly movable - no redness or tenderness. I advised treatment. She declined. In September she called again. Then the disease had assumed a constitutional nature - one so much so that it was impossible to relieve her, and death followed in less than three months. At the time she first visited me, it could have been cured in a few days. Every person who has any of the symptoms of cancer should attend to the case at once, and in no case pinch or press the tumor with the hand. Use no stimulating applications. Cold water or ice in a bladder, applied to the part, will retard its growth; and this is the only means that will do so short of my treatment for radical cure. CANCER of the FACE and NECK IS ESPECIALLY
*[Note] As an [[insertion]] ^ other [[/insertion]] example of the very variable nature of the specific characters in [[underlined]] Cecidomyia [[/underline]], I may quote the following. Loew describes [[underlined]] C. solidaginis [[/underline]] [[insertion]] Lw [[/insertion]] [[male symbol]] [[female symbol]] [[insertion]] from the dried specimen [[/insertion]] without however stating the number of specimens used by him. On comparing his description ( [[underline]] Dipt. N.A. [[/underline]] pp. 194-5) with 2 [[male symbol]] 7 [[female symbol]] [[insertion]] ^ (dried) [[/insertion]] which I bred myself [[insertion]] ^ several years ago [[/insertion]] from the same gall, I find the following [[strikethrough]] descrepancies [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ variations [[/insertion]]: - [[underline]] 1st [[/underline]] the abdomen [[female symbol]] has [[strikethrough]] no[[/strikethrough]] "distinct black & red transverse bands" [[strikethrough] ]but is [[/strikethrough]] only in [[2 symbols for female]], in the other 5 it is blackish immaculate. [[underline]] 2nd. [[/underline]]. The [[symbol for male]] antennae (1 specimen, [[strikethrough]] are 20-jointed [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ the other mutilated) [[/insertion]] have only 18 flagellar joints, instead of "20 or 21". [[underline]] 3rd.[[/underline]] The oviduct, instead of being "of very moderate length & but little pointed" varies from 1/8 - 2/3 as long as the rest of the abdomen, & in the latter case is much attenuated at tip. [[underline]]4th. [[/underline]] Instead of the legs [[female symbol]] being "black without white reflection", they are [[insertion]] ^ A - T.O.] [[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] blackish [[/strikethrough]] dull rufous immaculate, except in two[[symbols for female]] [[strikethrough]] where they are blackish above & at tip [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]]5th. [[/underline]] Instead of legs [[symbol for male]] being "black with a white reflection on the tibiae & tarsi", they are so indeed in one [[symbol for male]], but in the other [[symbol for male]] they are yellowish [[insertion]] ^ hyaline [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] We [[/strikethrough]] It may [[insertion]] ^ be [[/insertion]] observed here, that the structure of the
[[male symbol]] antennae of this species differ remarkably from that of all Willow Gall-gnats known to me, in the pedicels, ^which Loew describes as "rather long",^ being as long as the spherical part of each joint, instead of only 1/2 as long; & in the last 3 or 4 joints tapering almost to nothing, agreeably to the remark of Loew that "the uppermost joints are much smaller than the preceding." The verticels, which are said by Loew to be "very long", are scarcely as long as two of the complete joints from which they spring, & differ from those of all Willow + gall-gnats known to me in being much more scanty, there being only 2 or 3 or 4 hairs to a vertical, instead of a considerable number. The ^joints of^ antennae [[female symbol]] are globular to the extreme tip, so that they can be readily counted instead of being [[female symbol]] 18-j basally moniliform & terminally cylindrical as in all the Willow Gallgnats. A) very pale greenish brown, more or less [[strikethrough]]mottled[[/strikethrough]] speckled with black so as to appear blackish. In 2 [[female symbol]] they are almost immaculate.
[[strikethrough [entire page] ]] A) The believers in the Derivative origin of species hold that new species have gradually been produced in the course of millions of years by the Law of Inheritance, or the well known breeder's principle that like produces like. As a general rule any remarkable variation in a given species is eliminated by intercrossing with normal individuals, but in particular cases, such [[insertion]] ^ for example [[/insertion]] as those where the variation affords any peculiar advantage to the individual, [[insertion]] ^ or where individuals are isolated [[strikethrough]] from others [[/strikethrough]] by any means from their fellows, [[/insertion]] it is propagated & from generation to generation exaggerated by the same great Law of Inheritance. In other words, [[insertion]] ^ the Law of [[/insertion]] Inheritance, as a general rule keeps species [[insertion]] ^ to one invariable standard [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]]] from varying [[/strikethrough]], but in particular cases it causes them to deviate from it. But, says Agassiz, "this statement itself implies a contradiction, for it assumes that the same influences prevent & produce changes in the condition of the Animal Kingdom." (Meth. St. p.281) So that if any one says that the wind sometimes melts ice & sometimes prevents it from melting, "the statement implies a contradiction, for it assumes that the same influences prevent & produce changes." And if another man says that the action of insectivorous insects upon plant-feeding insects tends, as a general rule, to keep them within due limits, but in exceptional cases causes them to become exorbitantly numerous, this statement also "implies a contradiction", because it assumes that the same causes sometimes produce different effects. Because it has been satisfactorily, & certainly most beautifully, demonstrated by Agassiz that certain coral-making Radiata have not varied [[insertion]] ^ from the normal type [[/insertion]] in the last 70,000 years, it by no means follows that all other species in the Animal Kingdom have been equally invariable in all time. As well might we argue that because certain butterflies are notoriously constant in their coloration, therefore all other species of butterflies are equally constant. Whereas we know that in certain species it is difficult to find two individuals exactly alike. [[strikethrough]]
Let us illustrate my views on the value of specific characters by an example. The Negro differs from the white man in having woolly and crisped hair, a black skin, projecting lower jaw, thick lips, a flat nose ^[[insertion]] bowed shins [[/insertion]] a projecting heel. But individual white men occur with {each of these peculiar characters: { pigment cells under epidermis? they are [[strikethrough]] not [[/strikethrough]] none of them, therefore, perfectly constant characters, & if we knew nothing of the perfect facility with which the negro intercrosses with the white man, and the perfect fruitfulness of the offspring of such intercrosses, we might safely conclude that the negro is not a distinct species, but a mere variety of [[strikethrough]] the human [[/strikethrough]] Homo sapiens. [species of Cecidomyia]
[[?]] curculionis p. 47 [[line]] Sep.4 "Curculio" all dead p. 49 [[insertion]] Larva of orthosoma cylindricum p. 50 [[/insertion]] Strochia histrionica N.C. p. 50 [[line]] Enemies of Col. Pot. Bry p. 51 [[line]] Iowa counties infd. by grasshoppers p.52 [[line]] BL Soap to Kill barklice applied p.52 [[line]] results of spring experiments p.53-54 [[line]] Pemph. pyri p.56 .59XX 60X bis [[line]] Pine barklice p.55 [[line]] Plum jars examined p.57 [[line]] Salt kills cabbage lice p.58 [[line] Soot - cutworms - New York weevil bad on pear - on rose p.60 [[line]] no Phyc. nebulo south p.59 [[line]] * Vitifolia galls p.61 [[line]] Cetonia [[?]] on peaches p. 61 [[line]] starving wireworms p.62 [[line]] Brazil Trypoxylon habits p.63 [[line]] X Asp. conchif. p.65X [[line]] X Phytocoris linearis p.66 [[insertion]] ^ curculio under bark Apr.16 p.66 [[line]] Asp. conch. p.66 - 7 & p 68o bis 74X 77X 78, 79X 81X ter 82X 83, 84, 85, 86X 90 - 1. [[line]] x Frost kills aphis p. 68X [[line]] x Corimelaena pulicaria p.68 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Syrphus pemphigi [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] ^ Pipiza radicum[[/insertion]] p.69 [[line]] Elaterid larvae p.69. 71.bis.75.80.86.91 [[line]] Ligyrus variolosus roots of Coreopsis p.71 [[line]] Lachn. quercina & pilosicollis (Graham Lee) p.71 [[line]] Aegeria bores apple p.73X = [[underline]] Aeg. pyri? [[/underline]] Harris [[line]] Sap. vivittata p.74XX, bis.77. Carp. pomonella p.75X p.78X 80 [[end page]] [[start page]] from Journal I. Reproduction of Aphis p.142 [[line]] pupae summered over p.143 [[line]] Stenosphenus notatus (hickory) 143 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Rhaphigaster [[/strikethrough]] Arma eats Andrena p.146 [[line]] Lim. disippus larva 147-8 p. 165 [[line]] Onion-fly remedy 150 [[line]] Coitus of Gomphus 153 [[line]] Dasychira larva 153.161 [[line]] Conotr nenuphar larva [[image]] 157 [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Helianthi bulla (Diplosis) larva [[underline]] no [[/underline]] breastbone p 158 [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] Thyreus Abbotii larva 162 [[line]] [[image]] Flock butterflies in Cal. 163 [[line]] Wagner's classification of generation 164 [[line]] X Tetyra fimbriata eats P. asterias larva 165 sucks nectar 169 [[line]] Cuterebra larva p.167 [[line]] Orchelimum eats muscide 169 [[line]] Bruchus abbreviatus on Cassia marylandica 174 [[line]] White oak Lecanium 174 (see p.72) [[line]] *Birds & Fishes further N in Miss. Valley 183 [[line]] Thyreus abbottii (see p 162) [[line]] Leptis thoracica bred garden larva 187 [[line]] Magdalinus armatus. 182.187.189 [[line]] Donacia confusa (color sexual) 189 [[line]] Sesia caducous scales 189 [[line]] Lecanium vitis & pruni [[symbol]] 190 [[line]] Legless case-making larva 190 (p.187 bottom)
[[start page]] Agassiz geological sketches, 13 blunders exposed. 192 - Ants tending Acutalis & Enchophyllum 192* - Larva of Craetus latitarsus - Upland ash Fr. americana swamp - - viridis - Tailless cats in N.H. 198 - Wild plants (mullein) hybridize 205 [[line]] Vol. II Locust borers (young, Ks) no legs. p.1 - Rhois tomatis [[strikethrough]] larva [[/strikethrough]] Plant-toun, 5. [[strikethrough]] 8 [[/strikethrough]] - [[underline]] Messa [[/underline]] n. sp. larva p.7 - Larva [[underline]] Lagoa [[/underline]] "20-legged" (Packard) 9 - Eurytoma hordii galls (1/3 of lot bored) 10 - Chinch-bug in Mercer Co in 45 p.12 - Apple-maggot p. 13 pupa p. 15 - 16 - ant. aciculata 14-jd. p. 14 - Larva Walshia armorphella p. 14 - [[underline]] Leucopis [[/underline]] came out Apr. 9 - 12 from [[underline]] last year's [[/underline]] vitifoliae galls p. 19 - Aspidiotus nerii Bouche' Kty & sp. p. 109 - April 30. Found Haltica chalybea on grapevine (no leaves out yet) [[symbol for therefore]] it hybernates in imago (p.21) in Hyperaspis larva cottony matter starts from skin, as in Aphidious &c. p. 22 & 69X [[end page]] [[start page]] Barklouse [[insertion]] (imported) [[/insertion]] p.23 (long piece) & p. 24. 25 [[text lost due to ripped page]] 28o 29. 30. 35X 41o 46. 56X 58o 61X Harris's Barklouse p.27X 50. 55X [[line]] Agrotis scandens Riley "Gray cutworm" } p. 27. 28X [[line]] June 11. Phycita nebulo still in larva state p.30x [[line]] Plum Lyda p. 30 [[line]] Disease (pod-like) of wild plums p. 31 [[insertion]] ^ & 81 [[/insertion]] (See Dr. Hilgard on Peach Rot, in scrap book) [[line]] Curculio larva &c p. 31. 43o [[line]] In 3 tame plums found 5 Curculio crescents p.32 (June 17) [[line]] * June 17. [[Ha?]] bored by minute larva p.34X [[line]] July 24 Beat 1 Bal. nasicus Say off infested plum trees p. 36X [[line]] Gomphus eats Agrion p. 36o [[line]] Anthon. prunicida p.38 [[line]] Eurytoma hordei p. 38 [[line]] Apple worm p.39X 41XX 46X - 47. 52. 59oo. [[line]] July 19. 1st curculio bred from infested plums p.40 [[line]] Lyda cerasi p. 40. 41. [[line]] July 20 18 curculio bred p. 41X bis 43oo 47X 48. 58X 59X 60XX [[line]] Anthon. prunicida larva p. 41. 43x [[line]] Semasia larva in plum p. 43XX 55X [[line]] grape curculio p.44. 58. 59o. 60o bis [[line]] "Plum-gouger" borings = curculio p.45 E