Two notebooks of Frederick William True containing field notes and daily entries on seals and other wildlife on St. Paul Island, Kelaire, Lukannan, Polovina, Tolstoi, and St. George's Island, Alaska

ID: SIA RU007181

Creator: Field book, Pribilof Islands, 1895

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1895

Citation: Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910

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Two notebooks of Frederick William True containing field notes and daily entries on seals and other wildlife on St. Paul Island, Kelaire, Lukannan [Lukanin rookery], Polovina, Tolstoi [rookery], and St. George's Island, Alaska, June 27 - August 15, 1895. Journal entries are dated, and include narrative style entries. They include observations of wildlife and surrounding environments, sometimes including periodic recordings for one day. One contains extended descriptions interactions between mother and cub seals; a sealing event; list of birds seen (with sketches); and in the back a list of stations, dates, and observations on changes in observed numbers. Includes a pasted insert with a list of birds and eggs. Half the note book is blank. The second notebook includes observations of seal populations (cows, bulls, and pups); sealing; numbers relating to sealing (killed or rejected because of size); and includes some sketches of seals. |Both books have True's name on the inside cover, but place the author at different places on the same day. It is possible that one of the books belonged to Leonhard Stejneger or another participant of the expedition. Includes sketches of birds and a list of specimens.

Date Range


Start Date

Jun 27, 1895

End Date

Aug 15, 1895

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Animals
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Seals (Animals)
  • Ornithology


  • United States
  • Saint Paul Island
  • Aleutian Islands
  • Alaska
  • Saint George Island
  • Tolstoi Rookery
  • Lukanin Rookery


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007181

Collection name

Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910

Physical Description

2 field books

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 3 Folder 2

[[underline]]St. Paul[[/underline]] [[underline]] No.2 [[/underline]] [[image - typeset "Sterling" and a crest in blue]]
Return to Frederick W. True U.S. Fish Commission Washington, D. C. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] No.8 2.52-2.58; No.4 3.30-3.36; No.3 3.53-3.57; No.2 4.00-4.07; No.8 4.01-4.08[/strikethrough]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]] Ketaire rookery [[/underlined]]. July 17, 1895 10.30 AM Cloudy. Warmish. Family no. 2 has now about 76 cows - The next family which is in the neck has 8 cows. The family immediately under me (at the cairn) has 28 cows, the small one next North has 6 cows & 2 pups; it had three cows when I last saw it. One the rocky island the bull is lying down & 3 wet cows are at the north side He does not [[strikethrough]] seem [[/strikethrough]] pay any attention to them & I do not know that they are his - There are no bulls visible on the rocky point from this station .. Yes, there is one -
Over on the point to the North a cow got in the pool of water but the bull drove her out presently & is now sitting in it himself - He comes out quite wet. A youngish bull has three cows right down at the water's edge - The old bull just above him attacked him and drove him into the water together with his other cows. The [[chind?]] cows the old bull took into [[strikethrough]] he [[/strikethrough]] his own harem. The young bull swam out a little + then [[swims?]] back in shore. He stopped another cow [[coming?]] down into the water but she escaped him. (Station 14) Fam. no. 1, in the hollow, has now 16 cows + about 12 pups. There is another bull with 2 cows on the rocky point [[end page]] [[start page]] which I could not see from the cairn. There are seven bulls without cows, now at the hillside here. One cow is under the cliff which has the cairn on top I saw some small family [[itrus?]] as I came along back to the house. 2 cows 2 pups 2 " [[ditto for cows]] 4 " [[ditto for pups]] 36 " [[ditto for cows]] 30 " [[ditto for pups]] 4 " [[ditto for cows]] 4 " [[ditto for pups]] 30 " [[ditto for cows]] 22 " [[ditto for pups]]
St. Paul. July 20th 1895. Upper Zapaduie. [[strikethrough]] Started for [[/strikethrough]] Returned from St. George last night; arrived at village Cove at 8 A.M. At 10 AM. left with Townsend, St. Miller. Dr. Bogert & Mr. Wright for Upper Zapaduie in boat. Townsend look photos from stations 10 & 9. Much difficulty found in locating the cairns and pinnacle marked on the map - Here, as elsewhere there are numerous large cowless bulls at the back of the harems. From [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] photo, station no. 9, looking east over the rookery, there is a great deal of rough bare rock [[strikethrough]] mos [[/strikethrough]] only occupied at the most by a few stray bulls - [[end page]] [[start page]] Mr. Townsend has not maps of 1893 or photos of 1894 above but is marking the chart See 2 dead pups & one placenta pup - 1 Family with 6 cows & 12 pups 1 " " [[Dittos for: family with]] 5 " [[Ditto for: cows]] & 2 " [[Ditto for: pups]] These are under Zapaduie Pt. proper. There are only 4 families here all together. At the point is a group of bachelors. [[strikethrough]] Near [[/strikethrough]] Crest of the ravine on the rookery one of the bulls furthest up at the back has one cow. [[underline]] Lower Zapadiuie [[/underline]] - Afternoon . Townsend is photography at photo. sta. no 8a. & 8. (A good view is obtainable of the rookeries from the water.
Why not take a set of photos from there?) There is a yellow grass area back of the rookery along here as wide as the rookery itself - Between the yellow grass & the harems is a bare - rock area equal or exceeding the other two in width - Another photo is taken from near Station 8 looking East & then down at Station no. 7 or rather about 50 ft West of the same. One bull with 1 cow & 1 pup in the foreground - About 100 bachelors hauled out [[strikethrough]] betwe [[/strikethrough]] at the base of the hill, west of sta. no. 7. There is a row of bulls [[end page]] [[start page]] in the water along the front of the hill rookery & nearly every one of them has 2 or 3 cows. Some are at least 50 ft. out. I saw a bull copulating here [[underline]] in the water [[/underline]]. Later I saw a bull half in the water copulating with a cow whose hind half was also in the water and face parts on a rock in the wash - Between times Townsend & I saw plainly a youngish bull copulate with a small cow [[underline]] in the water.[[/underline]]. They rolled about a good deal the cow underneath as usual & both cow & bull some times with heads under
water. At times the cow floated at an angle with the bull, their hind part being still together. They kept up the process for several minutes & there could be no doubt that they were copulating. This .cow & bull came up on the rocks at the water's edge afterwards & the cow did not seem entirely satisfied. The water in which the pair were copulating was shallow, so that the bull if sitting on the bottom had his head above water. Nevertheless while engaged they appeared to be floating entirely. - The cow had her hind flippers turned up and the bull pressed the end [[end page]] [[start page]] of his fore flippers against them Saw a bull & several pups on snow. The cows seem to be largely in the water, there are large pods of pups without cows. The pups are playing in the water at the edge of the shore. Saw one pup playing with a large piece of seaweed.
St. Paul - Southwest Bar July 19, 1895. [[margin]] (From Mr. Gudgis book.)[[/margin]] [[list]] [[underline]] Killed[[/underline]][[underline]]Rejected[[/underline]] 20 17 15 32 17 29 12 40 9 24 13 28 17 31 16 36 11 19 21 29 12 28 14 28 10 33 19 27 22 36 15 32 14 29 19 22 20 54 15 34 9 31 11 55 7 41 11 30 8 30 [[/list]] [[margin]] Killed = 31%[[/margin]] (These are pods taken at random; is not of course the [[underline]]whole[[/underline]] of the catch)
[[left margin vertically]] (From Mr. Judge's Book.) [[/left margin]] St. Paul. N.E. Point July 8, 1895 [[table with 3 columns]] [[column headings]] Killed Rejected [[subheading]] Large Small [[/subheading]] [[/column headings]] Rejected Killed Large Small 15. 3 43 19 2 39 16 1 17 9 0. 30 13 0 24 16 0 37 15 1 24 16 2 15 10 1 16 11 2 16 13 0 17 12 2 14 17 2 12 10 0 12 18 4 30 14 1 31 8 11 10 12 3 18 10 3 24 11 1 24 7 0 23 14 3 18 [[line]] [[line]] [[line]] 286 42 494 494 [[line]] 536 286 [[line]] 822 ) 4940 ( 60. + % 4932 [[line]] 800 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[vertically in left margin]] From Mr. Judge's Book [[/vertically in left margin]] St Paul, West side N. E. Point July 9, 1895. [[table with 3 columns]] [[column headings]] Killed Rejected { [[subheadings]] Too Large Too Small [[/subheadings]] [[/column headings]] [[line]] [[line]] [[line]] 9 4 24 13 6 22 15 5 27 12 6 46 15 3 12 8 3 28 6 8 20 8 4 33 12 0 30 16 4 20 12 0 23 5 3 19 9 4 17 7 0 31 6 1 26 2 1 27 6 6 12 5 5 22 11 7 18 12 3 31 12 6 28 8 5 26 [[line]] [[line]] 209 84 542 542 [[line]] 626 ) 209 ) [line]] 835 ) 5420 ( 65. - 5010 [[line]] 4100 4175
Seals killed season of 1895 St. Paul May 27 Watchman N.E. Point 6 { Food { Large Young " [[Ditto for: May]] 28 Reef rookery 79 { do. [[Ditto for: Food Large young]] June 1 Watchman, N.E. Pt. 3 do. [[Ditto for: Food Large young]] " [[Ditto: June]] 4 Reef rookery 76 { food { 2 rejected " [[Ditto: June]] 8 Watchman, N.E. Pt. 3 Food " [[Ditto: June]] 13 Tolstoi rookery 184 Skins " [[Ditto: June]] 16 Watchman, N.E. Pt. 2 " [[Ditto for: Skins]] " [[Ditto: June]] 20 N.E. Pt. rookeries 1961 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 4 rejected " [[Ditto: June]] 24 Reef rookery 1548 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 5 rejected " [[Ditto: June]] 26 Halfway Pt. 575 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 8 rejected July 1 English Bay 751 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 6 reject. " [[Ditto for: July]] 2 Zapodnie 861 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 6 reject. " [[Ditto for: July]] 3 Lukannon 364 { " [[Ditto for: Skins] { 7 reject. " [[Ditto for: July]] 9 N.E. Point 960 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 16 reject. " [[Ditto for: July]] 10 do. [[Ditto for: N.E. Point]] 431 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 6 reject " [[Ditto for: July]] 15 Reef rookery 1138 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 10 reject " [[Ditto for: July]] 17 Halfway Pt. 324 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] {5 rejects " [[Ditto for: July]] 19 Zapodnie 834 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 8 rejects. [The rejected skins were "under size" except one which was "[[stagey?]]" ] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 22 N.E. Point 827 { " [[Ditto for: Skins]] { 5 rejected [[line across page]] "Dec 31. 1894" During the [[strikethrough]] cl [[/strikethrough]] calendar year 1894 were killed in st. Paul for food & fur skins 13,298 seals [[double line across page]] Pods killed & rejected Halfway Pt. July 17, 1895 [[table with three columns]] [[column headings]] [[underline]] Killed [[/underline]] Rejected { [[subcolumns]] [[underline]] Large [[/underline]] [[underline]] Small [[/underline]] [[/subcolumns]] [[/column headings]] [[Rejected Killed Large Small]] 16 12 12 22 20 16 12 6 7 19 2 23 9 3 33 17 3 25 15 12 16 13 8 10 7 7 16 12 3 38 7 1 17 15 1 29 8 9 40 13 4 31 (over)
(Continued) [[table with 3 columns]] [[column headings]] [[underlined]] Killed [[/underlined]] Rejected { [[subheading]] [[underlined]] Large Small [[/underlined]] [[/subheading]] [[/column headings]] [[ Rejected Killed Large Small]] 13 9 19 8 7 26 13 8 17 14 9 27 8 3 31 9 3 34 Killed = 29 [[strikethrough]] 0 [[/strikethrough]] % of Total [[line across page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[strikethrough]] [[checkmark]] [[/strikethrough]] Kelăiré July 22 1895 Raining Fam. No. 1 has 19 cows & fam. no. 2. 40 cows. Pups in excess everywhere LuKannan, same rate, viz: July 22[[superscript]] [[underline]] d [[/superscript]] [[/underline]] Went out to Lukannon this morning in the rain to see how the seals stood the weather. They did not appear to enjoy the rain. Were mostly sitting up & moving about, shaking themselves from time to time. The rookery looked dreary enough with its wet rocks and wet slippery soil - The handsome colors of the seals when dry had disappeared & all were of a dull, dusky brownish gray [[end page]] [[start page]] the old bulls showing more [[strikethrough]] or less of [[/strikethrough]] brown. The pups were like little black pigs, their [[strikethrough] br [[/strikethrough]] wet hair hanging in tufts & usually parted along the spine, showing the skin. The cows have gone to sea in large numbers. Many old bulls are sitting in their places, surrounded only by pups, & the majority have only five or six cows. Saw only one copulation & that a peculiar one. The bull was interrupted at the outset by a cow straying away. He went back to the same female again, however, but could not find any satisfaction. He mounted her twice more, or four times in all, before
he was satisfied - the cow remained in one place, as if expecting the bull to come back, - which he did - The pups are back to the back limit of the rookery. There were none at the water's edge this morning, but many were floundering about in the little pools made by the rain. They were [[insertion]] ^ a [[/insertion]] dirty & sad looking lot. There is a large number of bachelors on the hauling ground, & especially on the sand in the surf - They seemed to be enjoying life. I saw two or three bulls sitting in the water [[end page]] [[start page]] in front of the rookery as they were at Zapadnie the other day. The seals are close up to the base of the three grass-covered knobs at the middle of [[firkanum?]] & there was a harem on top of the West one - Some of the cows & pups were trying to keep dry by lying close under the bases of the knobs & under boulders - There is much individuality about the voices of the various seals. There was one [[strikethrough]] bull [[/strikethrough]] youngish bull this morning with a high thin voice like a cow - [[strikethrough]] Their [[/strikethrough]] The attempts
of the younger bulls to roar like the old ones are quite comical - A number of younger bulls were climbing about on the lower end of the rookery without much disturbance by the big bulls. At Ketaire the desolate appearance on account of the [[insertion]] ^ departure [[/insertion]][[strikethrough]] absence [[/strikethrough]] of cows is very striking. The pups are crawling about everywhere. Most of the families are reduced to small proportions. Nevertheless some of the small ones have more than when I last saw them. Saw no dead pups, [[end page]] [[start page]] placenta pups, or births. As at Lukannan the pups are back under the bluffs & a few cows are back to the hindermost bulls. Ketaire July 23, 1895 At the Cairn North of Sta. 14, everything has changed since yesterday. The two families below the cairn ([[underline]] not [[/underline]] nos. 1 & 2) are broken up entirely & the pups which were lying under the bluff are spread out in a long line. Thus: [[image - sketch of cairn and pups]] Jan. no. 2 is broken up &
the flat rock on which it lay is almost bare. There are some 20 cows sitting around the bull & some 12 more on the north margin of the rocks Over to the North at the point the rock with the pool in it is deserted & the [[strikethrough]] seals [[/strikethrough]] cows & pups have hauled back up the hillside to the line of the face of the cairn-bluff. (One bright red placenta.) Between sta. 14 & this Cairn the [[strikethrough]] seals [[/strikethrough]] cows & pups have also hauled up on the hillside nearly to the top. Cows have dried off this morning - I see 39 cows & about 400 pup together. This [[end page]] [[start page]] shows how the cows have gone out - In other places there are bunches of cows with no pups & in others the two mixed in about equal proportions. Saw a pup come to his mother when she cried. The cow has come up wet. The pup wants to suck but has not been allowed to yet. Fam. no. 1 has 6 cows only. The Lukannan & Kelaire rookeries on map of 1893 The back line of the seals this year is practically the same as 1893 except [[strikethrough]] that [[/strikethrough]] as follows: The haulig ground as now occupied runs along
the beach as far as in map, but not back inland in the left hand division. The right hand division is all right. The seals are not on the top of the middle & right hand of the 3 bluffs of Lukannan. The tongue to the right of Lukannan hill is to be cut off. On top of the bluff opposite the "horse-shoe" in Ketaire there are practically no seals The Ketaire hauling ground is occupied much further back on its right of Sta. 14 1/2 than shown in the map. The seals, it should be remarked can not be properly represented as a band, but [[end page]] [[start page]] rather as patches. Saw [[strikethrough]] half-doz [[/strikethrough]] remains of 1/2 doz. or more pups of last year on top of the Lukannan 3 bluffs. Saw a fresh dead ♀pup on top of middle of Kelaire July 23 [[superscript]] d [[/superscript]] 1895 Townsend and myself left at 11 AM. for Polavina & N.E. Pt. Took in Tolstoi [[underline]] en route [[/underline]]. This rookery has changed much since I last saw [[insertion]] ^ it [[/insertion]]. The solid masses at the seashore have moved up the hillside considerably. The topography
of the map is poor & it is very difficult to locate the different points. Took lunch on the wagon moving on to Polavina - The afternoon was foggy & not favorable for observation by Mr. Townsend marked up the chart as well as possible - After Polavina we took Little Polavina & then went on to N.E. Point for the night. Cooked supper at N.E. Pt. July 24, 1895 Started out of house [[end page]] [[start page]] at N.E. Pt. at about 8 A.M. for the rookery - Dull & foggy. Photographed the SE. parts of the rookery with the Kodak for fear the regular photos could not be taken. Found many [[strikethrough]] pho [[/strikethrough]] sea lions at the point & took numerous snaps at them with the Kodak. There were bulls, cows & pups. Pups dull brown. Bulls & cows bright buff on back when dry, - ^[[insertion]] grayish [[/insertion]] cafe-au-lait when wet. At noon the fog cleared & the afternoon was excellent for photos. Took
all the regular photos. - but not always from exactly the same point as last year. Marking the chart very difficult & is only relative to 1893. The photos are excellent & when three years are compared the differences can be very clearly shown. I could not note much that would not be better taken from the photos & charts. The topography is very poor & uncertain & [[strikethrough]] good [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] accurate [[/insertion]] results are impossible [[strikethrough]] Arriv [[/strikethrough]] On the way [[strikethrough]] fro [[/strikethrough]] back Townsend [[end page]] [[start page]] photographed Little Polavitta Arrived at St. Paul at 8.30 PM. [[double line dividing page horizontally]] Record of ^[[strikethrough insertion]] pods of [[/strikethrough insertion]] seals killed & rejected from pods. (Mr. Judge) N.E. Point, Jul. 22d, 1895. [[left margin]] The rejected portion according to Mr. Judge, consisted very largely of small seals. One-fifth or less might be larger. [[/left margin]] [[Two-column list]] Killed Rejected ------ ------ 19 48 14 37 9 33 11 28 12 33 21 27 6 36 12 35 14 39 9 44 11 33 10 40 4 48 13 31 10 34 8 31 10 30 24 26 16 37 15 28 22 36 ----- ---- 270 734 [[right margin]] 270 734 ---- 1004 1004) 2700 (27% 2008 ----- 6920 [[end right margin]]
[[lines across page]] July 25th 1895 Rainy morning with strong SE wind. Got the above figures from Mr. Judge & afterwards went down opposite the Lagoon rookery to look at it. The seals appear to be higher up on the slope than hitherto. The outlines of numerous cows are visible on the sky line. Counted 88 bulls which appeared to have cows near them. The distance is too great for full observation. Nearly all the seals sitting up on account of the rain. This afternoon went to Lukannon & Ketaire to [[end page]] [[start page]] see what the seals were doing in the rain & storm. At Kataire the wind was blowing directly on shore & a magnificent surf running. All the features seen at Lukannon in the rain of a few days ago were repeated at Ketaire. Saw no copulating. The bulls & cows were nearly all sitting up - [[strikethrough]] From Ketaire pt to sta. 14 [[/strikethrough]] From the point between Kataire & Lukannon to sta. 14 [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] changes in the disposition of the seals are still going on. Fam no. 2 is scattered & disrupted. About a score of cows were standing in a scattered manner around the bull. From the rock upward the
cows are pretty evenly distributed up the hillside just south of the cairn, almost up to the top & all the bulls there, except the youngish ones at the very top have some cows. Off toward the point the seals have again spread somewhat over the [[strikethrough]] rock [[/strikethrough]] rock with the pool in it, but they are also high up on the slope behind. The back bulls practically all have cows & it would seem therefore that their waiting was not in vain. Should they not be regarded as marking the limits of the rookeries, rather [[end page]] [[start page]] than the harems, which are so much more distinct earlier in the season? Townsend system of marking charts takes the earlier disposition of seals only into account as I understand it. [[strikethrough]] He wanted [[/strikethrough]] When he found that the last rain had caused the seals to move back or "spread" he wanted to mark the charts [[strikethrough]] from [[/strikethrough]] according to dispositions observed some days earlier & in some instances I think he did so. Do the bulls go back with the cows when the "spreading" takes place, or do the cows only move back to the upper bulls leaving the lower bulls be-
hind? I saw a youngish upper bull sieze a pup out of an upper pod in his teeth and carry it up the slope. He dropped it several times, but picked it up again. The pup presently bit at the bull, & when the latter was not giving attention ran down the hill again - Saw another pup near this same bull but under a rock. A third pup walked up the hillside. Saw a bull put his fore flipper down the absolutely vertical side of a large boulder & jump down - Another bull was standing almost upright, [[strikethrough]] wl [[/strikethrough]] with his [[end page]] [[start page]] flipper over the edge of a rock. They assume numbers of peculiar attitudes. When sitting they commonly turn the [[strikethrough]] ier [[/strikethrough]] hind part of their body down on the right or left hind flipper, thus [[image - pencil sketch of seal]]. The seals were playing in the highest surf among the rocks and sustained no injury, though it seemed at times as if they must be dashed to pieces - Saw a good deal of what appeared to be playing of male & female together in the water, but could not detect any copulation - At Lukannon the
seals were hardly as much away from the water's edge as they were the last rainy day, but they were up w the highest bulls. Capt Drake went to Polavina yesterday & was there all day - This morning he & Mr. Crowley went to N.E. point. He could hardly do any surveying in this rain - The Albatross is still lying in Village Cove in charge, I suppose of Ft. Scott. Townsend went to Zapodnie this morning & returned about dinnertime. Mr. Miller photo- [[end page]] [[start page]] graphed Tolstoi yesterday. It seems that Col. Murray, formerly Treasury Agent, is making an inspection of the rookeries for the Treasury - That accounts for his remaining here so long - The two lakes shown on the map of N.E. Point on the east side near the point were dried up yesterday. July 26, 1895 Tolstoi - Went down on the sand & Townsend & Lt. Miller & party went on rookery. Miller surveyed. Townsend putting white crosses on rock at back line of rookery
Col. Murray gone to Zapadine - Watched the bachelors. Saw a 4 or 5 yr. old mounting another bachelor of about the same age. Saw one bachelor dragging his hind flippers in going down to the water. Found a dead pup high up at back of rookery. On rookery counted 60 pups & 25 cows together. Again, 30 cows and 66 pups. Saw a rather fresh placenta. Haven't seen any copulation No pup at the water's edge this morning. [[line across page to separate entries]] July 27th, 1895 [[end page]] [[start page]] Seals from Lukannon killed at village for food. [[chart]] [[3-column format. Vertical line separates columns 2 and 3. Column 3 figures are included in column 2, rejected as too large]] [[left margin, written vertically]] This is not the entire lot. [[/margin]] Killed Rejected Large ------ ------ ----- [[strikethrough]]10[[/strikethrough] 11} 61 1 12}=21 39 12 13 32 5 13 28 8 18 28 5 12 24 1 10 28 0 10 38 0 9 49 3 13 36 1 [[strikethrough]] 9 33 2 [[/strikethrough]] 9 53 2 ----- ----- ----- 128 416 128 ____ [[strikethrough]] 416)544 [[symbol for: 416 divided into 544]] [[/strikethrough]] 544) 1280 (23.5% 1088 ---- 1920 1632 ---- 2880
[[underlined]] Rejected pods [[/underlined]] (Those killed not counted) Too large Too small Total rejected 5 45 = 50 4 33 = 37 8 32 = 40 5 32 = 37 6 68 = 74 5 41 = 46 3 46 = 49 9 53 = 62 5 51 = 56 4 31 = 35 2 63 = 65 This page & the preceding relate to a killing at the village for food this morning, July 27 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]]. The seals were driven from Lukannon sometime this morning & the killing began about 8.30 A.M. I went [[end page]] [[start page]] back on the line of the drive & found one large & two small exhausted seals near the killing ground. These afterwards joined the drive again. They were only two or three hundred yards from the killing ground. Mr. Crowley, Capt. Drake, Mr. Townsend, Brown Redpath Judge & myself were present at the killing. Townsend did not see the first part. Judge came late. Brown remained [[strikethrough]] at [[/strikethrough]] a part of the time only. I counted 11 pods as above & got 23 1/2% [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] as the proportion [[strikethrough]] lit [[/strikethrough]] killed. This is probably a high estimate, as the later pods contained a very large number of rejected. The seals were noticeably
small. Crowley says Redpath calls the Lukannan hauling ground his "Kindergarten" on account of the large proportion of young seals. The killing presented the usual features. I did not think it was as well managed as some. The killers seemed sleepy. Crowley said the large proportion of young seals made the killing a difficult one & this seemed true. They piled up on each other when the pods were driven up, sometimes four deep & were very slow in leaving after the portions wanted were killed. Two were exhausted after rejected. One died & the other was killed. I heard [[end page]] [[start page]] of a third - Saw one [[insertion]] ^ rejected [[/insertion]] with bloody nose. Capt Drake was impressed by the piling up & struggling & asked me if I didn't think this was the worst feature of the drive. Looked over a hundred dead seals & found all males. When rejected, the seals moved over slowly to the lagoon entrance & were soon in the water. They began dolphin-jumps at once & went out to the south till out of sight. I did not see that any remained [[strikethrough]] at the [[/strikethrough]] about the Lagoon rookery. A few lay down a good deal in crossing the beach but finally got in the water, - they were both large & small ones which
were so exhausted. These did not begin dolphin jumps as the majority did. Townsend went round to [[insertion]] ^ Lukannan to [[/insertion]] see the seals haul up, as he stated it x I do not have much faith in their going around there at once, if at all. Capt. Drake is going to Unalaska to look after the sealing fleet. I understood he would go this morning but the surf was high & he did not go. I told him, on his enquiry, that [[strikethrough]] h [[/strikethrough]] if Prentiss remained on St. George a few days longer it would be no great matter. He will leave a note for [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] some one of the Revenue Marine cutters to bring [[strikethrough]] this off [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Prentiss back, if the Albatross does not get back in time. A considerable number of bachelors when killed this morning voided a yellow excrement. There was more of it this morning, it seemed to me, but I could not see how it differed in kind from that hitherto observed. Mr. Crowley made the same remark. Mr. Brown remarked that either the bachelors had the power of retaining excrement long, or had just come in fresh or had been out to feed recently -
July 27 1895 This afternoon to Ketaire. About 120 bachelors south of the point, a few of the back ones lying on grass. The cows are up to the line of the hindermost bulls all along. Saw only one copulation in 2 hours & that doubtfully successful, because hillside slippery. Tried twice - This was an upper bull - Three other upper bulls at sta. 14 are constantly smelling the cows but no copulation yet. Large numbers of cows must be at sea - Two cows to 50 pups is no unusual sight. Saw a cow [[strikethrough]] bite [[/strikethrough]] who [[end page]] [[start page]] was nursing [[insertion]] ^ her own pup [[/insertion]] bite at another pup that approached her. The upper pups slide down the slippery hills. Fam. no. 1 has a varying number of cows - just now there are 6 - The fam. is near the water. Fam. no. 2 has 22 cows. The next upper has 13 - There are not above 90 cows in this hillside between sta 14 & the cairn - At Lukannon saw two more copulations. In one case the bull mounted the same cow 3 times & did not seem satisfied at last. He seemed reluctant to begin.
Plenty of pups playing at the water's edge. Townsend reports no more bachelors in the hauling ground than this morning = about 200 - July 28. 1895 Sunday Rainy & foggy day - In the afternoon at 3 o'clock to Kelaire. Counted 150 pups to 37 cows under the cairn north of sta. 14, which shows to what an extent the cows have gone out, whether to feed or not I do not know, but they are gone. A dozen or two seals, presumably cows playing in the surf opposite this point I see one pup with [[end page]] [[start page]] a very fresh looking placenta attached, - must be just born. Fam. no. 2 is entirely broken up and the great flat rock on which it lay is bare. The bull with about 5 cows is lying on the edge. The cows remaining [[strikethrough]] have moved [[/strikethrough]] are as high up as the very top of the hillside both north & south of the cairn where I am sitting. The cows & pups seek out all the dry spots under the cliffs & cram themselves into them. Strange that such aquatic creatures should so dislike the rain. The whole rookery here looks deserted. The pups are getting large &
run about freely - The cows still on land mostly have their pups sleeping with them or nursing. July 29. 1895 Took a look a Zoltoi hauling ground from the northeast. Bachelors lying clear up into the grass, one old fellow sleeping actually in the high grass, which rose up all around him. The hauling ground appeared to be well covered (several hundred) except about the bluff on the east side. Found a dead fur-seal about 6 yrs. old on the rocks under village hill. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]] July 30. 1895 [[/underlined]] Fair, warm day. Afternoon stopped at Lukannon & Kelaire on way from Polovina. Counted 67 cows to 179 pups, which shows a large proportion of cows in the water. A good many playing in water in front or rookeries, others presumably at sea. All dry to-day in the sun- Mostly asleep. No copulation going on. Several youngish bulls wandering about in the [[strikethrough]] va [[/strikethrough]] vicinity of fam. no. 2 & swelling cows. The old bulls did not pay much attention to these younger males, but occasionally rose up & drove them off. The cows are away up to the top of the hillside.
Most of the bulls have a small number of cows around them, - from 3 to 13 or 14. The pups are playing about, but none in or near the water at this point. On the Lukannan hauling ground bachelors look scarce - A little troup at the top of the hill & some playing in the water. Elsewhere scattered - Between Lukannan & Rocky Pt. about 25 or 30 large bulls lying asleep on the sand; of these about 20 in one bunch & the rest scattered. These appear to be mostly old and worn out bulls. On stirring them up I found they were quite languid - One had almost lost his voice & his bellowing was feeble & [[end page]] [[start page]] comical. Two have the canines much worn. One had a swollen hind digit. All were much emaciated - Saw 7 dead fur seals on the [[strikethrough]] be [[/strikethrough]] sand; 5 pups near Polavina rookery & 2 oldish bulls further south. At Ketaire hauling ground a line of bachelors extended back a long distance across the "yellow grass" area - These bachelors move about a good deal & occupy much territory during the season. A Rocky pt. the carcasses of the seals killed June 24 are black and oily & the hair comes out of the head skin. They are not rapidly decomposing.
July 31. 1895 Lukannon Saw a pup pick up some small pebbles [[strikethrough]] on the [[/strikethrough]] from the ground and swallow them. Saw a cow with a white mark on the middle of her back. Ought to be easily identified- Some pups are dusky brown on the belly with whitish over back of the flippers. Others, less in number, are whitish over the belly & somewhat so on the throat, with very clear whitish below the flippers. Many have a whitish blotch above the corners of the mount. The cows are gray on the throat, light buff on the breast gray between the flippers, orange-buff on the belly. On some the [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil sketch of seal in water]] [[caption]] attitude of a seal in water [[/caption]
breast color is exceedingly pale, almost pure white & the belly color is buff. These are very gray, fresh-looking cows. I see a bull copulating. This is one of the lower bulls Some bulls are grayish all over. Others are ochre-brown with buff shoulders. Others are umber brown with ochre-yellow shoulders Some are dusky all over. Others are dusky with gray shoulder with a dark median line. The sun has come out and there is a rapid movement of cows toward the water; this is sudden & stirs up the bulls to attempt to prevent their going. I see a pup with a white mark on his back. [[end page]] [[start page]] Some pups playing at the water's edge among the rock, but they are not very venturesome. At Ketaire one copulation. The cows are largely off the grounds - The great flat rock occupied by Fam. no 2 is [[underlined]] bare [[/underlined]], only 2 cows lying on it & the bull with but 6 cows on the southwest edge. There is a band of 50 or more yearling bachelors up on the hill North of the cairn. There are a couple of youngish bulls wandering all over the rockery.
Aug 1st 1895. Fine day, warm. Drive from Zoltoi early this morning. Killing began at 5 A.M. Took record of portion killed & rejected, as below. The usual scenes,- crowding piling up three & four deep, bloody noses, etc. The seals went off into the water from the rocky beach west of Zoltoi. I watched them from the elevation above Zoltoi for about an hour. When they first reached the water they began dolphin-jumping toward the end of the Reef, but all or nearly all turned landward & landed down [[insertion]] at [[/insertion]] [[Gorbokly ?]] bay or circled round & came to land at Zoltoi. I suppose this is the last killing. Made some anatomical notes - [[end page]] [[start page]] 8 Aug 1. 1895 [[table with three columns]] [[column headings]] [[underlined]] Killer Rejecter Larger [[/underlined]] [[/column headings]] {1 bloody nose [[Killed Rejected Large]] 18 65 21 {1 bloody nose 10 32 7 11 32 4 11 35 3 10 50 4 {1 blind in one eye 15 56 8 9 35 6 4 31 9 9 27 5 7 33 5 ___ ___ 104 396 104 ____ 500 ) 3960 / 79.2 3300 ____ 4600 4500 ____ 1000
Aug 1st (continued) Examined a considerable number of stomachs, but found only one with a few decomposed fish bones in it. Aug 2nd 1895. Went to Lukannan & Kelaire trying to find an old bull suitable for mounting but could not find one in a favorable position & will wait 10 days- Saw two copulations, one on Lukannan & one on Kelaire- Counted 23 dead pups between Sta. 14 in Kelaire to Lukannan point. They were up on the higher parts of [[end page]] [[start page]] the rookery, - none in the water - Saw & killed a bull with festered fore-flippers- Saw a youngish bull hopping on three legs, the left [[strikethrough]] fr [[/strikethrough]] fore-flipper being useless & held up. Bachelors in considerable numbers wandering over the rookery near [[strikethrough]] Ke [[/strikethrough]] Lukannan pt. Saw one of the old breeding bulls go down to the water & get into it- Saw a bachelor worrying a pup. Some pups down at the water but none swimming- Saw one quite fresh placenta.
Aug. 3 1895 Bright. Sun shining - Went to the Reef - Zoltoi full of bachelors, but rather high up off the sand on the west side - When I returned the were gone from the sand cuting, even on the east side which seems a little odd. A great many were under the cliffs on the west side - I passed along the beach coming & going & scarcely disturbed a half dozen. I wanted particularly this morning to see how large a number of breeding bulls were hanging on the outskirts of the breeding grounds, [[strikethrough]] but [[/strikethrough]] & found where the matter could be satisfactorily examined (as at the [[end page]] [[start page]] maxser points at the end of the reef) there were very few indeed - On the great west hill-slope there were rather more, but as squads of bachelors were lying about there the observation was not as satisfactory - of course under the cliff there is no chance for unattached bulls except at the water's edge. Bachelors are lying behind the ramparts on the west side all along the Reef in bunches, almost down to the last cairn On the low level at the end of the Reef the bachelors were lying in two principal divisions east & west, & the between them was a greenish area of large extent Another matter to which
I paid special attention to the dead pups. I saw only a very few of these - perhaps half a dozen in all & these up high - Saw one copulation - Seals all sleeping a great deal this morning. Few pups down at the water - Saw a large bachelor sleeping on the top of a big rock wake up and void a large amount of urine & [[underlined]] rather watery yellow excrement [[/underlined]] - Aug 5. 1895 Kelaire - Took rookery soils Counted one family of 9 cows & 15 pups - One family of 9 cows & 25 pups [[end page]] [[start page]] Saw pups swimming in water free of the rocks - Saw a bachelor mount a pup - One group of about 10 cows without a bull, but two bachelors wandering about among them At Sta 14 counted 11 cows to 150 pups. The families here are entirely broken up. Fam. no 1 has only 1 cow. Fam. no. 2 seems to have united with the neck family. There are about 15 cows around on the edge of the great rock. A young bull located himself on the south side of the rock - Saw excrement on the [[strikethrough]] rock [[/strikethrough]] neck.
List of Stations on Ketaire from which samples of soil were obtained Aug 5, 1895. (See chart for location of stations). No. 1. Margin of cliff. 2. 50 feet inland 3. 100 feet " [[Ditto for: inland]] 4. 150 feet " [[Ditto for: inland]] 5. 200 feet " [[Ditto for: inland]] (not taken; same as no. 4). c. 250 feet inland [[double line]] 7. Edge of rookery. 8. 50 feet inland. 9. 100 feet " [[Ditto for: inland]] 10. 150 feet " [[Ditto for: inland]] In location including sta. [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 to 10, the first station (no. 7) was taken immediately below the uppermost harem. In location including sta. 1 to 6, the first is at the margin of a cliff below [[insertion]] ^ & against [[/insertion]] which the harems were located. There were no seals on the grounds from which the soils were taken. It is not necessary to suppose that these grounds were rookery - ground. Very probably one or bath were hauling grounds a some time in the immediate past, as bands of bachelors roam about at the back of this rookery still -
Aug. 6. 1895. Cold, rainy day. Wind from NW. Went to Kelaire at 10 A.M. Everyday about sta. 14 drenched with water- Cows more scattered than yesterday and way up under the shelter of the cavities in the cairn cliff, where there were none yesterday- Pup in about the same positions as yesterday, but rather higher up- Many down at the water's edge, & some swimming in the surf- The wet pups show their brown underfur, rather than their skin as I have somewhere previously stated. Nearly every cow, -2/3 of them at least, had their pups with them. Cows, bulls & pups [[end page]] [[start page]] were for the most part sitting with their noses up in the air on account of the rain. Curious & rather ludicrous attitude- Many pups suckling- [[strikethrough]] Pups [[/strikethrough]] Bulls smelling of the cows to a small extent, but no copulation- No dead pups at the waterline- Pups all look fat & hearty- The bachelors were all about the cairn, so I did not go up there. Sat below the sta. 14 hill till 11 o'clock & then went to Lukannan. At Lukannan below the west bluff the rocks are almost bare. One bull on the midst of a pod of pups. Pups swimming- one quite far out- No copulation- One pup lying down with terrible wound at
base of right [[insertion]] ^ fore [[/insertion]] flipper. A dead cow & a dead, decomposing bull in view (the latter seen before.) One or two dead pups, well back from the water. A good many young bulls have taken possession of a few females, especially near the water, but their possession is of short [[strikethrough]] div [[/strikethrough]] & uncertain duration. Bachelors wandering about back of the rookery- The main mass of bachelors lying well to the east to-day. On the sand of Lukannan bay some bulls hauled out but not more than some days ago. At Kelaire hauling ground the bachelors have extended an angle well back into the [[end page]] [[start page]] grass & some are wandering to & fro entirely on the grass; others at close up to the great rock (Sta. 14 1/2). Beyond southward, the bachelors extend scattered to the rocky ledge. On the latter quite a number are sleeping. On Lukannan saw some pups playing with red seaweed. Many seals in the water in front of the rookeries but none far out. The majority of pups very large but [[strikethrough]] saw [[/strikethrough]] a few quite small ones among them,- showing a difference in date of birth -
Aug. 9, 1895 Clear Went to Kelaire. The rookery looks broken up, so many cows are away. At station no. 14 fam. 1 has 5 cows; fam. 2 has about 13 cows. The next fam. above has only 3 cows. Bachelors are wandering over the rookery. The flat rock is bare except on the outer edge. I think fam. 2 has a different bull from the original one. It is probable that the Neck family which is entirely gone, united with the remnant of fam. 2 & the Neck [[strikethrough]] f [[/strikethrough]] bull presides over the whole. Pups swimming in great numbers. No new dead pups- Saw 2 females call their [[end page]] [[start page]] pups out of the pods & I think there is no doubt they know their own pups. No copulation & no new dead pups. Pups very large & fat. Bachelors over by Kelaire pt. are lying on the grass in a long angle. On the sta. 14 cairn they were numerous, so that I could not go up there this time.
Aug. 11 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] 1895. Took a look at the bachelors on Zoltoi sands. Counted & estimated the number to be about 1000. Mostly asleep. All [[strikethrough]] zi [[/strikethrough]] sizes. Some dragging hind flippers. This seems to be a favorite movement on the sand where travelling is difficult. Saw "stagey" skins - [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug. 12. 1895 Kelaire Sta. 14. Clear sunny day. 70 cows to 400 pups. Rookery looks deserted. Fam. no. 1 has about 2 cows. Fam. 2 has 12 cows. There are a few cows again on the Neck this morning. On the rocky pt. & rocky island are a considerable number of cows with pups. The upper stations on the hillside are deserted. There are no bulls above the line of the base of the cairn cliff & no cows except a very few in crevices of the bluff. The same is true of the hillside north of the cairn bluff. Saw a cow void excrement. There are only 4 bulls
from the [[strikethrough]] Neck [[/strikethrough]] Neck upward this morning, viz bull no. 1, bull no. 2. One considerably higher up and one over toward the base of the cairn bluff. 35 Bachelors lying on top of the cairn bluff this morning. At the Lukannon sands there are 400 bachelors. This number just about fills up the sand from the edge of the [[strikethrough]] rookery [[/strikethrough]] hillside hauling-ground to the rocky pt. toward Lukannon bay. On the hillside are about 500 or 600 more, but they can not be counted. When I came up they were practically [[underlined]] all [[/underlined]] lying down asleep & there was scarcely [[end page]] [[start page]] a sound to be heard. There are [[underlined]] none [[underlined]] in the water opposite. Aug. 13. 1895 Went over to Lukannon Bay to get a bull-seal. There were about 500 bachelors on the beach & at least an equal number (probably, more) on the hillside. Got a bull, as follows, Ft & 10/10 Total length to end of hind flippers 9.0 " " " " " [[Ditto for: Total length to end of tail]] 7.2 Breadth between outstretched fore flippers 6.3 Top of humerus to end of " " [[Ditto for: fore flippers]] 2.95 Breadth between " " [[Ditto for: fore flippers]] 2.0 " [[Ditto for: Breadth]] of foreflipper at base 0.65 Nose to head of humerus (while on back) } 2.8
(cont.) Ft. & 10/10 Nose to eye 0.4 " " [[Dittos for: Nose to]] ear 0.8 " " [[Dittos for: Nose to]] margin of lip 0.175 scant Length of mouth 0.325 Girth at eyes (hair pressed) 1.55 " [[Ditto for: Girth]] behind ear (" [[Ditto for: hair pressed]] ) 2.25 Shoulder girth 5.3 Girth in front of hind flipper 2.0 Head of tibia bend of limb }3.1 [[strikethrough]] Girth of hin [[/strikethrough]] flipper } Girth at head of tibia 3.4 [[underlined]] Aug 14. 1895 [[/underlined]] Watched Dr. Voss & Mr. Judge shooting] near ice-house lake killing-ground. The hauling-ground of Lukannon was in plain sight & wind flowing toward it. The hunters shot seven or eight [[end page]] [[start page]] times & I saw a slight movement on the part of the seals, but nothing that could be called a genuine alarm or panic. [[underlined]] Aug [[/underlined]] 15. [[underlined]] 1895 [[/underlined]]. About [[strikethrough]] T [[/strikethrough]] Tolstoi- This rookery has changed greatly since I last saw it. The cows have climbed up beyond Townsend's recent marks in several places & one group (to be watched against presently) was up at the great rock at the top of the hillside- The bachelors have almost deserted the hauling-ground immediately adjoining the rookery on the north- There were only 80 there today. On the hillside & beach beyond were 330 more. I
counted them all. The pup were either near the water or swimming in it & only a small proportion being on the hillside. The cows are out in great numbers. The whole appearance of the rookery is broken and confused - The great wedges of cows [[strikethrough]] have [[/strikethrough]] at the north end of the rookery have gone entirely but there is still one considerable bunch there. One thing that puzzed me was the composition of some of the upper harems. These were presided over by youngish bulls & were made up of both cows and bachelors. There were certainly both males & [[end page]] [[start page]] females in these groups, but no pups - The presiding bull snapped & roared at the cows as usual but did not appear to have very good control of them & stopped now & then to chase a bachelor off. It looked as if the "half -bulls" were playing at holding harems & [[strikethrough]] no [[/strikethrough]] were not sufficiently in earnest of keep out the bachelors. The family mentioned above was such a one. D.W.P. were almost near enough to touch some of it members & decided that part were males & part females. There was one pup in this lot when I first saw it- The absence of cows is [[strikethrough]] one of the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] the [[/underlined]] striking feature now.
I counted 70 dead pups at the north end of the rookery & saw about 25 more a little to the south, - about 100 in all, This is perhaps no more than should be present without reference to the killing of cows at sea, considering the great mass of cows located here earlier in the season. The living pups seem fat and strong - I did not see any dead ones on the hill-side part of the rookery - I watched seals swim (from Tolstoi cliffs) & saw that the used there fore flippers as a bird uses its wing, maker very vigorous backward strokes [[end page]] [[start page]] with them. On the Lagoon rookery the bachelors has started a path through the grass down to the water obliquely with the west limit of the hauling-ground. There are several hundred bachelors in this rookery, but hard to count. The harems have come over the cress of the reef especially east end, & quantity of pups are swimming in the lagoon at that end of the rookery - Tried to approach them in a boat but could not get near enough to touch them-
[[underlined]] Aug, 16. 1895 [[/underlined]] Cold stormy day, rain & wind from East. Looked at bachelors on Zoltoi & saw that a fair proportion of them were on land, but mostly on the hillside, - few on the sand - Over at the reef little clouds of steam hung over the areas on the hill slope that are accepted by seals, - giving a very curious appearance - Went to Kelaire. Surf very high - Seals all high up, even to the top of the hill as sta. 14. The bulls of fam. nos. 1 & 2 have left. The upper ones are still there & three or four younger ones have come in- [[end page]] [[start page]] Saw 60 cows to 25 pups in one place & 100 cows to 25 pups in another. Pups largely down at the water but none swimming- too rough- Bachelors lying about the top of sta. 14 & also on the cairn - bluff. Pups in good fat condition. [[strikethrough]] Few [[/strikethrough]] No new dead ones. Aug, 22[[superscript]] d [[/superscript]] - 1895. Went sketching at black bluff piniacle & found the pups swimming there in considerable numbers & landing on the rocks about the piniacle. They were not frightened until I got within a few feet of them. They swim well now & bolt
or jump dolphin fashion like the old ones- Yesterday DWP & I killed a cow seal & pup on the Kelaine rookery. (Notes on them are in the var. history note-book.) The noise of the rifle (shot 3 times) did not disturb the seals and we had to go in among the pups to get them to move. The pup we killed had gray on the breast. [[underlined]] Aug [[/underlined]] 23. [[underlined]] 1895 [[/underlined]] Rain [[underlined]] Albatross [[/underlined]] came in this morning. Went to Reef rookery with Capt. Drake Mr. Townsend & Mr. [[Gorsley?]] Crossed Zoelion sand [[end page]] [[start page]] & should think there were 1000 to 1200 seals there- All sizes, but many small ones- They were mostly on the hillside & in the slide on the East side & to the north of the path- On the reef everything broken up. Seals scattered practically evenly from the water up to the upper level- Plently of water & wind on the lower level. Pups well back- Quite a bunch on the N.W. corner of the lower level- Saw very few dead pups. The most of the pups seemed well nourished- Townsend pointed out the area on the "parade" marked by four cairns which was
devoid of grass in 1891. Now at least [[half?]] of the area is grass [[strikethrough]] gro [[/strikethrough]] covered. Went to Kelarie in the afternoon. At sta. 14 fams. nos. 1 & 2 are entirely broken up. The flat rock is bare, except for 5 or 6 pups. Many pups down at the water's edge at the location of fam. no. 1 & 2 & more swimming_ Bachelors & pups wandering all over the rookery _ Counted 122 pups to 19 cows in one area. There are now no large bulls on the hillside or anywhere else except one under cairn - [[strikethrough]] f [[/strikethrough]] bluff _ There are pups all the [[end page]] [[start page]] way up to the top of the hillside. Bachelors were wandering out to the rocky point & it is impossible to say whether the seals now there are cows or bachelors. No new dead pups seen. Pups look in good condition _ They are on the breeding ground. Went on board the [[underline]] Albatross [[/underline]] at 5 PM. & sailed about 7.30 PM. Last sight was East Landy and Black Bluff _ Good bye, St. Paul!
Last killings on St. Paul (Some of these are probably already given in the earlier pages. I copied several to be sure I had them all). [[underlined]] Total killed [[/underlined]] Undersize [[underlined]] Rejected [[/underlined]] July 15 Reef 1138 10 " [[Ditto for: July]] 17. Halford, Rt. 324 5 " [[Ditto for: July]] 19. Zaphadnie 834 8 " [[Ditto for: July]] 22. N.E. Pl. 827 5 " [[Ditto for: July]] 27 Lukannon 286 - Aug 1. Reef 185 - Total for year 1895, beginning May 27 - 12,500 seals [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[part of clipping]] The [[line]] Four-legged vomero-palatine sphenoid in two too About thirty sp family which in its confined to Europe India, and in North resented by two spe or terrestrial; perfec [[/clipping]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
Fa [[end page]] [[start page]] of life that the eye perceive but the sound of the seals on Kelarie rookery comes plainly to the ear - Back of [[strikethrough]] this roo [[/strikethrough]] the bare dull brown ground of the rookery the grass is low and green but it merges soon into the straw brown of the dead [[underlined]] Elymus [[/underlined]]. All the distant hills & valleys are brown with here & there green dots [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] and patches - A fox trots out on [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] one quite bare, [[strikethrough]] pro [[/strikethrough]] sulphury-brown projecting ridges of the bluff & disappears again. A roseate finch flies overhead - A bee hums by- Beyond the sulphury brown ridge a mass of scoria forms the top of the bluffs brick- red in color. The lichens on the curious pinnacle rock beyond are bright yellow-brown - & a cap of brown-green [[underlined]] Elymus [[/underlined]] rests on it like a thatched roof.
July 13. 1895 At the top of Black Bluffs, 3.30 P.M- A clear, beautiful day, warm in the sun but a cold breeze so that I am wearing a winter overcoat & two pair of drawers without discomfort! Looking off across the water I can see very distinct the island of St. George & the snow patches upon it. The sea is perfectly quite or rather with [[image - pencil drawing of the island of St. George]] the lightest ruffles upon it & the slight surf on the beach comes from the long rolling waves. The water is blue with a purplish tinge, except near shore where the rocks with yellowish-white incruslation lend to it a greenish tint- A kittiwake [[strikethrough]] fly [[/strikethrough]] here & there & a few seals playing here and there are the only evidences [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
Walrus skulls St. Paul Id. Alaska 1895 Greatest length Greatest mastoid breadth 390 mm. 320 mm. 370 265 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[blank back cover]]
[[Front cover of notebook]] D.W.[[F.T?]] 1895 U.S. [[preprinted]] Sterling [[image]] [[/preprinted]]
[Frederick W. True U. S. Fish Commission Washington, D.C.] [1895] 80 250 80 [[line]] 410 [[end page]] [[start page]] June 26th on a drive from Rocky pt. I saw four (4) young foxes in one bunch, got out of the wagon and handled one, he was about the size of a half grown kitten, soft [[strikethrough]] gray and [[/strikethrough]] mouse colored fur; a little farther on I saw two other young foxes. June 27th. Saw three (3) foxes, full grown, on a walk from Halfway house to N.E. Pt. Saw several schools of seals going southward, none going northward. June 28th Cold & cloudy, no fog at 6:30 A.M. at N.E. Pt. Rookery opposite House on north shore, I only visited the extreme north points. At the small rookery where the whale skeleton is, there were twenty males of which number only two had harems with about ten females in one and only two in the other harem.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] I saw only three fights while I was there. There is no snow on the rookeries as far as I could see to the north east and none here. One male made a landing without interference. Saw one fox wandering about the rookery. There are no pups in either harem as far as I could see. There is one big grey bull seems to be the liveliest but he has no harem. Most of the (males) [[insertion]] bulls [[/insertion] have have stations and some are asleep, almost all are inactive. There are a number of Harems near the waters edge that I did not observe at first [[end page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] In a third harem there were five cows with one pup apparently two or three days old. There is one bull on a rock about one hundred yards out he has nine females on the rocks (for there are (3) in that bunch with no other bull on them) Saw a small female bite at a bull who grabbed her by the neck and shook her this was repeated three times. [There is a small but thickly settled rookery about three forth of a mile to the left of the skeleton with quite a number of bachelors. About the same distance to the right with few bulls and about two dozen bachelors.] One last years pup wandering about with no object.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] A few seal swimming about but not trying to land. One of the inactive bulls did a good deal of sneezing. It look very strange to see a seal double over his hind flipper and scratch himself. There is a great variation in color of the bulls from one very light grey all over to one a light chestnut brown. A bull has taken possession of the second rock in the group of three. There is a great deal of fighting among the females of one of the harems. Left the rookery at 8. a.m. on account of cold.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 1st 95. One hill [[insertion]] Telegraph Hill. [[/insertion]] back of [[strikethrough]] Reef [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Lagoon [[/insertion]] rookery I found the nest of the lapland longspur with five young birds partly fledged, on the 27th [[insertion]] of June [[/insertion]] near the sea level Mr. True found a nest containing six eggs. There are three nests of the gray eared finch in the cliff of Black bluff. July 2nd Saw first black breasted turnstone. Found nest of lapland longspur with six eggs. Collected one young (about two weeks old) of the Prybilof sandpiper. Hunted for snow buntings nest with out finding one saw about 20 birds.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The Prybilof sandpiper has a curious habit of extending on wing directly upward and holding it there for some time. The male Lapland longspur has a habit of [[strikethrough]] flying [[/strikethrough]] rising upward against the wind for about 50 ft. and then extending his wings and drifting to the ground singing all the way down. July 6th walked from N.E. Point to village around the north shore. Saw 6 foxes. At a fox hole I found a young fox with his entrails and one front leg gone, when I came upon it I heard a scurry and went to the place where I heard it the fox was out of sight before I got there but the dead young
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] had the appearance of being freshly torn open. I cut off the head and saved it. On north shore I found the nest of the Prybilof [[erased word under "Prybilof"]] sandpiper containing 4 eggs Found nest of lapland long spur with three eggs, left it, as a clutch appears to be 5 or 6 Birds seen today. 1 guillemot (black) 2 paraquet auk 3 chooskie (least auk) 4 chikie (Glauceous winged) 5 Black legged kittiwake 6 Red " " [[Dittos for: legged kittiwake]] 7 Puffin (Horned) 8 Prybilof [[erased word under "Prybilof"]] sandpiper 9 longtailed duck 10 Duck sitting on rocks along the beach. (Harlequin)
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 11 Lapland longspur 12 Rosy finch 13 snow bunting (Townsendi) 14 a gull I could not obtain and which I do not know (Boneparts) Saw the egg of the guillemot, very large brown mottled egg to far off to see much more. 15 Ring Plover (aeg. semipalmatus.) 16 Cormorant spec. unknown. July 8-1895 I examined the stomachs of two Prybilof sandpipers. one contained about ten large whitish larvae. the second, the remains of numerous small black beetles; in both cases the stomach was well filled.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] I found the nest of the Prybilof sandpiper onthe 6th of July it contained four [[insertion]] eggs [[/insertion]] well advanced in incubation I also found a young sandpiper (Prybilof) which was about one week older than the one [[insertion]] (no. 73) [[/insertion]] I took on the east shore on the 2nd. I have found the nest of the Lapland longspur as follows; - [[strikethrough]] (1) [[/strikethrough]] No. 4 Set 13 on the 2nd of July six eggs incub. well begun. No. 5 Set 14 on July 3rd six eggs incub. fresh. both nests were taken from the southeast part of the Id. On July 1st I found on Telegraph hill near the top a nest of the Sap. longspur with five young partly fledged. I did not disturb it. The first two nests were nearly on the sea level. the third some hundred feet up.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] On the 6th of July I found the nest of a lap. longspur on the north west shore near north hill, it contained three eggs, propabably fresh, which I left. [[strikethrough]] There seems to be a very great difference in the breeding of the birds time [[/strikethrough]] July 9th 1895 I have had no chance to go out after phalaropes today, which I have been told, are arriving in quite large flocks.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 15 1895 Started from the village at 2: A.M. to see a drive from the reef rookerys. Seals seemed to stand the drive very well, few seemed tired. A number were seen by Mr. Brown with shot wounds. I saw one which had the right hind flipper entirely cut off, the [[strikethrough]] wa [[/strikethrough]] wound seemed partly healed, it did not affect his travelling, he kept up with the rest when turned away on account of undersize. Thirty or forty of those turned away, when they enter [[partially erased]] ed [[/partially erased]] the water, swim around quietly, and play. The ground over which the drive was made
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] was, on the whole very good mostly sand or short grass, with a rocky patch here & there.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil sketch of fur seal on ice flow, viewed from above.]] [[Signed]] DWPJr [[/signed]] [[caption]] Fur seal. [[/caption]] [[image - pencil sketch of fur seal viewed from above and behind.]] [[signed]] D.W.P. Jr [[/signed]] [[caption]] Fur seal [[/caption]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil sketch of a Paraquet auk.]] [[caption]] Paraquet auk [[/caption]] [[signed]] D.W.P. Jr [[/signed]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] St. George Id, Alaska July 21 1895 At 7:30 P.M. started from village with men to make a drive. Arrived at a small bunch of seals (bachelor) at 7:45 at [[strikethrough]] Starry artetel [[/strikethrough]] north rookery; they are hemmed in [[insertion]] ^ in [[/insertion]] is three minutes. At. 7:10 [[insertion]] ^ PM. [[/insertion]] another bunch was wound up a few hundred yards on, this time about 100 females were set going toward the sea [[strikethrough]] to try [[/strikethrough]] by the men getting too close I watched these females but none took [[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] to the water. About five harems were stampeded and all was confusion, bulls rushing around trying to retain their cows, fighting with every bull
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] he could get near enough to, all keeping up an incessant noise. At 8:45 [[insertion]] ^ PM, [[/insertion]] another wind up was made at [[strikethrough]] Starry atoll north rookerey [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] stet [[Starry Atoll]] [[/insertion]] few harems were disturbed. This bunch about equalled the other two together, Very [[insertion]] ^ few [[/insertion]] "over-size" seals were among the last bunch. Small ones were numerous in all three bunches. This bunch was driven through a lake to begin with then up a 50 ft. hill, rocky, then we hurried somewhat more than those driven at St. Paul. The drivers do not seem to be so careful, which driving, in reference to the [[strikethrough]] gor [[/strikethrough]] wel[[strikethrough]] l [[/strikethrough]]fare
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of the seals. They are certainly not as good drivers as those at St. Paul. Three bulls cut out, up to 9:10 P.M. After they got to the top of the hill, the stowed up some, The ground from the top of the hill for half a mile or more was little knolls, often of rocks covered with grass and weeds, it was rather rough 9:30 [[insertion]] ^ P.M. [[/insertion]] stopped for 15 min. At 10:30 P.M. I left the drive which got in [[insertion]] ^ to village killing-ground [[/insertion]] at 5:30 A.M. At 7:30 [[insertion]] A.M. [[/insertion]] the killing started. Only one seal died on drive from Starry Arteel:
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 22/1895 St. George [[table]] [[first column]] Killed 29 13 14 7 6 10 6 9 10 11 15 5 6 17 6 12 19 7 10 ___ 212 [[/first column]] [[second column]] {Rejected or turned out 13 13 10 29 18 12 33 34 36 22 29 45 48 44 30 30 32 36 27 ___ 531 [[/second column]] [[third column]] Killed 7 15 12 5 3 3 8 7 1 5 6 8 2 1 2 4 ___ 89 [[/third column]] [[fourth column]] {Rejected or turned out 40 29 36 20 21 30 41 32 22 24 26 26 27 24 20 23 ___ 441 [[/fourth column]] 5 Total killed 301 8 Total turned away 972
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The killing was over at 9:45 A.M. One female was found in the drive. (Authority Capt. Webster) I saw four (4) undersized seals with bad sores on their sides. Buckshot was taken from one. Did not see it taken out myself- The actual no. killed was 278. [[strikethrough]] I tr [[/strikethrough]] It was very hard to count those killed, as the fresh bunch was driven very close to the last one often overlapping. The numbers of those are not absolutely correct. The weather this morning was cold and rainy. It rained all through the killing.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The seals were very fresh and lively when brought up for killing, none tired out. I only saw one large bull, he was evidently too small for a place on the rookeries, those bulls turned away were none over five years old. The [[strikethrough]] habit of [[/strikethrough]] throwing of the poles at a killing size seal which is overlooked and is turned loose, is not practiced here as at St. Paul. as far as I have seen. One obstinate little seal which would not go with those turned out was hit quite hard on the throat and then dragged away, he was al-
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] most insensible, and seemed very weak for some little time afterward. One undersized seal [[strikethrough]] was [[/strikethrough]] had his nose broken by mistake the blood was pouring out of his nostrils, otherwise it did not affect him, he was turned loose. [[line across page]] Found the nest of lapland longspur today only one young bird, no feathers. [[line across page]] July 23 1895. I watched the bird cliffs east of the village, countless 'arries' and other birds all seemed to have eggs I saw no young birds. Yesterday saw a gull, a little smaller than a red-leg kittiwake, it had a black head and
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] black tips on the wings considerably larger than on the red-leg, also had some black on ends of secondaries. July 23-1895 St. George Id. at 3:30 I arrived at Sea lion rookery. The sea lions are in such a mixed up family I cant distinguish one family from another. In the rookery to the south of the point and about 300 yds from it, there are 98 sea lions of which about 22 are [[strikethrough]] fathers [[/strikethrough]] bulls, the remainder are females and young. At 3:50 an old bull sea-lion came up out of the water and immediatly went
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] to sleep. For ten minutes at a time not one [[strikethrough]] of the [[/strikethrough]] stirs, sometimes two or three are sitting up. I saw two sham fights between bulls, a great deal of grunting and grumbling was all except a swap or two, neither was hurt. They dont seen to mind the seals at all, several seals picked their way carefully among them until they reached the water. All were lying [[strikethrough]] while [[/strikethrough]] with in a few yards of [[strikethrough]] th [[/strikethrough]] high water mark, it is now rising tide and some are washed by the waves. At 4:05 one bull took
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] to the water and played around a few yards from shore, just like a seal. Turning over and over, swimming on his back, floating & drifting about Out at the point I can see a bull & a cow in the surf. A little seal pup strayed up with in three feet of the sea lions, its mother chased it grabbed it by the hind flipper and threw it ten feet back, but the pup insisted in going among the sea-lions, it finally got between two sleeping cows but the pup mother went in after and carried it from between them and then tossed it some feet away, when the
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] pup landed it rolled over and got up but the mother was already up to it, so that it had to submit. It tried very hard to get between the sea-lions. I can see no very small sea-lions none as small as a cow seal, and only two or three as small a a bull seal. At 4:20 I saw two sea lions (looked like cows) swimming around looking for a place to land. They finally disappeared around the bluff. It has been foggy all day and continues so. I see one bull seal with one cow back from the water about 200 yds and fully 100 yds from any other seals, on perfectly green
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Birds [[left margin]] R.R. [[/left margin]] Gyrfalcon Rogers fulmar Black throated diver Eggs [[left margin]] C. B. [[/left margin]] winter wren gray - eared finch snow bunting lapland long spur Birds [[left margin]] C. W. R. [[/left margin]] [[two columns - first column]] winter wren gray eared finch snow bunting laplong spur turnstone thick billed sandpiper longtailed duck Harelquin duck Red faced cormorant [[underlined]] All petrels [[/underlined]] [[/first column]] [[second column]] Rodgers fulmar Chikie Pacifci kittiwake Redlegged " [[Ditto for: kittiwake]] Horned puffin Parroquet auk crested auk least " [[Ditto for: auk]] Arrie (guillemots) [[/second column]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] grass with no bare places or rocks near. A fox has been roaming about through the rookery for half an hour, apparently unnoticed by the seals (fur). A bull seal (fur) landed and in going up the shingle [[strikethrough]] woke [[/strikethrough]] waked up a cow sea-lion which got mad and it looked for a few minutes as though there would be a fight, the bull seal did not seem to be afraid the faced each other and snapped but it ended by the sealion moving a few feet and lying down. C At 4:40 every thing is quiet except for the fur seals. Another sea lion has taken to the
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] water. Three are now playing near shore. A five year old bull seal has just been chased among the sea lions by another bull, in his hurry to get out of his way, he stepped on the head of a cow sea lion, which raised its head and then went to sleep again. She did not seem to mind the interruption to her sleep. At no place along the beach can I see a sea lion farther back from the water than (20) twenty yards. Another sea lion disturbed by a seal, she did not resent it. When a sea lion calls or rather grunts a noise very much like a that made by a hog
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] he shakes his head slowly up and down which interups the noise and make a series of grunts. Those that are awake seem to have a good many vermin by the amount of scratching that is done. When they move it seems to take all their strength to go a few feet, I have not seen one move over ten feet since I have been here. They are very clumsy and all seem to be very fat. Out at the point there is more life among the sea lions than here. At 5 P.M. another sea lion went out into the water followed
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] a few minutes later by another. I have seen [[strikethrough]] none [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] nothing [[/insertion]] of the last five or six which have taken to the water, they have not hauled out yet. The fur seal harems which are close to the water have not spread at all, those farther back have spread by there are no pup among them. They are not bachelors for bulls are guarding them as far as possible. 5:05 three seal lions [[strikethrough]] are [[/strikethrough]] have come along shore and passed around the bluff to the right I have seen only six (6) cow seals fresh from the sea, they were very light gray. Up to 5:15 the harems of the seals have been very quiet
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] have seen no cows stolen from harems. Very few pup have been crying until now, now I can hear quite a number but can hear no answering cry of cows. At 5:15 there were [[strikethrough]] four [[/strikethrough]] four sea lions in the water just outside the rookery, one cow came ashore, leaving another cow and two bulls in the water. Every thing was quiet in both rookeries, seal & sea-lion when I left at 5:20 On the way back to the villege I saw a flock of about fifty (50) snipe with [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] black[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] brests.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 26 / 1895. St. George [[insertion]] Id. [[/insertion]] Alaska I visited the school, here today, there were about 18 pupils all natives, very carelessly dressed, both boys & girls'; two were very bright the rest were not shining stars. They can read quite well and could write. The children a very restless. All hate school. At 10:15 I started for Zapadine arrived there [[strikethrough]] abou [[/strikethrough]] a little 1. P.M. There was no snow on the rookery although to the south west below the cliffs there was a great deal down to the waters edge. The rookery seemed to be well filled, most of the harems had not scattered much, the place was quite lively with aplent of noise. I could hear & smell them when I was two miles to the
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] lee of them Birds seen: - 1 northern phalesope 1 2 Red " [[Ditto for: phalesope]] - 3 Snipe (Black neck & [[strikethrough]] yellow [[/strikethrough]] orange legs 100 4 Giullemot - 5 Horned puffin 2 6 (Black) " [[Ditto for: puffin]] 1 7 Snow buntings - 8 Lapland longspur - 9 Least auk - 10 Crested " [[Ditto for: auk]] - 11 Parreaquet " [[Ditto for: auk]] - 12 Red legged kittwake - 13 black " " [[Ditto for: legged kittwake]] - 14 Gull (black head) 1 15 Prylbilof sandpiper 4 I also saw one lemming.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil drawing of puffin]] [[signature]] D.W.P.Tr [[/signature]] Horned Puffin
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 31 1895 St. George Id. Alaska. Sea lion rookery of East Pt. arrived here 2:20 P.M. There is quite a heavy fog near the water but up on the hills it is bright & warm (about 52°) The rookery is quite lively and noisy, sea lions are continually going out & coming in. These are about the same no. as when I was here befor (100). About 20 sea lions are playing about in the water now. There are hundreds of seals sporting near shore, there are going and coming all the time with out a brake. Almost all the seal harems have two or more wet cows in them.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] There is one sea lion harem by itself, one bull & 20 cows & pups. [[image - pencil sketch of variously sized sea lions on rocks]] Sea lions D.W.P, Jr The proportion of pups to cows in the seal harems is more than 5:1. Cows are are all the time trying to brake loose and get to the water, the bulls have a hard time keeping them in subjection.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 2:50 the fog has lifted and the sun is very hot. All the cow seals are restless almost none are asleep. The water is literally black with seals for 200 & 300 yards out. I hear very few pups calling. 3: P.M. I left to hunt up sea lion rookery at Garden Cove. Was unable to find the Rookery. [[image - pencil sketch of a bird]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil drawing of bird]] [[signature]] D.W.P.Jr [[/signature]] [[caption]] arrie. [[/caption]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [image - pencil drawing of seal sitting up] Spec. no. 30. [[strikethrough]] July [[/strikethrough]] Aug 2 1895 dia. of eye (extreme) 1.5 inches " [[Ditto for: dia.]] of iris (max) 1.1 " [[Ditto for: inches]] " " " [[Ditto for: dia. of iris]] (min) [[strikethrough]] 7 [[/strikethrough]] .9
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Ketavie Aug 5 1895 Station Location. 1 Margin of cliff 2 50 ft back 3 100 ft " [[Ditto for: back]] 4 150 5 same as (4) [in soil.] 200 6 250 ft. [[strikethrough]] 7 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] 8 [[/strikethrough]] 7 edge of rookery 8 50 ft from " [[Ditto for: rookery]] 9 100 ft " [[Ditto for: from rookery]] 10 150 ft. Specimens of Rookery Soils.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug 5 is a cold, foggy day with slight wind from the S.E. The rookeries are very quiet, nearly all the cows are asleep. Pups were swimming in the [[strikethrough]] f [[/strikethorugh]] bights, they played around for some time befor coming out. They were quite expert swimmers although the did not keep their head under water more than 30 seconds at a time.
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[[underlined]] Observe [[/underlined]] Whether many breeding bulls are already on the rookery; & many or few trying to land- How many bulls have cows & the maximum, minimum & average number of the latter Whether any pups are born; how many in proportion to cows in any one harem. X Abundance or otherwise of bachelors on the hauling grounds - How much snow is on the rookeries -Whether the bulls are fighting - [[line across page]] X Also how old the majority of pups are - [[line across page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[blank page]] [[start page]] [[end page]] [[preprinted]] THE GRAND HOTEL, LIMITED Nos. 18, 19, & 20, Bund, Yokohama. Steam Launch and Coolie hire for Luggage ^[[to S.S Gaclie]] ^[[2.00]] Mr. ^[[L Sleppinger]] Room No. [[/preprinted]]
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August 15 1895 Tolstoi - Bachelors at north of rookery 80. Beyond on the beach & hill are 330 - Total 410. [[line across page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
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Aug 14. 1895 Bull seal Lukanon Bay - Yr & 10/10 Total length to end of hind flipper 9. " " " " " [[Dittos for: Total length to end of]] tail 7.2 Breadth between outstretched [[insertion]] fore [[/insertion]] flippers 6.3 Top of humerus to end of fore flipper 2.95 Breadth between flippers 2.0 " [[Ditto for: Breadth]] of [[insertion]] ^ fore [[/insertion]] flipper at base 0.65 Nose to bead of humerus } (when on back) } 2.8 Nose to eye .4 " " [[Ditto for: Nose to]] ear .8 " " [[Ditto for: Nose to]] margin of lip .175 scant Length of mouth .325 Girth of eyes (hair pressed) 1.55 " [[Ditto for: Girth]] behind ear (" [[Ditto for: hair pressed]]) 2.25 Shoulder girth 5.3 Girth in front of hind flippers 2.0 Head of tibia to end of hind flipper 3.1 Girth at head of tibia 3.4 [[end page]] [[start page]] Northeast Pl. [[underlined]] Sta. 5. [[/underlined]] 1894 - July 13 1895 " [[Ditto for: July]] 24 [[underlined]] shrinkage very noticeable throughout [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] 18 [[/strikethrough]] Sta. 25 1894 - July 13 1895 " [[Ditto for: July]] 24 Not a very good point for observation but some decrease noticeable Not very distinct [[line across page]] Sta. 6 Data as before Not good for comparison [[line across page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]] N. E. Pt. [[/underlined]] Sta. 4. Dates as before - Shows marked decrease throughout. No bulls back of harems. [[line across page]] Sta. 3. Dates as before - Has withdrawn in 1895 from hillslope at North of photo. [[line across page]] Sta. 2 (North. Dates as before - Have drawn back a little at South but not clear. [[line across page]] Sta. 2 (South) As before. - not much to see but no apparent charge -
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Keraire Sta 13 1894 July 15 1895 July 20 Uncertain [[line across page]] Sta. 14 [[strikethrough]] 1894 [[/strikethrough]] Same dates Shows a general decrease [[line across page]] Sta. 14 1/2 Same dates Shows a general decrease [[line across page]] Sta 15 Same dates Shows general decrease [[line across page]] Reef Sta 16 Same dates Distant hill slope less occupied
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Polovina?]] Sta 23. Not good [[line across page]] Sta 21 1894 July 13 1895 " [[Ditto for: July]] 26 Shows decrease especially at right end. [[line across page]] Lukann Sta 12 1894 July 15 1895 " [[Ditto for: July]] 20 Does not show much clearly except decrease in foreground. [[line across page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] M. C. Pt. Sta. 1. Dates as before. Decrease & squad at south gone in 1895 [[line across page]] Polacrea Sta G 1894 - July 26 1895 - " [[Ditto for: July]] 26 Shows great decrease everywhere No seals back to the rocks this year [[line across page]] Sta 24. 1894 July 13 1895 " [[Ditto for: July]] 24 Not good for comparison [[line across page]]
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