Diary, August 31-September 8, 1908 and itinerary from Bering Island

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This field book is a diary kept by Stejneger during his trip to Nikolski (Nikol’skoye) Bering Island (Ostrov Beringa) to study fur seals in 1908 (this year is questionable). The notebook is dated 31 August to 08 September. Stejneger's notes provide a daily account of his experiences, including observations of the seals and their environment, and of the processes of the killing of seals and collecting of seal skins. Many of Stejneger's notes are reflective, and he comments on the massive killing of fur seals he witnesses.

Date Range


Start Date

Aug 31, 1908

End Date

Sep 08, 1908

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Northern fur seal
  • Zoology
  • Zoologists


  • Nikol’skoye
  • Beringa, ostrov
  • Russia


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007074

Collection name

Leonhard Stejneger Papers, 1753, 1867-1943

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 26 Folder 7

V. 1908 Bering Id
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 17 08. Reef [[strikethrough]] Reef. [[/strikethrough]] & [[Kisotch?]] 733 [[okin?]] 8 -53; 9, 110; 10, 138, 11, 211; 12, 161; 13, 50; 14lbs 10 st. Reef 418 Total driven 2537 Kis. 315 Rikal 13 } malki 1738 } 733 hol. godovik 23 } pups 35 } [[line across page]] July 21. 08. Reef. 616 [[okins?]] [[insertion]] fig 2 [[/insertion]] _ 8, 42; 9, 54; 10, 140; 11, 150; 12, 140; 13, 90 lbs. total driven 2141 Ick. 8 } Malki 1436 } 616 hol. godov. 14 } pups 67 }
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 23 o.s. [[strikethrough]] Reef & [[/strikethrough]] Kis. [[insertion]] Aug 4 [[/insertion]] 217 skins. 7 - 9; 8, 35; 9, 40; 10, 27; 11, 31; 12, 50; 13, 20; 14 [[strikethrough]] , 5 lbs. [[/strikethrough]] lbs, 5 st. total 1047 driven Sik. 7 } Malk. 779 } 217. hol. Godov. 9 } pups 35 } [[line across page]] July 25 os. Reef. [[insertion]] Aug 6 [[/insertion]] 875 skins. 7 none; 8, 56; 9, 107; 10, 194; 11, 241; 12, 114; 13, 103; 14 lbs. 60 st. total driven 3064 Sik. 11 } Malke. 2014 } 875. hol. Godov. 5 } pups. 159 }
1908 Bering Id. [[end page]] [[start page]] July 27 os. Kisotch [[insertion]] Aug 8 [[/insertion]] 189 skins. 7 none; 8 lbs 10; 9, 30; 10, 60; 11, 48; 12, 11; 13, 20; 14 lbs 10. Total driven 1395 } Sik 4 } Maitk 1134 } 189 hol Godov. 5 } pups 63. } [[line across page]] July 31 os. Reef. [[insertion]] Aug 12 [[/insertion]] 532 skins. 7 lbs 25; 8, 100; 9, 100; 10, 80; 11, 90; 12, 36; 13, 40; 14 lbs. 61 st. Total driven 2789 Sik. 5 } Matki 2077 } 532 hol. Godov. 74 } pups. 104 } [[line across page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] July 27 os. [[Kisotch?]] [[insertion]] Aug 8 [[/insertion]] 189 skins. 7 none; 8 lbs 10; 9, 30; 10, 60; 11, 48; 12, 11; 13, 20; 14 lbs. 10. Total driven 1395 } Sik 4 } Maitk. 1134 } 189 hol Godov. 5 } pups 63. } [[line across page]] July 31 os. Reef. [[insertion]] Aug 12 [[/insertion]] 532 skins. 7 lbs 25; 8, 100; 9, 100; 10, 80; 11, 90; 12, 36; 13, 40; 14 lbs. 61 st. Total down 2789 Sik. 5 } Matki 2077 } 532. hol. Godov. 74 } pups. 104 } [[line across page]]
[[newspaper cutting with text missing]] Family SAL[[?]] The [[line]] Four-legged vomero-palatine sphenoid in two toot[[?]] About thirty sp[[?]] family which in its [[?]] confined to Europe India, and in North resented by two spec[[?]] or terrestrial; perfect [[/newspaper cutting]]
For each drive a special document "Akt" has to be made out stating the number of seals taken, the name of the rookery and other details. This is signed by the Krak and by the [[Starshenes?]]. To it is then attached the receipt "Rvitantsia" of the company's representatives. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 13 Tuesday [[/left margin]] Arrived off North Ry, Bering Island, at 6 am. The weather cloudy and a stiff SW blowing. [[superscript]] x [[/superscript]] After breakfast went ashore with my cameras to photograph and see what could be seen. The first thing that struck me was the diminishment in the number of seals on the "sands" of the Reef. The land end of it has shrivelled up; the line of seals across it dividing it has disappeared, and the flock at the south east corner has become entirely isolated. [[line]] [[superscript]] x [[/superscript]] ) Anchored in 7 fathoms; rocks [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] NW. of [[Sintch?]] Kamen visible on the N. side of it; [[Sintch?]] K. N 85 [[degree symbol]] W; Salthouse S. 15 [[degree symbol]] W. [[blue pencil]] 500 [/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] To show this difference I took two photos from my old station on the landing of the salthouse steps. The next thing to attract my attention was the almost total absence of the old bulls. I do not believe there are a hundred left on the rookery. The "rookery organisation" is evidently breaking up. Next I noted that there was still quite a number of very small pups yet in company with their mothers and which have not yet "[[padded?]]". I crept in close to the flock at the S.E. corner alluded to above [[blue pencil]] 501 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] and took a [[strikethrough]] t [[/strikethrough]] snapshot which I hope will show this feature. However, the clouds are low and dark, and the wind is howling mercilessly and shaking my camera so that I have but faint belief in any successful pictures. The point from which this last exposure (no. 86) was made, is somewhat nearer the breeding grounds than the one whence G. made his successful picture of which he gave me a print. It is situated on the "[[Ladigivoki?]] peninsula". These facts have also been noted by the natives and my observations are therefore confirmatory of theirs. They [[blue pencil]] 502 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] insist that females are still bringing forth young. Afterwards walked down to Kisotchnaja Ry. and took a photograph from the old sta. T. It will show - if it shows anything at all - the same shrinking of the area of the breeding ground. Returning I visited Silivanof's house and there I got a partial explaniation of this shrinkage (which does not seem[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] wholly due to the season) in the figures which he furnished as to the animals contained in all the drives once I left the North Ry. I am certainly very thankful that G. adopted my suggestion to record the [[blue pencil]] 503 [[/blue pencil]]
[[start page]] [[three columns - first column]] 733 616 217 875 189 532 [[line indicating addition]] 3162 [[/first column]] [[second column]] 2537 2141 1047 3064 1395 2789 [[line indicating addition]] 12973 3162 [[line indicating subtraction]] 9811 [[/second column]] [[third column]] 1134 2077 2014 779 1436 1738 [[line indicating addition]] 9178 [[/third column]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] number and kind of seals turned away at the killing grounds. I copied the figures (see [[autea?]]) of which the following is a summary. From July 29 to August 12 (n.s.) there has been 6 drives, in which 3162 animals have been killed. But there were culled on the killing grounds out of a total of 12973, or nearly 13000 animals driven; or to put it otherwise, 9811 were rejected out of this [[strikethrough]] abov [[/strikethrough]] total. But the most significant fact is that of these rejected ones no less than 9178 were females! Just think of it: in order [[blue pencil]] 504 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] to [[strikethrough]] bet [[/strikethrough]] obtain a little over 3000 bachelors it was necessary to drive off over 9000 females! The excuse for this is that in as much as the bachelors do not haul out separately any more, it is necessary to drive the females as well; but it must not be over, looked that even in the old [[policy?]] days females were plentiful in the drive, although not to the same extent as now. Yet, it cannot be emphasized too much: thus far there is no mortality visible among the pups. Another feature of the above figures is the [[blue pencil]] 506 [[/blue pencil]]
[[First row - four columns]] [[first column]] 424 990 1380 2021 1932 650 140 733 [[long division symbol]] 7847 [[vertical line]] 10.7 733 [[line]] 5120 [[/first column]] [[second column]] 326 486 1400 1650 1680 1170 616 [[long division symbol]] 6712 [[vertical line]] 10.9 616 [[line]] 5520 [[/second column]] [[third column]] 63 280 360 270 341 600 260 70 217 [[long division symbol]] 2244 [[vertical line]] 10.3 217 [[line]] 740 [[/third column]] [[fourth column]] 448 963 1940 2651 7368 1339 840 875 [[long division symbol]] 70449 [[verical line]] 10.9 875 [[line]] x 799 [[/fourth column]] [[/first row]] [[second row - three columns]] [[first column]] 80 270 600 528 132 260 140 189 [[long division symbol]] 2010 [[vertical line]] 10.6 189 [[line]] 120 [[/first column]] [[second column]] 175 800 900 800 990 432 520 854 532 [[long division symbol]] 5471 [[vertical line]] 10.3 532 [[line]] 151 [[/second column]] [[third column]] 10.7 10.9 10.3 10.9 10.6 10.3 [[line]] 37 [[line]] 10.6 [[/third column]] [[/second row]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] continued absence of yearlings. Only 93 yearlings [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] but 9000 females! This is still more remarkable when we consider the great weight of the skins taken. In four of the drives there was not a skin under 8 lbs., while the average is over 10 1/2 lbs. This curious disproportion becomes extremely interesting when [[strikethrough]] being [[/strikethrough]] compared with the opposite conditions on Copper Island. There the low weight of the skins, the people killing seals down to 4 1/2 lbs! And yet there is no plenty of yearlings there either! And the same "scraping and [[blue pencil]] 507 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] raking" of the rookeries there as here. Surely, here is a good deal [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] food for speculation! G. last night gave me the following figures as reported to him. Killed at North Rookery, A.I. to date: 5665 holuniaki; 22 mathri (accidentally, or because injured); 11 yearlings. On South Rookery, A.I. 324 skins. During the entire forenoon and part of the afternoon the crew was busy taking on board the salted skins, first them that are bundled and finally the loose skins that are going to be bundled on board as [[blue pencil]] 508 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] will as a number from the last skins which have to be resalted on board the "Katik". The skins are slid down a chute from the salthouse to the beach below. Here the natives load them upon their backs and carry them [[strikethorugh]] down [[/strikethrough]] out to the water's edge on the rocks, where they are dropped and where the ship's crew take them and throw them into the boat. A little after noon the "Porpoise" was seen steering east 6 or 7 miles to the north of us. The work of taking in the skins was finished about 4.30 pm. but as the SW. was still blowing with ever abated force, it was decided [[blue pencil]] 509 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] not to go around to the village this evening but to anchor up in a safer place somewhat to the east of the rookery. - In view of the above mentioned "scraping and raking" of the rookeries for the last killable seal - and particularly in view of the fact that this is not the first year that it takes place, Mr. [[Lalavanski?]] having this morning assured me that it has been thus for every one of the last two or three years - the question which he propounded to me [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] tonight certainly becomes pertinent. "Where do the killable seals of ^[[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] next year come from?" If every bachelor [[blue pencil]] 510 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] seal within sight has been killed how is it then that 10 000 to 30 000 killables have been obtained the next year, besides the additions needed on the rookeries for [[strikethrough]] supplying [[/strikethrough]] [[?]] the yearly loss of bull? And if [[strikethrough]] they [[/strikethrough]] all were not killed, where were they in the mean time? To these questions I had frankly to confess that I did not know, but that I think it is a fair theory to assume that a certain percentage of bachelor seals always stay in the water and that only [[strikethrough]] about [[/strikethrough]] part of them haul out near the [[blue pencil]] 511 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] breeding grounds. I pointed out that nowhere had separate hauling grounds of bachelor seals been found [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] far from the breeding grounds. It is not by any means necessary to suppose that this habit [[image: arrow indicating insertion]] [[circled]] if such it be; [[/circled]] [[/insertion]] has been acquired of late years, it is [[strikethrough]] much [[/strikethrough]] more likely that it has always been so in view of the fact that there is no absolute necessity - or immediate benefit to the species - derived from the presence of [[underlined]] all [[/underlined]] the immature individuals at or near the breeding grounds. On the other hand [[blue pencil]] 512 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (13) [[/left margin]] it would certainly be beneficial for the preservation of the inborn tendency to yearly return to the native locality, if the habit was kept up by a large percentage of each yearly clan of immature seals. This would then be an argument against the proposition to try to exterminate the seals question and the [[pelagic?]] sealing. It cannot be done, as is also well shown by the experience on Tjalinij. [[blue pencil]] 513 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 14 Wednesday [[/left margin]] The SW wind blowing with great force we were obliged to lay to at our anchorage all day. Passed the time reading the latest newspapers -up to June 22. [[left margin]] Aug. 15 Thursday [[/left margin]] The wind [[strikethrough]] being [[/strikethrough]] having moderated somewhat and being more southerly we left our anchorage for Nikoloki at 6.25 am. The swell, however, was tremendous and it was 11.30 am before we came to anchor. The landing then became the next problem, but as we were anxious to get ashore and at the same time not wished our things to get wet, we left them behind, except my camera box. Our boat consequently not being very heavy or [[blue pencil]] 514 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (15) [[/left margin]] landed dry on the Reef, and I was once more "at home". There is nothing to be done, however, for the wind and swell continuous so nothing can be brought ashore, and as the next trip is to be with the "Kotik" to the South Rookery, A.I., I will have to wait till she has unloaded her goods. [[strikethrough]] When [[/strikethrough]] I mentioned this evening to Mr. Kluge that I had observed a number of very young pups on the North Ry. the other day, and at the same time expressed the opinion that this is nothing unusual, but that now the rookeries and the seals are under constant view [[blue pencil]] 515 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (15) [[/left margin]] anxious inspection many things appear unusual and new simply because no attention had been paid to the questions in the years of plenty, Mr. Kluge at once agreed in so far as this point is concerned, for it was his own observation on Tjulenij in former years that ^[[insertion]] some [[/insertion]] pups [[strikethrough]] very [[/strikethrough]] were regularly borne very late in the season. [[left margin]] Aug. 16 Friday [[/left margin]] The "Kotik" has been busy unloading and I getting ready for the trip tomorrow to Poludjinuaja Rookery. We are ready to start in the morning. Weighed myself - 148 1/2lb. (4 had 4 1/2 lbs Run.) Had a good Russian bath before going to bed.- [[blue pencil]] 516 [[/blue pencil]]
[[image: pencil sketch of hilly landscape]] [[image labels]] To [[strikethrough]] [[Gavner? [[/strikethrough]] Dajan [[Luokipe?]] R. [[Podybjomaju?]] [[/image labels]] Lindquist almost 54 [[degree symbol]] 57' waterface [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 17 Saturday [[/left margin]] Bright and early I went on board the "Kotik" and after breakfast we started for Pohedimuaja Rookery, in front of which anchor was dropped about 11.15 am. I had hardly time to greet my old friend Nikauor Grigorief, the "Professor", as we wont to call him, now [[starshena?]] of this rookery, as the captain only gave me to 2.30 om to get through with my work. Consequently, I started at once for the rookery with my camera and plane table. The breeding ground - for I saw no [[holustiaki?]], with not a single sikatch at the [[blue pencil]] 517 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] pursuit. It was said in the village that there had only been one sikatch this season, but Nikanov informed me that so was not literally the case, the number having been five. Thus far he had secured 405 skins. I was able to get very close to the grounds which were occupied by mothers and pups only. A good many of the latter were in the water - where of course quite a number of females also - but there was also quite a large pod of smaller pups right at the [[strikethrough]] upper [[/strikethrough]] [[?]] edge of the herd. I was again impressed, as before in Kichutchuaja, by the action of the females and young [[blue pencil]] 518 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] when the former haul up from the water and go in search of the young to [[strikethrough]] be suck [[/strikethrough]] nurse her. The ground is here so small that it is a comparatively easy task for the mother to find its young, and I consequently observed several dripping wet cows nursing pups. The mothers in coming out of the water made straight for the pod of pups and the usual performance of pups rushing up and [[strikethrough]] see [[/strikethrough]] upon being nosed at critically [[rapised?]] and the [[scaph?]] continued was gone through. So much is absolutely certain, the females do not nurse the pups promiscuously. [[blue pencil]] 519 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] I am thoroughly convinced by what I have seen that the mother wanders considerable distances and spends [[strikethrough]] considerable [[/strikethrough]] much time in searching for her own individual child. Whether a mother who had searched in vain for a long time and whose milk was pressing her very strongly might not finally give in to the importunities of a particularly hungry pup is [[strikethrough]] something which [[/strikethrough]] a question which it will probably never be possible to answer definitively, but I think such cases are the exceptions; the rule is certainly the reverse. [[blue pencil]] 520 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] The rookery is situated [[insertion]] ^ to the east of the waterfall [[/insertion]] on a steep pebbly beach at the western third of a wide curving bay, outside of which there are a number of rocks. The breeding seals and their pups occupied a small semi-circular area on the beach. A number of them were also seen upon the rocks to the westward. After the inspection of their rookery, which certainly looked quite different 13 years and 4 days ago (Aug. 21, 18[[overwritten]] 8 [[/overwritten]]92) when I estimate the number of seals to be 20 000 to 25 000, [[strikethrough]] a num [[/strikethrough]] (sec. [[Deutch?]]. Geoge. Bl., VIII, 1885, p. 238) a number certainly too great [[blue pencil]] 521 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] but on the other hand description of a condition widely different from the present handful of seals - I continued my walk along the shore until I reached Steller's Arch, of which I made several photographs, finally returning the same way to the landing place. I tried [[strikethrough]] too [[/strikethrough]] very hard to get a photograph of the arch from exactly the same stand point as my sketch, (published in [[Dustsch?]] Geogr. Al. VIII), but in vain. The eye is much more wide angled than the lens, and I had to stand my camera at a much greater distance [[blue pencil]] 522 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] in order to get the entire arch in. Lindquist at [[morn?]] got a very good observation [[insertion]] ^ at the waterfall [[/insertion]] for latitude which he determined to be 54 [[degree symbol]] 57' N. After supper we arrived in Gavan again, where we found H.B.M.S. "Porpoise" at anchor next to the "Jakut". "Jakut" left shortly afterward, and so did the "Kotik". This was the last trip of the "Kotik" to the islands [[strikethrough]] before [[/strikethrough]] until she finally finishes here [[strikethrough]] before [[/strikethrough]] on her way to San Francisco, probably about the 8th of September. As I have not been able to make any other arran- [[blue pencil]] 523 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] gements I had to answer Mr. Malavanski yesterday when he asked me, that I should probably have to go with him til San Francisco, although his date is earlier than I could wish it. If I do I shall be enable to settle for myself the question whether here is very unusual mortality among the pups in fall on the rookeries here. It has been impossible to approach the captain of the "Jakut" as G. and he do not seem to be on speaking terms. "Jakut" is therefore out of the question. Tomorrow I shall have to put on crinkled clothes again and call on [[blue pencil]] 524 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (17) [[/left margin]] the captain of the "Porpoise". Something may then turn up. We shall see! [[left margin]] Aug. 18 Sunday [[/left margin]] When the service flag on board the "Porpoise" was taken down G. and I went on board to call on the captain. The reception of the "governor" of the islands was as ceremonious as could be desired by the most exacting. As we arrived a line of red coated white-helmeted marines presented arms as well as when we left, and as we were well again in our boat the Russian flag was saluted with [[strikethrough]] seven [[/strikethrough]] nine guns. No flies on us! We only saw the captain and the first officer, both very nice and agreeable [[blue pencil]] 525 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (18) [[/left margin]] gentlemen. The visit lasted about an hour. The "Porpoise" sailed about 6pm. In the afternoon I finished up the sketch map I made yesterday of the environs of the Poludjonuaja Rookery. Today I witnessed scenes which I never believe I should see on Bering Island, and which would have been impossible 12 years ago. Then the natives were forbidden to make "beer" of sugar, and it was not allowed to sell them liquors. On special occasions, or as a particular premium for extra exertions or services G. used to treat them to a drink, or occasionally [[blue pencil]] 526 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (18) [[/left margin]] a bottle. Since then things have changed. Who is responsible for the abolition of that wholesome law I do not know, but whoever it is, he has maimed the population of their islands. Now the natives are allowed to [[strikethrough]] by [[/strikethrough]] buy -individually and collectively - as much spirits as they can find money to pay for. The "community" imports it by the wholesale, and on the big holydays it is divided up according to "shares". G. told me that they took out for today 200 rubles worth. It is big prasnik-Preobrazhevski - the transformation - and [[strikethrough]] all the [[/strikethrough]] every [[ercing?]] [[blue pencil]] 527 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (18) [[/left margin]] Islander[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] has been transformed into a drunken beast, the Russian fashion of celebrating a church holyday. During the afternoon three men had to be arrested on account of their fighting. Hearing this the starshena, Pictr Brydekovski pr., otherwise a quick and unoffensive man, in a crazy ^[[insertion]] drunken [[/insertion]] spell rushed to G's house and told him that he had no business to arrest these men and acted so wildly that he had to be locked up too, and will cease to be Starsheva. And all this for this miserable cursed liquor. [[blue pencil]] 528 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 19 Monday. [[/left margin]] With plenty of rain and wind outside this was an ideal day for packing up, and I have done nothing else. Yet, I am not through. The difficulty is not about what to pack, for there is very little to bundle up and stow away. There have been no opportunities for collecting. My gun has not been out of the case yet, except for oiling. Birds are exceedingly scarce and moreover, when should I find time to hunt birds. The seals have had the preference every time the weather has permitted. The difficulty therefore is not the overwhelming quantity [[blue pencil]] 529 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (19) [[/left margin]] of the stuff, especially since the natives bring nothing in as I have refused to promise to pay with alcohol, the only thing which nowadays can rise them but the trouble is that I do not know exactly how to pack the few things I have - possibly just because they are few. Then, in addition, I do not know just exactly how and when I am going to leave the island. The "Katik" is expected here on its way to San Francisco any time between the 6th and 10th of September. There are two reasons why I have not yet made up my mind definitely to [[blue pencil]] 530 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (19) [[/left margin]] go on her. First, there is one more important question to [[strikethrough]] settle [[/strikethrough]] investigate here on the islands and that is whether there is any abnormal mortality among the pups on the rookeries late in fall, or not. Thus far there have been no indications of such a state of affairs but it is too early yet to say for certain that there is no such mortality, or that there will be none. Second, I would like very much to return by way of Japan. G's disagreement with the captain of the "Jakut" makes it inexpedient to attempt any passage by that vessel. The captain [[blue pencil]] 531 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (19) [[/left margin]] of the "Porpoise", on the other hand, voluntarily told me that he could take me to Hakodate, when he leaves after October 6th - provided I [[overwritten]] do [[/overwritten]] m here on official business. This making the thing so exclusively and expressly official causes me to hesitate, the more so since he [[strikethrough]] made [[/strikethrough]] extended no definite or formal invitation, and I should not like [[strikethrough]] it [[/strikethrough]] to request him to transport me. However, when he leaves the island on Thursday or Friday next, I will try to have him invite me to go with him to Petropaulski to take the "Kotik" there. Till then I will defer making a [[blue pencil]] 532 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (19) [[/left margin]] final decision. I [[strikethrough]] could [[/strikethrough]] can easily leave the islands now for there is nothing on the rookeries [[strikethrough]] now [[/strikethrough]] to [[underlined]] specially [[/underlined]] engage my attention at the present time, and were it not for the possibility of the extra mortality among the pups later on, I would not hesitate a [[strikethrough]] moment [[/strikethrough]] minute in returning at the earliest possible moment. As I returned to make another inspection of North Rookery on Wednesday and Thursday next I will have to get my things packed, in case I should get the chance to go to [[Petropaulaki?]], and they must be packed with that possiblity in view. And [[blue pencil]] 533 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (19) [[/left margin]] here is where the difficulty lies. G. this evening made [[muitian?]] again of the "so called [[strikethrough]] " [[/strikethrough]] present" that the naval guard which was stationed on Jiulevij in order to protect the island again the poachers, on the contrary made common causes with them, 3000 skin being thus secured. Whether the thing is to be hushed up or not in St. Petersburg, time will only show. This custom of stationing a naval guard of an officer with 20 men during the summer and fall dates from 1884. [[blue pencil]] 534 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 20 Tuesday [[/left margin]] Finished packing, and as the weather was decent tried to do some photographing about the village but the mosquitos soon drove me in. they were awfully bloodthirsty and very plentiful. There was but little wind, and it was warm for being Bering Island, viz 55 [[degree symbol]] F., so the mosquitos had a great time while I had not. Gribuitaki mentioned this morning that a spcies of bat is now found at the village, but that he had failed thus far to get a specimen. It was first observed a couple of years ago. It is evidently introduced from [[blue pencil]] 535 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (20) [[/left margin]] Kamtchatka in the fire wood. Upon inquiry I found that the jurter village at Stary Gavan has been razed and that only on man, Vasily Stepoof, now keeps any garden there. All the gardens are now as Fedrokija. [[left margin]] Aug. 21 Wednesday [[/left margin]] [[insertion]] In the afternoon observed a regular 22 [[degree symbol]] sun halo. [[/insertion]] The dog sledge appeared at the door at 10 am and in a quarter of an hour I was off. It was a dense fog with prospects of rain, but it looked to me as if the north side might be clear. G. however, remained behind. The trip to [[Serviny?]] was uneventful. The dogs were [[blue pencil]] 536 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (21) [[/left margin]] good, but the driver young and not very skilful, so he managed to drop me off the sledge just as we entered the [[Severry?]] village. The road was not so wet as formerly so the drive was [[near?]] comfortable for man than for beast. As suspected there was no fog on the north side, though it was cloudy and rather dark. Kranaja Riba were pushing their way up the little streams and hundreds upon hundreds were l[[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]]ying dead already [[insertion]] along [[/insertion]] the entire way. Took a couple of photos which ought to show it well, though I [[blue pencil]] 537 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (21) [[/left margin]] did not managed to photograph a scene with any extraordinary numbr of dead fish, as I did not wish to go far from the track. Upon arrival at [[Senniy?]] ^[[insertion]] (about 3.15 pm) [[/insertion]] I put up at the Company's house which I found even dirtier than before and made my dinner of hard tack and canned meat with tea. And this is what Mr. Kluge asks 75¢ a day for. There can be no doubt that he is going to charge me too much for board and lodging, but there I am helpless and will have to pay. [[blue pencil]] 538 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (21) [[/left margin]] Went at once to the rookery, but as the wind was bad had to watch and photograph from a distance only. The seals have how left he "sands" almost entirely, and most of the females were in the water. The pups are spreading, and a lonely [[sekatch?]] was seen here and there near the waters edge. On [[Simtchi?]] [[Kamen?]] I observed a single sea lion [[chokestials?]] among the seals. From the Reef I then went to Kishotchnaja with the same result. Females, and especially pups, [[blue pencil]] 539 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (21) [[/left margin]] now hauling out on all the rocks in the water on both sides of the rookery. In the mean time the "Porpoise" had arrived and anchored off the rookery. A boy came running to [[Kishotchganja?]] to inform me that a boat had been landed and that some of the officers were on shore. I at once returned and found the captain with the doctor and another officer [[insertion]] chief engineer [[/insertion]] who were making inquiries about the drive tomorrow morning. It was decided to have it come off about 7 am. Much against my protest, an account of my [[blue pencil]] 540 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] 21 [[/left margin]] continue the captain carried me off to the vessel for dinner and stay over night So spent a very pleasant evening and night in the captains cabin. [[left margin]] Aug 22 Wednesday [[/left margin]] After having taken breakfast on board, the captain as I in one boat and officer and petty officer to the number of about 20 in another went ashore about 7 am. and found the starshena with the natives waiting. Very shortly after then whole compnay, Indian file, proceeded to the reef working and in short order drove off nearly all the seals located on the reef itself. [[blue pencil]] 541 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] The whole place, after the drive was over was completely razed, not a seal left. The whole herdg ground, not located on outlying rocks - and it was now low water - was gone over and nearly all driven off. The Englishman in boots and smoking at a great rate enjoyed the unusual sight immensely. [[left margin]] 4 [[/left margin]] Down on the rookery ground I was startled by the great number of dead pups. I was wholly unprepaired for this, because at the great distance from which it has become necessary to watch the rookeries here, the small bodies of the [[blue pencil]] 542 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] [[left margin]] Those in wind [[rows?]] did not necessarily die at sea; they died at low tide and were washed up. [[/left margin]] dead seals have not been noticeable; in fact, I do not see how in the [[binode?]] they [[coined?]] - have been distinguished from sleeping cares. [[strikethrough]] It was easy to distinguish [[/strikethrough]] then [[strikethrough]] which were [[/strikethrough]] l[[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]]ying in a [[?]] row along then [[strikethrough]] sea [[/strikethrough]] high water margin of the rookery ^ [[insertion]] were most conspicuous. [[/insertion]]. These had evidently been washed ashore. A good many of them were in an advanced stage of putrifaction - some entirely flattened out and without hair. That an equal poor portion had evidently died ^[[insertion]] more [[/insertion]] recently being in good conditino. There was another class of pup [[?]] [[?]], viz than which are [[blue pencil]] 543 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] laying dead upon the [[strikethrough] upper [[/strikethrough]] higher position of the breeding ground ^[[insertion]] [[any?]] [[/insertion]] back [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] the water's edge There are mostly all in good condition and appared as if they had died within a few days. When the seals were driven off, as many [[strikethrough]] of the [[/strikethrough]] pups as possible were allowed to escape into the [[strikethrough]] water [[/strikethrough]] sea, and they availed themselves of the opportunities appear to go off in larger flocks But there was a considerable numbers of pups that stages [[?]] [[?]] and which upon our approach made but feeble attempts at getting away. Evidently something [[blue pencil]] 544 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] was the matter with them. Upon closer examination they were found to be very weak and their thin and pinched appearance was at once noticeable. They were starving. Their shoulder blades and ribs and hips were sticking out in strong contrast with the rounded and plump forms of those which scampered off with the others. Upon handling the [[strikethrough]] dead [[/strikethrough]] carcasses, both in the wind now and in the higher ground the same state of affairs was apparent: extreme[[strikethrough]] le [[/strikethrough]] leanness, and emaciation. After the rookery had [[blue pencil]] 545 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] been completely cleared I took my notebook and walking along the beach began to count the number of dead pups, making a distinction between them that are in good condition and those carcasses that were on an advanced stage of decay. I had gone about half way round and counted about 200 of the former class and 150 of the latter (last leaf of this notebook) when the starshena arrived and said he had order from the kosak, Lilivanof, to ask me to leave the rookery at once. It was evident later that Lilivanof was [[micasy?]] because [[blue pencil]] 546 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] he thought the number of dead pups might in some way become charged against the management, for he tried to make the whole thing a small affair and explained to me that the number of dead pups was due to their being tramped upon by the sikateki. That for three very good reasons this theory does not hold. (1) In the first place, there are now very few sikabeli on the rookery at all, entirely too few to be able by any possibility to kill even a small fration of the pups which have recently died. (2) If this trampling upon [[blue pencil]] 547 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] caused the death of so many pups, how many should we not expect in a drive like the one today, where [[strikethrough]] up [[/strikethrough]] hundreds [[strikethrough]] upon hundreds [[/strikethrough]] are trampled upon, not once, but over and over again. Yet, not a single dead pup was found in the wake of the drive! (3) This explanation does not account for the emaciated condition of the bodies of the dead ones. Seeing the necessity of complying with the order to leave the rookery I could not finish my count. I am pretty positive, however, that the [[blue pencil]] 548 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] following estimate is not much out of the way. I may preface it by saying that the number of dead bodies on the east side appear to be about double that on the west side. Dead puts on west side counted about 350 Estimated . . . . . 700 do. do. do. [[Dittos for: Dead puts on]] high ground about (estimated) 200 [[line indication addition]] Total 1250 Without making any allowance for bodies overlooked as hidden among the rocks etc. etc. In walking off the rookery I took from the [[strikethrough]] all [[/strikethrough]] [[blue pencil]] 549 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] high ground 2 bodies which seemed quick fresh and ^[[insertion]] from [[/insertion]] which, therefore, it would seem possible to determine the cause of death. In lifting the second up by the flippers I was somewhat started by finding it still gasping, but it was much too weak to give any sign of life when lying on the ground. I carried it up to the killing ground where the rest of the company had congregated, but the pup had died before I reached them. The other pup had apparently died during the night. I left the pups with the kosaki boy to carry to the house, and in reaching home I found that in his [[blue pencil]] 550 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] zeal to serve one had already stared to skin them - local fashion- thus spoiling them for specimens. However, for my purpose of a postmortem they were all right. I took the ships doctor with me, Dr Lloyd Thomas, who on [[?]] the opened bodies with me agreed that death was due to [[inauitions?]] lack of food; starved to death. There was not a trace of fat left in the tissues under the skin, nor on the muscles. [[?]] leanness of the carcas was very noticable. Both of us, afterwards, [[strikethrough]] called special attention to [[/strikethrough]] commented upon the plumpness of the average pup as they appeared in the [[blue pencil]] 551 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] drive. I satisfied myself why in the rookery that the fresh [[strikethrough]] carcarses [[/strikethrough]] bodies in the wind row were in the same condition, and the fact that they were thus thrown up on the beach by the water signifies but little, for we had had no severe weather as yet, and it is therefore impossible that [[strikethrough]] all [/strikethrough]] there pups could have been killed by any "surf nip". They died at low ebb. There was another matter to which I called the special attention of the English gentleman while we were on the rookery, viz the presence, and very [[blue pencil]] 552 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] offensive ^[[insertion]] smelling [[/insertion]] presence of [[?]] excrements on the rocks and stone, particularly mentioning that the British Commissioners in their report had stated the reverse to be the [[strikethrough]] fact [[/strikethrough]] case In fact, the fecal matter was making it very slippery in places, and to it was added the yellow clotted milk vomited up by the pups as they were hurrying out of our way. A few of the pups have assumed the gray coat, but the great majority are still black. I was very anxious to take a few photos of some of the leading features of todays [[blue pencil]] 553 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] drive, but the weather prevented. In the morning it was a foggy drizzle, dark and disagreeable, and in the afternoon it turned into downright rain. +50 [[degree symbol]] F. All I could do was to make a few film snap shots with my 31/2 (which I could carry under my rubber coat) during the middle of the day showing some incidents of the killing. There were enjoyed immensely by the Englishmen , and I believe almost every man on board was given a chance to witness at least the killing. Capt. Francis R Pilly kindly offered to take me round to Nikolski tomorrow [[blue pencil]] 554 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] and from there to Petropauloki where he has to go no later than the 24th. As it was reported, however, that there is fog in the village today and as the wind is southwesterly which may make landing difficult I had to decline the invitation as I cannot go to Petropaulski without my things, which [[underlined]] might [[/underlined]] be necessary, if he [[strikethrough]] could [[/strikethrough]] cannot land [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] in gavan tomorrow. Under those circumstances I think it is safer for me to take dogsledge tomorrow morning early for the village, and I have consequently ordered one for 7 am tomorrow. [[blue pencil]] 555 [/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] The drive was the next to largest of the season yielding 903 skins. No exact tally of the escaping females etc could be kept partly because killing was going on in usual places at the same time, partly because the presence of the many operators who materialy interfered with the count. However, the drive did no in this respect differ from the foregoing ones as fully 4000 animals were driven off the rookery. Whole pods had to be let go because not a single [[houstiak?]] was among them. The average weight was probably somewhat less than formerly, but the skins were of very good size indeed. [[blue pencil]] 556 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin] As usual with similarly large drives of former years the seals were driven in squads of 200 - 300 and no in one big body. On the killing ground they were again collected into two large herds. The separating out of the killing pods was very quiet and deliberate and not attended with the same worrying of the whole herd as was the case with drives I witnessed on St. Paul, where the animals had to be driven several times into the lake to cool off. This enormous big drive during which the [[blue pencil]] 557 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] whole breeding ground of the big rookery was ^[[insertion]] liberally [[/insertion]] swept clean I suspect to be due to the fact that the men [[insertion]] have already [[/insertion]] received their share - or the greater position of it - for the skins turned in this season. The account was considerably below that of any former year and this wholesale effort is evidently brought on by a decision to add to the [[?]] to be finally [[distribed?]], as otherwise many of the inhabitants will run short of what may now be fairly termed as necessities of life. Some of the difficulties often [[?]] travelling with dogs [[blue pencil]] 558 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] was sadly exemplified tonight, for as I was going the change six plates in holders by the light of my ruby lantern which broke on the first dog sledge trip, I found that of the six plates in the box, 4 were broken into fragments and 2 thereby scratched so much as to have become [[?]]. So I had to give up changing plates as I had no others with me. This evening a man brought me a partial albino of an [[underlined]] Uria arra [[/underlined]]. Only then anterior par of the head and the throat are black; on the rest of the upper part of the body there are [[blue pencil]] 559 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] a few scattering black feathers among the white ones. The wings are black irregularly marked with white both on [[?]] and quills, and almost symmetrically on the two wings; tail white. Iris brown; bill black; feet above clay coloured, webs and soles dark brown. It was shot at Japadisij [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] last evening, but the bill was shot off and it was too wet and dirty to be preserved. Lilivanof brings me the following tally of the drive [[strikethrough]] yesterday [[/strikethrough]]. It was evidently kept by some of the boys as I know S. did only attempt a count at the beginning of it. It is as follows: - [[blue pencil]] 560 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] Sikatchi 8 } Makei 294[[strikthrough]] 9 [[/strikethrough]] 8 } Total 4337 Yearlings 181 } Pups 295 } Stolust 905 } 1 matka died on the road. [[line]] Weight lbs 7 - 4 8 85 9 139 10 215 11 203 12 179 13 28 14 52 [[line]] 905 However, the above [[?]] at any rate pretty conclusively that my estimate that over 4000 animals [[blue pencil]] 561 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] were driven was accurate. The position of females to killed males may therefore be taken as correct. It is interesting to note the somewhat unusual large number of yearlings, but after all what a pitiful showing in this [[clan?]]! The weight is up to the former average not withstanding my impression to the contrary which was based upon the returns of the earlier part of the killing. [[left margin]] Aug. 23 Thursday [[/left margin]] 7am. A last look at the rookery shows that the females and pups have returned to the same place as before, the rookery looking today exactly as it did yesterday morning before the drive. I expend a plate [[blue pencil]] 562 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (22) [[/left margin]] but it is doubtful whether it will show much. Vasikj Burdskopski, although ordered to be with his dogs at my door at 7, did not show up and when at 9 I dound that Ivan Budakof's sledge train had arrived from Sacarma, I engaged him at once and off we went. The night and the roads were consequently in a frightful condition. The dogs literally dragged me through a continuous mud puddle for more than twelve miles. And to this a nasty drizzle and you may imagine how comfortable a ride it was especially as I had to fight [[blue pencil]] 563 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (23) [[/left margin]] off the ravines mesquitos with my mud begrimed hands. Covered with must and blood - from the mosquitos - I arrived in Gavan about 12.30m via Ladigirok where I passed 4 framed houses, one roofed with sod, the others shingled. The pup carcuss was at once put in alcohol, civilized dress put on and the things packed and made ready for departure, for the "Porpoise" was already at anchor in the harbour. Shortly after Dr. Thomas arrived with the Captains invitiation to come on board and go to Petropauloki. He and I then made a call [[blue pencil]] 564 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (23) [[/left margin]] on Grebuitoki. I specially informed the later of the number and condition of dead pups found yesterday on the rookery and suggested that he order a detailed count at the end of the season, which he promised to send me by the "Jacket". The captain also came ashore and at 5 with the officers I went on board the [[?]], where I was made as comfortable as a man can be on a vessel and spent a very pleasant evening. [[left margin]] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 2 [[/strikethrough]] [[/left margin]] G. told me that it was the intention of making two or three more drives on the north rookery and expects to [[blue pencil]] 565 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (23) [[/left margin]] have about 2000 skins for the "Kotik" ovsering that of late years the greatest catch was made in August, as the seals arrive so much later. To this is to be remarked, however, that the great catch of 905 skins yesterday was only due to the extraordinary larger number of seals driven off, and that there was no greater proportion of killables than earlier in the season. [[left margin]] Aug. 24 Saturday [[/left margin]] The day passed pleasantly on board and was spent in reading, conversation and and watching the races on deck between the men gotten p by the officers. The latter [[blue pencil]] 566 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (24) [[/left margin]] in the evening invited me to dine with them in the ward room. The weather was moderate, but cloudy and cold, I was perfectly comfortable. [[left margin]] Aug. 25 Sunday. [[/left margin]] Cloudy ^[[insertion]] and foggy [[/insertion]] and big swell but fair wind. Sighted land about 1 pm., but did not get any good view of the mountains which were mostly enveloped in fog and clouds. [[?]] Bay entrance and the harbor were the same glorious landscape as formerly. Upon coming to anchor went immediately on board the "Kotia", but returned later with Capt. Pelly and had supper on board the "Porpoise" with him and [[Linstquist?]] and my old friend [[blue pencil]] 567 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (25) [[/left margin]] Capt. [[Grinburg?]] of the "Bohik" which we found at anchor next to the "Kotik". The "Jacket" is also here. [[Grinburg?]] reports about 1300 skins from [[Jpileni?]]. Ferdes are numerous and sikataki in about the proportion of 1 to 40. Malaranski is not quite well yet. I told him of Gribnitski's intention to visit Copper Island in the "Jakut" and to return to observing with the "Kotik". [[left margin]] Aug 26. Monday [[/left margin]] A glorious mountain [[Keviahkaja Sopka?]] looms up in the back ground, the same magnificent sight as always. Wish the photos many [[strikethrough]] show [[/strikethrough]] [[number?]] a function of [[blue pencil]] 568 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (26) [[/left margin]] its beauty. How green and attractive do the trees look on the hills! And then the incomparable bay in which all this glory is reflected! Grinberg mentions that their was an unusual mortality among the pups on Julenij. Also that the yearlings were quite scarce. The skins taken were of good weight. In the forenoon attended with Malavaestei an auction of 5 or 6 sea otter skin. The auction was conducted by the ispravnik and his assistant in full uniform. The attendance consisted of some of the merchants and nearly all the officers [[blue pencil]] 569 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (26) [[/left margin]] of the Jacket, of which the captain [[insertion symbol with no insertion]] purchased on large skin and the doctor another, somewhat damaged one. For the good skins the prize ranged from about 500 to 605 rubles a piece.. By the kindness of the chief engineer of the [[strikethrough]] All [[/strikethrough]] "Porpoise" I had a chance of changing plates and was thus enabled to make several exposures which I hope may show some features of the fine scenery which surrounds us. [[left margin]] Aug. 27 Tuesday [[/left margin]] I set a couple of traps for mice and [[weasels?]] last night and visited them this morning, but not a single one had been touched. [[blue pencil]] 570 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (27) [[/left margin]] Potpongui also asserts that the smaller mammals are now very rare and that one has to go way into the interior or into the mountains to find either [[underlined]] [[Spermophiles?]][[/underlined]] or [[underlined]]f [[Arctomys?]] [[/underlined]]. Waiting as we do for the company's [[sh?]] from Vladivostock before the arrival of which we cannot visit, and also not yet knowing whether we can clear from this part without having all the skins aboard taking the rest on the island it is impracticable to leave the immediate vicinity of the vessel. In the afternoon made several visits up-town, to [[Sandelin?]], Mr. Partz and finally [[blue pencil]] 571 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (27) [[/left margin]] the Russian doctor, Dr. [[blank space]] who informed me that he had found two kids of salamanders in [[Kamtchatkin?]] and one lizard. Upon producing the specimens I found that he had two [[advets?]] and a number of illy preserved larvae of the [[underlined]] Salamandrella [[irrismkyier?]], and that the lizard was only a dried up specimen of the same species. He promised me one of them. Grinberg and I took a walk out to the cemetery which we found in a very dilapidated and disgraceful condition. In contrast to this I may in justice mention that the streets, especially the bridge [[blue pencil]] 572 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (27) [[/left margin]] and the blank sidewalks are in better condition than 12 years ago. Grinberg is again alluding to the mortality of the pups in Jjalenij mentioned that he had based his belief that they had been killed byt the sikateki stepping on them upon the fact that the [[striekthrough]] carcasses [[/strikethrough]] bodies were very much flattered out, but upon relection he agreed with me that the flattening out of the body is rather due to their being walked over by the numerous seals [[underlined]] after [[/underlined]] death, not before. The "Jakert" left in the evening. [[left margin]] Aug. 28 Wednesday. [[/left margin]] Rain and fog! This is very much as on the islands, the result being the same; nothing can be done out of doors. [[blue pencil]] 573 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (28) [[/left margin]] Called on the [[Opravlenie?]] and found him a pleasant although rather retired gentleman of few words. He has only been here a few weeks. Got on [[underlined]] Microtus ratilus [[/underlined]] in a trap and skinned him. [[left margin]] Aug. 29 Sunday [[/left margin]] Weather fine, but can go nowhere except just round the vessel on account of the uncertainty of leaving due to the nonarrival of Mr Grimewalds, steamer. Under these circumstances I dare not go beyond the hail, especially since it is not even certain that the "Kotik" will have to return here from the isalnds for her clearance. Have been through the [[st?]] to see if I can [[blue pencil]] 574 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (29) [[/left margin]] pick up something Kauitchadale for the museum. There are a number of kuklankas, shoes and mittens, but they are made by the Russians for the market and there is nothing aboriginal about them. It would be dangerous to bring them home as having any bearing on Kamtchatkan ethnology, so I will not spend any monty on that [[thrash?]]. On the whole, there will be precious little for the museum. The prices, besides, are enormous and are intended for the Man'-o'-war's men altogether. [[left margin]] Aug. 30 Friday. [[/left margin]] Still no steamer, but "Jakut" returned this morning after a cruise in the outer bay of some hours' duration [[blue pencil]] 575 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (30) [[/left margin]] obtained [[strikethrough]] the following [[/strikethrough]] data from Capt. Lindquist concerning the seal catch of late years, which are in a separate table. To mice in the traps. Spectable frame broke In the evening there was an entertainment given onboard to "Porpoise" to which we [[insertion]] all [[/insertion]] all were invited. The blue jackets went through a very credible program of song, music etc. which was very much enjoyed. Said good bye to the captain and officers with thanks for their many kindnesses as the "Porpise" leaves the harbour tomorrow morning. [[blue pencil]] 576 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Aug. 31 Saturday [[/left margin]] There being no steamer yet in sight, Capt. Linquist and I took a long walk from which we did not return until 4.30pm. We went first round the lake and from its northern end walked up to the top of the second ridge in the direction of [[Kniatrkajn?]], he armed with my camera and tripod, I with my gun. Hardly a bird was seen in the whole trip except a single [[underlined]] [[Nucifraga caryocatacter?]] [[/underlined]] which disappeared before I could get within range. This scarcity of birds is very remarkable. Thus far I have only observed: [[underlined]] Ens- [[/underlined]] [[blue pencil]] 577 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (31) [[/left margin]] riga variabiles; [[Phyllopsuestes binalis?]]; [[Cuculus pusinsulae?]], Parus [[kambrhatkium?]]; Sitta [[allifrons?]]; [[Motacilla kambalabia?]]; M. [[melanpe?]]; M. [[abbrostribis?]]; [[Cornus oricubalis?]]; Pica [[kamchatica?]]; [[Locusticalla achotcusis?]]; L. [[cuthroca?]]; [[Stirundo Sytheris?]] had already left before my arrival. The most interesting part of the days work was the finding of obsidian implements and chips [[strikethrough]] at [[/strikethrough]] on old village site at the lake just where the road to Sareglaskij turns up towards the hills. They were found, some on the surface of the trial, some by digging with the earth just under [[blue pencil]] 578 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[left margin]] (31) [[/left margin]] the grass roots. From a large number of crabs brought up by the seine today I selected the two extremes, the broadest with narrowest side spines and the broadest with bluntest side spines. There two specimens which I have preserved are the two extremes of a very large [[?]], about 30 which to my mind prove conclusively that Telesie figure is entirely incorrect and must be left. [[strikethrough]] entirely [[/strikethrough]] out of consideration. In the evening shot a short-eared bat. [[left margin]] Sep. 1 Sunday [[/left margin]] Threatening, dark weather. Capt. Lindquist gave me an account of the figures of [[schooners?]] [[blue pencil]] 579 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (1) [[/left margin]] off the Hammander Islands in recent years. In 1891 the "Aleut" seized James Hamilton Lewis, American, caught right under the Sinth Rookery, B. I. [[strikethorugh]] July 16, 11 pm [[/strikethrough]] In 1892 no less than 7 schooners were seized. [[underlined]] The [[/underlined]] cruiser "Jaliaka" seized 4, one American and 3 British, "C H White of San Francisco" [[strikethrough]] William [[/strikethrough]] July 16 '92 11 pm between Cooper and Bering I. Willie McGovan [[insertion]] (Victoria) [[/insertion]] was seized next; in Retrop. July 28. Then British Schooner "Ariel"; arrived in Retrop. Angole - "Branconver Belle" was not see by the "Kotie". "Carmelite" ^[[insertion]] of Vancouver [[/insertion]] was seized by the admiral [[insertion]] Morekarof [[/insertion]] in the corvet "Vitiaz" [[insertion]] latter part of August. [[/insertion]] The " Rosie Olsen" of Victoria B.C. ca[t. W. Keafe was seized by Grobritoki in the "Kotik" on July 26. by 21. [[blue pencil]] 580 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (1) [[/left margin]] July 26, 1892. The "Kotik" left North Rookery at 1.30 ^[[insertion]] pm. [[/insertion]] for Nikolaoky and at 2.20 pm sighted the schooner in [[strikethrough]] W [[/strikethrough]] NW about 8 miles distant. G. ordered chase and she was captured about 3.45 pm in Lat. N 55 [[degree symbol]] 23' 20'', Long. E. 167 [[degree symbol]],27'. and towed to Nickolsky where they arrived at 9 pm. On the way 5 canoes with their crews returning from the hunt were picked up. A prize crew was put on board, the chooner arrived in Petropaulski Aug. 2. The "Kolite" while in Glinka, C. I., Aug. 21, 1892, sighted a schooner at 1 pm to the eastward; [[strikethrough]] scho [[/strikethrough]] left [[Glrinka?]] 1.40 and got up to the vessel after making 12 miles E 1/4S from Glinka. She [[blue pencil]] 581 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (1) [[/left margin]] was found to be the "Maria" of Maitland, N.W. S Balcam Capt. Only one boat, the Capt, mate and 2 men are on board, the remaining 21 of the crow with 5 boats and one canoe were out hunting. Fog coming in nothing could be seen of them and the "Kotik" went search of them - heading for SE Cape. One boat was picked up 4 miles from the Cape, and 2 - 3 miles from the cape, two more boats. They all had seals in the boats, 17 in all three. Position of "Maria" when seized Lat N [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] 54 [[degree symbol]] 36, Long E 168 [[degree symbol]] 24'. The schooner picked up the other boats during the night. She was sent to Petropaulski in charge of a prize crew, arriving Aug 28. All the skins (except 1000 removed by the governement) were sold by auction at Peterpaulski; the vessels in Vladivostock [[blue pencil]] 582 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Sep. 2 Monday [[/left margin]] Went with Lindquist to Sareglaska in order to look for stone implements, but found none. Sanglaska is a small village of a couple of hundred inhabitant about 3 2/4 [[?]] w. of Petropaulski in [[Iratslan?]] Bay. The place looked considerably cleaner and [[?]] propserous than Petropaulski. Took a few 3 1/2 photos. In the evening the dog [[Tansy?]] caught an [[arricola?]] but bit it so terribly that I despaird of being able to preserve it. As it is the only specimen of the spcies thus far obtained I went to work, however, at once to clean [[strikethrough]] it [[/strikethrough]] and skin it, and in the hurry forgot to take any [[blue pencil]] 583 [[blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (2) [[/left margin]] measurements. This must be an "off" year for mice as I have failed to get more than one specimen in my traps and my promise of paying 20 Kop. for each mouse or bat bought in by the boys has not resulted in procuring any. This is the 25 years anniversary of my [[invmatriculation?]] as student at the Kristiana university. Tonight all the old boys - or as many of them as are alive and have been able to go to Kristiania are together and my thoughts and best wishes are with them and the old country. [[blue pencil]] 584 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Sep. 3 Thursday. [[/left margin]] Spent almost the whole forenoon trying to tix up the [[underlined]] Arvicola [[/strikethrough]] and succeeded in making a skin which will have to do in default of something better. Set 10 traps in the evening. Malavanski has finally got tired of waiting for Mr. Grinewald and his skauw, and has decided to go to the islands tomorrow in order to take the skins, returning to Petropaulski as soon as possible. I am glad of it, for this stay in Petropaulski within beck and call of the steamer is only wasting time, as there is no chance of collecting anything of interest, and while I may not be able to do much as the island on account of the hurry, yet I will have a chance to see North Rookery, B. I. once [[?]]. In the afternoon took a [[blue pencil]] 585 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (3) [[/left margin]] walk with Lindquist and picked up a fine fragment of an obsidian implement. It was found in the path as the southern end of the narrow strip of land which separates the lake - or lagoon - west of the town, from the bay. [[left margin]] Sep. 4 Wednesday [[/left margin]] Not a single [[?]] had been near the traps when I looked after them this morning. Visited Dr. Jushof who had just received from a man in the interior a label with specimens in alcohol, mostly insects. It also contained a [[underlined]] Salamanderella [[/strikethrough]] and a [[underlined]] Petromyzan [[/strikethrough]]. Dr. J. collects them for the [[?]] governor in Anadyo, who is somewhat of a naturalist, [[blue pencil]] 586 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (4) [[/left margin]] more particularly author geologist from [[Markra?]]. Received from the capt up the "Bakut" invitation for tomorrows celebration of the [[?]] of Petropaulski Aug 29 1854. Mr Malavanski stuck to his determination to go to the islands and at [[?]] 45, [[?]] we showed out of Petropaulski harbor. Cloudy, but clearing up outside. Sea smooth. Met in the entrance to [[?]] Bay then four [[washed?]] [[?]] [[?]] James, of San Fransico, landed with lumber for the new lighthouse. [[left margin]] Sep. 5 Thursday [[/left margin]] Wind against us and a tremendous sea. Sick; in bed all day. [[?]] to. [[blue pencil]] 587 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] Sep 6 Friday [[/left margin]] Do do [[left margin]] Sep. 7 Saturday [[/left margin]] Do. do. Got up for supper no weather is moderating [[?]]. Finally in sight of snow patches on Bering Islnd. According to Lindquist then Alaska Commerical Co's lean expired in February 1891, for which [[?]] if [[?]] and got the seals [[?]] if the full catch 1890, some 5000 skins which the "Alexander" received before May '91. The transfer to the new company was effected that summer. According to the [[underlined]] new [[/underlined]] contrast the government [[?]] 11 rbs per skin, of which it pays to the nations [[underlined]] r 6 1.50 [[/underlined]] for ^[[insertion]] [[?]] [[/insertion]] [[?]] and [[?]]. The company has nothing to do with the scaling excepting [[?]]. The salt, as the governments contract is to deliver the skins at the ships risk. [[blue pencil]] 588 [[/blue pencil]]
[[?]] 19 Aug. '95 o.s. From [[Morrishishink?]] 56 " [[Ditto for: From]] Reef 706 " [[Ditto for: From]] [[Kishotnife?]] 117 [[line indicating addition]] 879 12. Aug. o.s. From kishohchin 231 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (7) [[/left margin]] A deposit is paid in St. Petersburg [[?]] for . the next years catch, formerly on 30000 skins, but this last year only on 15000. The government also undertakes to order all the goods to be sold in the [[?]]. However much loss and empression. Seems a very bad arrangement. [[insertion]] Anchored at [[Nicholaki?]] 6.30 am. Mr. G. seems to lay much stress upon the capture of the last 2000 seas so late in the season as an argument in favor of the later arrival of the seals nowadays against a [[underlined]] few [[/underlined]] years ago. But really, how much is there in it? Would anybody in earnest maintain that it would have been impossible in former years of abundance to have "reeked and skraped" the rookeries late in the season after the main catch of 50000 skins had been taken with a proportionate result? Formerly, the season closed early in August [[blue pencil]] 589 [[/blue pencil]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[left margin]] (8) [[/left maring]] with a [[?]] [[?]] of an average of 50000 and nobody cared for anything after that; but it is safe to assert that at least 10000 serviceable skins could have been secured in addition during the following month, if a similar policy of "scarping" had then been pursued. And so with the stageyness of the skins! The first signs of it in them days was sufficient to stop further sealing; now the stagey seals are simply let go and the ^[[insertion]] few [[/insertion]] good ones are taken. Day beautiful in morn and at the village, but high wind at sea and on the mountains. Spent a pleasant evening aboard the "Porpoise" with the captain and officers. Seals are now spreading. On Aug 19 o.s. 56 skins were taken from Marashnik, and now seals are [[?]] at [[Farfanka?]].
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Leonard Stejnegar U.S. Fish Commission. [[preprinted]] Sterling [[/preprinted]]