Field Notes, 1871

ID: SIA RU007073

Creator: Field Book No. 1, Notes 4c

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1871

Citation: William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927

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The field book documents William Dall's survey work in Alaska during 1871 as part of the United States Coast Survey. Some entries are dated and include information about travel and weather. It mostly contains notes on methods of use and placement of survey equipment for acquiring needed data for survey work and the collected survey data. In dated entries, it includes measurements and signal locations for vicinity of Ulakhta Harbor [Dutch Harbor] and Small Harbor [Small Bay]. Additionally, there is a report on meteorology, tides and currents around Unalaska.

Date Range


Start Date

Sep 23, 1871

End Date


Access Information

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  • Aleutian Islands
  • Small Bay
  • Alaska
  • Dutch Harbor
  • Unalaska


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007073

Collection name

William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 24 Folder 9

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[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Field Book No. 1. - Notes &c - [[line]] Sept 23d 1871. Saturday [[line]] Beat into the Harbor of Iliuliuk against a strong breeze. Anchor off the town in 19 fms, soft muddy bottom about 3 P.M. Rains [[line]] Sept 24. Sunday [[line]] Morning clear & fine. P.M. rains a little. [[line]] Sept. 25 Monday [[line]] Make sail and stand into Ulakhta Harbor. Anchor in 20 fms shingle about 10. A.M. Take the gig & first cutter with signal lumber and search for any monument or sign of Mr. Davidson's astronomical position, without success. His station must have been near the end of the spit but no trace of it is left, nor of the house mentioned in his Report.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Select a position for primary signal and proceed to erect one of 4 X 4 lumber strongly stayed and anchored. Height as follows Top of staff - ft - First crosspiece 4 Second " [[ditto for: crosspiece]] 4 Notch on staff 6.6 in Mean sea level 10.7 [[line indicating sum]] 25 feet 1 in. Heights measured with Casellas altazimuth. Measure off a line very carefully with Chesterman's steel tapes & find that at 200 ft the space between the upper & lower horizontal wires of Theodolite No. 97 covers a space of sixty divisions on telemeter no. 97. Go to head of spit and select a place for a second primary station to make the other end of the baseline
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Return to vessel at 6. P.M. Weather cloudy, calm. [[line]] Sept. 26, 1871. Tuesday [[line]] A.M. Put up the Ulakta signal station. From here the Spithead signal is in one with the east end of Bendel's [[linf? tinf?]] covered warehouse - reading Vern A 167°.40. " [[ditto for: Vern]] B 347°.40 vert. o. Ulakta Δ. Spithead to Pulpit Rock reads Vern A 37°.28 " [[ditto for: Vern]] B 217°.28 Signal 20 ft [[strikethrough]] 6 in [[/strikethrough]] high, crosspieces 4 & 8 ft respectively from top. After setting up this signal put up a small stick on the West side of the head of Ulakhta Harbor 30 fee above water, ten or twelve feet in shore (Gull Rock.)
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Then set up another signal (Pulpit Rock) six feet in from beach (W) on a small rocky bluff [[strikethrough]] six [[/strikethrough]] four feet above water Pole 21 feet high cross pieces as before. Return to vessel at 1 P.M. Start at 2 P.M. for Rocky Point and erect a signal 35 feet above water Pole 20 ft 6 in above ground cross pieces as before. Then erect another (Round Top) on a small hill on the middle isthmus of Amaknak Id. Pole 20 feet high. Height above water undetermined. Return to vessel at 6 P.M. Harrington & Capt Hall spend most of the ascertaining the astronomical azimuth & mean time. Weather fine brisk SW Wind. Sky with occasional clouds.
[[image - pencil drawing showing an inlet, smaller enclosed space on bottom, opening up to a wider open space on top. The top is marked Ulakhta with small triangles on either side of the word. As you move down the drawing to the bottom there is a "C" marked on left side of inlet about 1/2 way down; a "B" about 3/4 way down and an "A" at the bottom near the enclosed area of the drawing. Spithead is marked at very bottom with a triangle on either side of the name.]] [[key to drawing]] Spithead to A. 94 (both wires) A to B. 195 " [[ditto for: (both wires)]] vert. 0 B " [[ditto for: to]] C 170 lower wires C " [[ditto for: to]] D 103 betw both " [[ditto for: wires]] D " [[ditto for: to]] E 158 " " " [[Dittos for: betw both wires]] [[/key]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Sept. 27. 1871. Wednesday [[line]] Leave vessel at 8. A.M. with Mr. Harrington to measure baseline on Sand Spit. Plumbob of theodolite 1 ft 6 in S 57 W. from Spithead staff, centre Vert angle + 4. B. from A Ulakhta Δ bears (R) 1°. 21' 20" Pulpit Δ (L) 329°. 4' Vern A " " " [[dittos for: Pulpit Δ (L)]] 150.56 " [[ditto for: Vern]] B Round Top Δ " [[ditto for: (L)]] 231.50 " [[ditto for: Vern]] A " " " [[dittos for: Round Top]] 48.10 " [[ditto for: Vern]] B A. on W side of bank of spit [[line]] C from B Δ Ulakhta not visible from high pass, sight back & reverse Vern A Vern B 228° 20' 20" 48°. 20.'40" Rains hard. Pulpit Rock bears N. 34 W. D from C 103. Pulpit Rk N 53 W vert 0.. W side of spit on bank. E from D. E side of spit " " [[dittos for: on bank]] Pulpit N. 60 W. 2nd Bay N Hd N. 41 E.
E to F. 168, both wires F to G. 135 " " [[dittos for: both wires]] G to H 190 " " [[dittos for: both wires]] H to I 126 " " [[dittos for: both wires]] I to Ulakhta Δ 193 " " [[dittos for: both wires]] [[end page]] [[start page]] F fm E. East side spit on bank Pulpit N. 72 W. N. Head of Indian Bay. N. 39 E Vert. 0. G fm. F. Beach outside spit N. Head Ind Bay, 44.30 E of N. Pinnacle 78.30 E of N. H fm G. beach between tides N. Head Ind. Bay N. 45 E Pinnacle N. 81 E. I fm H. in water off beach Indian Bay N. Head N. 47.30 E Pinnacle 86 E. Priest Rock 18.30 E. Ulakta fm I. bank on edge of spit. N. Head Ind. Bay N. 47.30 E Pinnacle 87.75 E vert 5°+ Gull rock N. 50 W. Day cloudy, with wind & showers of rain, afternoon & evening blowing a gale from SE with heavy rain. Party from vessel erects signal at N. Head Indian Bay and on E shore south of
[[image - pencil drawing of what looks to be an inlet or bay, mostly U shaped with a straighter edge on the left of the U, slightly flattened on bottom. With the drawing on the left side about 1/2 down is an "A" and at the bottom of the left side a "B". On the right side about 2/3 down is a triangle]] Elbow of Spit. 357.[[strikethrough]] 8. [[/strikethrough]] 7 20. 177. [[strikethrough]] 8. [[strikethrough]] 7 20 fractions are degrees in bearing [[end page]] [[start page]] Pinnacle (Baileys) Return to vessel at 1.30. P.M too stormy for work. [[line]] Sept 28. Thursday [[line]] Blows a gale in early A.M. with drenching rain. About eleven A.M. go to the head of the spit and essay observation for time recording while Harrington observes. Squalls of rain interrupt our work and I take the following angles from Spithead Δ with Theodolite No. 97 Plumbob 1 ft. 6 in S, 57 W from staff center. A 78 below both wires N.19.W B 103 " " " [[dittos for: below both wires]] E, 6 1/2 S Δ Ulakhta Vern A. 0 Vert B 180 Vert. 0 Bearing N. 3 1/2 E [[strikethrough]] R. [[/strikethrough]] L Elbow of spit [[strikethrough]] (A) [[/strikethrough]] +2, 52.40 [[strikethrough]] +177.57.20 [[/strikethrough]] 182.52.40 Vert 0. Bearing N. 1/2 W
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Vern A. Vern. B. N. Head Ind. Bay Δ 34.14.40 214.14.40 Vert + 1°.8' N. 37 1/2 E. Pinnacle 55.57 235.57 Vert + 13' N. 59 1/2 E. Baileys Δ 99.6 279.6 Vert + 19' N 83 1/2 E Church cupola 186.38 6.38 Vert + 6' S. 10 E Rocky Pt Δ 196.41 16.41 [[[strikethrough]] (?40) [[/strikethrough]] Vert + 1°.6' Round Top Δ 228°. 0'.40" 48.0.40 Vert + 1°.6' Pulpit Rock Δ 331.50 151°. 50' Vert. 0. N. 24 1/2 W Spit bight 357.4.40 177.5.0 Vert. 0. N. 2 1/2 W Δ Ulakhta 359.57. 179.57. Vert. 0. N. 3 1/2 E Rain drives us back to vessel at 1 P.M. After dinner take the boat and proceed to Ulakta Δ and take the following angles with Theodolite no. 97.
Flat end spit between lower wires Tel read 190. [[end page]] [[start page]] Δ Ulakhta Theod. 18 in West of center of staff. Vern A. Vern B. Nub on Ulakhta head 0. 180 Vert. + 5°.6' N. 2 1/2 W. Kalekhta Priest rock. 20.14 200.14 Vert + 2' N. 18 E N. Hd. Ind. Bay. Δ 51°.39'. 231°.39'. Vert. +20' N. 49 1/2 E. Pinnacle covered by staff stay. Bears about E. Mouth of brook E. side Vert. 0. 137.15. 317.15 S. 44 1/2 E. Baileys Δ 150.16 330.16 Vert. -7' S. 31 3/4 E. Spithead Δ 184.46 4.46 Vert. 0. S. 2 1/2 W. Church cupola 188.55 8.55 Vert 0. S. 7 W Rocky Point Δ 191.48.40 11.48.40 Vert +12' S. 9 3/4 W Round top Δ 208.43.20 28.43.20 Vert +35' S. 26 1/2 W
beach below Gull Rock vert - 1°.5 127 between lower wires telem. These angles were taken from a very unstable mass of broken rock and are less reliable than any of the others. [[end page]] [[start page]] Vern A. Vern B. Pulpit Δ 222°.5'.0" 42°.5'.0" Vert [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] -15' S. 40 W. Gull Rk 273.20 93.20 Vert 0 [[strikethrough]] 1.5 [[/strikethrough]] W. 1 1/2 N. Nub on Ulakhta head 360'. 180' Vert +5° 5' N. 2 1/2 W. Heavy rain coming in forces us to return about 4 P.M. [[line]] Friday Sept 29. 1871 [[line]] Pulpit Δ Theodolite 4 ft 2 in E 5 South from staff. Vernier A. B. Gull Rock Δ 0 180 Vert. 0. N 26.33 E End of Bluff on Spit 3°.27. 183°.27' Vert 0. N. 30 E. Ulakhta Δ 14°.46' 194°.46' Vert 0. N. 41. 1/2 E. N. Hd. Ind. Bay Δ 22.36. 202.36 N. 49 1/2 E. Pinnacle 54.12.40. 234.12.40 E. 9. 1/2 N. Brook 87.16. 267.16 E. 25 S.
Second small point South of Pulpit Rock S. 35 W, 137 between both wires on telemeter. First ditto [[ditto for: small point South of Pulpit Rock]] S. 38 W Lower wires 240. Telemeter on beach bearing S. 11 1/2 W reads 247 between both wires vert -2.04'. [[end page]] [[start page]] Vern A. Vern B. Baileys Δ 100°.47'.0". 280°.47'.0" S. 52 E. Spithead Δ 129.12. 309.12 S. 24 E. E. end Bendels warehouse 149°.04'. 329°.04' S. 4 E. Rocky Point Δ 152.27. 332.27 S. 1/2 East Highest pt. Amaknak Id S. 169.29. 349.29. S. 16 1/2 W Round Top. Δ 175.28 355.28 S. 22. 1/2 W [[underlined]] Gull Rock Δ 359.53.20. 179.53.20 Reverse Theodolite [[/underlined]] Gull Rock 0 180 Round Top. Δ. 175.50 255.50 [[underlined]] Rocky Pt. Δ 152.37.40. 332.37.40 Proceed to [[/underlined]] Round Top. Δ. Theodolite 1 ft 4 inches N. 62 E from staff center. Gull Rock Δ. 180. 0 Vert 0. N. 23. E.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Vern A. Vern B. Bluff at end of Spit 181°.32'. 1°.32'.0" N. 24 E Ulakhta Δ 184.22.20. 4.22.20 N. 27 E S. bluff of N. Cove on east side Bay bears N.25 E. N. Hd. Ind. Bay Δ 197.58. 17.58 N. 40.1/2 E. Middle bluff Ind. Bay 208.0. 28.0. N. 52 E. Spithead Δ 209.38. 29.38. N. 53 E. Pinnacle 214.4. 34.4 N. 57 E. Baileys Δ 232.30.40. 52.30.40 N. 75 1/2 E. Rocky Pt. Δ 258.25 78.25 E 11 S. Highest Pt Amaknak S. 346.37 B. 166.37. S. 9 1/2 W. Ditto [[ditto for: Highest Pt]] Hog Id 84.31.40 264.31.40 N. 7 [[0?]] W. W. Bluff Ulakhta head 105.24. 285.24 N. 52.W.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Vern. A. Vern B. Bight East of do. [[ditto for: Ulakhta head, from previous page]] N.41 W. Bight on other side of Isthmus N 3 1/2 W. Pulpit Δ 178°.56'.0". 358'.56" N. 22. E. Gull Rock 180. 0. N. 23 E. Returned to vessel at 11.AM. 11.45 A.M. sounded at anchorage in 20 fms soft mud Spithead SE. 1/2 E, Pulpit N.N.W. At noon weighed anchor and stood in to inner anchorage P.M. Examine shore for place to establish tide guage. New seine without success. Day cloudy with good deal of haze rendering distant signals invisible or nearly so [[line]] Sept. 30. 1871 Saturday [[line]] set up twelve signal flags and about 11 A.M. rain ceasing in P.M. go to little
[[text begins about 1/3 down the page]] A 360. N. Hd 0 B 324.01 A 1.42 C 313.49 B 37.41 D 91.37.40 C 47.53 E 249.20. D 70.04.20 F 206.36 E 112.22 G 181.19 F 155.46 H 118.33 G 180.23 I 55.35 H 243.09 K 12.13 I 306.07 A 0 K 349.25 West Δ 232.24 A 361.42 West Δ 129.15 [[end page]] [[start page]] island and set up signals for a trial base Take the following angles from East Δ. Theodolite exactly over signal. A. B. N. Head of little Harbor 180. 0 N.46.E. A [[strikethrough]] A [[/strikethrough]] Δ 178.18 358.18 N 44 E. B [[strikethrough]] B [[/strikethrough]] Δ 142.19. 322.19. N. 8 E C Δ 132.7 312.7 N. 2 W D Δ 109.55.40 289.56.40 N. 24 W E Δ 67.38 20 247.38.40 N. 66 1/2 W West Δ 50.45. 230.45 N. 83 1/2 W F Δ 24.54 204.54 S. 70 1/2 W G. Δ 359.37 179.37 S. 45 W. H Δ 296.51 116.51 S 17 E (12?)
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] A. B. I Δ 233°.53'.0" 133°.53'.0" S. 80 1/2 E K Δ 190 35 [[strikethrough]] 360. [[/strikethrough]] 10.35 N. 56 1/2 S (corr. 2'.[[strikethrough]] 40 [[/strikethrough]] ) House out of sight A Δ 178.18 358.18 N. 44 E Day cloudy with rain squalls and gusts of wind which interfere somewhat with the accuracy of these angles which must be repeated. Unbend dry & store sails [[line]] Oct. 1. 1871. Sunday [[line]] [[line]] Oct. 2. 1871 Monday [[line]] Rains & storms all day Set up tide guage machine in cabin and work on the foundation for it [[line]] Oct. 3. Tuesday [[line]] Rains in puffs & squalls
18.15 20 [[end page]] [[start page]] all day with hail & snow occasionally. Work on computation & crib for tide guage. [[line]] Oct 4. 71. Wednesday [[line]] Rainsqualls at intervals all day. Morning for an hour very bright & clear. Go out with Harrington & take the following angles from Δ West. Theodolite directly over signal. (East Δ 95 between lower wires of telemeter 83 1/2 East N. Head A 0 B. 180 N. 54 1/2 E A Δ 1.43.20 181.43.20 N. 52 1/2 E. Gable of house, S. Hd. 6.46.40. [[insertion above]] 1 43.20 [[/insertion above]] [[insertion below]] 8 30 [[/insertion below]] 186.46.40 N. 60 3/4 E. K Δ 16.32 [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion above]] 196.32. N. 71 E.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] A 142.20 | B Δ East. 41.57.00 | 221.57.00 S. 84 E. 41.53.21 | 221.53.40 I Δ 43.50.20. [[insertion above]] 1 43.20 [[/insertion]] 223.50.20 S. 82 E. H. Δ 77.32. [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 257.32 S. 48. E. G Δ 111.14 [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 291.14 [[strikethrough]] S. 47 1/2 W [[/strikethrough]] S. 14 1/2 [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] E. [[strikethrough]] E. [[/strikethrough]] F. Δ 172.51.20 [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 352.51.20 S. 47 1/2 W E. Δ 254.17 [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 74.17 N. 51 W D Δ 305.57. [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 125.57 N. 1/2 W C. Δ 321.09. [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 141.09'. N. 15 1/2 E. B Δ 328.58.20 [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 148.58.20 N. 23 1/2 E A Δ 358.16.40. [[insertion above]] 1 43 20 [[/insertion]] 178.16.40 N. 52 1/2 E. N. Hd 360 180 N. 54 1/2 E order of taking reversed here, Then proceed to Δ East Theodolite directly over center of signal.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] A. B. Δ W bears N. 83 1/2 W A Δ 0 180 N. 44. E. [[strikethrough]] BK. [[/strikethrough]] Δ North Hd 1.45.40. 181.45.40 N. 46 E. K. Δ 12.15 192.15. N. 56 E I. Δ 55.30.20 235.30.20 S. 80 1/2 E H Δ 118.43. 298.43 * Rep. 118.46.40 298.46.40. S. 12 E. G. Δ 180.45 0.45 S. 45 W F Δ 206.36. 26.36 S 70 1/2 W Δ West 232.24 52.24 N. 83 1/2 W E Δ 249.21 69.21. N. 66 1/2 W D Δ 291.37 111.37 N. 24 1/2 C Δ 313.49. 133.49 N. 2 W.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] A. B. B. 323.58 143.58 N. 8E. A. 0 180. N. 44 E K. 12.13.40 N. 56 1/4 E N. 56 E 12.13.40. 192.13.40 Heavy rain squalls drive us back to vessel about 4 P.M. [[line]] Thursday Oct. 5. 1871 [[line]]
Station G [[strikethrough]] E J [[/strikethrough]] G H. 220 B Station E E F 140 L E D 156 L E West 213 B Station H H G 115 L H East 220 E H 1 145 L Station C C [[risk? Fish?]] Rock 172 B C D 137 L C B 137 B K K East 142 1/2 L L L H 85 B L [[strikethrough]] WE [[/strikthrough]] I 264 B [[end page]] [[start page]] [[Text partially obscured by half blank page]]
Station G [[strikethrough]] E J [[/strikethrough]] G H. 220 B Station E E F 140 L E D 156 L E West 213 B Station H H G 115 L H East 220 E H 1 145 L Station C C [[risk?]] Rock 172 B C D 137 L C B 137 B K K East 142 1/2 L L L H 85 B L [[strikethrough]] WE [[/strikethrough]] I 264 B [[end page]] [[start page]] Telemeter in small Harbor Station West Wt East 98 L Wt G 180 B Wt H 180 L Wt. F. 110 [[strikethrough]] 180 [[/strikethrough]] L Wt D 205 L WE. 215 B Wt F. 217 B WG 182 B Station East Et Wt 97 L K. 165 L 145? Et I 157 L Et H 225 B Et G. 217. B
[[Left page text obscured by half blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1 Memoranda for Report. - Meterology - - Unalashka - Prevalent winds at seasons. Winds go with the sun NE. S.W. NW. usually; Veniaminoff corrob. The reverse exceptional. Winds in port often fallacious as regards wind outside. Effect of mountains, upon the winds Effect of winds on vegetation, trees. Mean temps of months & seasons. Amount of rain. Rain with Southerly winds, while NE & N are clear. Winds & barometer - High var., after SE, low, S & W. Effects of rain & freezing on porhyrites leaving harder dykes as pinnacles; and reefs = do. [[ditto for: Effects of rain & freezing on reefs]] action of sea. Summer vegetations. Contradictory working of barom. high in rainy weather & vice versa Ice in harbor - Temp of water at surface &c Effect of river water
on temp & formation of ice Worst gales from SW & SE. Gale of 1866. Earthquakes of 1865 & in general, noises of volcanoes & their activity Northern ice, driven down by bay continued N winter winds. ice extends nearly to St. Paul Id in cold winters and much further south on the east side off shore than on the west except in the cold current. [[end page]] [[start page]] 2 [[centered]] Currents & [[underlined]] tides. scored [[/underlined]] Iliuliuk. [[vertical line in margin about 1/5 in from left side of page]] Half tide west of Akutan Pass [[note in left margin]] See p 12 - [[/note in left margin]] tide comes in by Igognak & Amaknak Straits - - goes out, same way - - fluctuations of weaker NE & stronger [[insertion]] S.E & S [[/insertion]] currents produce inequalities of register? Tide rips in passes - in Unimak with SE & NW winds. Occur at half tide - rise & fall - not dangerous in Akutan & Unalga. Tidal currents in harbor [[/vertical line]] & straits. Bendel notes from Unimak to Unalashka in Lizzie Sha. [[vertical line on left side of page]] at Kuskoquim 16 feet Nushagak 22 feet. Smaller to Westward? Mean level at Iliuliuk Nature of tides there. Plane of reference. Mean high & low - extremes. Feb to [[/vertical line]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 [[vertical line on left margin of page]] may greatest ? [[dite?]] inhab. Effect of wind on tides. Difference between level of bench marks. Previous tidal observations. Destruction of cribs. no suitable person for an observer. Glass ruler. Batchelder's guage. [[/end vertical line on left side of page]] [[upside down U shape]] Currents - Circular current of Bering Sea. Temp. velocity. noted by Russian navigators. It's Cold when reaching islands compared with Gulf of Alaska current. Current between Nagai and Unga. In Isanotsky
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 4 strait, shifting sand explain Smith's inability to find passage but Hennig passed in sloop Jabez Howes drawing 3 1/2 feet. Must keep close to Unimak side- NE end of Unimak has scrubby trees which cease when one third of the way west Sitka teredo & Sitka spruce [[insertion]] leaves still green [[/insertion]] on N Shore of Unalashka also cocoanut shells, poplar Sitka cedar, and birch. Southern current warmer & stronger, closer to the islands modified by eddies and the tide. Circular current brings Japanese &c woods & catches some from the (Yukon?) Kuskoquim & Nushagak rivers. Does the N branch go east or west of St. Lawrence Id or both? Tides at Unalashka come from the eastward.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 5 - Currents on up voyage - - September - 1871 - Leaving the Cala. coast in Lon 125.38 Lat. 88.50, Sept. 1st 1871, for two days the records show light southerly ^ [[insertion]] & easterly [[/insertion]] currents of about .3 of a knot per hour with a temperature of 60° + 61° Fahr. Winds light. At 4h Sept 3, nautical time the temperature which for a few hours had fallen to 58° abruptly rose to 62° and the observations showed a change of direction of the current toward the west. The temperature increased to 63° on the 3rd at 20 [[underlined]] h [[/underlined]] and continued for about 24 hours when it fell to 62° again and the observations exhibited a slight northerly & westerly drift of about .2 knots per hour. On the 4th at 24h the temperature rose again reaching 65°
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 6 and averaging for the next 24 hours 63°.5, showing by obs. a westerly & southerly drift of .2 kn. This culminated in the 6th at 8h in 67° after which it fell rapidly to 64° which continued for the remainder of the day, and results of the observations showed a strong northerly [[insertion]] & westerly [[/insertion]] current about 45 or 50 miles broad. [[insertion]] moving at the rate of 1. -/+ k [[/insertion]] Another sudden rise of temperature took place between 0h + 4h on the 7th reaching 69° and averaging 68° (with a slight fall of one degree at night) the water being one or two degrees warmer than the air. This change in temperature was coincident with a diametrically opposite current running in a south & east direction at the rate of more than half a knot per hour. This gradually dim
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 ished in velocity, though the average temperature of 67.5° was maintained for nearly 48 hours longer. The observations even indicated a very slight northerly drift during this time, which I am inclined to ascribe to an excess of leeway, from the direction of the prevalent winds. After 24h on the ninth Sept. the temperature fell simutaneously with a succession of SE gales which obliged us to lay to, for two days and prevented astronomical observations being made. The wind gradually moderated and the temperature decreased but we were still unable to obtain any sight of the sun or other heavenly bodies for four days. On the 13th the temperature had fallen to 52°, which has
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 8 steadily maintained during the ^ [[insertion]] latter half of the [[/insertion]] day, and continued to 0h on the 14th. Here in lat. 48° 40' and lon. 152°.35' d.r. a sudden and very remarkable change of temperature was experienced being an abrupt rise from 52° to 65°, the temperature of the air, though behind that of the water changed in a similar manner, and [[strikethrough]] again [[/strikethrough]] we sailed over this hot stream for 12 hours when the temperature fell as abruptly as it had risen, to 51°. The width of the stream was about forty miles in an east & west direction. The impossibility of getting any astronomical obs. unfortunately prevented our determining its rate & direction although I am of the opinion that it was raining in a nearly due south direction.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 9 From this time ^ [[insertion]] till the 18th [[/insertion]] the temperature [[strikethrough]] averaged 49°.5 rising [[/strikethrough]] rose to 52 and falling to 48 [[strikethrough]] at [[/strikethrough]] on two occasions but maintaining an average of 49°.5. A strong current ^ [[insertion]] from .5 to nearly a k [[/insertion]] was perceptible which proved to run on the 15th in a SWesterly direction, on 16th nearly east on the 17th southerly & easterly while on the 18th we could obtain no observations. It appears from the directions of the current and from the latitude ([[underlined]] 5Q [[/underlined]]) and other general considerations as if this period was passed in crossing the elbow of a ^ [[insertion]] southerly [[/insertion]] curve of the great N Pacific current. On the 19th with the same temperature of 49°, a northerly and westerly drift of nearly a knot an hour was experienced [[strikethrough]] being our first indication of the great Alaska cur-[[/strikethrough]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 10 [[strikethrough]] rent [[/strikethrough]] - being probably an eddy between the N. Pacific stream and the Alaska stream the temperature being that of the northern edge of the former. On the 20th we passed through a some what similar [[strikethrough]] eddy [[/strikethrough]] stream, having a southeasterly drift and about half the velocity of the last. On the 2 [[overwritten]] 3 [[/overwritten]] 1rd we entered the Alaska stream about Lat. 53°, the temperature rose to 50° which was maintained during that day & part of the next, with a southerly & westerly drift on the 21st (with an adverse wind) of somewhat over a third of a knot perhaps gradually increasing as we neared the islands to 1 1/3 knots. [[insertion]] On the 22 [[/insertion]] In
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 11 The temperature fell two degrees as we neared the shores [[insertion]] 48 [[/insertion]] and two more when the mouth of Akutan Pass was reached and the cold waters of Bering Sea followed the falling tide into the Pacific. The following morning however when the reverse took place, the warm Pacific water driving (with the tidal impetus) all before it and the temperature in the Pass where we were becalmed rising accordingly Dixon describes strong NW current off Montague Id Chugach Bay. Archimandritoff Feb. 1872 reports similar off coast just N of Sitka and SW off NE pt of Kodiak with a branch on each side
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 12 and one into Cook's Inlet [[left margin vertical line]] Sunday Feb. 25 about 9 A.M a good illustration of the action of the tidal currents in Iliuliuk Harbor was afforded. The wind had been northerly for some days, and a heavy snow storm prevailing at the same time the result was that a large amount of slush ice in cakes had accumulated at the head of Captain's Harbor. The wind changed to a light southerly air and the tide being nearly high, about nine A.M. with the tide an immense quantity of this ice in rounded cakes & loose slush came into Iliuliuk Harbor through Amaknak Straits at the rate of 4 knots an hour filling the en [[/left margin vertical line]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 [[there is a vertical line on left side of entire page entry]] harbor of Iliuliuk within half an hour. Not a particle of it passed out through the NE entrance nor was there any indentation in the edge of the line at that mouth where the ice stopped except first at the mouth of the creek where the amount of fresh water kept a small space open. The water simply backed up at the NE mouth no current running in there The temperature was very low (20° Fahr) and most of the ice cakes froze together as soon as they became quiet so but little followed the ebb tide south the way it came but none whatever went out by the NE mouth showing that the tide does
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 14 [[there is a line on the left and partially boxing the following text which appears to continue from previous page:]] not run in or out of that mouth to any extent except when there is a N or NW wind, to help it. [[/left side line]] The tide & wind evidently retard or accelerate all the currents near the land or on shallow soundings such as are found on the E shore of Bering sea
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[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 4.70 paid Rufe George. 4 + 1 Capt.
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