Field notes, 1871

ID: SIA RU007073

Creator: Notes, 1871, W.H. Dall, USCS

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1871-1872

Citation: William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927

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The field book documents William Dall's fieldwork in Alaska in 1871-1872 when working for the United States Coast Survey. It lists specimens collected by survey participants including mammals, birds and shells; detailed descriptions of observed specimens with measurements; geological characteristics; and terrain. Includes sketches of terrain, specimens, and geological cross sections. There are various kinds of lists including birds and mollusks of Unalaska and Arctic fauna (with Latin names). Locations include the vicinity of Ulakhta Harbor [Dutch Harbor], Unalaska, and Round Island.

Date Range


Start Date

Sep 06, 1871

End Date

Aug 30, 1872

Access Information

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  • Animals
  • Zoology
  • United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
  • Mollusks
  • Invertebrates


  • United States
  • Aleutian Islands
  • Alaska
  • Round Island
  • Dutch Harbor
  • Unalaska


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007073

Collection name

William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 24 Folder 8

[[Front cover]] Notes. 1871. [[underlined]] W. H. Dall. [[/underlined]] U.S.C.S.
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[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil sketch of Salpa]] [[image - more detailed pencil sketch of Salpa]] Salpa, nucleus blue remainder pellucid single row of tentacles around mouth six muscular bands. 1 gill a little twisted rectum passing forward and then back toward post. opening. Notochord clear, distinct, with a vessel running above it [[image - pencil sketch of two points connected by short line]] Wednesday & Thursday Sept 6 & 7 1871. Set trawl net and got in P.M. Several atlantas of two species which I have drawings of, made in 1865. P.M. Get a few Salpas and Cleodoras. Night. get a large number of Atlantas, a Salpa above
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] described, a number of small crustacea, one with an orange mass dotted with scarlet, in the thorax two or three small [[carinurias?]] with the parts about the mouth of a brilliant scarlet The intestinal canal wine color nucleus livid purple. Above in bottle No 1, Lon 14' Lat 41 N. P.M. Get a few Hyalias and salpas, a curious fish and a feather covered with fish eggs - Sept 7. bottle 2 Sept. 13. Lat. 47. Lon. 148° 30' See two fur seal playing in the water. Many velellae today & yesterday. Sept. 14. Lat 48°. 37' Lon 152° 3' A small land bird a Passereulus with the brown in well defined streaks, the four streaks on the head very yellow, and extending
P. sandwichensis [[end page]] [[start page]] well back. with ^ [[insertion]] flesh [[/insertion]] red feet flew around the vessel and lighted on deck today The species is I feel quite sure the same which I called P. savanna in my Alaska Catalogue. The nearest land is five hundred and fifty miles off the wind N.W. not very strong but has been blowing harder - After some trouble secure the bird and put it in a cage. Protempore skin & sternum No. 3 ____ Another land bird alighted on the ship in the evening but flew off again and was not recognized in the darkness. Saw several gulls or Procellariae during the day. Sept. 15 a small blue fish with a double
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] row of peculiar punctures on the abdomen was washed on board, put it in bottle No. 2. No. 4. Observing the flight, of the [[gorry?]], Diomedea [[strikethrough]] Julyinosa [[/strikethrough]] nigripes. I notice that its ordinary method of sustentation when there is a breeze consists of rising against the wind and falling with it. This being kept up sometimes for hours with hardly a single stroke of the wings. It rises only against the wind except in rare cases when its decending momentum is sufficient to raise it slightly for a short distance or when the reflex eddy from a high surge is strong enough to give it a slight lift. It uses its broad webbed
feet to some extent in balancing itself when turning with the wind, also by poking them down at a right angle with the body to check its course especially when alighting on the water. Generally while flying they are stretched out behind with the webs extended and assist the bird materially in guiding itself, the tail being shorter than the extended feet. It rises by extending its wings and running against the wind over the water until it is sufficiently raised above the water to use its wings without wetting them. A flock of four or five have accompanied us from California so far but will probably soon leave
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] us, as I have noticed that they do not go north of the Aleutian Islands. Their eyesight is exceedingly acute, they can distinguish a discolored spot a yard across, in the water, from a distance of at least ten miles ^ [[insertion]] and even [[/insertion]] much further than our unaided eyes can see the bird itself. Its flight in calm weather consists of a series of about five or six short sharp strokes at intervals of a second or more apart followed by a short period of comparative quiescence. They left us in Lat 53 degrees N. Sept. 21. Sounded in Lat. 53.10 Lon 163°, 35' nearly NE end of Fidalgo bearing NW 1/2 W true 64 miles 112 fms no bottom
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] temp. water at surface 48°. Sept. 22. Hove to at 5:30 Akutan volcano bearing N by W, by compass and Old Harbor NW do sounded getting 110 fms soft muddy bottom, temp. at surface 49°. Sept. 24. See at Mr. Bendels house several Buccinums a Pecten, Rhynchinella, Margarita with a very open umbilicus different from any species I have ever seen and a number of other shells. Get several Pectens out of a flounder. Pick up a large Cardium Nuttallin on the beach. Get some mussels with Collisella patina attached to them. Fish over the side of the vessel and catch a codfish three flounders
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of the scaly kind a small halibut, and a skate with brownish olive back white belly, small stellar spiculaé scattered over the back a row of recurved spines in the median line of the back and 2 moderately large anterior and one small posterior dorsal fin near the end of the tail which was simply pointed. [[image - pencil sketch of skate tail as described above]] save the skull and teeth nos 5. Harrington gets a number of [[flowers?]] and a 5 rayed star-fish & some parasites from the cod. Sept. 26. see Cardium islandicum, Saxidomus squalidus Purpura saxicola, Collisella patina, Tapes staminea
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] like Plover bay was made with whale ribs. Blue berries & salmon berries abundant on hills. Harrington gets a lot of sandfleas & flowers. Sept. 29. Get a very pretty specimen of Tapes. Draw the same in the P.M. and get a beautiful little brown sculpin with gold-colored spots and a few other small fish. also an bumble bee of large size. See several Macoma's and a Volutharpa ampullacea on the beach. Cardium Nuttallii abundant. Sept. 30. Harrington goes fishing and catches several species of salmonidaé one a brook trout. Oct. 1. Search the hillsides & get a few beetles, a
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] leech and some small land shells, Pupilla, Vitrine succinea &c. also a few diptera Oct. 5. Mr. Bendel sends us a red fox [[insertion]] 27 [[/insertion]] and some ducks apparently, Nettion [[strikethrough]] crecca [[/strikethrough]] carolinensis [[insertion]] 24 [[/insertion]] Harelda [[insertion]] 22 [[/insertion]] glacialis, Histrionicus [[insertion]] 23 [[/insertion]] torquatus and Lampronetta [[insertion]] (21) [[/insertion]] fischeri? all in autumn plumage. They are badly torn & bloody but I preserve the skins to identify the species. Oct. 9. Go to Captains Harbor and Lake Sarycheff to examine the reported amber locality. Find the rocks south & east of captains Harbor to be all masses of Syenite [[insertion]] 9 - 10 [[/insertion]] with a perpendicular dip. and
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] cleavage planes in every direction in mountain mass 800 to 2000 ft. high. Ascend some of these and find nothing but syenite in every direction over laid conformably by thin beds of clay and sand with hydrated peroxide of iron in some places a very superficial & very recent formation containing decayed leaves of grass & other vegetation of recent origin. These clay beds were insignificant in extent and limited to small depressions in the mountain tops. Found the so called Amber Lake which was a small pond on top of a syenitic mountain about 2000 ft above the sea. No signs
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of any tertiary deposites. There were three lakes - one discharging into Lake Sarycheff and another into the third which emptied on the other side of the divide apparently in to Beaver Bay. Returning find the high bluff on the west side of Lake Sarycheff to be conglomerate [[insertion]] (6) [[/insertion]] in beds nearly horizontal and very distinctly marked on the out crops. Height above the lake 2000 ft. [[insertion]] covered with hard altered sandsttone black & flinty. [[/insertion]] Natives here burn huckleberry bushes & small willows for fuel green - none more than an inch in diameter. Oct. 12. One of the Aleuts brings in six or eight Anas boschas and a green wing
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] teal while Bendel sends me a Mareca [[strikethrough]] Americana [[/strikethrough]] penelope [[insertion]] 25 [[/insertion]] The ducks are just beginning to come. Pickup some fine Cardiums a Mactra, [[strikethrough]] Tellina [[/strikethrough]] Macoma, Mya truncata and a fragment of a Machāera in the beach. Oct. 14. Get some shells and codfish [[insertion]] 11-17 [[/insertion]] skulls on the beach. Mr. Hodgekins gets some small fish in the seine and sets it for herring. Mr. Bendel kills a small ox wren (no [[insertion]] 26 [[/insertion]]) which I preserve though in bad condition. Oct. 17 Mr Bendel brings in 2 melospiza insignis, [[insertion]] (32 - 3) [[/insertion]] 2 owls, [[insertion]] (30 - 31) [[/insertion]] a mallard & green winged teal.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct. 18. Mr. Bendel sends me two specimens of Hydrobata. (28, 29 & sternum). looking like Mexicana. Oct. 19. Harrington goes out with the gun & kills a young gull ( ) three melospiza (34-5-6 & sterna) and two sand pipers (37-8 & sterna) getting also some few shells & insects: and some small fish ( ) out of the gulls crop. Oct. 22. Go out with my gun & succeed in getting six wrens probably T. alascensis - (nos 94-8-100) also a number of shells & the young of a buccinoid in the ovicapsules sometimes one & sometimes three in one capsule. The shell containing three or four whorls
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The islands east of Kyska are too far south. there is also a reef not laid down on the charts - St. Paul & George are 16 miles too far east on the charts "Phoca" equestris is common on the Asiatic coast and also around Bering Island comes as far east as Unimak in winter and has been killed in Unalashka on one occasion. There is said to be an ancient village in Adakh with the utensils masks &c laying as if yesterday abandoned the Atka men know where it is & can be taken with their single bidarks to find it & return by them selves There is native copper
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] to be found in Umnak A Japanese junk with three sailors drifted ashore on Adakh after being nine months at sea, dismasted & rudder lost by a typhoon when found by a hunting party of Aleuts they had 15 [[lbs?]] of rice left a lot of paper money to buy cargo with at the port to which they were bound & some iron cash & had torn up their deck for fuel. They go down by the Hutchinson in a few weeks. They had nothing but a small compass, no chart or other assistant for navigation. Oct. 23. Capt. Partridge gives me a Hydrobata [[F?]] (no 99) which he has just shot -
[[image - pencil sketch of Pinnoctopus described on following page. Sketch labeled A, B, C, D, E & F at various points on the animal]] [[image - pencil sketch of close up of Pinnoctapus' suckers from a view of underneath the Pinnoctapus.]] arms 1 26 2 gone 3 gone 4 36 5 43 6 24 7 38 8 gone A B. 55 in C D. 17 " [[Ditto for: in]] A E. 13 " [[Ditto for: in]] A F. 3 " [[Ditto for: in]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Get a few things from a cast of the dredge off Rocky point especially a few small & curious crustaceans. P.M. Find some dark red Ascidians Serfulunate on a piece of kelp near Bailey's ∆. Oct. 24. Got on the beach a mutilated specimen of what appears to be a species of Pinnoctopus, it measures, 2 Rows alternate suckers about 50 in number as far as visible, largest 2 1/2 in across Color white occillated with smoriches of brick red in dots. Raphe on the under edge of arms rounding in to a web between them which is 7 inches broad at right Eyes black 5 in between them & a rounded papilla just behind
[[image - pencil sketch of part of Pinnoctapus anatomy]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The body was ray shaped with a broad (3 to 5 in) flap all around it with no notch & wider behind. A careful search revealed no ossicles. The intestines contained long milk white coils apparently part of the organism also some cylindrical pallucid yellow things looking like intestinal worms. Preserve these, also the jaws, the radula was lost and one of the suckers (no 102/754) Get a few [[insertion]] 103 - [[/insertion]] shells and some sandpipers (nos. 105 - 109) Oct. 25. Dredge in the P.M. get a good lot of shells but notice the absence everywhere of the smaller species. Preserve most of them in alcohol nos 113 - 132.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct. 26. get a few shells & codskulls on the beach also some small landshells on the bluff south of the town. Mr. Hodgekins kills a black duck with red legs & toes, black webs with a peculiar red & white bill unknown to me (No '42) white on the wings. Also a young Mareca Americana. The former duck is very common here but very shy - Eyes with white iris. Find sphagnum in blossom - Oct. 28. Get some good shells from west side of Amaknak including Scuria mitra, Bucciliatum, 2 Chrysodoni. Volutopsis Beringi. Modiola modiolus, Saxicava arctica Mybilus edulis. Margarita pupilla. Trichotropis insignis many fine Card. Laperousii &c.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Nov. 17. Mr Bendel reports seeing a flock of Lampronettas and also with them a lot of the black duck with the bright yellow bulb on the bill He sent me several Harelda glacialis and the black duck with red toes & bill of which a head was sent before. Dec. 29 Found Cynthia pyriformis in the beach. Animal of Macoma capitanea in shell much softened two long smooth scarlet siphons one shorter than the other which was about 1 1/2 in too far gone to tell if papillose. Harrington gets a cuttle like that before mentioned Argobuccinum beautiful pink or yellow inside.
[[Text written across both pages]] Birds of Unalashka [[/both pages]] Plectrophanes nivalis (sh) 35 [[strikethrough]] 2 [[/strikethrough]] 10x Reported & seen. Snowbird. Troglodytes alascenis (sh) 94-98. 100. 26. 249. 288. Wren Leucosticte griseinucha (sh) 245. 246. 248. 253 Finch Melospiza insignis (sh) [[strikethrough]] 32-36.[[/strikethrough]] 250. 418. Sparrow M. unalashkensis 32-36 Lagopus albus (?rupestris) (sh) 293. Grouse Pelidna maritima 38. 105-109. 37. 254. Sandpiper [[strikethrough]] Bub [[/strikethrough]] Nyctea nivea seen, also feathers &c White owl Brachyotus Cassini [[strikethrough]] [[??]] [[/strikethrough]] 30-31 Yellow owl Haliaeetus leucocephalus (sh abdt) 297 Seen plenty White headed eagle Aquila canadensis [[strikethrough]] 297. [[/strikethrough]] 383 Golden eagle Tinnunculus sparverius seen, 1 killed but lost. Sparrowhawk (sh) Reported ? Larger Hawk Corvus carnivorus (sh) Plenty around village Raven. Polysticta Stelleri 223. 285. 298-9 Stellers eider Harelda glacialis (sh) 296 Old Squaw ? 251 Yellownose Surf Duck. Melanetta velvetina (sh) 142. [[strikethrough]] 307-8. 351ox [[/strikethrough]] White winged coot. Anas boschas. Seen plenty, dead, in Aleut hands Mallard Lampronetta Fischeri [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] 21? Spectacled eider Querquedula discors. Reported Blue winged teal Nettion carolinensis. (sh) 24 Green winged teal Histrionicus torquatus 23. 304. Harlequin duck Mareca americana 25 Baldpate. Mergus americanus 302-3 large green head. Merganser
Staruk (Chica) Petrel (Chica) [[strikethrough]] Futix? [[/strikethrough]] Bucephala americana 301 Blackheaded duck [[strikethrough]] Podylymbus [[/strikethrough]] podiceps cooperi 294 Grebe Graculus violaceus (sh) 291. Shag Uria californica (sh) 300. Diver Phaleris cristatella? (sh) 292 Sea quail [[strikethrough]] Phaleris sp. [[/strikethrough]] Brachyrhamphus wrangelii 224 Small diver Somateria spectabilis [[strikethrough]]287. 289.[[/strikethrough]] 319.♂ Eider Duck Larus argentatus? leucopterus? (sh) 147 Large white gull Larus brachrhynchus? (sh) seen plenty Black tipped smaller Rissa? (Kotzebui? sh) Dec seen. Gray gull Stercorarius seen - Oct. Passerculus (Unga?) sandwichensis 3 1 offshore - Tree sparrow [[insertion]]cinclus[[/insertion]] Hydrobata mexicana (sh) 28. 29. 99. Ongel Diomedea sp seen. rotten. Albatross (Mormon arcticus & corniculatus (sh) seen) 295. Duck 22 Duck Anser gambellii? Dec.31. Is reported. feet yellow. bill flesh. Haematopus niger (sh) Spring. seen & recognized Hirundo bicolor (sh) June l abundant " [[ditto for: recognized]] Zonotrichia [[strikethrough]]gar[[/strikethrough]] coronata (sh) " [[ditto for: June]] 1 two seen " [[ditto for: recognized]] Passerculus sp " [[ditto for: June]] 1 one " [[ditto for: seen]] like Unga sp ( Redfoot diver |sh] (Sterna macrura sh) (yellow legs sh)
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Jan 23. 1872 - Beudel reports an eider with top of head gray cheeks green with some black orange knob on bill, breast orange brown, wings dark. Paul Rapin recognizes the Lampronetta from the figure, has seen it at St. Michael's and rarely here but says it is very shy. He distinguishes it perfectly from the other eiders _ See plenty of small sandpipers. The Leucostictes are getting brighter plumage _ Capt. Hall finds a piece of the pin of a squid four or or five inches long and two and a half wide, it must have been of enormous size. Find another piece of the curious sinistral Buccinum - like shell on W side Amaknak
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] March 3. 1872. The larger sea ducks are leaving and becoming scarcer every day The smaller ones still linger. The sea quail &c are said to breed on the rocky islets about May 1 - 10 and to hatch about June 1. The gulls are said to have a second brood in July - August. Find on the inside of Amaknak a whole lower whorl with column of the Scaphella of which a worn apex was previously picked up & refused to ballast or [[whales?]]. It is very like S. magellanica of a livid purplish white with 4 - 6 whorls very slender with three sharp plaits on the column
B2 stratum of soft sandrock - B3 " " [[ditto for: stratum of]] coarse pebbles - B4 " " [[ditto for: stratum of]] marine shells - B5 " " [[ditto for: stratum of]] soft sandrock - B6 " [[ditto for: stratum]] rounded pebble conglom - B7 stratum sandy soft rock B8 Coal, the thick layers [[end page]] [[start page]] Coal Harbor Unga Island - April 2, 1872 - Examine the formations on the west side of the Bay which contain lignite beds. Find the cliff which is between five and six hundred feet high. Composed as follows. From top down A. Conglomerate of fine pebbles B. do [[ditto for: Conglomerate]] of larger boulders > C. 6 in Thin friable sandy shales D More like A E Two feet very coarse do [[ditto for: shales]] (The above take 200 ft) F. 4 in sandy shale vegetable remains very indistinct G 40 ft of thin leaves of lignite aggregated into three series of 3 ft each & interleaved with clay
[[written across both pages]] List of mollusca of Unalashka [[/both pages]] From Sitka fauna. xylotryā sp. Leda fossa? Nucula tenuis? Placunanomia macroschisma [[Kellia La Peronsii?]] Modiolus modiolus Saxidomus squalidus. Entodesma saxicola. Macoma sp Machaera patuta Dixon [[Lerripes La Perousii?]] Cardium nuttallii " " [[Ditto for: Cardium]] [[ulandium?]] [[strikethrough]] Buccinum [[/strikethrough]] Lepton sp - . Tapes staminea Standella sp [[Lucina temus?]] Cryptodon flexuosus Buccinum cyaneum Chrysodonius liratus Priene oregonensis Volutoharpa ampullacea Trichotropis cancellatus Cancellaria modesta Trophm orpheus " [[Ditto for: Trophm]] multicostatus Ceripthiopsis sp Acmaea patina " [[Ditto for: Acmaea]] pelta " [[Ditto for: Acmaea]] mitra
[[title across both pages]] From Sitka fauna [[/both pages]] Acmaea persona Cryptobranchia concentrica [[strikethrough]] Fro [[/strikethrough]] Puncturella galeata Purpura canaliculata Litonina sitkana Natica russa Chiton marmoreus _ Chiton kennerleyi _ Margarita inflata Astyris gansapata?
[[written across top of both pages]] From Arctic Fauna [[/written across both pages]] Macoma inconspicua - " [[Ditto for: Macoma]] sp. " [[Ditto for: Macoma]] edentula. Serripes grönlandicus. Cardium islandicum. Yoldia amygdala " [[Ditto for: Yoldia]] thraceiformis " [[Ditto for: Yoldia]] lanceolata Mya [[strikethrough]] sen [[/strikethrough]] praecisa " [[Ditto for: Mya]] truncata Mytilus edulis Saxicava pholadis &c Venericardia borealis Turtonia minuta Modiolaria laevigata Mytilus edulis Acmaea testudinalis Trichotropis borealis Mesalia lactea " [[Ditto for: Mesalia]] reticulata Velutina laevigata Natica clausa
[[title across both pages]] From Arctic Fauna [[/both pages]] Buccinum glaciale " [[ditto for: Buccinum]] slender white ribbed Margarita helicina " [[ditto for: Margarita]] large white eastern Lacuna vincta " [[ditto for: Lacuna]] sp Bela sp. Bela sp. Admete sp. Tornatina sp. Odostomia sp. Chrysodomus sp. - five revolving ridges Chiton ruber. lineata alba
[[title across both pages]] Aleutian fauna [[/both pages]] Macoma capitanea " [[Ditto for: Macoma]] venulata? " [[Ditto for: Macoma]] sp Rhynchonella sp Terebratula sp? pink (Majuscular) Toldia seminuda Pectin nibidus Panopaea sp. ? generosa _ " " [[Ditto for: Panopaea sp.]] (another Unga) Trichotropis insignis Crepidula grandis Acmaea sybaritica Velutina coriacea Chrysodomus coarse ridges Buccinum Baeri } " [[Ditto for: Buccinum]] sp yellow } [[vars?]] of [[cyaneum?]] N. genus - sinistral Scaphella sp. Cancellaria sp. Volutopsis Beringi " [[Ditto for: Volutopsis]] sp.
[[title text across both pages]] Unalashka fauna [[/text across pages]] Margarita? sp.n. Pinnoctopus sp. Buccinum Kennicottii. " [[Ditto for: Buccinum]] Moerchianum Loligo? sp. small landshells [[line across page]] No Haliotis Rissoidae a very few Scalaria Dentalia Astarte Found d.r. in Indian bay Bittium Cerithiopsis 1 sp. Liocyma.
Nos 384 a b c from this layer [[end page]] [[start page]] gravel, sand, &c in layers of variable thickness, with a good deal of pyrites & peroxide of iron. H Then 150 feet of sandstone so soft as to be really sand & gravel beds. without many large stones - I succession of beds similar to G but none of the coal exceeding 8 inches in thickness and most of it much jointed and with a great deal of peroxide & sulphuret of iron 200 ft J. 4 ft bed of clay ironstone with impressions of leaves on beach K. below low water there is said to be another
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] coal seam. The coal is lignitic and differs in quality in different localities. The best is to the south of the house where it has been opened by the Co. Here there are 3 veins of about a foot each in thickness composed of fine leaves but hard & solid except when weathered - between them are about ten feet of sand and gravel and over the middle one four feet of very friable blue shale over the upper one is a 4 in layer of sandy shale containing impressions of leaves of grasses hemlock - arctostaphylos
[[image - pencil drawing of strata of coal seam]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Vaccinium sp., arborvitae, a fern? and some others unknown to me, laurel? & shagberry. &c. The coal is nowhere more than 18 inches thick in the clear - it contains a good deal of sulphur & iron & splits very easily into thin sheets. The roof stone is unstable. All the strata dip to the westward from 5° to 20 [[underlined]] ° [[/underlined]] There are not many folds but a few waves The conglomerate appears to have been a leach formation while the level was changing as many of the upper lie unconformably on each other Above all are marine tertiary which I have not
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] yet found in place, and which are sandstone containing a fossil Crepidula and quite thin. The mountains back in the island are sandstone according to Dix. the E & SE shores of the Bay appear to be diorite & contain quantities of quartz veins [[strikethrough]] many [[/strikethrough]] most of them chalcedonic. The round island is of similar rock. Examine the Acmaeas now April 5 in full season. The milt is milky, with sacs yellowish cream color. The ova, most immature are aggregated into small bunches in the ovary They are spherical light yellow [[insertion]] all through [[/insertion]] as they approach maturity The yelk becomes yellow &
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] the outer parts clearer with a brownish tinge, at the same time the little masses become disintegrated and the ova about twice the diameter of those in the first condition Finally the most mature exhibit the yolk yellow with half of one side exhibiting an oval brownish clear speck the nucleus of the young shell and slightly concave. The most mature are free floating in the fluids of the animal close to the Anal papilla and I have little doubt that they are extruded by the so called renal orifice though I have not yet definitely traced the oviduct. At no other point in the ovisac are mature ova found. The color of
There are two small red glandlike bodies one on each side of the neck which I have not seen in alcoholic specimens. There is but one renal sac hence probably no renal orifice. The funnel shaped extension of the ovary runs along the cloaca for some distance but does not open into it as far as I can discover. The renal sac is composed of vermiform yellowish green or olive blind [[occuli?]] branching and curling in every direction and opening into a common duct. The young 1/50 of an inch long and translucent brown dish shaped no spiral nucleus. [[end page]] [[start page]] the distended ovisac is orange brow, darker towards the anterior end. There are no capitopedal orifices. I could not detect the renal orifice / A. patina (or testudinalis?) but traced the mature ova through a very tender duct or membranous canal, to the left of the anal canal, close to where the renal orifice must be. There are two orange-red prominences, behind the head, one of each side of the neck - can't imagine their nature or office - have seen nothing like them in alcoholic specimens. Animal yellow white except dark tentacles and mantle edge foot yellower & redder - Muscles of buccal parts red - bill short. These grow very large on the rocks here.
Small land shells - or Pisideum H. pauper [[Hd.?]] chersina say. Arborea Vitrina sp. Pupilla sp. conspecta? Priene oregonensis Add Machaera patula Dixon mybilus adulis & a Standella. Cardita Borealis Lepton? sp. Litorinas aggregated in large masses copulating on beach April 8-10 [[end page]] [[start page]] Most of the shells here are brighter colored & more porcellanous & thicker than in Unalashka. Chry. liratus very large - also Mya trumcata, M. [[Japoniea?]] [[insertion]] praecisa? [[/insertion]] - Card. Nuttallii - 2 macomas Saxidomus squalidus. Saxicava arctica - (red siphon ends) large annelids, Sipunculae a margarita like helicina Litorina Sitkana & rudis Purpura Canaliculata Plac. machrochisma Tapis staminea var ruderata & dead Astartes all very common on rocky beaches at low water. Also rockeels not found in Unalashka as far as I have seen. Buc. Kennicottii fragments and volutopsis pretty good ones - also Buc. moerchianum. & fragment glaciale
[[image - pencil sketch of Round Island. Different strata indicted by lines and shading with letters A, B & C labelling the strata.]] SW side [[image - pencil sketch of Round Island. Different strata indicted by lines and shading with letters A, B, C & D labelling the strata.]] E side [[end page]] [[start page]] Examine the geology of the Round Island thoroughly. On the south and South west the predominant rock is a hard bluish sandstone (A) with a variable dip, (near the shore SW 64º.) from nearly level to perpendicular. containing large clayey nodules and showing the effects of heat & great pressure - with a tendency to split into cubical or acute angled six sided blocks or fragments. To the south a fault in the strata occurs on each side of which (C) the rock is broken into very small pieces which are united together with a matrix of yellowish calcite and thin veins of chalcedonic and drusy quartz to the east of the
[[image - pencil sketch of birds eye view of Round Island with lines indicating different rock/soil formations and labelled A, B, C & D. Sketch is labelled with fault and compass points listed clockwise starting with N]] N Ne E SE S fault SW W. [[end page]] [[start page]] fault the same rock A occurs but the upper part of it which is softer (B) somewhat micaceous & weathers yellowish brown in some cases - is near the beach especially to the S & SSE - Passing around this corner of the island we come upon a mass of greenish porphyrite obscure by bedded dipping SE 70°. and passing under the sandstones at (D) where they are very rotten & much broken up, being evidently remains of the upper strata probably faulted down and exhibiting a foot or two of rotten broken argillite. The fault extends NE of this to the beach and on the other side of it the sandstones appear again much folded.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] The lower sandstone A appears equivalent to the blue standstone of Nulato, the upper [[strikethrough]] do (B) [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] beds across the harbor [[/insertion]] to the brown do [[Ditto for: sandstone]] of Nulato, the porphyrite do to that of the [[strikethrough]] Kaspukink [[/strikethrough]] Sopka - at Koyukuk. The lower sdst. here (as there) exhibits obscure vegetable remains and its upper beds (as at Ulukuk) leaves &c but of different species from those of the Portage. The upper layer with crepidulas corresponds to those containing oysters & mybili of Nulato - though this is not represented on the island but across the Harbor. The upper beds (B) here are simple continuations of the lower (A) which passes insensibly into them and they are succeeded by the lignite bearing series &
[[image - pencil sketch of landscape with lines showing strata of soil/rock and labelled D, P, C, B, CN, S, CN & sh & Cl]] East Side. [[end page]] [[start page]] lower & upper leaf beds - all represented in the Yukon & Portage by the blue sandstone while the gravel & conglomerate & most of the lignite are absent there. April 10 - Examine the strata in the East & South sides of New Harbor South of the lake portage. The succession of the strata appear as follows 1st (D) a black granite rock (no. ) not stratified but some what bedded very obscurely dipping (as do all the strata here in general) 20° - 30° ESE. 2 On top of this the porphyrite (P) No ) certainly lies conformably & forms the highest crest of the hills of this peninsula of the island. An obscure bedding is perceptible in this rock also but not a regu
[[image - pencil sketch of landscape with strata labelled as S, CN, W & B]] sides New Harbor. [[image - pencil sketch of landscape with strata labelled T and compass directions labelled N and NW]] T. End of point appears like basaltic trap semicolumnar and in places like met. sdst. [[end page]] [[start page]] lar stratification. 3. Above this come beds ten to 30 feet thick of conglomerate beds (C1) showing the effects of heat very strongly in some places reddened & appearing as if baked but distinctly stratified and very rotten where exposed. 4 - Next a bed from 3 to fifty feet thick of black sandstone (B) also much altered in places, but very distinctly stratified & in thin lamināe. The plane surfaces of the laminae much harder than their broken edges and the result is a very bizarre weathering of fallen blocks. This stratum continues all around New Harbor being much thicker on the W side where it is also broken & the crevices filled with the chalce
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] donic & drusy quartz before mentioned, in great quantities _ It also weathers into a great number of small arches which gives the small low round bluffs much the appearance of towers pierced for cannon from some points of view. Above this stratum and 5 [[in?]] thicker where this is thinnest is another bed of conglomerate (CN no. ) from 20 to 60 feet thick like No 3 but harder especially toward the top where some argillaceous bands occur. Several miles SE a square topped hill of this rock owes its peculiarly formed apex to the presence of beds (S) of sandstone like those
[[image - pencil sketch of Volutharpa ampullacea]] [[image - pencil sketch of underside of Volutharpa ampullacea]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of which Round Island is mainly composed This is the only patch of that rock visible in Unga to the East of New Harbor it being elsewhere eroded Fossil wood occurs in the beach some of it with teredo borings which suggests that the fossil wood formed here was drifted on. [[strikethrough]] sunk [[/strikethrough]] while the land was sinking just previous to the deposition of the marine tertiary sandstones. Obtain some living Volutharpa ampullacea - on the muddy gravel under large stones on Round Island. All the young ones had opercula the adults had or had not indifferently. The animal seemed unable to withdraw itself wholly within the shell. The
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] foot was broadly rounded before & somewhat more acutely behind. The color was waxen deepening into orange on the sole & sides of the foot - upper parts blotched with black or dark purple - a depression in the middle anterior part of the sole like a sucker Foot smooth edges bulbous with a faintly impressed line on each side. From a sponge dredged by Capt Hall the same day Apr. 11th. a most remarkable animal probably an annelid was taken. It was of the most brilliant scarlet throughout, the same as the living sponge. It has no mouth eyes or anus visible. The back was rounded oval like a Doris and transversely
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] rugose with arborescent frills. Bottom of foot or ventral side smooth & flat or transversely striated. The sponge dichotomized in inextricable confusion the whole forming a mass of a peck or two capacity growing in stones in 3 fans - water. Harrington goes off to the E side of the island and gets a number of [[Lircardium?]] laperousii, & gronlandicum Mactra falcata. [[Telline?]] capitanea, One small living Buccinum Kennicottii, animal white splashed with black & a Chrysodomoid operculum., Macoma inconspicua Buc glaciale, cyaneum var Volutharpa ampullacea Lomatina sp. Mod. vernicosa mid. a macoma with a fine green epidermis
[[image - pencil sketches of a shell]] [[end page]] [[start page ]] Bela & Trophon sp. dead & Amphissa corrugata typical 1 broken specimen. Also 1 ditto [[Ditto for: broken]] Machaera patula & a lot of Echinarachnis - beside two crabshells_ April 16. Capt. Hall after a number of unsuccessful attempts obtains a specimen living & perfect of the remarkable sinistral buccinoid form of which fragments have been obtained previously, here & at Unalashka. The operculum is peculiar & dextral, so small as not to cover the animal when contracted to its greatest ability. The mant[[strikethrough]] l [[/strikethrough]]le is very large extending some distance over [[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] whorl on the right side of the aperture. Its
[[image - pencil drawing of view of creature]] [[image - pencil drawing of profile of snail like creature [[end page]] [[start page]] edge is smooth and entire. That portion adjacent to the left hand side of the aperture is yellow white on the extreme edge, and inside of that deep yellow or even brownish but so densely laced with black streaks as to appear blackish. The other edge is yellowish white with a deep yellow stain inside the margin. The siphon is rather short, blackish with a pale margin. The bottom of the foot is orange with a black margin. The sides are blackish with pale flecks, & yellowish toward the interior of the shell. They are rather rough and semi granulated. The head is small black, the tentacles short
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] black with white tips The eyes on their outer bulbosities. The proboscis is large, inflated & black. The animal appeared muscular but sluggish This specimen was less highly colored than the Unalashka fragments thicker and had a projection like a tooth opposite the anterior end of the columella. This may be abnormal The lip was thickened with purple & white The columella ditto. It was in 6 fms water hard bottom, near Round Island in the entrance of New Harbor Unga Island.
[[image - pencil sketch of a cuttle fish]] probable shape [[image - pencil sketch of view of a cuttle fish]] [[image - pencil sketch of a view of a cuttle fish]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Cuttle fish found by Harrington April 26 and another by Hall a week after. Tips of arms and tail gone - 1st. Length 6 ft. 8 in end to end. Length of body 3 ft. 10 - Width of swimmers l ft 1 1/2 in Arms 26 - 30 in Arms mandibular, ends gone - cylindrical 30 in. Arms tentacular ends gone - suckers alternate in two rows - on slender peduncles with chitinous ring around the cup. Mandibles retracted into a short yellow puckered muzzle which was included in a longer plain proboscis like tube. Color whitish with red dots as usual. A raphe exists on the outside of the arms darker than the rest in color. Capt. Hall's specimen though mutilated was over 7 feet long. Beak, tongue and pieces of arms saved.
[[image - pencil sketch of cuttle fish]] [[end page]] [[start page]] May 8. Find another larger & more perfect posteriorly Body 61 in To roots of tentacles 67 in To upper edge flips 33. 3/4 in To widest part of " [[Ditto for: flips]] 22. in width there of " [[Ditto for: flips]] 25 1/2 in between attachments of do [[Ditto for: flips] 3 1/2 ant. Back Tentacle incomplete 43. Arm " [[Ditto for: incomplete]] 23 1/2in Head unattached to collar. Color reddish in fine dots on white ground tail acutely pointed. Eye bluish black and inch across the opening which is not covered with skin & has rudimentary lids. Gills 2 yellowish olive layers obliquely transverse. gizzard of yellowish muscles laid like a coil of spun yarn curious frills around the neck Flips 3 times as wide as body above.
[[image - pencil drawing showing the some of the rock/soil formations of the Head of Popoff straits. Labeled sandstone etc, lava, met sandst]] NW Head of Popoff straits [[end page]] [[start page]] Hirunds bicolor & Haematopus niger were observed but no specimens obtained at Unalashka about June 1. The latter was obtained with eggs considerably incubated at Popoff Island. Shumagins June 20. Also Sterna macrura with eggs & Larus leucopterus. A considerable number of specimens more or less injured, of [[Lunhelion? Sunhelion?]] & Buc. Kennicottii were obtained in the grass on the Popoff Id Sand Pt. Also Mytilus edulis, Standella sp. Mod. modiolus, Acmaea patina mitra & persona. Card. Nuttallii Chry. liratus, Argobuccinum oregonense Volutopsis Beringi, Macoma sp Card. laperonsii, Buc. cyaneum var & glaciali & "sand cakes in abundance. The west shore of Popoff island is of black basaltic lava which also breaks through
[[image - pencil drawing of egg cases on rock]] Egg cases of Argobuccinum oregonensis single erect on rocks parallellopipedal. [[end page]] [[start page]] and partly over flows the horizontal sandstone on the E shore of N Unga greatly metamorphosing those to the north of the lave mass while those to the south are little changed even down to the the lava. June 24, visit the north end of Popoffsky to examine into the fossiliferous layer reported by Mr. Hodgkins. Find them well exposed on the high bluff about the middle of the north side. The fossiliferous layer is quite thin running from 6 in to two feet and corresponds in position with layer c of the coal bluffs in the North Harbor of Unga. It is however separated from the conglomerate strata above & below by a layer from ten to twenty five
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] feet thick of sand hardly hard enough to be called sandstone Above the conglomerate which is baked & altered by heat is a bed three hundred feet thick of lava and volcanic breccia differing every few feet horizontally and vertically in its exact composition the lower part seem more like a cooked conglomerate of pieces of porphyrite with a basaltic matrix while the upper portion is composed in part of sharp fragments of porphyrite & dolerite cemented by a thin glossy vitreous lava. This completes the key to the system of tertiary beds of the north part
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] of the territory. The strata had a dip of ten to 15 degrees to the eastward and were conformable. The lowest visible was the conglomerate layer corresponding to the previously mentioned layer denominated D in the Coal Harbor Beds. The fossiliferous layer contained principally oysters like O. virginica [[insertion]] with [[/insertion]] Crepidula, Galerus, Pecten Modiola & Modiolaria and some few indeterminate gasteropods, one like a drillia another some what like a chrysodomus - all except the oysters rather scarce Many oysters were bored by [[underlined]] Cliona [[/underlined]] and the shells of all kinds were in pretty
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] good preservation & mixed with fragments of vegetable matter much of it carbonized & some silicified. The matrix was a sand rock sometimes argillaceous enough to approach shale in character. Sanborn Harbor. Nagai Id. Aug. 1872 The geological characters of the middle portion of this island are as follows. The strata at the surface are metamorphic sandstones & slates generally dipping to the westward but arranged in waves having their longer axis about NNE & SSW. sometimes faulty but in general pretty regular and occasionally an exposure perpendicular to the axis shows the wave complete & unbroken. The slates & sandst.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] are intermingled in beds of irregular thickness & lithological character as in unaltered mixed strata of the same nature. Most of them are exceedingly hard. They are continuously exposed in several directions to [[strikethrough]] hight of [[/strikethrough]] thickness of 6000 feet or more but the average breadth of the waves [[strikethrough]] with aver [[/strikethrough]] is not less than 5000 feet. The lines of stratification are distinctly marked. Above these slates & conformable with them, in a few localities mostly much elevated or on the western edge of the Island, are some of the Unga sandstone of the lower series. These are to be seen above
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Porpoise Harbor, and near & at Pinnacle Point. The rocks off the Pinnacle are of coarse sandstone, and cut up by lava veins in every direction but not much metamorphosed No fossils have been found though carefully sought for. Further south, on the shores of Eagle Harbor and the western part of Falmouth Harbor similar rocks are exposed much faulted & contorted at the latter locality At the head of the two latter bays, mountain masses of granite are exhibited, but the soil and luxuriant growth of herbage prevented me from tracing out the connection between
[[image - pencil drawing of hill range showing strata of soil/rock formation. Sections of drawing marked either a or b]] a Unga sdst b met. sdst & slates N part of Nagai [[image - pencil drawing of hill range with lines showing strata of soil/rock formation. Sections of drawing marked b or c]] b metamorphic sandst & slates c granite S middle part of Nagai. [[end page]] [[start page]] the metamorphic rocks & the granite. The two serious are apparently not conformable. The general course trend &c of the stratified rocks is similar to that in the islands to the westward Unga, Popoff &c. In Unalashka we have in the interior the altered conglomerates & shales lying unconformably on syenite with a surrounding of porphyrites. In Unga we have them lying unconformably on the porphyrites and broken up by injected lavas. Here in Nagai they lie on the metamorphic slates &c for the first time conformably.
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[[image - pencil sketch of landscape stratigraphy]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]]
[[two sums - first sum]] 94. 195. 339 103 158 168 135 190 125 192 4.705 [[line representing addition]] 153.705 155 [[line representing addition]] 1703.705 [[/first sum]] [[second sum]] 2,743 271 913 778 [[line representing addition]] 7595 211 [[line representing addition]] 4705 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - triangle with sides abc and angles ABC noted]] [[ a=192 c=87.15 A=2.45 degrees]] [[first numbers]] .304794 9 [[line]] 9 [[line]] 2743146 [[7 and 8 are to the side]] [[first sum]] 10.00000 .28556 8.68103 [[line representing addition]] 896660 [[second sum]] [[?]].04794 3.0479 [[line representing addition]] .74315 271 913 778 [[line representing addition]] .595 211 [[line representing addition]] 4705 [[the 0 in this sum is written over with 10 addend below it]] [[third sum]] 2.18556 8.68104 [[line representing addition]] 10.96660 [[fourth sum]] 10.00000 2.28556 9.99950 [[line representing addition]] x2.28506 .04798 [[to side of fourth sum]] 192.778 [[below fourth sum]] [[fifth sum]] 7 511 28488 [[line representing addition]] 23 [[line indicating adding 28488 and 23 to side of problem]] [[sixth sum]] 506 488 [[mathematical line]] 18000 [[upside-down division bar]] 782 161 [[mathematical line]] 190 184 [[mathematical line]] 60 46 [[mathematical line]] 14 [[seventh sum]] 2.10037 8.11693 [[line representing addition]] 10.21730 123.913 [[to side of seventh sum]] [[eighth sum]] 2.10037 9.99996 [[line representing addition]] x2.10033 [[ninth sum]] 30) 40 [[upside-down division bar]] 13 80 [[mathematical line]] 100
[[two columns of figures - first column]] 94. 195. 339 103 158 168 135 190 125 192 4.705 ------ 153.705 155 ------- 1703.705 [[/first column]] [[two columns of figures - second column]] 2743 271 913 778 ------ 2595 211 ------ 2705 [[/second column]] [[end page [[start page]] [[image - mathmatical diagram]] .304794 9 7 -------- 8 9 -------- 2743146 10.00000 .28556 8.68104 -------- 896660 3.04794 2.28556 .30479 8.68104 ------- -------- 2.74315 10.96660 271 913 778 ------- 2.595 211 ------- 4705 10.00000 2.28556 9.99950 .04798 -------- x2.28506 [[strikethrough]] 8 [[/strikethrough]] 192.778 7 511 28488 ----- 506 23 ) 488 ---- 18000 ) 782 161 ---- ----- 190 184 ----- 60 46 ---- 14 2.10037 125.913 8.11673 ------- 10.21730 2.10037 30) 40 (13 9.99996 30 ------- ---- x2.10033 100
[[image - pencil sketch of landscape]] Lake Sarycheff & Bluff S 20 1/2 E 180 56 1/2 77 __________ ____ 77.0 103 [[end page]] [[start page]] 27 2533 29.222 [[image = pencil drawing of possible birds eye view of hill or peninular and marked topography lines and with compass points N, S, E & W]] 32 70 [[image - basic pencil sketch of outline of hills]]
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