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Erdman's incredibly rich, daily, narrative log of collecting events and observations he and his assistant Hussein made in the Persian Gulf and Jeddah regions from 3 March to 16 August 1948. Erdman's collecting notes focus mostly on fish (approximately numbers U-48-1 to U-48-137 included). Erdman occasionally notes weather conditions, coordinates, and details about specimens. Erdman's notes also document collecting or observations of other specimens such as coral, shrimp, crab, mollusks, sea mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Sketches of a variety of sea life and birds are included throughout the journal. Some specific localities include Al Khobar, Tarut Bay, Zaal, and El Azzizia. Erdman also includes observations and sketches of activities of local inhabitants and reference notes on fish.

Date Range


Start Date

Mar 03, 1948

End Date

Aug 16, 1948

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Animals
  • Herpetology
  • Ichthyology
  • Birds
  • Fisheries
  • Invertebrates
  • Ornithology


  • Saudi Arabia
  • Red Sea
  • Persian Gulf
  • Jiddah


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Sketches

Accession #

SIA RU007428

Collection name

Donald S. Erdman Papers, 1948

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 1 Folder 2

[[Front cover]] [[preprinted]] Record U. S. Government Printing Office Property No. 50178 [[/preprinted]]
C & D 178732 Field address c/o Aramco Donald S. Endman Ras Tanura Jan. 3, 1948 Saudi Arabia General Log + notes on Persian Gulf + Jeddah (Jidda) on the Red Sea Fish Division U. S. National Museum Washington 25, D. C. Middle East Journal April 1947 "16n Saud's program for Arabia" Richard H. Sanger p.186 "Irrigation in the central part of the country presents a different problem. Here the rainfall in the [[Turagg?]] Mountains on the west [[into?]] beneath the ground to the limestone table underlying much of that part of Saudi Arabia, and flows eastward under the [[?]] and Al Hasa to come out in the Persian Gulf. The fisherman of the Bahrein Is. still obtain some of their water by diving overboard and filling their pouches in the fresh water springs that bubble up in the Persian Gulf. The great oasis of [[Hojiuf?]] is kept fertile by forty artesian wells whose water swells up through breaks in the Al Hasa limestone in sufficient quantity to irrigate more than 2 million date trees. Ruyad, Dilan, Buraydah and Urazzah [[?]] - - - draw their water from these underground vines." + "Most [[?]] of all are the great water [[?]] in and around Al Khazi, 50 m. S. E. of Riyad. These are often one hundred yards across, they look like quarries but are really lakes formed by the collapse of the surface limestone table. They are filled to approx 100 ft. below surface of ground with fresh clean water that [[?]] made possible they ag. experiment at Al Kharj." [[end page]] [[start page]] people to meet Mr. Richard H. Daggy, entomologist, Arab-Amer. Oil Co. Dhahran, Saudi-Arabia Acc. 178624 31 cyprinodonts, 1/20/48, artesian well answer description [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] (Ruppell) Saihat, Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia Dr. Dick Kezel Beirut ref. by Dale Stewart Ahmad Shakhur fish dealer for Aramco at Saihat Hussain Tahir. Abull Azizz, Aramco Teddah. helped with my fish collecting in Jiddah and become [[strikethrouhg]] and [[/strikethrough]] am experienced handler of Underwood [[?]] and was successful, in obtaining sever new species, while I took sick in Jeddah Hassan Monsur contractor Nasur Richard Hattrup ostrich ^near Transjordan^ Iraq- Saudi Arab border 1939 300 lbs. over, ran 30 m.p.h., 9 ft. stride George Rentz saw from saw fish at Al Khobar 5 1/8 width at base 2" 47 1/4" at tip 32 teeth both sides teeth 1 1/2" Dr. ^Sunder Lal^ Hora Indian Museum, Bombay Joe T. Smith ARMACO c/o Al Kharj Agriculture Project Dhahran, Saudi Arabia RFD #4 Floydada, Texas Mrs. James C. Ateward 611 West 122th st, New York Colonial house
Esther Jackson 2123 Eye Washington 7, D.C. REpublic-2585 notes on exposure for Kodachrome film sun 1/50 sec. F12 (Schultz at Bikini) for 35m.m. camera overcast " " [[ditto for: 1/50 sec.]] F8 extreme bright " " [[ditto for: 1/50 sec.]] F16 Joe Wolhandler 306 3rd Ave. New York, N.Y. Oregon-3-2248 Mrs. H.R.P. Dikson Kuwait Oil Co., Kuwait Dr. H. Blegrad, Danish biological Station, Charlottenlund Slot Charlottenlund, Danmark Edith J. Goode, 2141 Wyoming Ave, N.W., Wash, D.C. Maurer, 39 Exchange Street, New Haven Joe Smith Hofhūf Vincent Tyrrell Aramco Scotchman interested in birds [[insertion]] Cecil [[/insertion]] C.B. Nelson, c/o American Eastern, New York Morehead City, North Carolina sharks in Jidda. Ahmed Muhsin, cook on the "Palestine" Kings name Ibn Abdel Aziz Ibn Abdel Rahman Al Faisal Al Saud Mr. Harrison, sister in law Mrs. ^[[insertion]] W.H. [[/insertion]] Harrison works for Carnegie in Washington [[end page]] [[start page]] 1 Excerpts from references Regan, C.T. 1905 "On fishes from the Persian Gulf--" Journ. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. XVI, no. 2 p. 318 et seq. 1. [[underline]] Hermirhamphus sidensis [[/underline]] 1 spec. from Karachi D-14, A-15, caudal forked, scales decid., 50-55 in longitudinal series silver stripe on side. 188 m.m. 2. [[underline]] Apogon holotaenia [[/underline]] 3 spec. from Muscat, 15-30 fath. 3. [[underline]] Apogon melanotaenia [/underline]] 9 spec. from Charbar, Mekran coast & from Karachi 4. [[underline]] A. spilurus [/underline]] 5 spec. Karachi 5. [[underline]] Apeogonichthys nudus [/underline]] 9 spec. Karachi 6. [[underline]] Cirrhitichthys calliurus [[/underline]] 2 sped. Muscat 7. [[underline]] Platycephalus nigripinnic [[/underline]] 1 spec. Muscat, 15-30 fath. 8. [[underline]] P. townsendi [[/underline]] 2 spec. Karachi; Muscat 9. [[underline]] P. maculipinna [[/underline]] [[circled]] 3 [[/circle]] Muscat, 15-30 fath. 10. [[underline]] Lepido trigla omanensis [[/underline]] [[circled]] 3 [[/circle]] Sea of Oman 11. [[underline]] Percis smithii [[/underline]] [[circled]] 2 [[/circle]] Muscat 12. [[underline]] Callionymus persicus [[/underline]] [[circle]] 12 [[/circle]] Persian Gulf, Mekran, Muskat 13. [[underline]] C. margaretae [[/underline]] [[circle]] 2 [[/circle]] Muscat 14. [[underline]] C. muscatencis [[/underline]] [[circle]] 2 [[/circle]] " [[ditto for: Muscat]] 15. [[underline]] Blennius persicus [[/underline]] [[circle]] 3 [[/circle]] Persian Gulf 16. [[underline]] Salarias anomalus [[/underline]] several fromo Persian Gulf & Mekran 17. [[underline]] Petroscirtes mekranensis [[/underline]] [[circle]] 1 [[/circle]] Jask, Mekran coast 18. [[underline]] P. townsendi [[/underline]] [[circle]] 1 [[/circle]] " " [[ditto for: Jask, Mekran]]] also a list of 19 fish from 140-205 fath. in Sea of Oman
2. and 35 fishes from Muscat and 57 species from the Persian Gulf, the following of which are not in Blegvads book 1. [[underline]] Epinephelus argus [[/underline]] Bl. Sch. 2. [[underline]] E. fuscoguttatus [[/underline]] Forsk. 3. [[underline]] E. merra [[/underline]] Bloch. 4. [[underline]] Anthias townsendi [[/underline]] Blgr 5. [[underline]] A. hyposelosoma [[/underline]] Blkr. 6. [[underline]] Apogon quadrifasciatus [[/underline]] Val. 7. [[underline]] A. bifasciatus [[/underline]] Rupp 8. [[underline]] A. nigripinnis [[/underline]] C.V. 9. [[underline]] Mesoprion annularis [[/underline]] C.V. 10. [[underline]] M. erthropterus [[/underline]] Bl. 11. [[underline]] Lethrinus striatus [[/underline]] Stdr. 12. [[underline]] Seolopsis ghanam [[/underline]] Forsk 13. [[underline]] Pseudochromis persicus [[/underline]] Blgr. 14. P. nigrovittatus " 15. [[underline]] Teuthis nebulosus [[/underline]] Q + G 16. [[underline]] Pomecentrus obtusirostris [[/underline]] Gunther 17. [[underline]]Glyphidodon sindensis [[/underline]] Day 18. [[underline]] G. " coelestinus [[/underline]] C.V. Day 19. [[underline]] Platyglossus (-Halichoeres) hyrtelii [[/underline]] Blkr. 20. [[underline]] P. roseus [[/underline]] Day 21. [[underline]] P. dussumieri [[/underline]] C.V. 22. [[underline]] Pseudoscarus jantochir [[/underline]] Blkr. 23. [[underline]] Scorpaena cirrhosa [[/underline]] Thunb. 24. [[underline]] Gobius ophthalmotaenia [[/underline]] Blkr. 25. [[underline]] G. towndendi [[/underline]] Blgr. 26. [[underline]] G. hoplopomus [[/underline]] C.V. 27. [[underline]] Eleotris diadematus [[/underline]] Rupp [[end page]] [[folded papers and a photograph are inserted before next page]] [[start page]] 3. 28. [[underline]] Synaptura zebra [[/underline]] Bl. 29. [[underline]] Percis nebulosa [[/underline]] Q + G 30. [[underline]] Salarias sindensis [[/underline]] Day 31. [[underline]] S. dussumieri [[/underline]] C.V. 32. [[underline]] S. [obscured] 33. S [[obscured]] 34. [[obscured]] 35. [[obscured]] 36. [[obscured]] 37. [[obscured]] 38. [[obscured]] [[obscured]] or synonomous to An [[obscured]] History. 6th s[obscured] arti[[obscured]] fro[[obscured]] Mekram Coast, [[obscured]]ger, F.R.S. [[obscured]] 420 -39.[[obscured]] 40.[[obscured]] 41.[[obscured]] Pro[[obscured]] of London, 1887 p[[obscured]]kes obtained by Surge[[obscured]]t Muscat, East Coast of Arabia By G.A. Boulenger 42. Serranus angularis, C. & V. 43. S. geoffroyi, Klunz 44. S. morrhua, C. & V. 45. S. praepercularis, sp. n.
Jeddah July 24 1948 Dear Mr. Don: Thank you very much for sending me the nice letter. I hope that you are feeling much better now and that your sickspell is something in the past. I was really gla^[[d]] to be able to help you and so was Ali. We got a lot of fun our of it. Thanks once more for the little things you let me have. They may come in handy when I go fishing myself. Ali has quit and he will be going back to Yamen. I will take you^[[r]] advise and go to see Dr. Gonet but I am really feeling very much better myself. When the pictures you took are developed, please send me a print of the one you took of me. And if it is not to^[[o]] much trouble will you please send me a ittle of that fish poison. I have seen some more different kinds of fish which you dont have yet. Also some large jack fish you were after. And when you are back in America, please see what you can do for me. It sounds good the way you talked about it. It would be a real opportunity for me to be able to visit the United States. I hope that you will come back to Jeddah. If so, I will be glad to help you again. Salaams from your ^[[Assistant Hussein]] ^[[signature]]
July 20, 1948 Dear Hussein I hope you will be able to find out the name of this snapper for me. You may remember you ate some of them which we caught at Salat Ashra. Thank you very much for your cooperation. You can give Mr. Campbell the name to send on to me at Ras Tanura Sincerely, Don Erdman
[[letterhead]] Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Washington, D.C. [[/letterhead]] July 20th Donald S. Erdman arabi [[image - arrow pointing from back of the word toward next line]] spot snapper = ? [[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] sp. [[image - pen and colored pencil drawing of a fish]] [[Arabic word]] [[image - box with a patriot standing in it, also within the box the words: For Victory Buy United States Defense Bonds Stamps]]
[[image - black and white photograph of a young man sitting on a stool holding a rifle]]
[[text in Arabic]]
1. and 35 fishes from Muscat and 57 species from the Persian Gulf, the following of which are not in Blegvads book 1. [[underline]] Epinephelus argus [[/underline]] Bl. Sch. 2. [[underline]] E. fuscoguttatus [[/underline]] Forsk. 3. [[underline]] E. merra [[/underline]] Bloch. 4. [[underline]] Anthias townsendi [[/underline]] Blgr 5. [[underline]] A. hypselosoma [[/underline]] Blkr. 6. [[underline]] Apogon quadrifasciatus [[/underline]] Val. 7. [[underline]] A. bifasciatus [[/underline]] Rüpp. 8. [[underline]] A. nigripinnis [[/underline]] C.V. 9. [[underline]] Mesoprion annularis [[/underline]] C.V. 10. [[underline]] M. erthropterus [[/underline]] Bl. 11. [[underline]] Lethrinus striatus [[/underline]] Stdr. 12. [[underline]] Scolopsis ghanam [[/underline]] Forsk 13. [[underline]] Pseudochromis persicus [[/underline]] Blgr. 14. P. nigrovittatus " [[Ditto for: Blgr.]] 15. [[underline]] Teuthis nebulosus [[/underline]] Q & G 16. [[underline]] Pomacentrus obtusirostris [[/underline]] Gunther 17. [[underline]] Glyphidodon sindensis [[/underline]] Day 18. [[underline]] G. " [[Ditto for: Glyphidodon]] coelestinus [[/underline]] C.V. 19. [[underline]] Platyglossus (=Halichoeres) hyrtelii [[/underline]] Blkr. 20. [[underline]] P. coseus [[/underline]] Day 21. [[underline]] P. dussumieri [[/underline]] C.V. 22. [[underline]] Pseudoscarus jantochir [[/underline]] Blkr. 23. [[underline]] Scorpaena cirrhosa [[/underline]] Thunb. 24. [[underline]] Gobius opthalmotaenia [[/underline]] Blkr. 25. [[underline]] G. townsendi [[/underline]] Blgr. 26. [[underline]] G. hoplopomus [[/underline]] C.V. 27. [[underline]] Eleotris diadematus [[/underline]] Rüpp [[end page]] [[start page]] 3. 28. [[underline]] Synaptura zebra [[/underline]] Bl. 29. [[underline]] Percis nebulosa [[/underline]] Q & G. 30. [[underline]] Salarias sindensis [[/underline]] Day 31. [[underline]] S. dussumieri [[/underline]] C. V. 32. [[underline]] S. fasciatus [[/underline]] Bl. 33. [[underline]] S. opercularis [[/underline]] Murr. - 34. [[underline]] S. anomalus [[/underline]] Regan 35. [[underline]] Petroscirtes barbatus [[/underline]] Ptrs. 36. [[underline]] Antennarius nummifer [[/underline]] Cuv. 37. [[underline]] Monacanthus tomentosus [[/underline]] L. 38. [[underline]] Ostracion cyanurus [[/underline]] Rüpp The other 19 in the list are equal or synonomous to species mentionned in Blegvad [[following copy, through end of page, appears to be written by another hand, in lighter blue ink.]] Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 6th s[[illegible]] [[underline]] 20 [[/underline]], 1897 article XLIX. Descriptions of the New Fishes from the Mekran Coast, Persia. By G.A. Boulanger, F.R.S. p 420 - 39. Pseudochromis nigrovittatus. 40. Salarias curtus 41. S. phantasticus Proceedings of the zoological society of London, 1887 p. 653-667. An account of the fishes obtained by Surgeon-Major A.S.G. Jayakar at Muscat, East Coast of Arabia. By G.A. Boulenger. 42. Serranus [[ongularis?]], C. & V. 43. S. geoffroyi, Klunz 44. S. morrhua, C. & V. 45. S. praepercularis, sp. n.
46. Serranus Remistictus, Rupp 47. S. gigas (gigas), Brunn 48. S. stoliczkae, Day 49. S. gibbosus, sp. n. 50. Mesozrion Cohar, Forsk. 51. M. rangus, C.&V. 52. M. fuloiflamma, Forsk 53. M. ehrenberu, Ptrs. 54. M. chirtah, C.&V. 55. M. quinquelineatus, Bl. 56. M. lineolatus, Rupp 57. Genyoroge bengalenses, Bl. 58. G. rurilata, C.&V. 59. Priacanthus boops, Forst. 60. Apogon annularis, Rupp 61. A maximus, sp. n. 62. chilodizterus lineatus, Forsk 63. C octovitlatus, C.&V. 64. Odontoneces erythrogaster, C.&V. 65. Therapon jarbua, Forsk. 66. Pristijcoma hasta, Bl. 67. P. dussumieri, C.&V. 68. P. stridens, Forsk. 69. P. aperculare, Playf. 70. Diagramma griseum, C.&V. 71. D. gaterina, Forsk. 72. D. punctatum, C.&V. 73. D. jayakari, sp. n. 74. Scolozsis auratus, Mungo Park 75. S. bimaciolatus [[end page]] [[start page]] 76. Scolopsis inermis, Schleg. 77. Synagris tolu, C.&V. 78. S. bleekere, Day. 79. Caesio chrysozona, C.&V. 80. Aphareus rutilans, C.&V. 81. Gerres acinaces, Blks. 82. Chaetodon collaris, Bl. 83. Chaeltodon selene, Blks. 84. C. melanopterus, Guichen 85. Holocanthus maculosus, Forsk 86. H. imperator, Bl. 87. Mulloides zeylonicus, C.&V. 88. Upeneus macronemus, Lacip 89. U. cyclostoma " [[quotes of Lacip]] 90. dispilurus, Playf. 91. Sargus rondelethi, var. capensis, Smith 92. Lethrinus longirostris, Playf. 93. L. mahsena, Forsk. 94. L. ramal, Forsk 95. Pagellus affinis, sp. n. 96. Chrysophris bifasciata, Forsk. 97. C. hasta, Bl. Schn. 98. Pterois volitans, Gm. 99. P. lunulata, Schleg 100. Teuthis javus, L. 101. myripristis murdjan, Forsk 102. Holocentrum rubrum, Forsk 103. Polynemus plebejus, Brouss 104. umbrina striata, sp. n. 105. Histiophorus gladius, Brouss.
106. Histiophorus [[strikethrough]] gladius [[/strikethrough]] brevirostris, Brouss. 107. Acanthurus sohal, Forsk. 108. Acanthurus nigrofuscus, Forsk. 109. A. xanthurus, Blyth. 110. Caranx ferdau, Forsk. 112. C. fulvoguttatus, Forsk. 113. C. auroguttatus, C. & V. 114. C. helvolus, Forst. [[sic]] 115. C. speciosus, Forsk. 116. C. hippos, L. 117. C. chrysophrys, C. & V. 118. C. jayakari, sp. n. 119. Seriolichthys bipinnulatus, Q & G. 120. Chorinemus [[strikethrough]] lysan, Forsk. [[/strikethrough]] moadetta, C. & V. 121. Trachynotus oblongus, C. & V. 122. Psettus argenteus, L. 123. Platax vespertilio, L. 124. Platax teira [[?]], Forsk. 125. Equula fasciata, Lacép 126. Coryphaena hippurus, L. 127. Scomber kanagurta [[?]], [[Aw.??]] 128. S. janesaba, Blkr. 129. Thynnus thynnus, L. 130. T. thunnina, C. & V. 131. T. pelamys, L. 132. Cybium commersonii, Lacép 133. Percis nebulosa, Q. & G. 134. P alboguttata, Gthr. 135. Apisthognathus muscatensis, sp. n. [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 136. Platycephalus insidiator 137. Trigla arabica, sp. n. 138. Gobius jayakari, sp. n. 139. Salarias tridactylus, Bl. Schn. 140. Sphyraena kenie, K lunz. 141. S. chrysotaena, K lunz. 142. Atherina pinguis, Lacép 143. Mugil ceylonsis, Gthr. 143a. M. scheli, Forsk. 144. Fistularia serrata, [[Aw. ?]] 145. Amphisile scutata, L. 146. Amphiprion sebae, Blkr. 147. A. clarkii, Benn. 148. Glyphidodon coelestinus, C. & V. 149. G. sordidus, Rüpp 150. Dascyllus trimaculatus, Rüpp 151. Heliastes opercularis, Playf. 152. Cheilinus lunulatus, Rüpp 153. Pseudoscarus dussumieri, Blkr. 154. Pseudoscarus [[janthochir ?]], Blkr. 155. Psetlodes erumei, Bl. Schn. 156. Pseudorhombus russellii, Gray. 157. Pardachirus marmoratus, Lacép 158. Plotosus anguillaris, Bl. 159. Arius thalassinus, Rüpp 160. Saurus varius, Lacép 161. Saurida tumbil, Bl. 162. Seaphiodon (Scaphiodon) muscatensis, sp. n. 163. Cyprinidon dispar, Rüpp 164. Belone choram, Forsk.
165. Hemirhamphus dussumiere, C. & V. 166. H. commersonii, Cuv. 167. Exocoetus evolans, L. 168. E. brachysoma, Blkr. 169. Engraulis commersonianus, Lacép 170. Chateossus Nasus, Bl. 171. Clupea scombrina, C. & V. 172. C. venenosa, C. & V . 173. Elops saurus, L. 174. Chanus salmoneus, Bl. Schn. 175. Chirocentrus dorab, Forsk. 176. Muraena undulata, Lacép 177. Hippocampus guttulatus, Cuv. 178. Triacanthus strigilifer, Cant. 179. Balistes macrolepis, sp.n. 180. B. niger, Mungo Park. 181. B. mitis, Benn. 182. B. assasi, Forsk 183. Monocanthus setifer, Benn. 184. Ostracion gibbosus, L. 185. O. cubicus, L. 186. O. cyanurus, Rüpp 187. O. cornutus, L. 188. Tetrodon stellatus, Bl. Schn. 189. T. Rispidus, L. 180. Trygon uarnak, Forsk. Lane, W.H. "The game fishes of the Persian Gulf" Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. vol. XXV p. 121-135 1915-18 not of much scientific interest except [[end page]] [[start page]] 9 References (cont.) W.H. Lane p. 133 Tir-mukna-Chanos salmoneus "at certain seasons of the year the waters of the Persian Gulf are covered by extensive patches of brick red scum, about the origin of which there are several theories. In this scum, shoals of large tir-muknas, up to 15 or 20 lbs in weight, are frequently observed. . . . They swim about with their backs above water and mouths wide open." Log Mar. 22nd 1948 I left La Guardia airport on the ARAMCO "Flying Camel" about 12 noon today. Mother, Dad, Roz, and Nat saw me off. The weather was clear and spring like with moderate winds. Our first stop was Gander, New Foundland, which we reached about 7 P.M. New Foundland was still covered with considerable snow, and there were great many evergreen forests. Part of Gander Lake was frozen the other part open water. The temperature was probably in the thirties. We saw a most beautiful deep red sunset, something like the Arctic sunsets you read about. After a meal of or including salt cod, we went on to Portugal. I wrote a letter to [[underline]] Lucile [[/underline]] and 1 to [[underline]] the folks [[/underline]]. It was a moonlight night and the clouds below us gave the appearance of great snow fields and icebergs on the ocean. It was not until later that I realized my error. We flew around 8^[[insertion]] 000 [[/insertion]] to 10,000 ft. up above sea level.
Mar. 23rd. Portugal We had a good clear sunrise today, and arrived at Lisbon (Lisboa) at 12 noon. Portugal was fair a beautiful from the plane with neat terraced fields, and bright green grass, and white washed houses with red tiled roofs. After going thru customs, we piled on a bus about 30 of us, men, women, and babies, and drove thru Lisbon and 22 kilometers south to Estoril, on the coast. We stayed over night at the [[underline]] Monte Estoril [[/underline]] Hotel which was very commodious with tall doors and high ceilings. After lunch, Walter Sprague, my seat partner, and I walked around town a bit and down to the beach. Nearly every body has lovely gardens with vegetables and all sorts of flowers. Palm trees, Pines (like red pines), and a kind of Eucalypyus? (long thin ovate leaves with bark something like sycamore) were present along. It was really hot with the bright sun, and some people were swimming in the ocean. The ocean water was comparible in color to Long Island and had sand with black rocks interspersed. I found black periwinkles (small), key hole limpets, and rock crabs (one about 1 inch long was flat and square with long legs like those reef crabs in the west Indies. Green [[underline]] Clodea [[/underline]] and a brown kind of bladderwrack were seen. The difference between low and high tide was considerable possibly eight feet. It was high about 3p.m. [[end page]] [[start page]] Portugal 11 In a park near the hotel, there was a cage full of love-birds, of varying colors some light blue, some pink, yellow, or green. Pigeons and English sparrows were abundant. I saw one yellow finch, and a number of dark swallows. After a rest, Mr. Kidd joined us for a walk around to see the sunset, and a near full moon overhead. We went to the top of a hill thru a narrow street with many shoe shops on the way. We looked at the sea and the sky and a small woods from the hill top, and smelled the cool evening air. We heard a number of pretty bird songs. For lunch we had real sole, "linguado," a fish about 14 inches long apparently boiled whole tho I did not see the head. It was thinner on the sides than a flounder the same length. I was not impressed with its preparation and it was without much flavor. It was probably a true [[underline]] Soles [[/underline]]. For supper we had "salmonete", large goatfish 12-14 inches with chin barbels, [[underline]] 'Upeneus [[/underline]] or more likely [[underline]] Mullus [[/underline]], it was boiled whole but had excellent flavor including the meat in the head. It tasted something like Porto Rican [[underline]] Upeneus [[/underline]] but was better, and did not have that characteristic unpleasant smell. This evening, I wrote letters to the [[underline]] folks [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Lucile [[/underline]] and cards to the Woods, Tony Fenera,
Larry, Lucile, & one other. [[underline]] Mar 24. [[/underline]] Wed. We got on the bus about 8:30 this morning and drove to the airport. It was more interesting because of the open markets, and peasant women walking with baskets on their heads. Many were barefoot, and a number fish peddlers. A number of baskets had 3 ft. long macruroid silver fish with long jaw like [[underline]] Trichiurus [[/underline]] but a small mackerel like tail [[image - drawing of long thin fish with a small mackerel like tail]] I didn't get a close look at them. Others had snappers probably [[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]]. The trolleys in town are yellow and small like tunnerville trolleys. The newer streets are broad, the old ones narrow and strictly one way. The cars honk their horns alot, and there a policeman but no lights. The people are good looking as a whole and appear adequately fed. I liked Portugal alot, my one criticism is that all the land is occupied and there appear to be no wild spots except possibly in the mountains in the background. The country is probably overpopulated. We left about 10:30 A.M. Our flight over Spain was interesting; it is far more rugged hilly and mountainous than Portugal and it is far less green and appears dry and rather unproductive. Some of the mountains in Southern Spain as we approached the Mediterranean, were snow capped. They were [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 probably 6,000 or so feet high. The Mediterranean was blue as they say in books and had white caps from a stiff breeze in the eastern end. Our first view of Africa were the rugged Altas mountains which come right to the coast. They were very barren looking. We passed over northern Tunis about 3 p.m. and saw the coast of Sicily in the distance. We flew over Malta about 5 o'clock. It is a flat roundish island with two good harbors. It is cultivated and terraced to the hilt with a number of large towns, and a catholic church in the center surrounded with a park of the island only trees. The island appeared definitely overpopulated. We saw other small rocky barren isles off the coast of Africa which were uninhabited. We crossed over Alexandria shortly after dark. It was well lighted up and is on a long narrow peninsula. We reached the Cairo Airport about 12 midnight. The airport smelled like a camel stable, though I saw no camels. The characters were varied in dress and appearance some in uniforms had fezes, and others the cloth Arab headress. We ate at the airport and continued about 1 A.M. flying over the desert and the Suez canal in bright moonlight. The Arabian desert was hilly and gutted with
[[underline]] Mar. 25 [[/underline]] deep valleys at first varying from reddish to almost pure white sand. Dawn finally came and there was a dusty orange sun rize with a dust haze over the desert. The desert was sandy with small hills and no apparent vegetation. We saw a couple of Bedouin camps with lights or flares. As we approached the Dhahran airport there were a few widely scattered palm trees, and other weeds on the desert. We reached Dhahran about 8 A.M. and spent about 2 hours in customs while the Arabs satisfied their curiosity by looking thru our baggage. I live at house 4165 in Dhahran in a room with Ed Gurley. I got settled with a shower and tried a little Arabic with the house boy, and fell on the bed. Ed finally arrived and he appeared in good spirits, but has had his troubles with numerous red tape. I met some friends of Ed's and Mr. Kerr who is interested in our project and in a position to help us. He asked me what my Phd. thesis was or whether I was studying for one or not hardly before I could get out any answers. The air has a distinct dust taste to it, which I continue to notice. Yesterday they had a real shamal blowing here. [[underline]] Mar. 26 [[/underline]] - I got up for breakfast early today. Ed had planned a car trip to Al Khobar on the coast the nearest town about 5 miles away. [[end page]] [[start page]] 15 We went down to the pier in a coupe, and looked over the dhows which were at the dock. They paint them with rags dipped in fish oil, and it seems to do a good job. The dhows have good lines but are very much pieced together. Fish around the pier were small but abundant in numbers and there were several kinds. The water was bluish and fairly transparent. I saw fish that looked like herring, one snapper and a pomacentrid? and several batches of young fish. The bottom is mud and deepens very slowly. It is coolish still at night getting hot during the day. Ed felt sick so we came back early. We drove thru the town, and saw the bazaars open with their bright colored caps and rugs. Flies were everywhere even all over the small children, and we saw some dried fish. The people have large good looking shaggy black goats with long spaniel ears. They have some sad looking tan brahmin cattle, and burkas[[?]] which look like burros. I haven't seen any camels yet. The women all wear black veils over their faces up to the level of their eyes. Friday is the Arab Sunday, so it is a day off today and all things are closed down. This afternoon, Ed and I drove to Ras Tanura which was a most interesting drive. We drove over salt flats, by date palm orchards, and wells, and artesian springs. In one shallow
pond by the side of the road I noticed numerous [[underlined]] cyprinodon dispar [[/underlined]] with bands on their tails and some nearly 2" in length. There was some grass in the water, and a brownish kind of alga. Over the other side of the road was a small stream going toward a date palm oasis. There were some more small minnows, and a small larval [[image - small larval beetle]] beetle which ran or swam along and would burrow in the sand. I had no containers and no preservative, since all of such is still at the customs. The sand beetle was the color of the sand, save for black eyes. On the Ras Tanura pier in about 10 feet of water there was considerable current with numerous 8 to 12 inch half beaks. Arabs were catching them with very small hooks on light lines which they baited with half a beak. By jerking the line occasionally the motion would make the fish strike. [[underline]] Sils [[/underline]]? is the local name. ^[[insertion]] Also there were [[/insertion]] small bumpers. Mar. 27 - Today I went thru what is known as "processing". We were given forms to fill out, and it included one of how we wanted to be buried etc. Ray Carlson gave us an idea of the history of the place which was interesting. I also met Dr. Daggy, the entomologist, after my physical exam. He told of an oasis to the south where there might be good collecting; so it is possible that I may get down, but rather doubtful. Little progress was made for our field work. Mar. 28 - Another day of rounds with Ed Gurley meeting various of the big wigs, I was called [[end page]] [[start page]] 17 down to customs, but he was there (I mean the right "he"). We stopped at the camp fish house which is just a three sided cement hut on the edge of the desert, and Arabs and coolies were hacking fish into fillets. All the fish were over 5 lbs and there must have been close to a ton of fish. There were 5 species in all: a greyish black grouper (subati), a grouper red spots (hamur), [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] with yellow stripes or lines (shiari), a large bluish pink porgy with a hump on top of the head before the dorsal spines ^[[insertion]] (Thur) [[/insertion]], and a pink large porgy without a hump (begera). The spotted grouper; some had large gonads with near ripe roe. [[image - drawing of head (with hump) and part of body of fish.]] [[image label]] Thur [[/image label]] The place was hardly want might be called sanitary, and fish was wasted. Note - Mar 27 - This evening, Gurley and I went down to the pier at Al Khobar to see what fish there were. An Arab gave us our first fish a [[underline]] Pranesus [[/underline]] impaled on a pronged spear. The water was oily, so we only got one pipefish, and several young snappers, a dead mullet, etc. The collection is [[underline]] U-48-1 [[/underline]]. Mar. 29 - Another day of disappointment but with some distant rays of hope. Gurley took me to see [[underline]] [[Olbiger?]] [[/underline]] and Davies, two of the top men, and we had a pleasant conversation, but that's as far as it went. Another trip to Al Khobar proved nothing had been done on the boat; so Gurley got action, by calling Davies. I filled out 2 forms for expense account. The afternoon, I spent over in
the relation division library and with the help of Miss Petersen ran across several interesting books. Villiers, Alan "Sons of Sinbad" Scribners, 1940 an interesting account of sailing in Arab dhows and an interesting chapter on the dreadful life of pearl divers in the Persian Gulf. Twitchell, K.S. - "Saudi Arabia" 1947 Princeton Univ. Press Chapter on Dhahran with numerous photographs. Prothero, G.W. Persian Gulf (handbook) 1920 Climate, weather, geography hardest shamals in April Rihani, A. - "Around the Coast of Arabia" Houghton Mifflin, 1930, Boston p.280 "dawl" a kind of apparent jellyfish with 2 foot tentacles dreaded by pearl divers. Mar. 30 - I accumulated some jars today from Joe Martin at the dining hall, and alcohol and formalin from Bill Monyer at the clinic lab. No dice on my stuff at customs, and the day was generally frustrating. Tonight we heard an Italian orchestra, and a meeting of the entertainment committee wanting information on how to spend its $30,000. I finished a letter to Lucile, and it was not a very happy one. Mar. 31 - I straightened out the ships larder with the commissary, today Mr. Shea, and got one jar from the Club. This afternoon, I drove in a pick up to Ras Tanura, and stopped by the side of the [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 same pond on the right side of the road near Sufwah and collected some pond weed, [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]], 2 frogs, and a pollywog. The bottom was muddy and all the killies were up at the windward end in the lee of the sand. I found no burrowing tan beetles on the other side; they had disappeared. I also collected a number of snails. I saw a dragon fly larva, and a bright blue dragonfly, and got a dead beetle. This collection U-48-2. On the Gulf side about half way out to Ras Tanura there were 2 similar salt water sand pools about 40 feet long and 10 feet wide and may be 4 feet at the deepest, one was larger than the other. I got 2 species of Lutjanoid young fishes, by attracting them into the net. This makes collection U-48-3. The fish were just the color of the sand except for their black eyes. April 1 - I got my things out of hock from the customs today. They were at the storeroom. I also got a hold of a few more small jars. This afternoon was used up in getting oil drums and barrels to be fixed for fishes. This evening the wind came up and it seemed cold out. I watched the dance in the patio, and actually went back for my overcoat. April 2 - Gurley intended to go to Bahrain today but a strong shamal took care of that. I had somewhat of a cold and spent the day reading the "Sons of Sinbad"; according the author Arabs use coral rock, lime, and mud to make their houses.
[[image - drawing of dhow]] Apr. 3 - We were to go to Bahrain at 9:00 A.M.; we finally left at 1:30 P.M. Two launches broke down and we got picked up by a motored dhow with Arabs, and reached Manama, Bahrain, about 6:00 P.M. There were over 50 sailing dhows in the [[image - drawing of jellyfish]] [[image label]] fuqlol [[strikethrough]] ol [[/strikethrough]] or jeddah. [[strikethrough]] fucolo [[/strikethrough]] [[/image label]] harbor, as we entered (an impressive sight). On the way over I counted over 300 bell shaped grey opaque jellyfish with bells up to 8" in diameter. The tentacles were stoutish about a foot long and often a bright blue purple. They were fairly well spread out over the open gulf water. This evening, Ed and I drove around Bahrain and out of town to a date garden with a fresh pool where boys were swimming and would dive for "bakseesh". We also talked to Mr. Kanoo who owned our dhow, and he consented to our drilling holes in the deck. This evening after getting set up in the coffee house we drove to Owahli to see the Bahco set up, and we met some interesting English fellows: Jerry Smith, an artist, Morris Kaye, from Durham, and Bing Ford, an undertaker (a friend of Bill Luhman who went with us). Mr. Chub had no telephone so I did not see him. [[underline]] The water of the Persian [[/underline]] Gulf is quite a clear blue with varied sand and coral and some seaweed bottom. There was considerable sargassum like weed floating in spots. Apr. 4th- I woke up with a worse cold this morning, but did manage to stagger around a bit to see the town in the morning. I went to a local market and saw dried fish including [[end page]] [[start page]] 21 1 foot mullets, small siganids, small gerrids, small earangids like Oligoplites, and sardine like herrings. I walked along the wharf and watched men working on their dhows, and donkeys and carts bringing in coral sand way out on the flats. There is quite a bit of sea weed brown in color, and also what looks like true [[underline]] Ulva [[/underline]] (bright green in color). The tide differential appears to be great because the bottom deepens very gradually. This afternoon we left Manama about 2:30 P.M. in a launch and we reached Al Khobar about 5:30 P.M. In spots there were large rafts of sargassum like weed. Apr. 5th- I chased around all day today getting equipment together for the boat like fish banels, etc. I felt completely miserable with a cold. Apr. 6th- Still utterly miserable, but I got all the food for us and the Arabs today, and cleared thru customs. Apr. 7th- Miserable with the cold still, a shamal of sand outside, I checked on a few items, and spent most of the day on my bed. Apr. 8- Miserable, I managed to get some more equipment for the boat, and with the help of Mr. Bruchard I got a couple of crab nets made with 2 hoe handles and stiff wire for hoops. I made up one net with some of Gurley's fish line. Apr. 9- I made up another crab net today
22 letters to Lucile & folks and coughed my head off. This I saw a flock of [[image - interesting bird]] interesting birds (robin sized) with yellow orange throat, long oriole bills, needle points tails, and a call like the wind whistle thru a reed. There were about 50 of them near the club house. I also collected some moths and tiny flying ants from the window in our "boracity." April 10th - I took anchors and some of my stuff down to the boat, and got the crew to help me make an eel pot. We also loaded on our row-boat with its two bottom observation windows. I saw two sailing dhows with long white thin twine nets with leads and bobs like gill nets only with rather smaller mesh. " Mrs. H.P.P. Dickson's list of reptiles of Kuwait. 1. [[underline]]Agama jayakari [[/underline]] Black or blue throated lizard Sand dunes west of Abu Hadriyah 6/5/47 2. [[underline]] Phrynocephalus maculatus [[/underline]] Lizard with black tail caught by T. Barger. Edge of Half moon bay 40k west of Dhahran 25/3/47 3. [[underline]] Acanthodactylus scutellatus [[/underline]] small lizard, grey, with black and brown mottlings Tawil wells, Kuwait "Sahleba" 4. [[underline]] Acanthodactylus boskianus asper [[/underline]] small lizard with a longer tail & toe & dark & light brown markings Jawad Khan, Saudi-Arabia 14/1/47 5. [[underline]] Eremias brevirostris [[/underline]] small similar to above two 6. [[underline]] Scincus philbyi [[/underline]] "Damus" 40m. w. of Hofuf, Saudi-Arabia 7. [[underline]] Mayuba aurata [[/underline]] dark shiny horizontal striped lizard 8. [[underline]] Varanus griseus [[/underline]] large monitor lizard "Worral" Kuwait [[end page]] [[start page]] 23 snakes [[underline]] Coluber ventromaculatus [[/underline]] non-venomous [[underline]] Aspis cerastes [[/underline]] Horned Viper [[underline]] Echis coloratus [[/underline]] saw scaled viper Apr. 11- We didn't go today still more delays and running around picking up odds and ends. Apr. 12- We couldn't go today because the liason office hasn't got our clearance, and our water tanks also needed fixing. This afternoon, I went 2 Km. south of Al Khobar and a made a small collection at ebb tide from near shore on mud sand with pieces of weird shaped coral rock (many were overgrown with barnacles) and these rocks were dark brown in color and had one to five or six crabs underneath all of them. I saw one light brown thick small eel 3-4". Other fish were small porgies which took refuge under the rocks (11 were collected) and 1 pipefish which drifted into the net, and numerous killyfish up to 2" which resembled [[underline]] F. majalis [[/underline]] in sand color and markings, but were considerably more elongate, than the fresh water [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar. [[/underline]]. [[image: drawing of fish]] [[image caption: These, however were [[underline]] C. dispar [[/underline]] as later discovered]] Apr. 13- No good news today. We had a shamal & some rain last night. This morning after checking on work on our water tanks, which were to be steamed, I went down to the boat and made up a second eel pot. This afternoon, I saw a flock of curlews with curved bills just south of Al Khobar on the [[image: hand-drawn curlew]]
U-48-5 flats. I went about a Km. below where I was yesterday. It was all flat mud sand flats with stranded very shallow ponds. As I walked barefoot in these ponds fish or shrimp (the exact color of the sand) would dart back and forth). I caught a number of small gobies [[image- small goby]] with superior eyes like [[underline]] Dactyloscopus [[/underline]] and a long united ventral disc. The mouth was definitely superior. I also got a number of young [[underline]] Platycephalus [[/underline]] (1/2-1" t.l.). Sand colored shrimp, ghost crabs, hermit crabs, snails were abundant, also I saw a couple of anemones, and collected one. Note: from time to time as a couple of days ago I have seen chanard [[underline]] Scomberomorus Commersonni[[/underline]] with brown bands like the Australian species and rather elongate like the kingfish brought to the dock by trolling parties. Apr. 14, 1948- This morning, I rescued the cook's belongings from our boat, since our quarters did not appeal to him. I also handled my laundry. This afternoon, I took a trip along the shore as far as Saihat, and noticed many fish traps of date palm fronds along the way. Just south of Damam, I collected a [[underline]] Therapon [[/underline]] in a drainage ditch from a date garden. The water tasted fresh and was about 1/4 mile from the Gulf or less. Cyprinodonts were also present. The terapons varyed from 1 1/2 - 4 inches and were rapidly swimming back and forth. I caught one with the help of an Arab who was passing by. I saw one more curlew, a turnstone, several [[end page]] [[start page]] 25 plovers (just like semi-palmated plovers), and sand-pipers like the semi-palmated with longish bills and non-descript plumage. Just near Al Khobar I saw a grey and white hawk like a goshawk. I met an Arab contractor [[underline]]Abdul Latif Almana[[/underline]], a contractor, who was in a truck that failed to go into high gear. He was bound for Qatif, and I gave him a ride there, and sat in a tent on the desert while he wrote out some letters for his time keeper. He lives temporarily in Al Khobar, but his home is in Basra. Arabs on the whole take things as they come "In sha Allah," rather than rush around as Americans do; the contrast was rather a relaxation for me. The [[underline]] Terapons [[/underline]] had bronze yellow coloring on top and white silver below with the black stripes, a striking color combination. Collection U-48-6 Apr. 15- Today I bathed with Mary Leonardini, the school teacher, and she wanted me to lecture sometime to the gang, and also the children. This afternoon, I took Philip Braun, a sixteen year old with me and we collected in the same spot as yesterday for Terapon, and two new places for Cyprinodon dispar at a brackish overflow well near the shore south of Hammam and another flat marsh about 1 Km. further south. I also got young mullet in the well overflow (a pipe pouring out water from the ground). Philip is a nice fellow and a good help. This evening, I went down to the Khobar pier and with the help of Chuck Mead got a few fish (scad, pipefish, halfbeak, & Pronesus).
Red letter day - To Ras Tanura Apr. 16 - We at last got started today with breakfast at 5:15 A.M., and leaving the dock at Al Khobar about 6:30. We reached Ras Tanura about 12 noon, and bucked moderate north winds all the way. There was a rather cloudy sky most of the trip and it was cool. One of our guests got seasick. We saw several porpoises, cormorants, gull, terns, and birds like petrels black and white with small bills (but more the size of shearwaters). We trolled 2 lines most of the way with spoons or jigs and got a couple of strikes according to Gurley. He had different size leads also and about 100 feet of line trolling. We stayed at the west pier at Ras Tanura. There were a great number of fishes to be seen blennies [[image - drawing of fish]] grey with orange and black stripes, black pseudochromids, [[underline]] Abudefduf mar- [[/underline]] ginatus, black pomacentrids, greenish wrasse in and around the wharf dock stones also a pomacentrid with yellow spots on dark. On the bottom were goatfish, gobies, and parapercids? Subati, spotted Hamur, scads 2 kinds, mullets, black tip & white tip, barracuda (1'-15"), and a large puffer, all in fairly shallow water. Atherinids were also present. A man came in with a banded [[underline]] Scomberomorus [[?]] [[/underline]] from trolling. The beach is used as an outdoor toilet so collecting along there is unpleasant. The bottom is mostly sand with scattered short grass beds anemones 1 foot in diameter; some small brain coral, and brown sponge like finger coral. [[image - coral]] There is some soft coral or sand rock along the shore with lots of crabs under the rocks. Eel pot coll. U-48-9 [[end page]] [[start page]] 27 Apr. 17 - One of the crew speared a couple of cuttlefish they are brownish with a light blue border around their edge, they are not nearly as active as squid, and their bones will float as soon as they are removed. Actual observation of living specimens at night proved that they were quite rapid in movement when they chose to. This morning was very hot and sunny, and in a very short time I got a burn which I felt the next day. The crew caught 3 Hamur (1 possibly 4 lbs) [[underline]] Epinephelus tauvina [[/underline]]? We ate one for supper. I took a photo of one. Native carpenters finally came aboard today and the way one stood on top of the plywood over the open hatch working furiously at the big saw with both hands and close to his bare feet was a sight for a circus. This evening, I walked over to the west pier and watched large schools of scads feeding at the surface, and also a large flock of small gulls with longish bills swimming on top pecking at the same water from time to time. I also saw a [[insert, underline]] ^ Pteroplatea [[/insert, underline]]? ray on the sand; one with wide wing spread & no tail. Around the dock rocks on the lee side I also saw [[underline]] Abudefduf marginatus.[[/underline]] Natives were fishing for halfbeaks but were not catching many. They were using small hooks & lines. We tried a 100 watt bulb light over the side tonight and even in competition with wharf lights; it attracted a great number of larval fish & small bright blue dussumierids (I caught two of them) and one sea snake. Another larger sea snake, a fellow speared for us. The one I netted was going head on; he started to swim backwards but it was too late. They are more sluggish on land than in the water. They both had wide [[image - snake]] black bands on a sand colored background, and had the typical rounded and flattened tail. The small snake was in the process of shedding his old skin, which may have made it easier to catch him in the net. Apr. 18 - Partly cloudy and cool in morning with light shamal, clear-
ing at noon with strong winds. Yusif pointed me out a "dawl" daul or whatever an opaque jellyfish with a dark brown lower border & long tentacles. This is supposed to be the bad biting variety. [[image - jelly fish with a stripe at the bottom]] [[image label at bottom stripe]] brown [[/image label]] Off the front of the dock, I think I saw a school of siganids under a barge. I am still catching stuff with my eel pot. We went over to the south side of the dock today because the wind was north. There was a lot oil on the water so night fishing with the light was non productive. More carpentry went on on the boat. Apr. 19 - It was calm this morning and we moved back to the north side of the dock. I took a row to the north along the shore and picked up 3 black sea cucumbers about 10" long. I cut them open but there were no [[underline]]Fierasfers[[/underline]] inside. There are holes in the sand with banded gobies I think, one at each entrance. [[image-striped fish in sand hole]] I guess poison is the only way that I could catch them. Some finger coral heads are about 3 or 4 feet in diameter, and others smaller, a brain coral a foot in diameter is large for here. All the live coral is 5 to 10 ft. below the surface at low tide. This evening, we went offshore and tied up to a barge in 5 fathoms of water, about 250 yds offshore and 4 to 500 yds from the dock. We fished with the light (100 watts over the side). I used the crab net with bobbinetting in place and a lift up hoop net when the tide was slack. We saw several sea snakes like the others, and one small pink squid. Some small blue atherinids were at the surface with larger ones below (greyish in color) Herring shot up from below from time to time and got caught when they dove into the hoop net. Otherwise I never knew they were there. I saw several edible sized blue crabs with mottled brown on white all [[image - female symbol]]s with grey eggs, we caught one. Also we saw several white things swimming backwards by kicks. [[end page]] [[start page]] 29 [[image - mole lobster?]] We thought they were cuttlefish but I finally landed one and it went bang bang on the roof deck. It turned out to be a mole lobster, U-48-11, with eggs. A couple of bill fish came in sight and I almost got one. I saw one edible sized shrimps, and several smaller ones with long red antennae. Apr. 20th - Another wasted day in port, but the radio finally got fixed. The wind was strong from the south all day with a lull at sunset but increasing after dark with such a roll that we had to come into dock and sleep with the flies. Night light fishing was impossible because of the roll of the boat and oil on the water. I got a few fish in the eel pots, but that was all for the day. I also finished a letter to Lucile. Apr. 21- Calm at dawn with increasing south easterly winds. We floundered around most of the morning. Gurley had to go to the bank, Stewart to the clinic. And the crew had forgotten to get water aboard for themselves. The flies are thicker than ever. I set my eel pots away from the dock about 100 yards, and was rewarded with a much larger catch of small fishes in a short time than at the dock. Surprisingly we got started on our survey at 12:25 and headed for Saihat. There was a fair breeze from the south east, but we had a good trip. We caught two chanad, about 17-18 inches; one had a small herring in it. [[image - long banded fish]] They had only 6-7 gill rakers, and not many teeth. We ate the two which were not saved for specimens. Gurley saw several flying fish. There is considerable shoal water between Ras Tanura and Saihat, but the water was not clear enough to determine the types of growth on the bottom. We anchored a mile east of shore in one fathom of water with that fine silt sand bottom which acts like mud but is not. I nearly lost the eel pot by fishing them here. I caught four Terapon 2 kept as specimens,
and 3 mottled blue crabs. There were a number of old jalboats stranded on the beach which would make a good picture. We finally obtained permission to go into the town, and we looked at some throw nets and the different fishes in the market place which consisted of porgies, band head porgies, jolt heads, Terapons, Lethrinids, [[strikethrough]] chanos [[/strikethrough]] Dorosomidae, sardines, one 2 foot Scarus (like Blegvad's), scads, 1/2 beaks, parapercids, seriola, Nemipterus, Sillago, leather jackets, Plectorhynchus or Kyphosus small, gerrids. They were all partly dried and one Subati (Sparus cuvieri had dried fins) and were stinking and covered with flies. There was a big rain storm tonight, and one early the next morning, and we had quite a row against a head wind to get out to the boat. Apr. 22- Our light plant shorted last night after the electric storm and rain, so we are headed back to Ras Tanura. At 9:35 A.M. [[9 written over 8]] we caught a chanad on a jig. I saw a small flying fish with darkish wing white tips and greenish back like the shallow Gulf water. About as soon as we hit the dock the flies came abroad in droves at Ras Tanura. The chanard had only four gill rakers on each arch. It was 795mm. s.l. and had mature milt and testes which could be pressed to exude milt. There were also only a few teeth, and it had a large shrimp in its stomach. Abdullah and I set a big wire fish pot by a buoy baited with mackerel heads. I also set my eel pots several times and by finger coral heads,and caught much the same stuff as yesterday. Tho cloudy and calm in the morning it continued calm but sunny in the afternoon, when we caught a small mackerel, U-48-15, on our way back to Saihat, after we had the wiring redone. I also had 2 small barrels prepared with formalin & water. Our big trap only yeilded 3 fish, 2 scolopsis and 1 Lethrinid; it was set at a barge buoy at Ras Tanura. This evening it rained and was very windy [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 at our anchorage at Saihat. I managed to catch 3 small halfbeaks with the hundred watt lamp U-48-16. During the night the tide went out and we rested half in water & half in mud with hard changing winds. Apr. 23- Cloudy and calm in the morning, with increasing East by South strong winds and white caps. This morning, I netted drifting gulf weed into the boat at Saihat and got one two inch Scorpaenid, U-48-17, and several crustacea mostly shrimp and small elongate oysters. After breakfast, we headed up Tarat Bay to El Qatif. The captain and two hands went ashore with the customs officer, and we spent the day at anchor between a sandbar and El Qatif in about 1 fathom of water. I explored the sand bar on an outgoing tide and caught 2 small mullet, and a number of crabs several burrowing kinds. There were terns and sandpipers also on the bar. U-48-18. I also got some snails. Both El Qatif & Tarat Id. are well covered with date palms and hardly look like desert shores. Dahriin [[insertion above iin]] een [[/insertion]] [[D written over B, and I written over a in Dahriin, originally said Bahrain]], a town at the east end of Tarat Id. is opposite a round fortress about half way between Tarat Id. & the mainland [[image - fortress]] [[image label]] fortress [[/image label]] It is round small made out of stone with about a dozen black cormorants on top. I collected numerous larval fishes under the Gulf weed floating on the outgoing tide U-48-18a. Some were recognizable brown blennies which was interesting, probably specific to that weed when it was on bottom. I lost an eel pot when the line broke and caught nothing in the eel pot or in a large trap. The bottom had some thin dark brown weed otherwise it was muck sand with no visibility or clarity. Larger clumps of weed (1 foot in diameter or so) had anywhere from 2 to 6 larval fish underneath. I saw 2 porpoises in that shallow water. We anchored for the night about a mile WSW of Dāhrin [[written above Dahrin]] ee [[/written above dahrin]] on Tarut Id. We pitched and tossed and rolled to a hard south wind till about 2 A.M., when it slackened. It was one night before full moon and the moon was very bright. No fishing was done.
Apr. 24-Fairly clear and calm in the early morning with increasing North shamal the rest of the day. We struggled up wind to El Qatif again. Gurley went ashore to Dhahran to get a stronger boat. With no boat in the morning, I could not collect but wrote up my notes and packed fish, and slept a bit to make up for last night. In the afternoon, I went ashore with Abdullah to operate the cast net, but it was strange to him. Yusif knew a little more, and I finally improved to the point where I got one good cast. Yusif caught a porgy and I got one mullet near the sand island where I collected yesterday. The evening was cool with continued north shamal and cloudy skies. Apr. 25- about 2 A.M. I got up with a sore head and a stiff neck and found the row boat on the sand bar high and dry and the stern of the Palestine hard on the beach, meaning that I was almost standing on my head in the bunk. It was calm most of the night, and early morning. We left for Ras Tanura at 7:30 A.M. with sun and fair north winds. At 9:25 A.M. about 2 miles off Ras Tanura we caught a chanad on a silver spoon. It weighed 2 1/2 lbs. and 580 m.m. It was an immature female with a large shrimp in its stomach. It also had white worm parasites in the intestine and flesh (several were preserved). We arrived at 9:45 A.M. The fish was given to the crew. Last evening, I saw a large heron flying over us like a great blue heron. I have a case of the runs today. Stewart had a bad case yesterday. The mackerel had 7 gill rakes in the right arch and 5 in the left. The day was completely wasted with the flies at Ras Tanura; Gurley did not get back from Dhahran until mid afternoon. 2 letters from Lucile and one from the folks were all to cheer a bleak day. Jim and I went into Ras Tanura for supper and the movies to get a change. Apr. 26- a fire with our damn white gas stove greeted us at 6:00 A.M.; so I left a note for Gurley to get a kerosene stove. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[upper corner]] 33 [[/upper corner]] 6:30 A.M. We left Ras Tanura under way due SE with light swells and light NW winds. Several porpoises cited on Ras Tanura point and one about 7:20 at sea. Also a silver fish 3 ft or so long I saw jump out of water, it was marlin shaped. A flock of several hundred gulls and terns cited due north several hundred yards at 7:40 A.M. Clear day without clouds. [[image- profile of 2 porpoises, side by side, with different dorsal fins. Each dorsal is labeled and between it says "no fin just a dorsal bump", left porpoise captioned grey bay porpoise P. Phoecena, right porpoise captioned black off shore porpoise]] Red & white jig and silver spoon were dragged overboard from Ras Tanura. 7:50 A.M. Small fish cutting the surface about 20 yds astern; a small school possibly being chased by larger fish. Arrived at fishing spot 7:55 3 fathoms of water, sand, & rock bottom about 8 miles S.E. of Ras Tanura, Najwa Large wire traps baited with "um" (dried sardines) at 8:30, 8:45, 9:00, 9:10 + 2 eel pots, 9:20, 9:35. The water depth was 3-4 fathoms where traps were set. Finely branched coral or possibly some other stuff was growing in large patches on the bottom. It was dark brown in color. The water was blue and quite clear. Terns with black caps and brown wings sat in pairs on our buoys. [[image- a Tern with a black cap and brown wings sitting on a buoy]] They were similar in color to the sooty tern. Hadji Hassan, our captain, calls this place "Najwa" and it is so marked on the chart. It is pronounced Naywa. Some of the bottom stuff looked too fine for coral and may be a type of plant life, "chin" seaweed or a relative of the sea fans. [[image - chin seaweed or a relative of the sea fans]] With Abdullah I dragged over the bottom and got several samples of fine branched coral which is dark brown when alive. The coral becomes light brown in color when dying white or grey when dead. [[image- branch coral]] I took photos of some specimens and preserved a few pieces. At 1:15 P.M. we collected the traps, only the one with the mackerel heads caught any
fish (5 small Lethrinids), and 1 green wrasse in the eel pot. The dried herring does not seem much good for bait. The traps are large and clumsy, and not as good as the native ones. These are large made of chicken wire and concrete iron rods, and are not as good as the others. [[image - trap]] We left for Ras Tanura about 2:15. It was calm and overcast when we hauled the traps but the wind freshened and the sky cleared as we got under way. At 2:30 & 2:33, 2 chanad were brought aboard one on a red & white jig, the other on a silver spoon. At 3:40 P.M. we caught a Shan'ad which I kept as a specimen U-48-23. We soon after arrived at Ras Tanura west pier and all the flies duly boarded our boat. Ed appeared and a butane gas stove was soon installed and more supplies brought aboard. Jim and I ate in town partly to get away from the flies. The night was very calm and we used the light off the boat at a barge some 600 yds, north of the dock, U-48-24. Dussumierids, herring, atherinids, were caught, and a few half-beaks, some gars, and other larger fish were present from time to time. The water was clear and the tide ebbing fast. Apr. 27- glass calm this morning early with a bright hot sun. We headed north along Ras Tanura up Tarut Bay to Shmayly Id. a small sand island with sand hummocks covered with fleshy poor grass green & red in color. The isle (means "small northerly") 1/4 mile long by 200 yds wide about 6 ft. elevation. Abdullah and I caught 2 sand lizards, and Abdullah & Gurley did collecting with the 15' seine on sand bottom on the north side. Large [[underline]] C. dispar [[/underline]] and small mullet were most abundant. Some few small gerrids, baby sillagos?, 1 Platycephalus, all sand colored. At the northwest corner of the isle there is pot hole black reef rock, at the edge of which are numerous porgy; "sbati" [[underline]] Sargus nect [[/underline]] with spots on the tail etc. I picked up a skeleton of a band headed porgy. There was a considerable tide rip [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top right corner]] 35 [[/top right corner]] at the north tip with a channel. This afternoon, we watched two native fishermen worked their palm stick stake traps. They go right into the trap box which is most closely woven and use a [[strikethrough]] half [[/strikethrough]] one inch stretch mesh scoop net 2' by 3' with a stick at either end and one man wades around chasing the fish into the corners, and scooping them up that way. [[image - dotted lines sketch]] Out of the two traps on the south side of Shmayly Id. they got a possible total 30lbs. But it was just a day catch and was mostly sardines, a few [[underline]] Chirocentrus dorab [[/underline]], 2 [[underline]] puffers [[/underline]], U-48-26, a leatherjack, a seriola, and several scads. The bottom at the south corner of Shmayly Id. was overgrown with long brown gulf weed which was rooted to the bottom. I caught 1 blenny there which was like the ones caught under the drifting weed at El Qatif. There was considerable tide around most of the island. This evening I fished by night light from the side and caught 3 gar with the lift hoop net, + silversides and small herring. Apr.28- By radio message this morning we were ordered back to Dharhan for a conference on Apr. 29th; so another several days fishing was completely destroyed as far as I am concerned. We did a little trolling in the morning and caught on shanad out off Ras Tanura. We spent the whole afternoon getting to Dhahran and even got held up by customs at the Ras Tanura west pier because of our bags. The air-conditioning in the house seemed very cold in fact uncomfortable at Dhahran. Apr. 29th- We attended the conference which was almost entirely concerned with the final check for the fish pier plans. There was hardly any need for Stewart to be there and absolutely none for me. I wrote letters to the folks and Lucile. I was generally in an ugly mood. I went back to Ras Tanura on the 2:00 P.M. taxi, and got to the Palestine in time to do some evening trolling with some other fellows
One chanad was caught. We passed the "Steel Seafarer" a reefer freighter from New York (arrived Apr. 25 left N.Y. about Apr. 3rd). I saw my museum boxes on barge C-34. All my efforts even going out to the freighter, and talking to the hands on west pier did not prevent the damn stuff from going to Al Khobar. It is supposed to return tonight, but I will be lucky if I ever see it again, what between Aramco & customs. Complete frustration and delay is the by-word of this place in all matters. It was calm and sultry tonight with cloudy skies and light southerly winds. Apr. 30 - Calm around 6:00 A.M. with a sudden shamal springing up around 7 A.M. and continuing strong all morning. U-48-29 The crew collected 1 siganus, 11 filefish etc. in the big fish trap for me. The fish, however, did not preserve well internally, so I cut out their guts. [[insertion]] 'Had al Lowh' [[/insertion]] We headed for a sandy point about 2 miles north of Ras Tanura in Tarut Bay where we anchored very close to shore and spent the day. I set the eel pots and got my first 2 small [[underline]] Nemipterus [[/underline]] which were a beautiful pale pink in color with silver below. The shamal continued strong all day with clearing skies in the afternoon. This evening we headed back to Ras Tanura to pick up Jim and Ed. May 1 - Strong Shamal continued all day today with dust flying off the dock. We had some rewiring done on the boat by Mr. Evans and helpers. It was another frustrating day partly due to weather and partly due to general conditions. In the evening, we all headed to the same Sandy Pt. and even the crew was happy. I set 2 eel pots and 1 large trap baited with 2 mole lobsters, and a couple of crabs and herring caught the evening before. We fished with the light over the stern this evening and had the most bait fish around that I have seen any night yet including a large bunch of larval fish. Atherinids, dussumierids, and sardines were most common including several half beaks, mole lobsters, gub gubs, and numerous sea snakes [[end page]] [[start page]] \37 up to 3 feet long. They would slowly swim to the top and apparently gulp air and then swim down rapidly out of sight. I saw one all tied up in knots; may be he was catching a fish. They all appeared to be the same species as I have already caught sand colored with black bands on the little ones, and pale grey bands on the bigger ones. We must have seen at least 3 dozen snakes or more in the two or three hours we were fishing off the stern. The bottom appeared to be sand. It was about 3 fathoms of water and about 50 yds. from shore. I think part of the abundance of fish etc. was because we were on the lee side of a sand spit, and there was almost no tidal current. Hence catching fish was a lot easier. I saw one grey fish about a foot long, but did not get a good look at it. Ed Gurley caught a sooty tern roosting at night on the deck roof, I took a picture of both of them the next morning. May 2nd - I got a hold of most of my stuff this afternoon which is all at the Ras-Tanura storehouse. Mr. Sanders helped me locate the stuff and we talked fish. It continued fair with strong shamal winds till late afternoon. I discovered a small [[underline]] toadfish [[/underline]] in the eel pot but he was rotted, I had failed to see him among the oyster shells. I brought six boxes of my stuff abroad after Jim waged a successful talk with customs. This evening, we returned to the sandy point and had boiled mole lobster "Um al Rubyān" and fried sardines for supper. The 2 inch dussumierids had [[underline]] ripe eggs [[/underline]] like the large atherinids of last night. The tide was faster and the crabs fewer, and the bait harder to get, but it was thick as last night, tho we were farther off shore. The wind quieted at sunset, coming up again after 10 p.m. May 3- We got going about 7:30 with light to fair shamal winds and went to Rahaima and talked with 3 fishermen in a boat
who had just worked 2 traps. We got some bait cuttlefish and gub gubs & several specimens, Sillago, 2 gerrids, platy cephalus, Chanos, & flatfish. 'Ali (BuAlwa) from Sanabis, Tarut Id. next to town of Tarut, fish contractor who sells fish to Ras Tanura and buys from these fishermen at Tarut. At 8:30 A.M. we caught a shanad on a R&W Miller jig about a mile north of west pier in Tarut Bay. Around 9:30 A.M. 5 large traps set at Had ar raml baited with crab & cuttlefish 1 fathom and about a 1/2[[image -rock pile and sand dune, with labels- rock pile, sand dune]] mile north of west pier. It is below iron pilings which are south of our former sand spit anchorage. We spent the rest of the day in a bight just north of this sand spit. Our new captain Abdullah arrived and he proved himself to be an ardent fisherman, and he caught two porgies by set line from the shore in to deep water near some rocks. He shelled a shrimp and used the tail on [[image- hook with shrimp]] the hook with the hook hidden inside. I set my two eel pots in 2 fathoms of water on muck sand bottom, and got parapercids, Terapons and an apogonid the next day. I set a trammel net [[image -upside down T]] to the shore in the same water the anchors tightened on the line and it sank; all I caught was a big shrimp, and jellyfish which are [[image - Jellyfish captioned "Iwaithy" stinging jellyfish]] small with a messy mop of stingers. This evening we used the light off the stern and got the ususual run of herring, dussumierids, atherinids, a few larval herring, and many small 2mm ("Kentucky blue grass" green) bugs which turned blue grey in formalin the next day. We had one strong squall during the night according to Jim. We seined a sand bar and got shrimp, mullet, and Sillago. May 4 - Clear with light breezes in the morning. The Captain caught a sbaiti 5lbs., S.L. 48cm., T.L. 54c.m., imm. ♀ with one fish head in stomach possibly an atherinid. I took several pictures of it. The canines are like a snapper but the molars are like the porgy. 9 A.M. The boys lifted 5 traps with specimens + 3 large groupers (smallest kept as specimen) largest 52 c.m. T.L. 5 lbs, large crab in stomach unripe ♀ [[underline]] E. tauvina [[/underline]] [[end page]] [[start page]] \39 4 Lethrinus nebulosus & 1 Scolopsis (saved for bait). The one trap off Ras Tanura ^[[west]] pier had one small blowfish kept as a specimen U-48-39. We caught two mackerel east of Ras Tanura, and one large one just off west pier. The other two were caught 1/4 mile off shore between east pier & Zejma. We reached buoy #7 about 12:30, and put over our drop lines. The weather was slightly overcast with very light breezes dying to a flat calm in the afternoon. There is about 6 1/2 fathoms at #7 with sand bottom. I had two small bites and lost it, then 10 minutes later I got a tremendous fish on the line which pulled then stopped and finally broke the line. It was probably either a large grouper or a catfish. Ahmed caught a gar just as we approached the buoy on a silver spoon. Abdullah caught an [[underline]]Ablennes[[/underline] (3 ft.) on a bobber off the boat. Tho Gurley came out later with a launch no other fish were caught. I saw a small [[image - marlin or swordfish emerging from water]] 3 ft marlin or swordfish not far away, and a 5 ft. one at quite a distance. Considerable [[underline]] Ablennes [[/underline]] were swimming around in pairs or fours skimming the surface or jumping. I think I saw a barracuda but it may have been an [[underline]] Ablennes [[/underline]]. We saw small tuna or bonito playing around at the surface 5-10 lbs specimens, and a large school of smallish jacks 12-15 inches. Tiny fish were fairly abundant around bits of seaweed at the surface, I saw some 1 inch banded [[underline]] Seriolas [[/underline]] but could not catch them; there were also some fry with large heads and tan color. I caught one very small banded pipefish. [[image - jellyfish top view]] Pink aurelia jellyfish 6-8" in diameter were very common and there were also some "dul." The water was quite clear, and the gars and [[underline]] Ablennies [[/underline]] had a deep water blue and bright silver sides. There was not much noticeable tide. We need cut fish, some cuttlefish, and shrimp for bait. We caught quite a few shrimp in the seine last night. We also saw a couple of porpoises at buoy 7, cor-
morants, and sooty terns. We left about 7 P.M. and got into Tarut Bay about 9:00 P.M. Shortly later, bang a shamal hit and in split seconds light things started off into the bay, but we managed to save all. May 5- At dawn clear with some clouds and fair shamal winds. Two hours later we had dying breezes and later a flat calm. Our traps yeilded very little except 3 fish. We met some fish pot fishermen in Tarut Bay up near Ras Tanura town 3 miles north of the point. They had about 20 fish pots, and 30 lbs. of small fish consisting of lethrinus, sargus noct, Gnathodentex, scolopsis, etc. Another fish boat the one we got bait from yesterday had a 995mm. guitar fish male light brown with white spots. They wanted 5 reals for it; it probably weighed 6 lbs. and is eaten. They also had a small barracuda in a debatable condition for 3/4 of a real. They had sold their bait. Fishing seems to be rather thin right now. This was probably [[underline]] Rhyncobatus djiddensis. [[/underline]] I had just used up my film at that point and did not have time to reload. We tried to seine at Shmayly Id. at noon, but the sun was too hot and there were no fish. We went into the dock at 2:00 p.m. to get supplies and spent the afternoon there. I tried some cube root over coral heads but the current was to swift. I tried it at the dock but the water was hard to see in, and the concentration inadequate. Also the tide was too high. We left the dock about 6 P.M. and headed for Shmayly Id. We trolled 2 lines one spoon and one orange & white jig. We caught a small chanad about a 1/2 mile north of Shmayly. There was a moderate shamal wind with clear sky. This evening we used a [[strikethrough]] May 6- nearly [[/strikethrough]] light over the stern and I got several halfbeaks one without a beak and Jim got 2 small flatfish which were swimming at the surface. Apparently the flatfish were there in their right mind because we saw one or two more. The tide was going out. A number of crabs went by in the sea weed and a couple of snakes; the bait was very thin probably because of the current. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underline]] [[top of page]] shore seine [[/top of page]] [[/underline]] 41 [[image - drawing of a fish trap]] Concerning the native fish trap there are palm leaves on the bottom to hold the bait which is clay mixed with crab and shrimp etc. and it placed inside and dissipates slowly. The traps are of black wire which they believe is better than galvanized wire. Their traps are certainly more convenient to manage than the large company traps. We ordered bait for for the morning from some stake net fishermen. Bait is not easy to obtain in quantities with our available methods. May 6- Calm and clear at dawn. 8 A.M. 17 sails spotted on horizon fishing boats heading for Tarut and Saihat from deep water. About 10 A.M. it started to blow a hard shamal; so our point in trying to get bait became useless. We followed a fishing boat with a [[underline]] shore seine 250 ft. [[/underline]] or more with palm pieces for float and stones for weights, and a white thread mesh of about 2 inches stretch mesh. They had a crew of 8 men with at least 3 on each end of the seine. I took a picture of the boat. We went over to see what they had. They were hauling the seine from a deep spot on to a shallow spot and they were hauling down wind. Nearly all the fish were mackerel scad with a few small barracuda, small gerrids, one or two goatfish, 2 new siganids. Then we went to Nejma where there were 2 traps (stake nets) in the sand, and the boat we spoke to yesterday. We got some bait from them 2 cuttlefish, some crabs, and a mole lobster. They had had a rather poor morning catch of mostly small [[underling]] sillago [[/underline]] not more than 20lbs. or so. We ate some of the crabs and the mole lobster for lunch. The crabs were not as good as blue crabs in the states rather flatter in taste; I still prefer the mole lobster . In the afternoon, the shamal increased to about 30 miles or so with a dust haze over land, we had lunch and stayed awhile in a cove next to Nejma. Then we moved back to the anchorage just above the sand spit near the Ras-Tanura road. My trammel net sank again [[end page]]
even with only one anchor. The eel pots yeilded nothing. We got nothing off a set tine baited with cuttlefish. Night light fishing yielded next to nothing except 1 mole lobster, a couple of small atherinids, and a small scorpaenid, and more green bugs. The bait was very thin. There were snakes as usual and couple of squid. I saw one small fish ^[[insertion]] Pegasus [[/insertion]] which may have been a flying fish. One gar and one small half beak were also seen, and a couple of crabs. There was almost no tidal current. The wind continued with lulls most of the night. May - 7 Continued shamal with dust over the land. The bottom here is a grey muck sandy-clay or clayey sand with a rooted green grass on it as we saw by what stuck on to the anchor. This is characteristic bottom of a large part of this area of the Gulf around Tarut Bay. Some of the clay got in my eel pot and cemented some of the bait into a hard ball all by itself. With such bottom conditions, any kind of dragging fishing gear is not very feasible in these areas. The grass- is short with extensive branch roots, and is apparently a spermatophyte tho it is not now in bloom. By 8:15 A.M., we got under way again towards Shmayly Id which we reached about 8:45 A.M. we continued west then north to the uppermost reaches of Tarut Bay; we reached the oil pipe line across the water at Safwah about 10:15. In the distance beyond was the Dhahran road on the sandy shore, and several stake fish traps. The water was all rather shallow and murky. We passed some fish pot fishermen but they had no fish, and were setting their pots. Another fisherman was headed for the stake nets at the upper end of the bay. We did not go beyond the pipe line because of danger of tangling our rigging with a power line above the pipe line. Another Island is [[strikethrough]] another [[/strikethrough]] indicated on large scale charts just west of Shmayly. Shmayly however is the only island in the upper end of the bay which is not covered at high tide. There are several sand spits [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image: a fish with a long beak front, and what looks like wings or long pectoral fins]] [[right corner]] 43 [[/right corner]] bare at mean low tide in the bay. This morning Jim found the [[underline]] Pegasus [[/underline]] in the same net he had caught it last night. Tho dried out it is still a recognizable specimen of the family Pegasidae. It swam with its wings outstretched. I used 2 quts of poison plus what wet poison there was left over from the other day, and I caught quite a number of fish among a large clump of rooted gulf weed just west of Shmayly Id and a little south. The cube root dust mixed with water into a thick mud makes an effective brown cloud of fish poison which sends some fish to the surface within 5 minutes time. The brown [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] seemed most affected by this poison of any fish except tiny grunts. The crew looted a fish stake trap, and reported [[underline]] Chirocentrus dorab [[/underline]] in great quantities. They brought back a bucket full of them from 15"-36" in length which they had speared; I kept one which was not mangled for a specimen, U-48-44. I wrote up notes in the afternoon. About 6 P.M. I saw what looked like a small manta ray jump clear out of water. It was possibly 4 feet across at the wings. About 7:30 this evening we tried the 100 foot seine on the north side of Shmayly Id. All we got were large atherinids, [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]], small mullet, and one small porgy; all was just kept for bait. Fishing by night light rendered very little, I collected one large [[image - female symbol]] halfbeak with flowing eggs. It was calm during the evening & night. May 8- This morning I lifted my 2 eel pots which were set in about 4 feet of water on sand bottom with rooted gulf weed. One had a large parapercid and the other a toadfish. At 8:20, we got under ^[[insertion]] way [[/insertion]] for Ras Tanura west pier for news of Gurley, Yusif, more ice, supplies, and Ahmed to the dentist for a tooth ache. Poor Jim spent the whole day running around trying to get Ahmed to the dentist, and also get some goods ordered, I sat guard over our goods with the flies and wrote notes and made up eel pot funnels I had a talk with an Italian teacher Marco Bormioli and he was [[end page]]
just starved intellectually, as are most intellectuals in this outfit. His field was philosophy and history. An Arab gave me a small [[underline]] Arothron [[/underline]] which he had caught. It had an olive green back and rich yellow stomach in life; by its black markings it appeared close to the species I got from Shmayly Id. From the eel pots I got 1 Plesiops and several apogonids. This evening we moored to the black skeleton buoy about 1/4 mile South of west pier where there are reported to be flying fish. We saw one about 10 inches long come up under the light but we could not get him. The bottom was covered with fine grass but it was sparce there was sand and pieces of coral rock and about 1.5 fathoms of water. The bait mostly sardines, a few dussumierids, and silversides gathered around in tremendous quantities on both sides. I caught two more Pegasids of the same species. Aurelia jellyfish drifted by in large quantities the tide was swift until slack ebb, and the night was calm. We saw a longish black fish with a big head & thin behind which may have been a catfish. There are also thin long tan fish on the bottom. We got a few nibbles and that was all. Approx. position 26 [[degree symbol]] 37'N, 50 [[degree symbol]] 9'E. May 9 - We left our anchorage about 7 A.M. and passed east pier at 7:10 A.M. with clear sky and light [[insert] ^ south [[/insert]] westerly winds. We caught two shanad just a little north of Ras Tanura Terminal tanks about 1/2 mile offshore within about 5 minutes of each other. 8:30 A.M. abeam center of Refinery area. We are making around 3 knots with a smooth sea plus a light breeze off our port quarter. "Al 'ailiyeh" at 10:50 A.M. is the fishing spot we stopped at about a mile from shore opposite date palm orchard of Ras Al Kaliya. 4 fath. almost was the depth and the water was very clear with coral rock bottom small clumps of branch coral & some brain coral. We got no bites I saw a few small fish, and caught one larval Tetraodon on the surface. At 1:45 P.M. we headed back because we got no bites. The wind by 12:45 became moderate S.E. with small white caps. By 2:00 p.m. it had calmed down again to a light breeze. We caught two more mackerel about [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 2 mi. offshore, the one at 3:45 P.M. was caught a little north of the refinery area. A black grouper was caught over coral & grass bottom in about 2 fathoms on the orange & white jig. There were 2 strikes on a hand made Arab jig with teeth marks; no fish caught because there was no give to the line on the pole. We trolled 4 lines both ways. We sighted several [[insert]] ^ small [[/insert]] schools of small tuna with white terns diving at the bait, but as usual we had no luck in getting strikes. We trolled around buoy 7, and got a strike and caught a three foot barracuda, U-48-50. Then we moored to the buoy and Abdullah caught a Lethrinus, U-48-51, and that was all. There were quite a number of sooty terns on the buoy, about 30. The wind increased from the ESE to squalls and white caps by 6:30 P.M. when we left the buoy and headed back to Tarut Bay which we reached by sundown. We had a rough night with swells from the south and strong winds, so we did no night fishing and anchored 1/4 mile north of west pier. May 10 - Strong southerly winds till 10 A.M. with a high tide, and then it became a flat calm with a very hot sun till 4:00 P.M, when the shamal came up and blew moderately till 8 P.M. and then strong all night. We wasted a whole day in at the pier again today to meet Gurley and get a few more supplies. Jim and I went into Ras Tanura for a shower and a shave. This afternoon, we picked up 3 of the big traps 1 mi. north of west pier in branch coral bottom. I obtained a number of angel fish U-48-52, Heniochus, a parrotfish etc. Then we moved in shore for the night, and had the best night light fishing yet. Also I caught my first fish by baited hook & line in Arabia, a small red-gill [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]]. We saw 2 small soles swimming along at the surface. Yusif caught a small barracuda; Ahmed got 2 snakes in the circle lift net. I got 2 long white flat worms writhing near the surface about 2 feet in length in life. They spat out their radulas when put in formalin. There were even barnacles on the snakes. We also got 2 more Pegasids. The even-
ing was actually more varied than the others. May 11--Continued strong shamal. Yusif caught a small nurse shark on broken up gub gub. In one eel pot I caught 70 small Terapon 2-4 inches, 4 apogonids, 1 Faskar, 1 Lethrinus (red gill cover) in an overnight set. Since I had so much else to manage I saved only 2 Terapon. It was a wire funnel trap. The cloth funnel trap caught only one apogonid. A pipefish mysteriously appeared in the bottom of the collecting can; all I can think of is that it was coughed up by the shark. He also caught a blunt head grunt. Then we moved into the dock all day to get our rigging changed over to the Tarat-jig poles. The wind blew hard all day. I swatted flies and wrote up notes. May 12- Fair with continued shamal winds. Last night tho we went to the same place as before the fishing was poor with scattered bait and cloudier water. I caught one siganid floating at the surface like a frog in a pool. This morning we went into port again to see Gurley and get Ahmed straightened out. Then we went out and picked up the big traps (four of them) the most recent baited one had only 2 small fish; one almost without bait was loaded with 8 siganids, a Lutjanus, several chaetodons, angelfish, etc. I had a case of the runs so did not feel so well. The eel pots in the morning place left over night yeilded 2 toadfish, and some more [[underline]] Terapons [[/underline]]. In the afternoon, the shamal increased with a cloudy sky, and even a few drops of rain. I felt worse till late evening; we stood in at west pier tied to pipes 100 yds south of the pier to pick up Ahmed when he came back from Dhahran. I wrote a letter to Lucile. May 13- At 2 A.M. I almost rolled out of bed as the boat turned over on the starboard side because the tied had gone out. I got in Gurley's bed for awhile till it straightened out. [[end page]] [[start page]] 47 No equipment went over the side. At 5 A.M., Abdullah captain speared a [[underline]] sbaiti [[/underline]] [[symbol for male]] 8 lbs 595 m.m. S.L., and 69 mm. T.L. with a long piece of goat skin in its stomach. The testes were yellowish and small but were more the shape of testes with sharp edges and no blood vessels. They called it a male because it was more elongate, and less stocky. The day was spent in at dock getting a few supplies, supervising work on the Tarat [[?]]. I wrote notes and wrapped fish specimens all morning. 8 gal. tank in box #6 got completely filled with fish in formalin, and #22 with a trammel net were returned to the storehouse. A 55 gal. drum of formalin was picked up and box #13 with mason jars & rotenone. Mr. Sanders and others were very cooperative. Jim and Mr. Sanders cleared it thru customs, and it took the usual amount of time. It became calm and hot from 10 A.M. on, but the shamal came up again before 7 P.M. with moderate winds. This evening we anchored 200 yds. from shore 1 mi north of west pier. There were snakes plentiful as usual and the bait was scattered and then became heavy like a movable cloud under the light. It consisted mostly of herring and dussermierids. Jim speared a squid with a spear. There were several blue crabs and 1 mole lobster caught. I caught a small scarpaenid. We saw several larger fish like small barracuda, and we saw one fish with black and white band which was longish; but it went quickly. No two nights even in the same place are the same for the fishes. May 14 - Calm and clear at dawn. The eel pots yeilded [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]], Lethrinus (red gill), Scolopsis with the brown band, and one parapercid. I kept one parapercid and one of each of the others. We picked up 2 of the last traps in water and got blowfish and several parrotfish [[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]], filefish and porgies. We rounded Ras Tanura Pt. at 9:30 A.M. in a flat calm headed north. Around the boat in the morning I noticed a small school of Scomber jumping about close to shore. We reached the Refinery area at 10:45 A.M. Small schools were in evidence of Scomber. At [[end page]]
10 A.M. a shanad was caught about a half mile offshore on the white & blue jig. We reached our destination at 1:30 P.M. off Ras al Kaliya about [[strikethrough]] 300 yds [[/strikethrough]] ^[[1/4 mile]] off shore in 1 fathom of water. We passed over a rock ledge just south of Ras al Kaliya then it changed to stubby branch coral which I had mistaken for grass bottom, before then sand & scattered branch coral where we moored. Ahmed and I rowed ashore we passed over hard sand bottom, branch coral clumps (small), sand & coral rock, hard sand coral rock and brown fine leafed algae (about 1 foot long), then hard sand to the shore. The water was 4 to 6 feet deep up fairly close to shore. We found cuttle bones abundant on the beach one was at least 9 inches long. We just put 100 yds of water between us and the ^[[two]] customs officers or coast guards they wanted a "chit," but there was nothing they could do about it. I tried to poison some branch coral with cube root (two quarts) one small wrasse turned over about 6 feet down and that was all. I saw angel fish (blue & yellow type), Megaprotodon, Abudefdif marginates, Pomacentrus (black), wrasse, a blenny or two, porgies of several kinds ^[[goatfish]]; also there was a small school of jacks with hard scutes & sercola mouth (like those mackerel scads) one was over a foot long. Over sand bottom I saw a large sting ray with a thick tail and a wing spread of about 4 to 5 feet. Abdullah tried to spear him but missed. All pots and traps were set and baited on branch coral and sand bottom. A shamal came up about 6:00 P.M. with moderate force but it lightened by 10 P.M. It was cloudy and calm in the afternoon. The boat rocked and it was too windy for successful night light fishing. In fact we saw less fish than any night hithertoo; it was all small atherinids. On our way to Ras Kaliya we could see many fish swimming on and over the bottom. There were many small porgies, angelfish, and a considerable number of fat sided parrotfish 8 - 10" long. [[end page]] [[start page]] 49 May 15 - We hit bottom about 2:30 A.M. at ebb tide; there was less than 2 fathoms and high tide, and less than a fathom at low tide. The crew pulled on the anchor a bit, and we were clear. Fortunately the night was calm. We had the traps picked up in the morning. The eel pots were empty; one trap on sand and weed bottom yeilded one catfish, U-48-60, the others had nothing or one or two small Lethrinus, or Faskar porgies. The catfish was beaten up, but good enough for a specimen. We got underway about 7:30 A.M. with grey skies and a calm. We headed back to Ras Tanura, and caught 2 barracuda off Ras Kaliya. We hit a couple of squalls about 9 A.M., leveling out to a light shamal about 10 A.M. no white caps. At 10:15 A.M. off buoy 5, we went thru a large school of "[[underline]] jibbabah [[/underline]]" without any strikes. A couple of hundred sooty and common white terns were flying above and diving down. 1 mile south of buoy #5 we caught a big shanad on the red & white jig. 12:01 P.M. light airs & grey sky. 2 miles off refinery (Ras Tanura) we caught a shanad at 12:10 P.M. Also 3 schools of jibbabah were seen with terns on top. 12:17 another shanad 1/4 mi west of buoy 7 r&w Miller, light airs. At 12:25 P.M. we caught another shanad with 3 small scads (3-4") inside. One scad was quite fresh still. Shortly after 1 P.M.; the sun came out and about 1:30 P.M. a light shamal sprang up again. We pulled into Ras Tanura at 1:45 P.M., and news was that all Aramco was out looking for us. And so it goes; Yusif was also back from Bahrain. Clear in the afternoon with light shamal winds; we left the pier at 4:30 P.M. after placing orders to be picked up the next day. We headed for Shmayly Id. and [[?]] to small barracuda along the sand bar just north of Shmayly Id. which is under water. I added up and check my collection with Blegvad's and find I have observed 79 species, and have in my collection 69. I also started my monthly report to Dr. Schultz. After dark, using fish for bait, Ahmed pulled in a small shark, [[underline]] Carcharias menisorrah [[/underline]] - U-48-62. A 10" [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] was also caught, [[end page]]
but not kept. Night light fishing did not yield much; just some larval fishes. Large atherinids were also seen and half beaks. A pipefish and a [[underline]] Pegasus went [[/underline]] by, but were missed. Also a small shark came by under the light about 2 feet long. Crabs were fairly numerous. May 16 - I lifted the eel pots this morning. They were placed near the gulf weed banks. Only one yielded anything, a toadfish, [[underline]] Pomacentrus [[/underline]], and [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]]. It was clear and hot and calm all morning. Abdullah, captain, little Yusif, Ahmed, and I went ashore armed with a throw net and a 25 foot seine. Abdullah caught a tern like the Caspian tern [[image of bird's head with long beak]]. It had a grey back and white below and are apparently breeding now as we saw some eggs and young birds. I got a young bird which was pickled. Seine collections were made around the island in sandy spots, all were included in one collection 1 goby, 1 blenny, [[underline]] Sillags, Gerres, Cyprinodon, Chelon, Sparus [[/underline]] etc. I saw 1 1/2' guitar fish take off into deeper water. We did not get any Platycephalus probably because the tide was still low. I saw some more of the same lizards on Shmayly that I had collected before. At noon, we saw a [[underline]] Chanad [[/underline]] jump clear out of water not over 150 yds, behind the Palestine. We headed back to Ras Tanura about 1 P.M. to pick up supplies again. We worked on some of the fish rigging for the Tarat, and hung around till evening. Everything was screwed up as usual without going into the gory details. Garley appeared in a new hat from Dhahran for about 10 minutes. About 7 P.M. we headed back for Shmayly, and at 9:00 P.M. young Yusif landed a shark on hook & line, 72 cm. T.L., 5 lbs. [[symbol for female]] with young ready to be born, U-48-65. Another one a [[symbol for male]] about 18" was on the hook the next morning which was also included as U-48-65. The night was close and calm interrupted with sudden gusts of hot desert wind. May 17 - I got up about dawn this morning and used cube root to collect at low tide. I collected most of the fish from a gulf [[end page]] [[start page]] 51 weed area, 4 blennies from a coral rock pool, and a flounder lying still alive on the sand. I saw closely this morning those fish that [[image of banded goby-like fish and shrimp emerging from a hole, and clam in water]] live in holes in hard muck sand. The are apparently commensal with a curious mole shrimp which digs the burrow and the fish lives in it. The fish seems similar in appearance to a large goby something like [[underline]] Periopthalmus [[/underline]]; it is definitely not a parapercid as I thought might be the case when I first saw them in deep water (see p. 28). I tried to poison a couple of burrows but met with no success. About 10 A.M. we headed back to west pier to check up on the Tarat. We spoke to some pot fishermen. All they had was about 20 lbs of small porgies, faskar, etc. and several blue crabs. Next we spoke some stake net fishermen who had a couple of bushels of cuttlefish and crabs, and sold us about a half bushel of bait for 4 reals. They also coughed up a small ([[underline]] Chilescyllium griseum [[/underline]]) which was a reddish tan in color. We reached West Pier about 12 noon. The Tarat crew was out for lunch. It was windless hot and sunny. We tied alongside the new fish pier just north of west pier, and waited till about 1:30 P.M., before all the Tarat crew assembled, and Jim shoved off with the Tarat I remained with the Palestine. We headed S.E. for Naywa with northerly light airs and a clear sky. We trolled ^[[insert]] one [[/insert]] [[strikethrough]] two [[/strikethrough]] lines and passed several schools of Scomber ([[underline]] Jibbabeh [[/underline]]) the usual size about 20" jumping around in the water with terns diving from above. No strikes from them as usual. We arrived at Najwa at 3:30 with a moderate shamal wind & a white [[image of triangular object on water]] buoy 1 mile N.E. of our anchorage. We anchored in a wide sandy area with a U shaped band of reef on either side and straight ahead of us. We anchored in about 3 fath. of water with mud sand bottom. Soon the Tarat came up with Jim along with 4 Arabs. We set the 6 traps at Naywa, and then returned the Tarat made 15 3/4 R.P.M. towing the Palestine dead wgt. with the Palestine running the Tarat towed just barely 16 1/8 R.P.M. full speed. [[end page]]
Jim figured 8 knots with both engines running and 5 1/2 with just the Tarat. About 2 miles east of Ras Tanura the Palestine hooked into a large [[underline]] Rachycentron canadus [[/underline]] "sikn" around 30 lbs.; it broke off the hook and was lost. Black color on top and light below and protruding lower jaw rather confirm that it was this fish. Schools of Jababah were passed on the way back without a strike. No luck either for the Tarat. We left Naywah about 5 P.M. with a moderate shamal wind and white caps. The shamal increased and around 7 P.M. it became cloudy and quite cool. During the night the wind came up and died in squalls. We slept on deck, and the crew on the deck roof. Under the night light, there were mostly just young herring with some larger herring like fish underneath. May 18 - Fair and clear today with moderate shamal winds. This morning, I got only one plesiops (brown) out of the eel pots, and I ran one poison station on mixed sand and gulf weed bottom in an area surrounded partly by the coral rock at low tide. I got a [[underline]] Siganus signaus [[/underline]]? (tan with small light blue spots) which most approximates Blegvad's species. A couple of small spotted groupers, gobies, blennies, porgies, pipefish, and the usual brown [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] and green wrasse turned up. Plesiops (brown) seems to be hit the first and the hardest by cubé root, then pipefish in a few numbers, green wrasse, and [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]], young [[underline]] Perlates [[/underline]], yg. [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]], then other fish are affected more or less incidentally. I used 2 quarts at once in a thick mud and a more confined area which seemed to help. The water was 3" - 2 ft deep. I also collected some brittle stars from some brown fleshy tri-cornered sea weed. I did some observing under water with the face mask and went over a considerable area of a short grass bottom from 2" to 6" in length in much sand [[image of grass bottom]] Also mixed in was scattered [image of fleshy grass]] fleshy green grass with runners not single as the thin grass. [[end page]] [[start page]] "Bulldozer Fish" and "watch dog" 53 I observed more closely the shrimp and the hole fish see (p. 51) and the shrimp is dark about three inches long and shaped roughly like a fresh water crayfish. The shrimp is usually busy running back and forth dumping a load of mud out of his hole. Two holes were [[symbol for perpendicular]] to each other so that the shrimp from one hole was actually dumping his mud into the other one's doorway. This, however, caused no fight, but they both continued carrying mud out furiously. Each hole had its sentinel fish. One was a [[underline]] Salarias [[/underline]]-like blenny of about 3 inches the other I am now sure is [[underline]] Periopthalmus [[/underline]] because of the superior eyes blunt nose and almost stalk-like united ventral fin; specimens were three to possibly 4" inches in length. Smaller specimens of the hole blenny I believe to have collected both today and yesterday. So far I have been unable to poison them. The [[underline]] Periophthalmus [[/underline]] do not seem to live in less than 3 - 4 feet of water at dead low tide, whereas Blegvad's fish were obliging enough to be on dry land at low tide. The morning was spent in fussing around rigging the lines and tielines for trolling on the "Tarat" which came alongside. Jim and I did it more or less alone, since we were the only ones who had even a faint idea of what we were trying to do. Though cool at dawn, it was hot during the morning, even with the shamal wind. The shamal was stronger in the afternoon. [[image]] This weird creature vaguely resembles the small jelly or spine covered spider crabs found in the [[image]] triangular brown weed this morning. Specimens of plants mentioned were preserved in formalin. In the afternoon, the shamal increased gradually going eastward until by 5 P.M. we had a stiff S.E. wind. I wrote notes and packed fish specimens in the afternoon. An airplane overhead and a note brought us into the pier and eventually to Dhahran. The Tarat left us to get the crews food rations. The night became calm later on with occasional squalls. May 19 - We got up at 5:30 A.M. this morning and it was almost
a glass calm. We were tied up to the fish pier. Last night I got a nice specimen of a [[female symbol]] flyingfish from an Arab lad off one of the launches. It had flown on board; it had ripe flowing adhesive eggs. U-48-69. I finished a monthly report to Dr. Schultz. The trip to Al Khobar in the Tarut was very calm about 3 hours 6:30 - 9:30 A.M. It was hot and rather humid. I saw a couple of schools of jebabah between Ras Tanura & Najwa. The [[image - pen sketch of triangular buoy floating on the sea]] marker at Najwa was on dry sand this morning at low tide, which explains the dries 4 feet on the chart. It might be a good place to collect with poison some time at low tide. Just north of Al Khobar we saw great numbers of large, 1 foot in diameter, solid white jellyfish similar in shape to the one figured on p. 20. We saw on small sea turtle about 3 feet. We saw a large flock of cormorants, and terns here and there. I got a hair cut shower and shave ,and wrote a letter to Lucile and mailed it and the one to Dr. Schultz. Later Jim came around and we went to see Ed Gurley in his temporary office in the brick building. He was in good spirits ,and we planned the work of supply for a fishing trip for Mr. Sulaiman, the Saudi-Arabian finance minister, to Jez Jinah for an overnight trip with all the trimmings. The trip developped into this larger idea just today. Besides being interesting to visit the island; it will be good to meet Mr. [[underline]] Sulaiman [[/underline]]. The shamal blew all afternoon and evening. The shamals may be our stumbling block for the trip. This [[strikethrough]] evening afternoon [[/strikethrough]] evening I went to the movies just to pass the time away. May 20 - Clear and hot today but slightly cooled in Dhahran by a windy shamal. All day was spent driving around picking up supplies for Abdullah Sulaman's fishing party. I got the Arab food and bedding ,and Jim got the american food and Ed got some details rounded out. The "Tarut" left Khabar pier bound [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 55 [[/right corner]] for Ras Tanura at 5 P.M. loaded down. Jack Mahoney, editor, of the [[underline]] Sun and Flare [[/underline]], spoke with me ,and wanted a little story about me and my purpose being over here, other than "a butterfly catcher" which reminds me of the Dhahran (fly) salute. I also spoke with Jim Knight, Jim Stewarts roommate; he knew the Keddys in Washington ,and the Friends' Meeting. I copied down the Companies standard rations for Arab workers which I thought would be interesting. 1 man for 1 day at the Arab Commissary: [[table with 3 columns, no column labels]] 1 oz tea | 4 oz. lentils | 2 oz. salt 1 oz coffee | 1/3 oz. onions | 1/8 oz. cardaman 3 oz sugar | 1 lb. rice | 1/2 oz of cloves 1/2 lb. flour | 1 lb. dates 3 oz. ghee | 1/4 oz. Curry powder [[/table]] I thought of these words tonight alone in my room . 'In the presence of God and these our friends, I take you Lucile Mendum to be my wife; promising , with [[strikethrough]] God's grace [[/strikethrough]] divine assistance, to be a loving and faithful husband as long as we both shall live.' It seems now that I am away that I try not to think of her too often, because it is no joy to be apart. Nevertheless, her bright eyes and ready smile pervade my thoughts daily. May 21 - Jim and I left Dhahran by taxi at 7 A.M. and managed to miss the worst heat of the dessert. We stopped at the storage house. Jim did some telephoning, and I got some cubé root and my two harpoons ,and wire metal screening. There was a shamal and clear sky most of the day. I got myself a head ache from the heat and diving into ice air cooled buildings. We spent the whole day getting supplies aboard for the trip. The Tarut nearly dropped off its propellor ,and whether or not it will be fixed is problematical. The shaft was broken, but it was hauled up on a pier derrick and fixed by 10 P.M.
May 22nd - The shamal continued with intensity all day with white caps on the bay. It quieted a little at sunset. We remained tied to the fish pier. All the tent two by four pieces on our roof would probably make it easy for the Palestine to capsize in a rough sea. The fish pier was frequented a good part of the day by Arabs, and one fellow was having good success catching gerrids (6-8") with sand worms for bait and small hooks. Abdullah also caught several this way. Some coast guard officers came aboard for tea and talk this afternoon with Jim. I caught a small filefish near my eel pot line before dark U-48-70, and I also caught some [[insert]] ^ small [[/insert]] halfbeaks etc. under the light at night. May 23rd - It calmed down some last night and early morning, but by 8:30 A.M. it was clear and blowing a strong shamal still. It did not calm down till evening, and it was relatively calm all night. The crew fished off the fish pier with small hooks and small sand worms for bait, and they caught 5 [[underline]] Periophthalmus [[/underline]] for me that way. I caught a lot of herring and small scads with the hoop net in the afternoon. The night offered fishing including a new specimen [[hand-drawn image of fish]] of [[underline]] Callionymus [[/underline]] ? I also caught several small barracuda about 2" long. Also I saw 2 spotted eagle rays, [[underline]] Aetobatus [[/underline]], swimming offshore. They were a scarce 2 feet in wing spread, colored much the same as the west Indian species May 24 - Increasing shamal winds and clear sky wind more westerly of north. Specialists bordered our boat in numbers as usual but offered no useful suggestions regarding our leaking stove. Then about 6 fire extinguishers came aboard for as many fire hazards. I caught a [[hand-drawn and colored image of fish with caption U-48-71]] new goat fish in my eel pot this morning with nearly blood red sides and olive green back barbels white, fins colorless except [[end page]] [[start page]] 57 the first dorsal. It continued windy all morning and until late afternoon. I wrote up notes and wrapped fish specimens in the morning. In the afternoon, Abdullah Suliman and party came out on the pier a few minutes and we chatted with them. They did not have much time I also talked with Garry Owen and both he and Abdullah want me to come over to Jiddah any time. In fact Garry Owen said I will be seeing you in Jiddah, and Mr. Suliman said he would show me the kinds of fish there. Mr. Suliman still wants to go fishing and is apparently willing to wait for the weather. We barely managed to get dressed and have Abdullah put up the flag before they were on top of us. I sent a letter to Lucile today and also, a character sketch of myself plus explanation of my mission over here to Jack Mahoney of the Sun and Flare. I also received news today from Lucile of Larry's intended marriage on June 6th to Marian Williams; thus endeth the bachelors in our end of the family. If I had not already been married to a wonderful wife, I would have felt a very definite pang of jealousy for Larry's happiness. Jim and I went into Ras Tanura for supper and I got a travelers check turned in for reals. May 25 - It was calm most of last night, and a moderate westerly wind set in about 7 A.M. The sunrise was dusty this morning with a silver sun burning through the dusty haze; as the moon just past its full was hazy last night. Today was fair with light winds most of the day. We could have gone off but the weather prediction was for a bad shamal, and no definite orders to proceed from Dhahran. Needless to say, I am tiring again of waiting. We put oil on board, and got the stove fixed again. My eel pots continue to yeild [[sic]] fish, but around here I get more during the day than the night. [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]] seems to be the only one that runs in at night. Yesterday, I got 9 blunt head porgies
in 2 pots just in the afternoon. I gave most of them to the crew. I used the face mask between the pipe and the fish pier this morning and went over mud sand with light grass bottom. I saw holes with Periophthalmus, and free swimming saw 3 inch [[underline]] Sargus noct [[/underline]], a [[underline]] gerrid [[/underline]] 10", several 12" [[underline]] Sparus cuvieri [[/underline]], and large schools of black spotted herring, and the small jacks swimming upside down under the boat. On one rock with [[hand-drawn image of fish and perhaps plant]] that tan oyster like weed I saw a 1/2 inch pomacentrid bright blue above and deep yellow beneath just like young [[underline]] P. leucosticus [[/underline]] in the W.I. I would not be surprised if this was merely the young of the large black pomacentrids which are common around here. In the afternoon, I rowed up to a hard sand area with branch coral over it. I observed with face mask the predominant species there the faskar, Lutjanus [[small hand drawing of fish--image]] with the black spot under the second dorsal, [[strikethrough or maybe underline]] Scolopsis personatus [[/strikethrough or maybe underline]], [[underline]] Scolopsis (striped) [[/underline]], and lined [[underline]] Pelates [[/underline]] ?, black pomacentrids, black ([[underline]] Salarias[[/underline]]) blennies, black [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]], green wrasse, and that was about all. I wrote a letter to [[underline]] Lucile and also to Larry. [[/underline]] Around 5:30 P.M. I went out in the Tarut around east pier, and in an hour we didn't even get a strike. There was a thick dusty brown haze all over the gulf and visibility was less than 1/2 mile. We saw both kinds of porpoises in great numbers. We also saw jibabab, and I saw what looked like a small marlin jumping out of water tho I could not see a bill at that distance. This evening, I talked with [[underline]] Fred Ellers [[/underline]], Gen. Engin. Sect. 22J1 Dh., who has done spear fishing at Half Moon Bay. We may get together some time. It was calm and extremely damp from dew tonight. In fact everything on deck got soaked. A light breeze made us feel cold because of the dampness, and we slept below where it was drier. May 26 -- It was flat calm this morning and the sky clearer of dust with cirrus clouds. I tended the eel pots and lost one right off the end [[end page]] [[start page]] letter to folks 5/26 59 of the fish pier. At 7:30 A.M., I left on the Tarat for Naywa to pick up the wire traps. When we reached there we circled around about a half hour and Abdullah must have spotted them, for we stopped and in 20 minutes 4 traps were recovered, and the other two after further search were given up as stolen. We reached Naywa about 8:15 A.M. The water was thick with aurelia jellyfish and several dūls. I swam around with a face mask a bit but not much over sand bottom. Just before reaching Naywa a chanad struck but fell off. After leaving Naywa about 9 A.M. we lowered both jig poles and headed for buoy #7. A fish pot boat with 6 crew and one funnel fish pots was there and a jalboot also with awning canvass. About 11:00 A.M. between buoy 7 and East pier we caught a chanad 8 lbs. on a bone jig. Between east pier and Ras Tanura point we hooked a [[underline]] tuna [[/underline]], about 15 lbs., with a blue and white jig (?) and 4 oz. weight. light East winds and clear sky. It had average sized black tuna pectorals and the characteristic bronze lateral faint stripe and dark blue back, but that was all that I saw. I pulled it up outside another line, and in attempting to gaff it it threw the hook; this was about 12 noon. We went back several times but had no success. The boys fried some hamur for me, which was pretty good. Now re: the traps there were 2 large hamūr (1 was 68 c.m. S.L. and weighed 6 lbs., it was an unripe [[female symbol]] with lots of fat bodies inside but no stomach contents). The other one was about 5 lbs. with empty stomach. There were about 6 six small ones, several small Lethrinids, parrotfish, 1 angelfish, 2 [[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]], 1 [[underline]] S. siganus [[/underline]], and more important there were several dead fish mostly Hamur and a half gone [[underline]] Heniochus [[/underline]] and several partial skeletons. Thus leaving the traps for any period of time over one or two nights is not good. We reached the fish pier again about 1:30 P.M. I wrote notes and wrapped fishes. We took on supplies again in the afternoon. Light easterly winds in the afternoon.
I did some night light fishing off the Fish pier and got a few species of common stuff shiners, herring, etc. and larval percoids. May 27 - We are still waiting definite word from Dhahran. This morning was fair and calm ;thus 3 good days are being almost wasted. Saif, the pearl diver, on the Tarut recovered my eel pot this morning and it contained two 25 & 26 cm. groupers, [[underline]] E. tauvina [[/underline]], and one black [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] and an [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]]. I gave the groupers to Saif as a bakseesh. I left on the "Tarut" with crew at 9:45 A.M. sky almost clear with light cirrus clouds and light easterly airs. Slightly stronger south easterly breeze came up around 10:30 A.M. ,but remained light. We trolled around the pier (east) and out near buoy #7 with 7 lines one with 1 lb. wgt. We trolled thru a couple of schools of [[underline]] Jibab [[/underline]] and we didn't even get a nibble. It was the worst time I have seen yet. We headed into port about 12:15 P.M. The grotesque thing below is an attempt to give an idea of the approximate color distribution of [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] which is very common here and turn dark brown to blackish when it is put in formalin. [[image amongst words: a fish, which the previous and following sentences describe]] All colors except the purple blue spots on the head are rather diffuse and indistinct. Blue (light steel color) is found on the top sides interspersed with indistinct yellow or golden. Indistinct black bands appear at will. This afternoon, after telephone calls, and various people coming aboard, we got underway to Tarut upper Bay. Then the crew wanted water ,and we store in the sides of the boat port side on a pipe barge off west pier. When they got water ,the tiller rope ceased to work (it became slack ,hence another delay). We got going about 6 P.M. with moderate easterly winds. The Tarut went aground just beyond Za'al (Shmayly) Id. and [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top right corner]] 61[[/top right corner]] it was so late and the Palestine was going so slow that we went back to Zaal to anchor for the night. We all fished over the side with the night light, and the new specimens were 36 [underline]] Dermogenys [[/underline]] (?) [[insertion]] [[underline]] Hemiramphus far [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] small halfbeaks with large orange tan ventral fins far aft near the anal, and they stuck out like large pectorals and gave the appearance of making the fish seem to be swimming backwards. [[image: long fish, with description of previous sentence. image marked: 3"t.l.]] We also caught numerous small bill fish apparently both [[underline]] Ablennes [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Tylosurus. [[/underline]] We saw some spotted or rather blotched fish (8" approx) about the build of a goatfish. They kept their distance from the light ,however, and did not give us a chance to collect them. Crabs and one cuttlefish came along and were caught. It was moderately damp with a fair easterly breeze. At 2:30 A.M. I got cold on deck and needed a blanket, the wind was rather breezy then. May 28 - Today was fair and calm at dawn. My eel pots only yeilded an [[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] , [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] , and a couple of crabs. So I left them in it. We left after breakfast back to the Fish Pier to meet Gurley just up from Dhahran still with a bad cold. The jist of the visit was that we have to come to Dhahran again Sunday partly to unload the stuff ,and partly just because. In the morning ,I set the eel pots ,and then cleaned off the bottom of the row boat which was composed of green algae (1 inch long) some almost brownish. It was filamentous and slimy to the touch. Actually there were very few barnacles. The bottom of the Palestine, however, has just about everything from barnacles to Algae. I also wrote notes and wrapped specimens ,and started a preliminary report of work todate a la request of Gurley. This afternoon ,we unloaded the 2 tons of tent frames off our deck roof ,and the boat rose. Then about 3:15 P.M. we headed up Tarut Bay. Jim sprained his wrist by skidding on the wet deck early in the morning, and went to a doctor [[end page]]
during the morning on shore. The breeze stiffened from the east around 4 P.M. and there became light white caps on the bay. In the eel pots near the fish pier this afternoon I got a 4" parrotfish, 11 green wrasse, 4 Lethrinus nebulosus, and 1 L. miniatus (with red gill). This picture of [[caption]] U-48-76 tin tag [[/caption]] [[image - hand-drawn fish with red gill, gray stripes, yellow-green body, red tinged fins, blue stripe under eye]] [[underlined]] Lethrinus miniatus [[/underlined]] shows the dark phase recently dead in formalin of the fish plus the red gill covert and smaller eye. [[underlined]] L. miniatus [[/underlined]] is generally actually lighter colored than L. [[underlined]] nebulosus [[/underlined]]; in fact it is almost silver at times. 2 specimens; 1 of each species are being kept for later comparison; the one with the tin tag U-48-76 is [[underlined]] L. miniatus [[/underlined]]. We reached Safwa just south of the Qatif pipe line where we cast anchor in 1 1/2 fath. of water. We anchored to the lee of a sand bar which is perpendicular to the pipe line. I rowed ashore and took a "shoaf" around the beach and saw 2 sting rays in about 4 feet of water with approx. 1 foot discs. There were also several schools of young halfbeaks. When I came back aboard I took the air and water temperature 34˚ C in the air with wind blowing and it feels comfortable, and the water was 31˚ C and does not feel particulary warm or hot. Young Yusif caught a 20" inch [[male symbol]] "nauth" shark on fish bait about 7 P.M. We used the usual light and dip net over the side and there were halfbeaks and a few small herring, and gradually huge schools of [[underline]] Triacanthus indrius [[/underline]] came into sight and the crew caught well around 75. Abdullah and little Yusif were catching them like mad for about an hour. The fast swimmers [[underlined]] Triacanthus [[/underlined]] are rather stupid. Their guts were full of small hard stuff shells and small crab claws, etc. They were nearly ripe males and females. In fact a translucent ger exuded from some but it seemed hardly white enough for milt. Their eyes were like transparent red marbles, and the skin like sand paper. May 29 - I moved above deck about 1 A.M. and waited and slept [[end page]] [[start page]] \63 [[image - drawing of a sting ray jumping out of the water]] till 3 A.M. for low tide. I headed in the row boat for the sand bar to the east, where I saw 2 sting rays swimming along last evening. I walked up or down the sand bar for quite a ways until I saw and speared a [[underlined]] Platycephalus [[/underline]]. The bottom varied from sand to muck sand and some bottom with short grass. I also went over some bottom in 6 inches of water where I saw one small [[underlined]] Periophthalmus [[/underline]] and many holes; it was hard bottom, and small blue crabs about 2" were very common. I finally caught two [[strikethorugh]] Rhynchobatus [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Rhinobatus granulatus [[/underline]] and another [[underlined]] Platycephalus [[/underline]] and even speared a small Sillago in a channel thru the sand bar. Fish seemed most abundant at the mouths of two sand bar channels. The smaller [[underlined]] Platycephalus [[/underline]] had an unidentifiable fish head in its mouth. It was flat calm at 3 A.M. with a moderate light shamal at 5:30, and nearly calm shortly afterwards. The night was clear with moon and stars, and there was a rather heavy dew on deck. After breakfast, I picked up the eel pots, and found one small grouper, an apogon, and several [[underline]] Therapons [[/underline]] ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Terapon puta [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] who were grunting faintly (like sea robins). I preserved several of them. At 7:30 A.M. we saw a grey porpoise and slightly later a large 3 ft. [[underlined]] Torpedo [[/underline]] ray jumped out of water twice. I saw it the second time; it looked like a mussy grey sack with a stoutish tail. The tide was coming in. Also there were large pieces of sea foam (like little icebergs) floating around in the water. We left our anchorage about 8:30 A.M. and headed back for Ras Tanura. I examined the stomachs of 5 [[underlined]] Terapon [[/underline]]. One had 2 fair sized 2" shrimp (apparently a spawned out [[female symbol]]); the others had pieces of small fish; one a possible silverside. The varied from 3" to 4" total length, and one of the smallest was a mature [[male symbol]]. Jim and I had just about discussed the uselessnesss of trolling in shallow water on a calm hot day; when at 9:45 A.M. Ahmed started tugging with a fish. Yusif the elder landed it. It was a 13 lb. [[underlined]] Chorinemus lysan [[/underline]]. I took plenty of pictures and finally decided
wood deck temp. 45°C to save the head as a specimen, since the crew cast sort of hungry looks, and it would require a barrel to pickle it. There is a confusion of 2 species in Blegvad, based on the head. The rear dorsal and anal fins grade into finlets with slight connection between all so that what is fin or finlet is highly debatable. The anal opening is rather in advance in this species, so that the body cavity and testes extend nearly 3 inches behind the anal opening, also there was a rather large semi-transparent air bladder. There were one or two copepod parasites like the ones in [[underline]] Scomberomorus [[/underline] We arrived at the fish pier about 11:00 A.M., and we almost plowed into the barge. That calm prevailed with accompanying heat. Temperature at noon on bare wood deck in sun 45°C. At one o'clock, there sprang up an east wind. At 2:45 [[strike-through]] 3 [[/strike-through]]P.M. Jim returned from the clinic and getting his wrist strapped, and we left the fish pier, and found an east wind with small white caps. We passed some (2) large terns on a floating 2 by 4 with large black caps with rear tufts and a brown back and yellow bill and other parts white. We saw 4 grey bay porpoises play along side for awhile and then they fell back jumping out of the water (two of them) close together possibly just playing or a mating act. We arrived at Darin at the south corner of Tarut Id. around 4:30 P.M.. We went ashore with Jumah, capt. of the Tarut, to see Darin and see the fish market. The only fish we saw were [[underline]] S. siganus [[/underline]] "Sawfi arabi" on a couple of strings. Nevertheless we visited Jumah's house which was built of the typical coral rock with shells in evidence all over the pieces of rock. We had crab, tea, milk, and coffee with pineapple & grapes thrown in. Later even, a custom's officer had to talk with Jim ,so we did not get back until after sunset. Darin is an old Pearling town and the old sheiks castle is quite a sight with its rounded turrets at either end [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 65 [[/right corner]] and placed on a high point in the town overlooking the bay. A boom, numerous jalboats, and one sambuk was on shore [[image: boat]] with its sharp double ended hull. There were also numerous small "gulz" of several varieties. I never saw such a maze of fish traps as there are in Darin; there must be close to 50. The streets were very narrow, and the women all wore black skin tight masks rather than the veil type mask. The children were amused and fascinated by us and followed us thru the streets. There is a piped spring down to the west of town near the sea. It is a six inch pipe with a steady strong flow of water (probably slightly brackish). The town is dry and well above high tide, but high water runs part way in back of it where there is almost a field of greenish grass and then a date orchard beyond. This evening, I fished over the side with the night, or rather just watched. I saw one small Pegasus ,but large silversides were the most numerous. There were only a few herring and half beaks. The bottom was much sand with considerable growth of grass. The evening and most of the night was flat calm. May 30 - There was one [[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] and 20 or 30 [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]] in the eel pots this morning. It was windy just before dawn this morning and moderate easterly winds thereafter. I wrapped fish and wrote notes for about an hour & half before breakfast. We left Darin at 7:30 on the Tarut bound for Al Khobar. The wind was light from the [[strikethrough]] north west [[/strikethrough]] south east ,and sky clear. We arrived at Al Khobar about 10:30 A.M. Mr. De LaMar showed me a broad sawfish sword which measured 23 inches indicating at least a 6 or 8 foot sawfish which was caught off [[underline]] Al Khobar [[/underline]] pier. According to Blegvad, it appears to be [[underline]] Pristis zysron [[/underline]]. I wrote letters most of the afternoon, and waited for Gurley, but apparently he had or did not return from Ras Tanura. The temperature in the sand at 5:25 P.M. outside the veracity was 45˚C. It still felt [[end page]]
May 31 - letters to Lucile, Dr. Schultz, Blegvad air temp. 42°C. Sand temp. 50°C like a furnace. Because we are called back to Dhahran a day at least or possibly 2 days will be completely wasted. My first article came out in the "Sun & Flare" tonight; it was more or less an introduction as to how I happened to be doing what I am doing. May 31 - Gurley is still undecided about staying on, but it looks as tho he will continue on a temporary contract. We had a meeting this morning with Gurley, Stewart, and "Swede" H. E. Morrill, the new fisherman from IBI. He is over 6 feet and seems very nice with a long standing yen for fishing. He has fished on the California coast. I think he will make a good and desirable ship mate. My report was turned in without revamping; its briefness being its only virtue. The rest of the morning was wasted because I could not get a truck to off load all the fishing party equipment off the Tarut, a job I do not relish. Jim was kind enough to see what he could do about getting me cleared for a possible trip to Bahrain. The ground temperature outside at 12:15 today was 50°C and the air temperature 42°C, in other words "wadjit" (it is found) hot. I also wrote a letter to Dr. Blegvad, with a written copy for Dr. Schultz. The truck and car situation is a lot worse than a few months or rather a month ago; so I was unable to get a truck to off load the fishing party equipment. I even went down to Al Khobar but could find nothing there. But I spoke to the crew and rescued some cigarettes for Jim. When Gurley got back from Ras Tanura he said formalin had leaked down in the bilge; so it was agreed that the best thing was for me to return to Ras Tanura. On the way, we saw a jackal (about the size and build of a small coyote) cross the road around Qatif. The strong south east swells had rocked the boat considerably, and the big bung was not tight so formalin had leaked a little out of there. Abdullah and I moved the boat once during the night because it pounding against the pier. [[end page]] [[start page]] terns [[underline]] Gulf weed gone [[/underline]] 67 June 1 - Light east winds at dawn. After trying to phone Jim at Dhahran and see Mr. Brown (both unaccomplished missions), I decided to troll around east pier. We left the fish pier at 9:15 A.M. and threw over the red & white & orange & white jigs. The wind was light from the east, sky cloudless. Tarut Id. visible, but Jebel Dhahran and distant shores very hazy almost invisible. White terns abundant on Ras Tanura point. There are greyish terns like the white ones only they appear dirty underneath. Possibly it is caused by oil from tankers. There were 3 freighters (French & English) tied to east pier, and six at anchor. At 11AM. at buoy 7 we caught one barracuda on the orange & white jig. The wind was very light from the east. (When going thru the town of Al Khobar yesterday I noticed almost no flies a complete reverse of the situation in March. I had been given to understand that there were more in hot weather. Even at west pier the flies do not seem to be as bad as they were a month or so ago. About 11:30 A.M. a light northwest shamal came up. We got back at 12:15. I talked with Mr. Brown about arrangements for cleaning the boat which was more or less up to us, but with a short handed crew I decided to let it go. At 2 P.M. I lifted my 3 eel pots which were set just south of the new fish pier about the end of the submerged drain pipe at 1 1/2 fath. to 2. There were 2 moderate sized E. tauvina (1 each in the cloth funnel eel pots) also 1 Plesiops, 5 wrasse, and 2 [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]]. The tide was high about 1 P.M. about 2:00 P.M. we headed for Za'al Id. where I hope to catch 2 low tides. At 2:40 P.M. we caught a small barracuda with near ripe ovaries. We arrived at Za'al shortly before 3 P.M. Shamal winds are increasing slightly. At 4:20 P.M. most of the distant land was blotted or blurred with dust, and strong shamal winds were blowing. I set my three eel pots off the S.W. corner of Za'al on hard sand & weed bottom. All the long [[underline]] rooted gulf weed had [[/underline]] disappeared only small stems and roots were left; apparently
the bloom has fruited and gone by. The water ebbing out of the bay was almost hot, and it was very murky, and I found no suitable place where I could use poison. "Swede" Monill arrived on the Tarut near sundown, and they had caught one small chanad on their way up from Al Khobar. That evening we fished over the side with a light and a new addition was one chanos (Dorosoma). The Triacanthids were also present, large and small halfbeaks, large & small atherinids, and small dussumierids. About 12 P.M. we finished baiting and setting a 20 hook set line with 2 anchors and using needlefish & halfbeak for bait. I was calm when we set the lines, but the wind came up again before dawn, and increased to strong shamal by the following noon. June 2 - We got up shortly after dawn this morning, and I did some poisoning in the same coral rock area as before S.W. of Za'al. Because the tide was still ebbing the current dispersed the poison too fast, and only a few small fish were recovered scattered over a surprisingly wide area. The tied was actually ebb around 7-8 A.M. When we found our set line we recovered 1 shark [[insertion]] [[underlined]] chiloscyllium [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] 3 hooks and one anchor; the line had been cut probably by another shark. If we had used 1/4 inch rope, as Ed suggested at one time, it probably would have been allright. Also if there were 2 instead of one buoy. But that time of night, we were not open to the best ideas. In the eel pots, I caught my first gerrid (caught by an eel pot), also a small [[underline]]L. miniatus[[/underline]], [[underline]]Plesiops[[/underline]] and several blennies. [[underline]] Petroscirtes punctatus[[/underline]] We grappled some and dived for the other anchor but the strong tide and wind was prohibitive. The boys speared a small sea turtle but because of the origin of its capture I deemed it wise not to keep it (namely the fish trap which I told [[end page]] [[start page]] 69 them to keep out of. A small boat with 4 men operating fish pots came by this morning and from 11 pots they had nearly 50 lbs, or a bushel of "saudi arabi" ([[underline]]siganas siganus[[/underline]]) and a few small groupers, porgies, etc. But the bulk was S. Siganus, 6-8". Fishing boats were numerous around the bay this morning. The shamal was light in the morning increasing to heavy by noon with white caps on the bay and with gusts. Yesterday afternoon, I about lost an eel pot, the boat, and almost broke an oar (it broke the next day), by going down to the "sand" Id. which is on the south side of the channel about 1/4 & 1/2 mile south of Za'al Id. The tide was unbelievably swift and treacherous near the Id. and the water at least 3 faths. right up to the edge where branch coral and other hard looking stuff hove into sight. I decided that it was best not to land under these conditions. My eel pot almost disappeared in the current, and I had a hard time making it back to the boat. Atho the wind is stronger this afternoon, the horizon is clearer than last evening. "Swede" left on the "Tarut" to get fixed up in town with his stuff. We headed back for R.T. about 1:45 P.M. with line out behind. I spoke with Stewart over the phone and expect he will be up Friday night, and I telephoned our order to Tex Evans, and by that time "Swede" returned. Hamed relieved Yoosef at engineer today; so I trust we will have a change for the better. Getting the boat cleaned & caulked and the crews' rations are still current problems. At 5 P.M. we returned to Za'al from West Pier. The shamal was still strong with dust on the distant horizon and scattered cirrus clouds. We saw a small [[underlined]] 10 lb. albacore [[/underlined]] jump clear out of water near the boat. It seemed to be an albacore because its pectoral appeared to be very long. Terns were diving at it. There
were also other jibbab in the distance all about 2 mi. north of west pier. There were also at least 20 or 30 [[underline]] P. phoecena [[/underline]] porpoise (grey helmet type) playing around just before we saw the albacore. Around noon I saw 2 large black and white birds like oyster catchers flying north near Za'al Id. We reached Za'al about [[writeover--number 7 written over number 2]] P.M. and around sunset the wind flattened out to almost a flat calm. When the tide started to come in white stringy foam floated by probably stuff off the flats. We used the light over the side, and caught many 4" halfbeaks and a couple of young, [[underline]] Chilonodon [[/underline]]; "Swede" caught an 18" snake with a dark black head. There was a 3" [[underline]] Periopthalamus [[/underline]] inside the snake in recognizable shape and color. We made the mistake of cutting up the snake for bait for a set line; it was absolutely worthless. We also used some halfbeak for bait. We saw some [[underline]] Triacanthus [[/underline]] again. We got the set line set with anchor and cement block by midnight. [[strikethrough]] At 6:30 we [[/strikethrough]] The wind came up some during the night and blew quite hard for awhile. There was a beautiful sunset this evening with red clouds. June 3rd - Fair with a light shamal at 6:30 A.M. We caught one hayaseh [[female symbol]] 65 cm. 1 1/2 lbs. with egg yolks inside and empty stomach. The crew does not eat them, but will eat "[[Naud ?]]". My eel pots yeilded only [[underline]] L. miniatus [[/underline]] & [[yg faskar ?]] & [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] (brown). They were set in 1 fath, on muck sand bottom with sparse grass. We did not have time to grapel for yesterdays line and grapnel?]] so we left a line and a marker. We got under way at 9:05 A.M. I took a picture of the fish trap with Za'al in the background. Tide just about dead low. We put on supplies about 10 A.M.; the ice had been waiting an hour. We got a glimpse of Gurley and arrangements are being made to get the boat cleaned; though it may be part of a ruse the captain went to Bahrain this afternoon to get fish oil for the boat. "Swede" went into Ras Tanura to round up some equipment for fishing gear, and in the afternoon got some floats together. [[end page]] [[start page]] (71 I spent sometime on the phone to speak more at length with Gurley. I also spent sometime looking up Mr. Brown to discuss the boat situation. Being "cooly pay day" there are no helpers around this afternoon so I decided to head out again for Za'al Id. About 3 p.m. we left the fish pier with [[strikethrough]] light [[/strikethrough]] moderate shamal winds. It was blowing hardest around noon today. We arrived at Za'al Id. at 4 P.M. and the temperature in the shade was 36 [[degree symbol]] c. In the sun on the museum boxes on deck, it was 42°c. We trolled 2 lines but had no luck. I set my eel pots in the heavy tide off the rocks on the west end of Za'al. I baited a set line with pieces of "Hayaseh" the [[female symbol]] we got this morning. The tan skin was as rough and tough as the hardest grade emory paper. I found to my surprise 2 skate like egg cases with embryo eggs inside 2 1/2 by 1 1/2" [[image: drawing of skate case]]; so evidently this is a small egg laying species. Another egg apparently became free or was free from a case; it was one I noticed in the morning. Tho the shark had been lying around all day the eggs were oderless and in good preservation and were saved as U-48-85. It was almost a calm when I set the eel pots, and also when Abdullah (bahar) and I set the set line just before sunset. After supper from about 9 to 11 P.M., 4 of us went ashore with spears and lanterns to Za'al Id. Except where the fish trap is and the bottom is mud; at low tide the bottom is hard all the way around the island with small pieces of sand rock ("hasa"). Walking is difficult, and seining not advisable except at high tide. I speared a 6" toadfish and saw [[underline]] Sillago [[/underline]], gub gubs in abundance, and the smaller dark brown crabs. On the north side of the island there were a lot of large fish jumping around when they saw the light. They were silver and 10-12". I think they were mullet, because I saw one, but I am not sure. Hamed caught a 12 inch sole with a yellow lining around his dorsal & anal fins. It was quite chunky, and ex-
tremely slimy when alive. It just literally dripped slime in a way, I have never seen before. Also we caught several small porgies and gerrids which were blinded by the light and were easy to pick up. Hamed caught two baby terns which I also kept. The night was clear and rather humid with wet decks, and little wind. June 4th- Clear at dawn with light shamal winds. I could not see the set line buoys so we are waiting for ebb slack. About 9:40 A.M. the boys recovered the set line when the tide slacked. There were no fish, yet only shark skin was left, the meat was all eaten out from the skin [[image: drawing of bone slice; captioned: skin backbone cartilege]]. Most hooks were cleaned. It would seem that "Rajaseh" makes indifferent to poor bait. At 10 A.M. the Tarut arrived with 2 books for Jim from New York. It is very clear and hot with almost a flat calm. 32°c in the shade. 49°c in sun on wood museum box on deck. Water temp. 30° off Za'al at 11 A.M., and 29°c off the boat. About 1:30 P.M., we left Za'al and trolled 2 lines. There was a breeze from the east. I decided to return to Ras Tanura tonight, because Abdulla, captain, is supposed to return with paint etc. from Kanoo. This morning I saw at least 8 fishing boats fishing for pots ("gerurgir"), [[image: hand-drawn boat with passengers--one at bow with a long staff]] about 16 ft long and with 4 crew. One with a long staff with a snare, 2 rowing, and one usually overboard ready to dive to place the pots. They use sail to get to the grounds. Quite a few fish off the long bank west of Za'al Id. We continued out beyond east pier to buoy 7; Dhahran and Jebel Dhahran were visible in the distance. We saw one large school of [[underline]] "jibab" [[/underline]] about 3 mi. N.E. of east pier. They seemed to be 18 to 24 inches in length, and [[strikethrough]] gulls [[/strikethrough]] terns were diving on top, a couple of smaller schools were passed later. The sky was cloudless. I also saw several long fin [[hand-drawn image: of 2 black fins above water]] black porpoises. The Palestine barely inches along these days. Birds seem to be tamer here but it may be just the heat, because yesterday afternoon [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top margin of page:]] 6/7 films mailed 8 1/2 reals letter to wife June 5 \73 I rowed past 2 cormorants on the rocky west Pt. of Za'al Id. One finally flopped into the water and swam lazily off. The other just sat for a long time; I must have passed easily within 50 feet of them. Then also the crew are always catching terns and birds with their hands both day and night; may be it is just because it is Arabia. I lost one of my Arab sandals overboard returning from buoy #7, which is akin to stark tragedy; I had grown very attached to them. [[image of sandal]] We reached the fish pier about 7 P.M. with not even a strike on the old r & w jig and plastic feather. I went into Ras Tanura this evening to mail a letter to Lucile, get a change from the pier, eat, and see the movies which are a relaxation because of contrast over here. It was hot and a flat calm all night. Abdulla returned last night with a letter from Kanoo. June 5th - Up at 6:30 A.M.. In the shade it is 36˚c. It is boiling hot at 7 A.M. Nice cool of the morning. "Swede" arrived shortly after 7. Flat calm. About 8:00 a light wind came up but that soon died down. I spent an hour or so trying to get Gurley or Stewart on the phone, but no luck. Because the crew was starting to clean the boat, and were going to beach it tomorrow morning, I went to Dhahran to straighten up my room; so I could leave bag and baggage at a moment's notice. I mailed a letter for "Swede" and mailed 2 films air mail to Schultz in the States, 8 1/2 reals. I had a good ride to Dhahran with a good car and driver. When I reached Dhahran I could not find Stewart, and Ed I assumed had gone to Ras Tanura. I wrapped up my specimens which I collected the first month at Dhahran, and prepared them to take back with me to Ras Tanura. It was clear, hot, and cloudless today. I saw Ed about 7 P.M. and handed him Kanoo's letter re: the "Palestine", and I returned to Ras Tanura on the
8 P.M. bus. It was glass calm all night, and quite hot. June 6th- There was a light east wind shortly after dawn; then at 7:10 a sudden gust of dust ushered in the shamal, which soon leveled out to a steady breeze. Sky clear & cloudless. The crew ran the boat up on the south side of west pier, just as the tide started to lower. They did a good job cleaning the bottom of the boat during the low tide. "Swede" went out with the Tarut about 7:30 A.M. and returned at [[strikethrough]] noon [[/strikethrough]] 11 A.M. trolling. The shamal was quite rough and they didn't even get strikes. I took a can of fish into Ras Tanura storehouse where they are loading in rails at a great rate. My boxes will probably soon be covered up. #5 box & tank were brought + #[[strikethough]]6[[/strikethrough]]7 tank which was interchanged with other 8 gal. tank of fish. About 11:30 A.M. Gurley appeared and we looked over the progress of the fish plant which he now expects will be ready by June 15th. We all 3 ate lunch at Ras Tanura, and looked for Mr. Evan's in the p.m.; we finally found him, and found out about the removal of the Emir's party Arab food from the Tarut. I ordered 6 15"-35" galvanized drums for fish specimens. Steel drums rust too quickly. Ahmed lifted my eel pots yesterday, but there was nothing, but when I lifted them there were 2 Hamur [[insert above Hamur]] balūl [[/insert above]] (1-9 1/2") in an eel pot which got wrapped around the pipe line, a red [[underline]]Mullus[[/underline]] and a [[underline]] Plotous anguillaris[[/underline]] in another, mafi in the 3rd one. We went to "Had al Lowh" for the night with both boats. The shamal lightened slightly nearing sunset. The front glass well got shmashed today; so it was repaired by Arab carpenters with ply wood in a passable fashion. After supper, the 2 Abdullas & Yusif Swede and I went ashore and seined with the 100 ft seine. The 2 Abdullahs would bunch up the net and get out aways parallel to the net then they would walk quickly away from each other and straight inshore it worked well. They caught over a half keg or 15 lbs. of fish consisting of 2 [[written above]] species [[/written above]] gerrids (1 10" [[S.L. ?]]), [[end page]] [[start page]] \75 several S. siganus, red Mullus, common Mullus, Chelon, [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]], blunt nose porgies, porgies (silver), 1 sole, atherinids (large), [[underline]]] Sillago [[/underline]], scorpaenids small, spot herring; it was hard to say which was most abundant. Swede and I tried later but we didn't do so well covering the same ground. [[underline]] Chanos [[/underline]] (with sow[[?]] bag on head) & [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]] were also caught, & [[underline]] Lethrinus miniatus [[/underline]] & shrimp. June 7th- All night and early morning the shamal was very strong and gusty. I set the eel pots overboard last night, and got about 40 [[underline]]Terapon[[/underline]] in the one with a wire funnel, and one or two in the others. The only bait in the wire pot were live hermit crabs. There were also several small [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni[[/underline]], and one [[underline]] Parapercis [[/underline]] 3 fath. of water and much sand bottom. A 25 hook set line baited with fresh bait last night and set near the eel pots yeilded nothing and we lost one hook. Crabs and small fish probably ate the bait off. We got started about 7:45 A.M. bound back for west pier. Weather cloudless sky strong shamal, but less gusty than last night. At West Pier, I tried telephoning Gurley with no success, but managed to get an order in for water (its like pulling teeth only worse). "Swede" did extensive carpentry on the boat making shelves for Ahmed; also the lines and nets were set out to dry. The Fish pier is an ideal place now to dry nets. We spent most of the afternoon trying to get water, the same old story, delay and more delay; finally we got it about 5:30 P.M. The truck never did come to take off the party rations; they probably drove around west pier and never looked farther. We have rather incoherent orders to proceed to Al Khobar and wait. We will go tomorrow, if weather permits. The shamal toned down slightly in the afternoon. We proceeded about 1 1/4 miles north of west pier to a sandy spot. We saw a large turtle at least with a 3 foot shell off the fish pier again. By 7:20 P.M. the shamal had died down to a very light breeze. [[Arabic characters]] Um Rahima, sand hummock near road. After supper we went ashore again to seine with
wadjit terns here [[arrow pointing to word good]] the crew. Except for one good haul, the other four or five were poor. We got about 3/4 of a bucket of S. siganus, Lutjanus with the spot, porgies silver, fashar, Sillago, Chelon, Chanos, shrimp, blunt nose porgies, several flatfish, silversides, Terapon, goatfish (2 species), gerrids (1 species), scorpaenid (fargaleh), 2 of the rarer apogonids. Swede stepped on a small scorpaenid (1 1/2") and got a stinging pain in his toe and foot which finally spread to his groin, and bothered him for over a half hour. I watched one [[image: sketch of fish partially submerged in wet sand]] wiggle itself down into the wet sand with its front dorsal spines erect, and its pectorals spread to give itself steadiness. Abdullah caught the rascal, and they were all sure it was the fargaleh, and the crew handle them with respect. According to them they do not exceed 8 inches in length. We had a flat calm to seine in, and the spot tailed snappers were the most abundant fish. Swede said it felt something like a bee sting. When we got back to the boat we saw several shark sucker swimming around. Spearing failed, but Hamed and Yousef tossed over fish lines near the light, and bang bang 2 were landed on deck. One was a good 2 feet the other about 20 inches, U-48-89; they looked like typical [[underline]] Echeneis naucrates [[/underline]] with the black stripe on the side, but they did not have the white tipped tail of the Long Island species. The shamal came up during the night sometime, and was blowing hard from 2 A.M. on, and the boat was pitching back and forth. June 8 - Clear at sunrise with strong shamal winds. The set line was minus 3 hooks, and the 4th was straightened out; probably a large snake. The crabs were thicker than sin last night and we were about 100 yds. from shore. The snakes were also thick. The bait consisted of some anchovy. We got under way at 7:30 A.M. bound for west pier. At 8:25 A.M. we left west pier for Al Khobar at the Palestine. We reached Al Khobar at 12:45 P.M. The shamal increased considerably about noon, and Al [[end page]] [[start page]] \77 Khobar was a haze of dust, and hot winds. There is a long shallow bar with [[insertion]] short [[/insertion]] grass on it opposite Dammam. At the south end of it near a buoy I saw a genuine osprey. This afternoon, we went ashore and met Gurley who came down to see us, and we got Ahmed straightened out on pay & letters; and got in a food order. I stopped in to see Jim, and he said he might be over to Bahrain in a day or so. We left Khobar pier at 5:45 arriving at "Al Baini" at 6:50 going almost due east. There was quite a shamal at Dhahran & Al Khobar with the dust blowing over the road. By 5:00 p.m. the shamal had abated slightly. About 1/2 way to Al Baini we passed a solid band of [[fugulul ?]] jellyfish (the solid white large ones. They looked like a strip of solid ice chunks in the water. They were north and south as far as the eye could see and the band was about 30 ft. or 40 ft. thick and as deep as you could see. Elsewhere they were abundant. It was an interesting island to anchor by. [[Image titled "Al Bainy". Sketch of an island surrounded by water. N (North) is labeled to the right of the image, E (East) below the image, and S (South) to the left of the image. A boat is anchored close by to the East of the island. "Shags" are drawn and labeled on the southern portion of the island, a "fish trap" is drawn and labeled to the west, and a "marker" and "fisherman's hut" are drawn and labeled on the north side of the island. The island is also labeled with the word "sand."]] It was inhabited by terns and cormorants. I am glad that the crew brought us out here. The hills of Dhahran could be seen dimly under the setting sun, and the outlying isles of Bahrain could be seen to the east. The shamal continued all evening & night. Even so we set a set line & 3 eel pots, and seined on the isle. I also caught some pipefish & yg. Siganids with the light over side. Just a few Atherinids and small porgies & mullet were caught on the lee side of the isle. Cyprinodon dispar were present on the windward side. There was sand and considerable current all around. There were lots of large ghost crabs on the beach all around the isle. And the cormorants did not move much when I walked near them. June 9th - Swede and I were up at dawn this morning to lift [[end page]]
the pots & set line. Except for hermit crabs, it was a blank. Only a little bait was eaten off. There was dust on the horizon. Swede left with the "gulz" and gear on the "Tarut" about 7:20 bound for Al Khobar & Ras Tanura. The wind was nearly calm at dawn, but started to pick up by 7:30 A.M.; I also sent a letter off to Lucile via Swede. I shaved with Ahmed's razor and we set sail for Bahrain at 8:10 A.M. leaving Al Bainey [[Arabic]]. Swede said he saw a flying fish yesterday. Light shamal winds with haze all around, probably dust. Naaiyat shallow area off port bow with 2 fish traps 9:05 A.M. course S.E. At 9:15 A.M. we passed near Jidda a strange rock isle maybe 100ft high with a jail there. I took 2 pictures. It was about 1/4 mile long, and the oil pipe line goes by it. [[image- strange rock isle with directional indicators of S and N]] It is quite a contrast to the sand isle we had just come from. At 9:30 going due east we hit "Um Subon", a long low island with palm trees and one nice looking cement building. We went around "Um Subon" and the water was very clear about 2 faths in depth. Some sand rock on the shores. No good collecting places apparent, no coral visible. The north end has the house & date garden. At 9:45 A.M. the shamal winds picked up to a moderate breeze. The coast of Bahrain is about 1 mile east of "Um Subon." The stake fish traps appear smaller and a different shape than those in Saudi-Arabia. 10:05 continuing north along west coast of Bahrain. White jellyfish abundant in the water. A shallow sandy area Su ali is to our port with fish traps 10:10 El Ruhayat a [[image- rock channel marker]] rock channel marker? to our starboard; course N by E 10:15 A.M. shamal stiffening to small white caps. About 3 miles offshore and Bahrain is hazy. Air temp 35[[degree symbol]] C in shade with breeze blowing. It feels comfortable. 10:45 A.M. "Luthor" [[image- channel marker]] channel marker cement. 11:05 A.M. bearing due east along Bahrain coast numerous date gardens. "Thil et al ay" 11:15 high spot on shore with ruins? "Had al Leyi" shallow [[end page]] [[start page]] 79 area to port. We arrived at Manama pier at noon. There is no dust in the air here. Hamed took me to the Aramco building, and after long waiting Mr. Braddick appeared long enough so that I could give him my passport, and he got quarters for me at Babeo ut Owali. I do not think I will go there now, but may be later. I will stay on board tonight. The shamal continued moderate to sundown when it became very light. It was an interesting spectacle to see at least 200 or more booms and jalboots in the Manama harbor. And to hear the musical rhythmic chants of sailors rowing their long boats to and fro from their mother ships to shore. As Hamed and I walked down Manama pier we saw baskets of several hundred pounds of dried fish supposedly from Persia. [[image- split fish]] They were split right Amid ships with each side laid open. The meat was dull brown but without flies. Most common were gim (fool) [[underline]] Scarus dussomieri [[/underline]] 12-14". Next were shari [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]], then E. tauvina, and E. (black with white spots, then black labrids Choerodon ? 8"-10". Also were several type of thin jacks. Then I rested for awhile and later Hamed and I went to the fish market where dried and fresh fish were present. For the first time I saw [[underline]] Scomberomorus guttatus [[/underline]] with the dots on the side (though 2 species are recognized apparently the same name is used. All specimens were split and dried and some were said to have come from Jubail. Both species were present for comparison; gill rakers could not be counted. [[underline]] Siganus Javus [[strikethough]]punctatus[[/strikethough]][[/underline]] was 2 [[?]] very abundant, whereas [[underline]] S. siganus [[/underline]] were fewer. 1 bushel of dried anchovy were called "oom", several dried mullet, and a large 3 ft. dried chanad. There were some small porgies and snappers, and dried gerrids, but otherwise nothing of special notice. Some of the oars are fancy here round pieces of metal on a pole painted white with blue borders. The largest [[image- fancy oar]] crews consisted of 8 men rowing in unison. I wish I had taken a picture of one in particular. Children and men run
around chewing bits of dried fish, as though it were candy. And they apparently enjoy it. Mr. [[Kanoo?]], Jr. whom I met with Gurley in April came out on the pier to say hello; and later in the afternoon Mr. [[Kanoo?]], Sr. came with his sons on board to say hello and pay a visit; we had a pleasant conversation, and he invited me to stop by in the morning. I also may be able to borrow a "gulz"for a trip to Fasht al Jarim. I am also contemplating a bicycle trip around the Id. I bought a pair of sandals ("na'al") for 7 ruppees, and #10 sneakers for Swede 8 ruppees. [[boat - image]] This illustration gives an idea of the boom with the larger foremast, odd phallic bow sprit, high sides and straight sharp angled hull. They are about 60 to 80 feet in length. I went to bed early tonight because I couldn't keep awake writing a letter. June 10th - I was lazy this morning and lay in bed till 6:30 a.m. By that time the carpenter had been working at least a half hour. Saws were going and hammers ringing on the other boats near by. But I really had one of my most comfortable night's sleep on this old waterfront, because there was a fair breeze off the water most of the night. Altho I have an audience for meals they chat quietly and come and go. It was 31˚ C at 7:30 A.M. on the "Palestine" at the waterfront. I went to visit Mr. [[Kanoo?]] and the Emir's uncle also came in, and we talked a bit about fish. Mr. [[Kanoo?]] had a contractor (for fish) come but it was too late for many fish. However, there was the same dried fish, and a few fresh small porgies with the usual cloud of flies. This afternoon at 3 p.m. I went again to the market, and there was a fresh 16" Lutjanus with rich red fins and pinkish silver body (it was not of course well enough preserved for a specimen, and ran about 3 lbs.) There were a number of [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] possibly 3 lbs. in wgt. All the Lethrinus miniatus were very small 4-5". A bushel [[end page]] [[start page]] 81 [[underline]] S. siganus [[/underline]] was present in place of the [[underline]] S. punctatus [[/underline]] of yesterday. Small faskar, and other porgies were present. Some of the dried fish if not all of them were the same ones as yesterday. The fresh fish apparently sell faster. I walked along the water front and saw ships carpenters' laying new keels from rough hewn tree trunks. In fact one man was sawing lengthwise thru a log to make a prow. A good deal of ulva is in the shallows along the water front with [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] numerous in it. I saw 2 natives with ulva in baskets. I also saw men and boys carrying sea rock on their heads to the street from the boats. I went to see Mr. [[Kanoo?]] at 3:30 but he was not yet in; so I went to Aramco house to call Mr. Chubb, 165J, Owali. He was not in, but I found out that Jim had come over today, and was at the B.O.A.C. house; so I stopped in to see him and we talked until near sun down, and then I went back to the boat to eat, and brought some last minute things, such as wood shoes and paragoric, back to Jim. As I was surprised to see English sparrows at [[Darin?]], Tarut Id., I was also surprised to see them at Bahrain & Dhahran. The weather was humid hot and calm today. I wrote a letter to Lucile this evening. June 11th - The carpenter arrived at 6:00 A.M. today. There was a light breeze from N.W. but the decks were wet whereas they were dry the night before. It is now 6:30 a.m. and the sun is very hot already. Between 6:30 & 7:00 I was a few small reddish cumulus clouds on the west horizon. A moderate shamal came up starting about 7:30 A.M. from 8:00-9:00 A.M. I rented a bicycle and went across the bridge to Maharak because Abdullah said a fisherman was coming for me when the tide was out so I came back early. I visited the [[Manamra??]] market and there was nothing but small Lethrinus barracuda etc. about a bushel in all at 7:45. There is a channel [[end page]]
under the bridge near the toll gate at Maharak. The sbaiti 4 to 6 lbs or more each were very abundant here bucking the outgoing tide A boy was fishing with a 4° hook and thin wire leader and light line. He had some small barracuda and leatherjacks for bait. He would churn the sbaiti with pieces of fish and then throw in the hook. He had one in a basket, and I saw him hook and land another. Most of the time, however, the sbaiti were very shy of the bait on the hook. I also saw [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] in great abundance in the shallows along the bridge. I also observed small atherinids on the other side. The bottom along the bridge was hard to make out some weed, sand & scattered rocks. I saw also a large school of large atherinids between our boat and the Manama pier. Maharak is due east of Manama. Hasane Bumoys, a fisherman friend of Abdullah, captain, arrived about 10:30 A.M. in his 16 foot boat to take me out when the tide was right. We went over some of the fishes in Blegvad, and he gave me the names of some. We left about 11:30 A.M. in his long boat, and he speared a 14 lbs. sting ray, u-48-93, and took me all over the bay between Manama and Maharak. It was just about a flat calm with a boiling sun. At 7:30 A.M. it was 38°c. The bottom was mostly sand & "hashish" (ulva) also some bare spots, some rather large coral rock formations which were roundish with a few small brain corals. Then there was some grass and much sand area near shore. The rock areas were called 'fasht." There was also that much sand bottom with s[[insertion]] h [[/insertin]]ort weed and those large sea anemones, "muyorish"?. His pots were flat on the bottom and round with sort of a flattened [[image]] round shape above two funnels, and an opening door. They were about 2 feet high by 3' in diameter. Most of them were in a fathom of water. We looked at 5: #1 1 grouper 1 [[underline]] Plectorynchus [[/underline]], 1 toadfish; all that was in the trap. The traps are [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top right corner]] 83 [[/top right corner]] baited with ulva and mud beat up into a mash with a flat stone. Before we speared our stingray we saw another one swimming away from the boat. #2 trap had [[querqufan?]], buttone, bakil, and S. singanus about 5 lbs. of fish in all. #3 no fish. #4, 3 Scolopsis not lifted, #5 near the "fasht" had one [[underline] Chilonodon [[/underline]]. Around the "fasht" we saw Plesiops and black pomacentrids, and one hayaseh. Then we started to see several freshly dead fish on the bottom mostly 4" inch [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]], one or two [[underline]] Sargus noct [[/underline]], and a couple of querqufan. A certain dark brown algae growing on the rocks is known as "gusordi"? This poison comes in a dried berry form and is mixed with "ovm" into a mash, and fed to the fish. It comes from "Calacut" and is know as "sīm." Abdullah brought me about 4 lbs. of it for 3 rupees the next day, and I saved some for specimens to try and determine the species of plant used. Apparently it is very effective. It continued calm all day and evening. Hasane did quite a bit of diving to get the traps, and also pick cup dead fish. Also he got a sea urchin "slity" for me, the short spined form. I saw some tiny flying fish on the surface in 6 feet of water about 1 mile offshore from the channel under the bridge near the Maharak toll gate. I saw a couple and finally caught two 15 - 20 mm in length. We returned pretty well sun baked about 3 P.M. About 4:30, Mr. Kahlil Kanos came in his Lincoln to take me to one of his date gardens to show me around besides dates he has grapes, papayas, mangoes (starting), tamarinds, mulberries, citrons, oranges, pomegranates; vegetables such as melons, onions, mint, cucumbers, etc. They are irrigated by Artesian wells. He also took me to a little stone house by the sea from the roof of which we could see the sand beach, the calm bay, and the palm [[?]] fish traps. We saw 7 fishermen come in with one boat and fish traps and they had a scarce 1/2 bushel
Muharraq of [[underlined]] S. Siganus [[/underlined]] and some [[underlined]] L. nebulosus [[/underlined]], not much of a catch. The "sawfee" Siganus is considered very good eating. The fish traps here [[image - dotted line drawing of fish trap, pointing away from designated shore]] [[image label]] shore [[/image label]] have a leader, hearts, and trap rather than the V shaped traps over in Tarut Bay. I believe this type in Bahrain is more efficient in that it probably catches more fish which are moving parallel to the shore. [[underlined]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underlined]] were very abundant along the sand beach, and also in the drainage ditches and wells of the date garden. In an artesian well with cement around it there was considerable growth of dark filamentous blue green algae. The water was quite cool. I saw several frogs in all. Flies are more abundant here in Bahrain that at Saudi right now. This late afternoon & evening was pleasant. Also the beach here was covered with cuttle bones. This garden was about 1/2 way between Manama & Owali. I fished a little over the side tonight, and caught only small atherinids, and speared a cuttlefish with a pole the tide was quite high. Almonds were also present in the date garden but not yet ripe, also there was a type of bean trees where only the pulp around the seed is eaten the seed is black, the pulp white and the bean green. It recalls to mind a similar tree bean in Puerto Rico. June 12 - a hazy sky at dawn and the deck was not wet from due at 6:00 A.M., about 7 A.M. a moderate shamal sprang up and blew making it comfortable on the boat at 37°C at 9 A.M. in the shade. After writing notes, I decided to take a trip out to Owali to meet Mr. Russell Brown to whom my letter was addressed. I met both Mr. Brown and Mr. Crow, manager and ass. manager; and then Mr. Henry Chub was called in, whom I wanted especially to meet. Henry then took me to his office in the sanitation dept. and we swapped notes [[end page]] [[start page]] (85 until nearly lunch time. The food served at Babco seems very good. The dining room is cleaner, the waiters better, and everything else compared even with Ras Tanura. Henry picked me up again at 1:15 P.M. and we went into Manama to the boat where I picked up some things. We stopped by at 3:30 at the fish market and saw 4 lb. [[underlined]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underlined]], another chekka, and fresh rabib, and at last I lay my eyes on the famous [[underlined]] gufdar [[/underlined]] which turned out to be a large caranx with a [[underlined]] Seriola [[/underlined]] like mouth and prominent black dots on the sides. [[image: a fish with spots on its side]] [[note for image]] approx. from memory (see p. 95) [[/note]] The specimens were about 6 or 8 in number, and all around 30" s.l. and were fairly fresh looking. Then we went on towards Owali, and stopped at a salt marsh just between the date gardens and the desert by a bridge. The marsh extended towards the Gulf on either side east and west. The temperature of the air was about 39°c, and the warmest mud pools a scarce 40°c. There were clumps of tiny mangrove with small yellow flowers, and very small sprouts sticking out of the mud. [[image: oblong leaf]] The leaves were rounded shiny and rather small with smooth surface. The desert between Owali and Manama has many hummocks with small patches of weeds in places and one large hill and several smaller ones. It gives the appearance of great expanse with none of the movable sand dunes. I received very nice Hospitality at the Chubb household from Mr. & Mrs. and we went to the movies in the evening. June 13 - Clear with continued moderate shamal winds, but clearer sky. This morning, I went into town in Chubbs truck, and got my passport, and visited the fish market again. There was the same old stuff plus one 2 foot catfish (Arius), and a bushel of small 3 inch. goatfish with the yellow stripe down the side known as "baussay." Small 3 inch barracuda were "Halix." One fellow had some
woe begone pieces or fillets of salt mackerel, which by the [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] wavy stripes looked most like [[underlined]] Euthynnus alleteratus [[/underlined]] the stuff was called "malhay." Also a weird looking dried porgy was called "burtam." It was stout with big scales and prominent teeth, a black grouper was also called burtam, I guess they just don't tell the dried fish apart. The time was about 10:30 A.M. We got ready to go about 1:30 P.M.; Chubb arrived at 12:30, and took a little more lunch with me. We left at 2:30 p.m. the gulz we left behind because it sank and had no oars. There was a moderate shamal with white caps, and we headed about MNW till 3:55 P.M. we passed abean [[image: rocky island with three bird-like figures standing atop it]] "Benega Jedūn" a small rocky islet may be 20 feet high and 120 ft. long with cormorants on top then we changed to due north till 4:30 P.M. then N.E. by E shoal areas with sea weed bottom. At 5:45 we arrived at Fasht al Jarim which is no island but a large shallow area with sand bottom and patches of small mostly dead coral. About 4-6 feet of water at low tide. Henry S. Chubb and I went over board to look around with glass masks. Henry saw a small hagaseh under a coral head which looked like an eel. Abdullah dove down and caught it by hand, U-48-97. We also saw [[underlined]] Pomacentrus [[/underlined]] (black), [[underlined]] Plesiops nigricans [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Scolopsis personatus [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Scolopsis [[/underlined]] with the [[insertion above]] [[underlined]] ghanam [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] stripes, [[underlined]] Lutjanus [[/underlined]] with the spot, [[underlined]] Periophthalmus [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Sargus noct [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Sparus bifasciatus [[/underlined]], green wrasse, and [[underlined]] Pomacanthus [[insertion]] maculosus [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]]. The species were few and the fish small and not too plentiful. There were two other fishing boats there, but they had no fish. In spite of a continuous moderate shamal all night we were in fairly calm water because the Fasht to windward of us was shallow, and probably broke the sea. In the evening, I caught some larval fish, most of the bait was herring. I saw 2 snakes, and one shark sucker, and a bill fish. There were also a couple of snake armed [[image: starfish]] smooth starfish which were tan colored. [[end page]] [[start page]] (87 June 14 - Clear at dawn with increasing strong shamal winds. We got under way at 6 A.M. and reached Manama about 8:30 A.M. A couple of porpoises followed us along the way. The boat rolled quite a bit, and I imagine Henry was glad when we reached port. The stench from the dhows was so great on the west side of the Manama pier, that we moved around to the east side and anchored just a little way off the pier. Then a barge came in and we moved out when I lay exhausted below; then without Abdullah captain I made the mistake of letting Yusif & Hamed take us back into the pier. After smacking against the side of one dhow, getting tangled in the line (anchor) of another dhow and scraping our side against a steel barge; they finally decided to move to Muharraq where in time we picked up both Abdullahs. I gave my watch a half hour bath in salt water yesterday, then fresh water, alcohol, kerosene, and Abdullah got it fixed for 3 1/2 rupees. I left word with the Aramco office that we were still held up in Bahrain. I went for a bicycle ride and broke a chain, then I got another bicycle and went to Muharraq [[image: mesh dome shaped trap labeled "darbuoy"]] which is flat with a town some date palms and shallow water inlets from the sea. Both on Manama pier and in Muharraq I saw some large wire traps with single funnel and mound shaped. They were about 3 1/2 feet high and possibly 3 ft. in diameter on the bottom. May be they were gūfdar traps. When I got back from the bicycle trip, I drank about a gallon of water in a short time. The shamal blew very strong all day, and into the night. We spent the night rolling with the dhows on the dusty and stinky west side of Manama pier. The Palestine is now taking more water than before, this is just a little good news. The shamal at night blew all the dust off the dock on to our boat including splinters of wood. Sleep was hardly profitable the first half of the night. I tried the table down below, and then right on deck. [[end page]]
June 15 - Continued strong shamal, the moon was clouded with dust early this morning, and visibility is about 1/4 mile at most. The flies are a damn nuisance at this pier. The shade temperature is 35°c. The crew found the leak in the boat up in the bow but say they can fix it in Ras Tanura. Now we are waiting for the weather. This morning, I wrapped a collection of fishes, and with both Abdullahs' help some leaders to small hooks were made. Temperature on top of a kerosene barrel on deck in sun is 49°c. at 11:30 A.M. Water temp. near end of Manama pier 29°c at near high tide. I tried some salt cuttlefish on the small hooks and it looked just like fresh stuff after it had soaked a little water, but there was a lot of ulva getting on the hooks, and I got no bites tho I lost some bait. I went into town around 3:30, but there were only dried fish, a couple of squashed crabs, and fins from a large jackfish. The flies had moved over to feast on a freshly killed goat. The town all over seemed to stink worse than ever today, but may be it is always that way, and only that my spirits are a little lower now. Watching the long boat crews go by all day is a site. One long boat had two black Tom tom beaters and a hornblower as well as the humming and chanting. Usually there is one chanter he may be rowing in the middle or sitting astern while the others hum a chorus in unison and time to the oars. The Kuwaiti replace the hum with a curious growl as mentioned in the "Sons of Sinbad". The shamal lessened in the afternoon, almost calm by 5 P.M.; I would like to have moved away from the pier, may be to a fishing spot. Of course, there was not any enthusiasm from the crew on this point. About 7:45 P.M. at dusk a breeze picked up from the west but it was light. After dark I tried night light fishing over the side not expecting much, but it turned out to be the best yet: small flying fish, pipefish, [[end page]] [[start page]] 89) young jacks, blowfish, and the crowning achievement 3 sea horses about 1 A.M. I had secretly yearned for sea horses "wuzz" in Arabic meaning turkey. June 16 - Hard shamal from 1 A.M. on visibility less than 1/4 mile at 8 A.M. at which time we set sail. Course N.W. by W. 8:10 A.M. outmost dhows only visible; Bahrain out of sight. The boat is the dirtiest with dust, I have seen yet. 10:25 KHor Fasht buoy 1/4 mi. off port beam [[image of buoy]] 1 jalboot on our starboard going S.E.; our course N.W. just a hair west of the shamal wind. Horizon still dusty but slightly clearer. Another jalboot off starboard bow at 10:30 1/4 mile same course as first jalboot. White caps, gusty wind, waves possibly 2 feet; no detectable swells. We saw a black cormorant about 10 A.M. bringing to mind that most of them are brownish with grey white throats around here. There may be two species or difference in color of the sexes. By 10:50 increasing shamal winds brought about constant squalls and the waves and small swells may possibly some of them been 4 feet. Some spray came on deck, and the Palestine labored heavily making little headway against the teeth of the wind. 11:40 A.M. course changed to S.W. to follow the trough of the sea and make for land. 12:10 P.M. tug sighted 1/4 mi. south at Chas chus anchorage. 12:15 P.M. broad 100 ft. band of numerous jellyfish (large white ones again). 12:40 P.M. Chaschus shoal reached and course changed to N.W. The seas were considerably smaller here, and possibly the wind less. At 1:30 P.M. we heaved anchor to pump the bilge and to refuel. It is nice there are so many shallow places. At 2:30 P.M. the sky was clearer visibility at least a mile, no shore in sight. We are probably in the lower reaches of Tarut Bay. The water is greyish green here like the water at Saihat & Qatif. We weigh anchor at 2:30 P.M. and are off again for Ras Tanura. 4:15 P.M. after sailing all points of the compass we passed Chas chus sand bar which has a tide pond in the center
June 17 - letter to Schultz & Lucile of it. But without the rowboat, I decided that it was hardly the place to stay. After changing course from N.W. to S.W. once again we passed Naywa buoy or marker 2 miles on our starboard beam at 6 P.M. Visibility better, breeze moderate shamal, course N.W. again. Very light breeze when we arrived at the fish. pier at 8 P.M. The decks are already very damp, and we are in for a calm night. Mohammet brought a weeks collection of fish on board. Ed and Mr. Feltman say the plant is already to open tomorrow, in fact it has been ready the two days of the blow. It will be interesting to see what transpires tomorrow. Ed has gotten us a good room 22B in Ras Tanura which is certainly more accessible. Both Ed and I slept thru the alarm at 3:00 A.M. Mr. Feltman woke us up at 5 A.M. June 17 - Ed went on out ahead and Swede and I came on out around 6 A.M. No fish boats have appeared yet. I saw some fish under some weed and grabbed them. The rest of the morning, I wrapped fish and wrote up notes. No boats came in this morning. It was calm and clear most of the morning. I also read good letters from home. I finished and mailed a letter to Dr. Schultz & Lucile. And rested the rest of the afternoon with a mild case of the runs. Swede and I will be fishing tonight. It was after 7 P.M. by the time we got 2 company nets straigtened out and on board. Then we went up to "Had al Lowh" to fish for the night. We caught 1 ^[[insertion]]each [[/insertion]] of two species of Scolopsis in the first haul of an old bag seine. The crew dragged that bag seine over some rough bottom and tore it all up; it would have lasted longer if we had stuck to sand bottom. Finally the crew of the Tarut and Yusif caught about a half bucket of fish. Gerrids, sillago, Lutjanus, flounder, Platycephalus, mullet, atherinids, 1 [[brattone?]], goatfish (2 species), herring, etc. The weather was fair with light S.E. winds. We tried a 300 ft. big mesh seine but with only one oar lock we could not operate it very well. [[end page]] [[start page]] (91 "thubub"= fog June 18 - Cool at dawn or rather 7 A.M. 31°c. There were actual clouds on the western horizon. Light breeze W by N with a sudden light fog at 7:15 A.M. The crabs were kind enough to take the bait off our seven shark line hooks. At 8:10 A.M. we left for fish pier to dry the nets. I caught quite a number of small [[underlined]] A. marginatus[[/underlined]] with the dip net under the end of the fish pier. Then I tried some rotenone along the rocks at the shore end of the pier. The tied was coming in rather strong, though it was low. Even so I got a number of interesting larval fish. The most beautiful fish was a small dark blue and vermilion orange pseudochromid [[Image: drawing of fish with blue and orange coloring]] 45 m.m. t.l. Another was also seen in the rocks but was not recovered. A colored pomacentrid 37 m.m. was also recovered; it was blue black above and dull yellow below with black spot on the dorsal, anterior peduncle top, and pectoral top [[image: drawing of fish with blue and light yellow coloring, black spot is present on the dorsal fin]] base as indicated in the drawing. I strongly suspect this would become all black as it grew older. Smaller ones than this are a brighter blue above and lighter yellow below. A shamal sprang up between 12 & 12:30; before that it was almost calm. One tiny grouper was almost a silouette [[image: drawing of fish with black coloring and white spots; labeled "U.S.N.M. 148012"]] with white spots, the distribution of which are reprinted here. I think this is the young of the black grouper or "sbaiti." At any rate it is interesting to find these young groupers also E. tauvina around 25 m.m. at this time. Several days ago Swede saw a 7 foot either hammerhead or bonnet shark north of the fish pier, and he thinks that is what eats our lines and straightens our hooks. The shamal increased to strong about 4 P.M. with white caps in the bay. It is interesting to me how fast the fishes have collected around the new fish pier. Barnacles have already grown solid on the steel dock pilings. Besides snappers, gerrids, small fishes, I also saw an 8 inch [[underlined]]Plectorhynchus[[/underlined]]
[[underline]] pictus [[/underline]] in the rocks at the base of the pier. [[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] and Pomacentrids have also flocked around, and even angel fish. ^[[June 19]] The shamal was blowing still at 7 P.M. tho somewhat lighter. Swede did not appear so I went to the movies, and it was flat calm when I returned to the boat. The wind came up and flattened out about 3 times during the night. At dawn it was blowing strong WNW and gradually shifted more to N.W. as the morning went on. I netted some blennies from weed floating by at 6 A.M., and kept several in a gallon jar of salt water, but they had all died by 10:30 A.M. I lifted the eel pots this morning and got the usual species but a fair variety a toadfish, Lethrinus, both Apogons, a filefish, [[underline]] Pelates [[/underline]], wrasse, Plesiops, and [[underline]] Parapercis [[/underline]]. I spent a good part of the morning finding Mr. Evans to give him the order for our food and supplies. I finally found him in his office and passed over the order. I went into town for lunch today, and after lunch I roved the sand beach on the Gulf. It seemed to be pure sand with sea weed in the waves being brought up by the shamal, and numerous small shells in two main rows half way up the beach, and some at the waters edge. Pearl oysters, several species of clams, a small black oyster, one or two limpets, one very small mussel, snails, worms shells, scallops, and rough red claims [[image red clam]] were among the shells found and kept. I also got a letter today from Mother, with an excellent picture of her and Lucile and also Larry and Marian. This afternoon was used up waiting for supplies and everything happened in as exasperating manner as possible. Still no mechanic came for the light motor and the water did not come till 6 P.M. Such a day just wears one out and there is little to show for it. The wind had lightened by sunset. I left the pier in the Palestine about sunset bound 1 1/4 north. Swede was talking to some folks, and would have followed in the Tarut, but her batteries were dead. Not knowing the trouble and [[end page]] [[start page]] (93 our light plant being dead and no [[guly?]], we returned at 10 P.M. to find a fisherman claiming he had 1,000 lbs. of fish held at the customs pier. I was about ready to blow my top since I love the "shirtas" like I do a bad case of small pox. It turned out, however, their boat had come to pass customs, and the motor did not start again. So we towed it to the fish pier with the Palestine and I had them unload the fish on the pier. Then I went to get Gurley who was just getting up. The only thanks for my pains was to get a bawling out for unloading the fish on the pier which meant the Co. had to buy them. But life is like that here. There was 13 75 lbs. of fish which filleted down to 425 lbs. They were caught with shrimp as bait & crab for chum off Najwa in 2 hours around sundown with 15 men fishing. "Kufdar" or "Gufdar" were the most abundant, then parrotfish, several groupers, 2 [[underline]] Rachycentron [[underline]], 1 shari, and 1 Plectorhynchus pictus (possibly 15"). The largest gufdar was about 10 lbs. and 3" in length. About 23 fish averaged 100 lbs. The smaller gufdar have thin black bands [[strikethrough]] stripes [[/strikethrough]] at 12 - 15" which disappear as they grow larger. The black spots varied from few to several on the sides. The head was like Seriola, but there were a few armed scutes on the caudal peduncle. The parrotfish were nearly rotten (20 - 24"), and the other fish were in fair state of preservation. I would rather have fresher specimens to preserve so I did not keep any. There was also one large 3 ft. pompano. The parrotfish varied from light green with light blue under chin to pinkish on the sides. I believe the shorter bodied pink specimens were ♀s, and the longer greenish ones were ♂s. The gufdar were full of shrimp and some ♂ testes I saw were only near mature. When I hit the sack about midnight I was just about dead. The moon is getting near full again. June 20th - It was calm last night, but there was a moderate
shamal this morning. Crowds came aboard, and there was general confusion + a mechanic looking over 2 broken down engines. Then the Tarut started its engine and charged its batteries, and there was general noise, while we had lunch. I pulled the eel pots and had a few small filefish, etc. Abdulla pulled his [[gergum?]] and had 3 [[underline]] Abudefduf marginatus [[/underline]], for which I have been waiting so long. There were also [[amphus?]]. This afternoon, I went around the pier with the face mask, and saw nothing new, but I did see another dull yellow and blue pomacentrid. A few pounds of fish came in this afternoon, and the boys in our crew retrieved the [[heads hammer??]], shari, and [[mthoa??]] which has a grey head and fine small hair like teeth, small mouth and red throat, and is probably a large [[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] though there is no yellow around the eye. This will bear further study. Concerning the gūfdar, the smaller specimens a foot or so in length with thin stripes are known as rabib. I also think the term rabib applies to other species of thin broad smallish carangids, but I may be wrong. I wrote the following to Mr. Ohliger - Dear Mr. Ohliger: I am writing at this time to request passage back to New York on or about Sept. 1, 1948. As you may know, my passport is good till Sept 16, which will be approximately six months from the time I left the States to come to Saudi-Arabia. My wedding anniversary is Sept. 13th, which constitutes the reason for this request. My first three months in Arabia have been barely satisfactory, and I shall hope that the two months remaining shall be more productive. I would also like to arrange a short collecting trip to Jiddah in order to compare conditions of fishing and fishes with here and the Red Sea. The National Museum is almost entirely lacking of fish specimens from both areas. I would suggest a week or [[end page]] [[start page]] 95 two weeks in Jiddah just before I return to the States, as possibly being the wisest use of my limited time. Sincerely yours, Donald S. Erdman I mailed a letter to Lucile and the above to Mr. Ohliger, and then went to the shanty to lie down it was 5:00 P.M. I woke up with the alarm at 11 P.M., and Ed and I went to breakfast and Mr. Scott joined us and we went down to the pier. The fish semed a little older than last night, and they had waited 3 hours. About half the catch was bad. Gufdar was the main part of the catch, one Hamūr, several shari, several parrotfish, and 2 new yeeb (a new smooth jack), which they say will be more common later on. I saved 2 14" specimens; one rabib sized Kufdar and on yeeb, U-48-106-7. About 1:30 A.M. I drew this sketch of about a 28" Gufdar. This will give an idea of [[image - fish with spots]] the approx. shape and the distribution of blotches. The head is distinctly like [[underline]] seriola [[/underline]] whereas the scutes on the tail indicate the genus [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]]. The counts on a 28" to tail fork specimen are as follows: 17 hard scutes, D1 6, D2 18, A-16, P-19, lower gill rakers 21, eye 7 1/2, head 3 1/2, S.L. 28" and a rabib sized specimen with black [[strikethrough]] stripes [[/strikethrough]] bands, 19 scutes A-16, D VI-19, gr. 22, eye 7, 14" S.L. The count for the silvery yeeb or jeeb are D2 25, A 23, 14 hard scutes, P 18, gill rakers 19, eye 4 1/2, head 3 1/2, depth 3 1/5, S.L. 14." June 21 - Tho calm again last night and early this morning. There was a moderate shamal wind blowing at sunrise and after sunrise. A load of several 100 lbs. of 6 inch shrimp came into the fish pier at 8 P.M. They did not look bad tho I would be in no rush to eat several platefuls. I had copious notes to tend to this morning.
I saw a six inch diameter solid white jellyfish with 2 small jacks swimming around it. Also recovered were several [[image - jellyfish]] [[insertion]] pelagic tunicate genus [[underline]] salpa [[/underline]] [[/insertion]]]] ctenophore shaped jellyfish about 2" which are transparent with a reddish ball at one end. They swim by contracting and expanding the body they swim. They are particularly abundant now around the pier, but I have noticed them all along and have collected them before. Abdullah captain decided to beach the boat today to fix a small leak which is still present near the port bow. What with the light motor in the machine shop and a lost oarlock, and indefinite delay; it probably is a good idea to beach the boat at this time. Early this morning the incoming tide crashed the Tarut against the south side of the fish pier which broke off some of the fish pier, which probably can be easily tacked together again! Abdullah Sol, seaman, brought me some dark almost black Platax from Bahrain, also [[underline]] Nemipterus [[/underline]] and Terapon, U-48-108. Since Blegvad does not record or figure [[underline]] Platax [[/underline]], I am hazy about the genus but know that these fish belong to the genus Ephippidae. At any rate it is interesting to know that they do occur around Bahrain. [[Image - fish]] The over all color of both specimens was dark greyish black with black fins. Here I [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] will attempt merely to reproduce roughly the outline of this species. I touched up an article for "Sun and Flare" on local fish color which may answer. During the day we ran the boat "Palestine" up on the beach to plug a couple of small holes over on the south side of West Pier. I wrote notes and wrapped fishes all morning. This afternoon some large groupers, "hamoor", shari, [[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] and several sbaiti groupers (I got one to pickle U-48-111.) About 5:30 P.M. Ed brought a 4" chanad down the pier which he had saved from the shrimp catch. The shrimp catch came from Tarut Id. and Tarut Bay. This chanad had [[end page]] [[start page]] [[top right corner]] 97 [[/top right corner]] an all black dorsal #1 ,and had the beginning of irregular grey bands on the sides, and large teeth. The gill rakers were still rudimentary and therefor not countable. It is likely that this is a this year's fish possibly hatched sometime in April? At this point, I will mention that I saw adult and young [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]] (the target variety) over near the sand beach on the south side of West Pier ,in the afternoon on an incoming tide. Troubles occurred with the Tarut crew ,but Swede and I finally got up to Had al Ruml with both boats to fish for the night. The light "Kohler" motor is still in the shop so no night light fishing. We set a shark line and had no luck again. The seining was very poor with the outgoing tide tho ,I got a good collection of small stuff. Gubs gubs were very numerous. With the big mesh company seine we made one set from shore and got one crab ,and another set and we got a large piece of branch coral which nearly tore the net, and a black long spined sea urchin. The night was calm with a near full moon and flood tide around 6 P.M. The moon was rather orange near the horizon because of the dust. June 22- A moderate shamal sprang up about 2 A.M. and at sunrise it was still moderate from 7:30 A.M. to 9:30 it blew real hard with white caps on the bay. Then it flattened out to nearly a calm. The eel pots were productive today with two small [[image: fish with yellow tail]] yellow tailed pomacentrids ,and a olive green and yellowish ophichthyd eel with the tubular nostrils and prominent dorsal & anal fins but no caudal. The eel also had a propensity to go backwards. It was about 2 feet long. The day was wasted in port ,altho we did get our light motor back again after it had been fixed. I used shrimp to bait the eel pots and I got quite a collection of querqufans and 1 Nemipterus this evening. This evening I took [[end page]]
[[underline]] Cobia [[/underline]] 38 lbs. a few notes on the 580 lbs. catch of Kufdar, etc. that came in about 9 A.M. 2 [[underline]] Rachycentron [[/underline]] weighed 35 lbs together one was about 3 feet the other around 30 inches. The 3 ft. one had a whole good sized mole lobster in its stomach, and the counts were as follows, P-19, D VIII-34, A I-24, Lower G.R.-8. It was a ♀ and had large flattish oval near ripe ovaries. The kufdars large ♂ & ♀s had near ripe gonads and their stomachs were full of crab pieces which were probably chum. One 30" [[underline]] Chorinemus [[/underline]] was a ♀ with near ripe roe and D VI-20, A 2-18, P17. There were also a couple of 14" yeeb. June 23 - Calm last night with light west breeze before & after dawn. Swede speared an 8 lb. 24" sbaiti, U-48-114, at flood tide, a picture was taken. He speared it near shore on the north side of the fish pier. This is a nice typical specimen and I am glad I did not feel obliged to give it to the crew; at 9:30 the fishing launch came in with shrimp and they had a [[underline]] 38 lb. [[/underline]] Cobia [[underline]] Rachycentron [[/underline]] 41" S. L. and 50" T.L. I took 2 photos. I also hauled the eel pots, but there was nothing startling in them. Counts were taken on on blunt nose "[[gergufon?]]" as follows D XII-13, A III-11, P-14, line of scales above lateral line 52, g.r. lower arch 9, head 3.3, eye 3. the following sketch [[image: fish with blue and yellow/tan coloring, and large eye, titled "[[underline]] Sparus haffara [[/underline]]" ]] was made from a fresh 3" S.L. specimen. The teeth are just like the true [[image: 2 drawings of jaws, showing rows of teeth. Left drawing is titled "lower jaw"; right drawing is titled "upper jaw."]] [[underline]] Sparus [[/underline]] and this may belong to the genus rather than [[underline]] Gnathodentex [[/underline]]. It is blue silver above and silver below with 4 to five faint tan horizontal lines amidships. The eye is included about .7 in the snout. This is a very abundant fish caught on hook and line and in fish pots at Ras Tanura. The sky was quite hazy this morning, possibly indicating a coming shamal. [[end page]] [[start page]] \99 letters- to folks, Lucile, Edith Goode, & J. Mahoney (article). It blew hard starting about 10 A.M. but it flattened out later in the afternoon still in the northwest. I went into town to write and mail letters. I came out after early supper with Swede to leave about 6 P.M. for [[strikethrough]] Nejma beach [[/strikethrough]] Ras Tanura refinery area beach. We caught one 1 ft. long [[underline]] Lagocephalus [[/underline]]. Swede speared it under the light over the side in about 1 fathom of water on hard sand bottom. There were cuttlefish also on the bottom. The bottom was hard enough [[image: drawing of silver colored fish with black tail and fins]] to bend up the ends of the spear. Abdullah, Saif, and I went ashore to seine a bit we took 2 minnow seines the 20 ft. & 100 ft. We only used the small seine because the tide was falling fast and was low and the fish were few. There was a flat calm and low ground swell. We caught on 4" [[underline]] Sargus noct [[/underline]], and small [[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]], [[underline]] Terapon [[/underline]], gerrids, [[underline]] Sillago [[/underline]] and atherinids, but no threadfins which I had hoped to get. We returned to the fish pier about midnight. Shark line & eel pots yeilded nothing out there. June 24 - Fair and hazy in the morning with moderate increasing shamal winds. At 7 A.M. near the flood on the incoming tide I noticed again quite a number of dūl jellyfish. This particular time of the tide seems to be the worst for them. I phoned Miss Ashley this morning 70-J-1 per request from Mr. Evans, and after an hour or so got hold of Mr. Johnson who had received my letter thru Mr. Ohliger, and they said they could arrange my transportation to Jiddah anytime, and thought I should spend at least two weeks there. The more I think of it, the more I think I should leave now, rather than leave it till later. Because things are bogging down here, and I might run into more work than I would expect over there. The shamal increased to white caps in the bay during the morning. I offloaded boxes #5 & #17 full of fish to be taken to the [[strikethrough]] Dhahran [[/strikethrough]] Ras Tanura storehouse. I am in a quandary what equipment to take, but will
[[start page]] probably settle on an 8 gal. copper tank. The shamal flattened down a little in the late afternoon about 4:30 P.M. Around 4:00 P.M. Abdullah hauled the eel pots and there was a small olive green Lutjanus [[image: fish, with blue and yellowish stripes]] [[image label: U-48-116]] with blue green thin stripes that had him stumped. Another type of [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] the "imokh" was there as there were also yesterday. It lacks the green dots of [[underline]] L. nebulosus [[/underline]] and lacks the red gill cover of [[underline]] L. miniatus [[/underline]] and it generally has predominant black blotches on the sides. Thus with another name it may well be another species. About 200 lbs. came in the fish catch about 3 P.M. and consisted of hamoor, shiari, sbaiti burtam (the black grouper), and a large 16" Plectorynchus "shubble". I started to pour formalin and pack a few things for my trip over to the Red Sea. Also today I found out the right name on the black grouper sbaiti. It is burtam or sbaiti burtam, or sbaiti. This clears up the confusion of the term burtam. I went into town this evening, and went to the movies to forget Arabia for a couple of hours. June 25- Dusty horizon in the early morning and most of the day a strong shamal 15-25 m.p.h. till about 3 P.M.? with calm at sunset ,and clear and cool night. Today Ed and I went down to the fish plant about 7 A.M. to defrost it. The water around the pier was murky from the shamal, but Swede was still trying to catch Sbaiti. Then Ed and I drove to Dhahran because he had some friends and business to do. We arrived at Hassan Monsoor, the Saihat fishing contractors home about 1 P.M. I checked the pond where I goad my first [[underline]] C. dispar [[/underline]] at Safwah, and it was nearly dry. There were still a number of minnows there but no frogs. There seemed to be no visible outlet. But the water felt surprisingly cool. At Hassans we were ushered up to the cool second story [[end page]] [[start page]] 101 of a typical sea rock Arab household. With shade and mats to sit on and high ceilings with holes; there was good natural ventilation. We passed through a dark alley to get there an saw an Arab woman milking a goat in a dark corner. They were both the same color-black. About 20 personages from 2 to 60 gathered around us in more or less silence. And they were all males of course. Without an interpreter we did not get far except for a little discussion about fishing. At least one round of coffee & tea was served before we went down below for lunch. One boy was completely blind, and another was blind in one eye (syphilis probably). About 20 of us sat down to lunch with the meal laid out on the carpet. The main dish consisted of a whole sheep head & all on top of a large mound of curried rice ,and about 17 side dishes of canned fruits, native melon, raw onions, fried onions, grey tapioca, grey sweet stuff, small hard boiled eggs, a small tough chicken one each on rice for Ed and I. To start with Hassan sprinkled gooey ghee on everything that had rice; then we all dove in with the right hand. I almost got my signals mixed once by reaching for the peanuts with my left hand. I did not eat too much which was bad manners but better for yours truly. Then we were left to rest in the room alone with the flies. After a long while our host returned and more coffee, more tea, and more sweet milk, and on and on. Then at last a walk in the date garden; but no we must visit Hassan's brother down the street, and more coffee more tea etc. etc., but it did come to an end, and we saw the date garden and got some not yet ripe yellow dates. And I saw a small fig tree for the first time with curiously
letters to Schultz & Lucile cut leaves. We finally left Hassan's about sunset, and he gave us 2 pairs of sandals, and we must come again. We returned shortly to Dhahran, and I attended the movies, and Ed saw friends. On the drive back, we had a good talk, and I became convinced of Ed's sincerety in his work, and we ironed out some wrinkles. If for nothing else than that, the day was well spent. June 26 - Dusty sky again today with average strong shamal. I found out by phone today that there was a plane to Jiddah on the morrow. So I rushed out to the pier, and worked like a beaver getting my stuff together. I finally ended up with a 16 gal. can of cubé root, and a box stuffed with nets, and bottles of formalin. Mr. Scott helped me get on the Dhahran bus, and I made Dhahran about 3:30 with 3 others along. Things were more or less fixed by Mr. Johnson when I arrived, and I got a room for the night, got a haircut bought a shirt. I saw Jim Stewart tonight and had a good chat. I also wrote letters to Shultz and Lucile. King Abdulla of Trans-Jordan and his retinue were driving all over the place, and the place was alive with Arab soldiers. June 27 - Shamal in the early morning with visibility less than 1/4 mile. I got up about 5:15 A.M. had breakfast and was stupid enough to mail my key. The dispatches appeared at 6 A.M. with a taxi, and my driver smelled like something between a slaughter house and a dirty sock; so it was good the wind was blowing. My driver barely knew how to drive but he was good hearted. By 7 A.M. I was back in the house again, and the door was locked. The airport was closed to all outgoing planes. They hoped it might clear by 4 P.M. but have doubts. Because of weather all flights were cancelled, and I remained the day in Dhahran, and wrote a letter to Mother (Mendam) and a provisional reply to Eric Maurer's idea of a round the world cruise included in another [[end page]] [[start page]] 103 letter to Lucile. The idea of a cruise appeals to me though I fully realize the sacrifices and danger that may be involved. There were small cumulus clouds in the sky above the horizon this evening. The horizon was still dusty. June 28 - 5:30 A.M. a shamal is in evidence with dust all around. I saw a few clouds at 5:00 A.M. now I see only dust. It is rather doubtful to me that the vision will be much better this morning than yesterday. When we reached the air field you could still see a shack about 1/4 of a mile down the field; by 7:30 A.M. you couldn't see it. For a while we were going off on 672 but because of one failing motor we changed to 673 and I got my stuff on the plane at the last minute without customs even looking at it. We got our seat belts fastened; then the pilot walked back and said it was all off, but I left my formalin & nets and collecting can on the plane, and just took off my small bags. About 10 A.M. I got a ride back with Mr. Truin ?, who was also trying to go to Jidda. I called Mary Leonardini to say that I had not forgotten that she wanted me to give a lecture, but we decided it would be best to put it off until I returned from Jidda. Apparently the dust is all around again today, and I was glad to get a shower to get rid of some of it. Letters to Lucile and the Bertrams. I wrote up a fish list of fishes collected to date for Dr. Schultz. 97 species have been collected and pickled. 112 species have been observed and roughly identified. June 29 - It was worse this morning than all the other mornings. The desert dust was hanging in the sky all over. Visibility may have been 1/8 mile. I called a taxi to go to the airport just to make sure, and nothing doing. I returned to the room and wrote up a list of fishes with Arabic, scientific, and rough English equivalents. I totaled 76 arabic names; plus 19 names of other marine animals or plants. At 1 P.M. I heard about the plane leaving and thanks to Jan Peterson in a Red O-X [[D-X?]]
I made it. We left the field about 1:30 P.M. in a shamal but with fair visibility. Nevertheless until 3:00 P.M. there was too much dust to see land. But between 3:00 & 3:30 P.M. we passed over several towns and date gardens in the middle of the desert. At 3:50 P.M. at 11,000 ft. the temperature was 22°c in the plane and 20°c on the floor, and it felt cold. At 4:30 P.M. we saw big cumulus clouds to the west. Then we passed over reddish sands, salt flats, white sands, tan sands, brown and finally a belt of larval black sand. Also we passed over rocky hills of brown rock, and sand rock mountains. We reached Jidda about 6:00 P.M. and saw camel trains going off into the desert, and we saw the Red Sea. Aramco house is situated conveniently at the edge of town and not far from salt water. There is an inlet with rock and sand bottom and [[underlined]] Elodea [[/underlined]] growing at its edge which a native was picking and putting in a basket. The quarters are good here, and things look alright. There are dhows in the harbor and there was a good red sunset with small rounded cumulus clouds. June 30 - Fair and clear this morning with a strong breeze from the northwest. After breakfast, I walked around town and watched the various sights including colored women pounding grain. [[Image: a woman with a baby strapped to her back. The woman is holding a large club-like stick raised above a cut-away view of a basket (of grain, presumably)]] One woman had a baby strapped on her back while she was pounding away. Every time she hit the grain the baby got a jolt, and somehow he or she did not enjoy it. I saw a fisherman going down the street with a pole over his shoulder a large Chorinemus at one end 3 ft. and a 3 ft. [[underlined]] Cybium commersonnii [[/underlined]] and 2 or 3 small [[underlined]] Tylosurus [[/underlined]] at the other end. Another had [[image: a man with a pole on his shoulder with fish hanging from each end of the pole.]] a string of smaller fish including Lethrinids, , [[strikethrough]] sparisoma [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] scarus ? [[/insertion]] and blackish green wrasse, and a goatfish. The rest of the morning, I put all the rotenone in two flour bags, and found several leaks in the bottom of the 16 gal. tank [[end page]] [[start page]] 105 Brain corals Gubat Ashra [[images: pink coral and dirty yellow coral]] which I got fixed up for 2 r. This afternoon, I walked along the small cove just north of the main part of Jidda which is not far from Aramco house. The west shore was mostly rocks and Elodea the north arm was mud sand with green scum weed (something like Big Mund) with hundreds of [[underlined]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underlined]] all around. The males had the yellowish dorsal end distinctly banded square caudal, but I did not catch any, only a small blue crab. There were also numerous mud hole crabs like fiddlers only the claws were equal in size. Then there were hundreds of pointed snail shells (I collected some) It was low tide, and the water deepens very gradually, somewhat like Tarut bay. [[image: conch shell]] There were strange looking conch shells with a forward projecting point, just the opposite of the usual conch shell. [[image: uneven five-pointed spotted figure, somewhat like a deformed starfish]] There was also a branched kind of sponge on the beach. The small stems were [[strikethrough]] yell [[/strikethrough]] greenish, the larger stem rusty brown. Numerous dilapidated dogs lay in the sand along the beach in one spot. July 1 - Up at 5 A. M., which is an hour or so after sunrise here, Stuart Campbell took me out on Sam's pier, belonging to S.A.M.S. Saudi-Arab Mineral Co: which is about 2 miles north of Jidda at Ruais. It is at least a 1/4 mile long, and is a scarce fathom and a half of water at the end of the pier. The water for a long way varies from a few inches to 2 or 3 feet. Off the end of the pier we could see sergeant majors and snappers and also white peduncled doctorfish. On the north side of the pier a 100 ft. in from the end was an interesting area with brown sea weed, scattered coral, and hard sand bottom. Pomacentrids, butterfly fishes, and spot snappers were in good evidence. Mr. Campbells name for the shrimp in the holes with the [[underlined]] Periophthalmus [[/underlined]] is "bulldozer fish" the [[other? or otter?]] is the "watch dog." The [[underlined]] Periophthalmus [[/underlined]] looked similar to the Persian Gulf variety, but may be different. I thought
the place might be worth a try for poison. So I returned for my cube root, and returned and mixed about 4 gals. of dust with water, and spread it around some rooted brown weed and coral at about 100 yds off the dock. Since there is almost no tide at this point in the Red Sea; (water level is changed by high winds only) there was almost no current. There was a slight drift towards the dock, and where the reef dropped off to 4 ft. of water the poison drifted slowly in the opposite direction. I filled a gallon jar solid with small fish and could have filled one or two more; if I had brought them along. A species of [[underlined]] apagon [[/underlined]] (like [[underlined]] A. thurstoni [[/underlined]], but another species) was knocked off like flies, black pomacentrids were also greatly affected (contrary to the ones in the Persian Gulf.) But even atherinids and herring were affected. Snappers did not get affected, and I saw no porgies. My success was due I think to several factors: the nature of the bottom, no fast currents and shallow water in the vicinity. I also saw [[underlined]] Heniochus [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] caranx sp. [[/insertion]] and [[underlined]] Dascyllus aruanus [[/underlined]] which I did not catch. I got approximately 100 specimens comprising 34 species in one collection. This afternoon, I went out again with Hasen & Oli two Aramco boys in a jeep up as [[strikethrough]] Ashra [[/strikethrough]] Gubat Ashra about 8 miles north. At first we stopped the cove near by to seine some [[underlined]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underlined]]. [[strikethrough]] Ashra [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Gubat [[/insertion]] Ashra is a reef rock area not unlike the south coast of Santo Domingo. There was a long curved reef beyond with shallow water inside and the rough sea outside washing upon it and setting up fairly strong currents. The smell was like that characteristic sea smell of reefs and salt water. I used some poison and got a new wrasse & blennies and a new [[underlined]] Abudefduf ^[[insertion]] sordidus [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] which was sand colored with a black spot and some black markings. Further on I saw specimens of this Abudefduf 4 and 5 inches long darting back and forth under a large reef rock. They reminded me of [[underlined]] A. taurus [[/underlined]] at Tobago keys. There was a pretty sunset with considerable cumulus clouds and continued strong north west [[end page]] [[start page]] 10[[overwritten]] 5 [[/overwritten]]7 [[underlined]] Bird notes [[/underlined]] winds. The sea birds I have seen include dusty bellied terns, long beaked terns, and small blue grey herons. I have also seen several small hawks around the town. Around al Gubat Ashra the mountains are visible to the east, and the ground continues to be the same odd dark brown color characteristic of the shore here. Oyster weed was common on the reef [[image - pen drawing of oyster weed]] just as in the W.I.; there were also other kinds of dark brown seaweed. In fact the oyster weed was dark brown rather than light tan. There were some Arabs around and 2 had throw nets. Near Rubies we saw a half dozen long seine nets staked up, and drying on the shore. July 2 - It was calm at dawn this morning, but a moderate northwest breeze soon came up. The boy's took me out to Sam's pier again, and I tried another 5 or 6 quarts of rotenone. There was a dead moray eel floating around from yesterday. The black apogonids and black pomacentrids were the first hit, then we got a couple of very beautiful [[underlined]] Acanthurus [[/underlined]] black with thin light blue stripes. I dropped my watch on the stone stairs yesterday, the face and crystal came off and I lost the second hand, but it still runs. I just finished caring for my specimens, and Oli, Hasane, and I went off to Gubat Ashra. We tried the reef near the reef rock. I poisoned around a rock in the water, and only got very small pomacentrids. Finally I decided to use the rest of the mixture in the brown weed near the breakers. [[image: drawing of different parts of sea floor with parts labeled]] [[image labels]] deep sea brown weed odd rocks shallow reef shore reef [[/image labels]] I dumped it in one spot all at once and did not expect much; the results were stupendous. The wave current spread the cloud, and fish passed through it and we were busy for an hour picking up fish. We saw a black tipped fin of a 3 1/2 foot shark floundering around on the reef. Hasane went over, but it swam off into deep water when he shouted. The gulls were [end page]
helping themselves to odd specimens. Then we pressed on another 5 miles to [[strikethrough]] Ohber [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Sharm Ubhar [[/insertion]] an inlet from the sea through the coral rock. The inlet was about 1/4 mile wide at its mouth. A coast guard hut is on the south side. We went about a mile & half west & north along the inlet and stopped. I poisoned around a large rock in shallow water 6"-1 ft. deep, and also around another rock. I think I used more cubé root than necessary (a 5 gal. paint bucket almost half full of dust), but the results were quite satisfactory, consisting of a number of Balistids, Bathygobius, a barracuda etc. I saw some brown coral rock where the fossil coral could still be plainly seen. The bottom was reef like with some black mud. We returned after dark. I brought back a couple of man-eater [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Tridachna [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] [[image: a clam shell]] clams which are a beautiful yellow or blue inside. A Lethrinus and several [[underlined]] Crenidens [[/underlined]] ? were an addition to the collection. [[image: hand-drawn map of collection area labeled "Red Sea" "Sharm Ubhar" "X-customs" "coral rocks" "collecting place"; with a compass rose indicating N (with arrow pointing toward top of page) and E (with arrow pointing to right of page).]] The following map indicates the approximate collecting place, U-48-124; generally the water all over this inlet appears to be very shallow. July 3 - I worked hard wrapping and drawing and making notes of fish specimens this morning, from about 6 A.M. to 10 A.M. About 10:30 A.M., Ahmed Rashad, Hasane, and Abdul took me down to the "suq" to the fish market which is at the end of the arched canopy. There were very few fish, and I was almost discouraged, but I am glad I decided to stay behind with Abdul. Pictures of life unfolded rapidly for the next hour or so. An old fisherman almost blind helped on the names of fishes near by, then we went back up the street and stopped passing fishermen. All fish are apparently sold direct by the fisherman to the consumer or nearly so. They are carried on both ends of a stick and are tied thru the gills and mouth. One fellow at a café bought a beautiful 1 ft. blue [[end page]] [[start page]] 109 parrotfish from a passing fisherman. The fish as a whole seemed quite fresh, and the colors were rich varied and beautiful. Brilliantly colored wrasse, parrotfish, and doctorfish were on many strings as we passed along. Abdul repeated the names, and I wrote them as best I could. Tomorrow, I hope to try it again with the camera. [[image: sideview of a fish with a protrusion forward of its eye above the mouth, with long dorsal and ventral fins and a two-pronged tail.]] We went right down to the boats on shore where fishermen were cleaning their fish, and old fish heads lay around indicating former cleanings. On our return trip we stopped at 2 fish frieries, where fish are cooked over wood fires fried in grease and are sold to passing customers, which is not a bad idea at all. In fact, they looked and even smelled quite appetizing. I got 28, Arabic names and saw at least 35 or 36 species of fish, many brilliantly colored. In general wrasse species were classed under one name, parrotfish under one name, [[underlined]] Lethrinus [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Gnathodentex [[/underlined]] under one name, etc. Apparently the distinction between species is not so strict. One [[underlined]] Scarus [[/underlined]] I saw had very much the red & blue green colors of S. [[underlined]] dussumieri [[/underlined]] of the Persian Gulf. This afternoon about 3 P.M. I went out with Ali in a launch to look at the sea. There were 8 on the crew of the launch. Inside the first reef the water was shallow and murky. But between the inner and outer reefs the water was cleaner and deeper several fathoms in spots, but there were dangerous shoals and reefs all around. We went outside the outer reef and got a slight roll from the sea, the wind was light from the west. We went south about 2 or 3 miles to Abu Sad, an island with buildings. It is the quarantine island. The two Arabs who stayed there invited us ashore for coffee. Then we left and returned to the outer reef south of the channel entrance. It is about a mile or mile and half long and 400 yds wide, and only a foot to 3 feet of water on top of it. I used up the remaining poison in the first flour bag. The wave current was stronger across the reef than I thought so I made
a mistake in putting the poison all in one spot near the surf. Nevertheless the capture of several worm eels, Dascyllus, and a new wrasse probably made it worthwhile. ^[[insertion]] Small [[/insertion]] Gulls almost black in color helped to collect specimens for themselves. Alot of small silversides were hit. This evening, I went out to Sam's pier, and waded around with the spear. I tried the windward coral side first but saw nothing; so I went to the lee side where the bottom was mostly mud sand. I saw a large grouper black and brown (possibly 3 or 4 lbs) lying still in the open on the sand. I got poised with the spear, but he didn't wait. Then I speared a crab out of disgust which was fatal because I saw a Platycephalus, and missed it on account of the crab. Then I saw a black sting going along, and it was a fair sized sting ray. I speared him but did not push hard enough. There was a great commotion and it got away, and cut close by me; so it was not pleasant. Then I saw a smaller one. I hit him or her twice before I could shove the spear thru. I saw it when I had a Siganus on the spear. Needless to say I pulled of the [[underline]] Siganus [[/underline]]. Near the dock I saw an octopus and speared it. Mr. Campbell came along about that time. With 2 specimens to care for, I thought it a good time to quit. On the windward side of the dock in the reef grass there was a grey deal of phosphorescent animals in the water, like small sparkling diamonds. Silversides and halfbeaks were attracted to the light. I also saw gerrids as well as siganids on the bottom. July 4 - I went down to the fish market with Hasane in the jeep about 9 A.M. There were alot more fish than the other day, but there were not any highly colored wrasse or parrotfish. The most abundant fish was salmoni a long flat round clupeoid about 20˚ T.L. with a forked tail, and it look something like Elops. Mullet and 2 kinds of jacks were also plentiful. The flies, however, exceeded all else in number. I took one picture of 2 [[end page]] [[start page]] 111 black parrots, a red squirrel, and a black Siganus (1 riyal). The rest of the morning, I worked on yesterday's specimens. I saw several new fish including a spadefish (or possibly it was that large grey [[underline]] A. canthinus [[/underline]], and a silver croaker shaped fish with black dots. This afternoon, I went with Hasane and Oli south of the city. The desert is whiter sand there, and there is no hard road, the beach is sand going down to water with mud sand bottom which is very shallow deepening to about 2 feet gradually. There were several small sand & reef rock islands. One we waded to had small trees on it they looked like mangroves with [[image: pen sketch of a small tree with two sprouts]] the straight sprouts, but there were none in the water. And the largest were scarcely 2 feet high. Several islands further out had more and apparently larger trees possibly 3 or 4 feet high. There were blue crabs, & crabs, and shrimp, and a [[underline]] Platycephalus [[/underline]], & Cyprinodon dispar in the water. This water runs behind outlying islands and reefs, and probably accounts for its character. We went on a little further south and saw a few dug out canoes in the distance, but about the same type of bottom. In fact the mud was so that we sank too deep into it for comfort, and it is so mixed with coral sand as to be sharp & uncomfortable. Thus the shore south of Jidda is rather less productive for collecting than the shore to the north. We also saw a new large almost black heron, a couple of terns, and several small white plovers. The jeep we had was always running out of water; so we had our troubles, and returned about 4:30 PM. At the last spot we stopped at there were tree seedlings three or four growing in about 10" of salt water about 50 feet offshore. [[image: pen sketch of tree seedling]] The leaves as well as the other trees were reminescent of mangroves. Why these seedlings were growing here (just three or four widely scattered, I don't know. [[image: pen sketch of a dried pod]] The fruit dried pod of the tree was cylinder shaped and reminescent of a wasps nest in appearance.
[start page] The mountains were clear in the back ground to-day and the wind was breezy from the northwest, and the flatness of the desert created considerable mirage. This evening we were invited to the American legation, Mr. Childs is consul, and he mentioned to me a fishing trip Thursday. Two I.B.I. fellows ^[[insertion]] Mr. [[/insertion]] Ross, Spence, and Linsey invited me fishing for tomorrow. I also met Bud [[insertion]] Fred [[/insertion]] Babcock, whom I did not recognize at first, but he spoke of Orient and Caroline, so we had quite a talk. He works for Sams, as does Mr. Powell. There were drink, & movies on the roof, and the evening was pleasant and I am glad that I went. July 5 - We left the pier 7 A.M. [[arrow]] [[insertion]]Mr. Linsey, & the Bechtel boys 2 cuttlefish seen at surface [[/insertion]]] in a 20 ft. launch with a kerosene motor and 2 rather sullen Sudani's and we trolled around Jidda harbor with 3 spoons inside the reefs. About 9 A.M. just inside the outer reef at the south corner a large jack [[underlined]] Caranx [[/underlined]] sp. was landed. It looked most like C. latus but did not have black fins. I was grey green on top and silver below, and clear fins. It weighed about 20 lbs, a [[image: female sign]] near ripe (?), 33" to tail fork, depth 3, head 3 1/4, 28 hard scutes, P-20, D [[roman numeral]] VI-17 [[roman numeral]], A-[[roman numeral]] II [[roman numeral]]-16. Gill rakers lower arch 12 + 2 rudiments. Native name "gherrm"? It was caught near a reef ^[[insertion]] clear water [[/insertion]]. A half hour later in murky water we caught a barracuda ("Agam") 14 lbs. S.L. 38" A-9 D-9, and it looked very similar in size shape and coloring even to a few black blotches of [[underline]] Sphyraena barracuda.[[underline]] We stopped at a reef a while to eat, and I examined a deep large coral protuberance.[[underline]] Acanthurus [[underline]] with white peduncles were most abundant, also ^ [[insertin]] light [[/insertion]] blue ^ [[insertion]] [[underline]] Chromis? [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] demoiselles, like pink or blue parrots, [[underline]] Dascyllus, [[/underline]] a small black blue & white wrasse [[image: hand drawn picture of fish - black, white w/blue coloring]] which I approximate from memory.[[underline]] Heniochus , Abudefduf murginatus, Chaetadons [[/underline]] (2 species) etc. It was calm in the morning with a northwest breeze starting about 11:30 A.M. We trolled the surface without heavy lead. I also saw some blunt headed snappers about 14 inches T.L. I saw 2 or 3 [[underline]] ospreys [[/underline]], and a couple of [[underline]] pelicans [[/underline]] in the distance. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right top]] 113 [[/right top]] This afternoon, the wind died again. Ali, Hasane, and I drove again to Gubat Ashra. The sea was calm enough so we could wade to the reef's edge and look into the seas blue abyss. At the reefs edge were myriads of fishes, and near the edge coral of all colors purple red, bright green, tan, grey, and brown. Rather than make comments I will list the species which are new: [[underline]] Acanthurus [[/underline]] with 4 orange spines & black,[[underline]] Nasus [[/underline]] grey in color sp. unicornis, [[underline]] Megaprotodon [[/underline]] ? orange yellow and black but not the same as the P. Gulf variety, Cirrhitus (brown,blue, & tan), red grouper with blue spots, grey shark, 3 feet, with black and white dorsals, black pomacentrids tiny but with white tails at the outermost edge of the reef, [[underline]] Pterois [[/underline]] with its flowing fins, 2 tremendous, 5 lb. & 3 lb. wrasse ?, they were dull grey shaped like [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] but with a wrasse like tail and big scales, black blue & white wrasse, a 10 inch black wrasse with a white blotch on the side, a [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] with fine black spots & heavy head 10 inch specimens with bright blue back; old 30" specimens, dull green on back, a black Ostracion cubicus; The other specimens like [[underline]] Ctenochaetus [[/underline]] had opposition or rather were actually collected. In shore next to the reef ^[[insertion]] rock [[/insertion]] the temperature of the water was 32° centigrade. The air was 35°c. Gerrids and other fish were swimming around in the hot water. July 6th - Up at 4:30 A.M., had breakfast, and worked on my fishes collected yesterday. Some of the larger ones did not have good smelling intestines, and I probably should have cut their bellys last night instead of this morning. I did not feel too hot today sort of like having a cold for a long time, but I went down to the fish market with Hasane (as the fishing trip in the sail boat had folded up). We found a few fish to take pictures of and I got away with one real. This business, however, is not very successful, since they are loath either to stand, or especially lay their fish on the ground. The wind came up about 10 A.M., then it was too late. Hasane loves the sea, and has worked on several freighters. The salmoni are [[end page]]
letter to Lucile via Dhahran today caught in nets [[image: hand-drawn fish]] ^[[underline]]Chanos chanos [[/underline]] and run about 18" long, and run about 1 lb. or 1 1/2 lb. for one real. They are among the most abundant fish in the market place especially early in the morning. They soften and spoil rapidly. We saw one fellow with about 2 dozen strung on a pole, and the fish were about ready to drop off like over ripe apples, and the body was almost mush, and the eyes dull red & sunken. Whether or not they smelled I could not tell, because I had just been thru the "suq". This afternoon, Hosane, Ali, and myself went to Gubat Ashra again. None of us were energetic, we were all water-logged from the other day. I spread the poison at the reef's edge but with the small amount I still have left; it is not really enough to do very much. I think we got a new Lethrinus and also a new wrasse. I saw a crow this afternoon not far from Sam's pier. July 7th - Today was the beginning of Rhamadhan, hence there were a lot of cannons shooting off in the middle of the night. I was semi-conscious of the noise. Though I felt somewhat better than last night, I have acquired a cold thru an overdose of salt water in the nose and ears. The slap of the waves at the reefs edge makes it uncomfortable. I straightened out my specimens collected yesterday. This afternoon I visited the Bechtel office, and Mr. Linsey showed me his tide records; 2.6 feet is the greatest difference between high and low tide. .6 and .5 in other a half foot or less are most common. They also keep temperature and humidity readings 92˚ F and 79˚ F humidity at about 3 P.M. with a strong northwest wind. I also saw the chart of Jidda harbor & approaches Brit. Admir. 209.39 reprinted by U.S. Hydrographic 1942. Last night about 5:30 P.M., the sun sets at 6 P.M. I noticed a tide pool connected for the first time with the muddy inlet just north of Jidda. This is the [[end page]] [[start page]] 115 letters to Lucile & folks 7/10/ first bit of tide, I have noticed here yet. The fishing trip with Childs is called off Thursday on account of Engine trouble. I advised Stuart V. Campbell that I was ready to leave in about 3 or 4 days. He has been very nice, accommodating, & helpful during my stay here. The tank is nearly full now, and there is not much poison left. This evening tho I was wracked with pains, and had a cold, Hosane and I went spearing off Sam's Pier. A flathead and 2 new blowfish were the reward of the trip. Mr. Linsey of Bechtel also waded around with us and we had two spectators on the dock; we saw a small black spotted ray but missed him. I got to bed about 10:30 July 8 - I managed to manoever downstairs to wrap last night's fish, but I am without energy. I finally got a chit to go to Dr. Gonets at the American Legation. My temp. was between 102-103˚ F, but he says 106˚ F is not uncommon here with nose & throat infections. I also got some penecillin shots, and in some ways I feel better than last night. My nose is not running but the cold is in my chest, another characteristic of colds in this region. We got on the subject of fish poisoning, and he was particularly interested in the barracuda. I told him the stories about barracuda vary all thru the West Indies. But really little is known about it. July 9 - I managed to live thru the day without going into painful details. Dr. Gonet came again and I got a shot in the other hind quarters. It is called Penicillin in oil & wax Schenley (1 cartridge 1cc.) List # 147 300,000 units crystalline penicillin G Potassium suspended in peanut oil containing 4.8% W/V White wax U.S.P. (Romansky Formula). July 10 - I think I can say that I feel better today. Dr. Gonet came, another shot temperature 101˚ F. The sky was almost completely cloudy around sunset. I coughed most of the day. Dr. visits. July 11 - Still coughing like mad today, with fever. Dr. visits
Letters to Lucile 7/13) & 7/14) July 12 - Fever still around 102 [[degree symbol]], cough not quite as bad, taking attabrine. This evening I moved down to the room downstairs. After supper, Hosane brought in 2 salmoni (6 riyals). I injected them well, and outside of slight drying, I think they were in good condition. [[strikethrough]] July 13 - Fever and continued coughing. Dr. Gonet visited twice. [[/strikethrough]] July 13 [[3 overwrites 4; was July 14]] - Letter mailed to Lucile [[single "l" overwrites double "l"]] via Dhahran, two visits from Dr. Gonet fever has gone down 101.8 F.˚ Still have dangerous cough, and keep taking [[underline]] codine [[/underline]] to stop it. Taking sulphur, atabrine, and codine for my cough. Last night I got sick after one cough in bed, and I just made it into the first basin, by the skin of my teeth and it was very thin, and I lost all my cookies. When I got back to bed a second I felt weak, but I slept very little during the night. Temp of my fever 101.8˚ at 6:00 P.M. (cont.) July 13 [[3 overwrites 4; was July 14]] - [[underline]] Bastille [[/underline]] day - My first meal was lunch today and so far I have kept it down. My bowels are very loose and moved at least 7 times including one during lunch, right in the middle of my lunch. Dr. Gonet, came about 10 P.M. My fever is a little down 101.5 compared with last night. Dr. Gonet is doctor at the american legation and his wife is a nurse. He is a Frenchman, and has worked before in Indo-China. He has been here in Jidda, only several weeks. He is rather short and stoutish with a Jewish nose, and he wears eye glasses, and has thinning black hair. He appears to be very competent in his profession. I made great decisions: to stick with the Museum, and do more for Lucile July 14 - Dr. Gonet visited this morning temp. 101.5˚F. I worked hard all day on specimens & notes, and I gave Hosane all my fishing gear to use. He was very willing, and he may pick up more stuff before I leave Jidda. temp. 101˚F at 6 P.M. passionate love letter to Wife, given to Mr. Campbell to send to Dhahran. Dr. Gonet came again tonight, and he said he was sorry the fever was not down yet. [[end page]] [[start page]] 117 Juan Domingo Suarez - Puerto-Rican fisherman, working east, of Cape San Juan, P.R. There seem to be more abundant varieties in the Red Sea, than the Persian Gulf. This entirely due, to the bottom character, of the Persian Gulf. No porpoises seen on the Red Sea in the vicinity of Jidda, also no sea snakes (Hydrophis) are apparent. Slight vomiting after supper, but I didn't lose much and arrested the cough with codine. July 15 - Vital statistics of my fever and bronchitis; pills total = 251, breakdown codine 30, aspirin 12, atabrine 15, cascara 2, sulphur 48, 144 CaO[[subscript]]2 OH[[subscript]]3. [[label]]U-48-136 [[/label]] [[image: hand-colored drawing of fish]] [[label]]red & black Labrid[[/label]] Wally Turner still has my eraser Total cash on hand as of today 100.2 8 guerche. These fish were collected from Gubat Ashra after dark last night by Hosane. I certainly appreciated the specimens, and I told him so. Thus I completed my cheif work of the morning. [[label]]U-48-137[[/label]] [[image: color drawing of fish]] [[label]]Epinephelus (black)[[/label]] Dr. Gonet came about 2 p.m. today my temperature is down to 100.5 F. I am yellow from atabrine, and am coughing up deep yellow flem today. I find that codine is excellent for controling deep coughing. It has saved vomiting on countless times the last week. Dr. Gonet revisited about 6 P.M. July 16- Tho I did not feel too hot I slept most of the in brief periods. I had a midnight lunch. Am still living on codine. Pill total + 6 codine + 4 atabrine total pills 261[[or 251--can't read overwriting]]. This morning I
I finished "the G-String Murders" by Gypsy Rose Lee. It was very real written and partly biographical and described Stage life very well. Dr. Gonet came this afternoon with his wife. He said I had bronchial pneumonia which is often fatal; my temp. is 100˚F. I will not leave for Dhahran for three or four days yet. I am as weak as a kitten. Fish processed this morning, and 2 Lati this afternoon. The 16 gal tank is loaded. I need to stay here at least three or four day to recuperate. Hussein bought 2 "Luti" in the p.m., U-48-142. The [[nahīd ?]] or [[underline]] zurmbuk [[/underline]] is the man-eater clam of Jidda. In Port Sudan it is called "cocaine" [[in blue ink]] genus [[underline]] Tridachna [[/underline]] [[/blue ink]]. July 17 - Hussein arrived at 4 A.M. this morning with shark and [[underline]] Parapercis [[/underline]] in tow. 10 Riyals, I just barely squeezed them in the tank after injecting them with 2 blows a piece of the hypodermic. Hussein had this quaint story of the Arab fisherman as the [[how ?]] the flounder has eyes on one side only. It seems one Hadji Sulaiman was eating a fish and he held it up to sun thus one side turned dark with the eye, and the belly white. Allah caused the changes. Hence it is now named as "samak saida Sulaiman." I had midnight lunch again tonight. July 18 - I had two dreams this morning which were very lurid and stuck in my memory. They were in two separate parts a 1st & second: The first started and I was on the Cornell campus and the bells [[insertion]] chimes [[/insertion]] were ringing. I had a few classes yet before the May Day ball, and I remember Nat came up and I got a date for her. [[end page]] [[start page]] 119 I don't remember my date at all and little about the dance but Larry was also there. The next morning we went off on a car drive into the green hills and vales up and down and around. We came to a creek and I remember seeing several strange Indians around. [Just before I left the campus, I remember battling a large black & white billygoat who was following a tan and white female. Tho he had big horns he didn't hurt me much this happened in front of McGraw Hall. Larry helped me. The goat and I were even I had both hands on his horns but couldn't let go. Finally we left the Indians who glowered at us and went on up stream seemingly undisturbed. We wandered far up Larry and I near the headwaters which we reached near sunset. We saw a low stone fort near by the stream on the brow of a hill. More likely it was an old mill stone house. Larry and I finally stopped looking under rocks and scaled the wall because some wild dogs were barking at us and a few Indians appeared again. We scaled the wall to apparent safety and there was an indentation on the roof and sort of a stone parapet around. Water was gushing in from the stream side because there was a damn but it didn't come through fast enough to fill more than one end of the spill way or trough which led to the spill way and turned the wheel I guess? It was old and apparently not used. I remember trying to urinate because I needed to but the excitement was too much. I had to forego it except for a squirt or two Night fell quickly and we didn't have peace long.
There was a long sloping roof with shingles attached to the Mill and a planting down hill from there at a steep angle. soon a whole bunch of half naked savages started throwing fire darts at us and the roof was ablaze in no time with the heat and smoke of course coming our way as well as countless savages. Hell was breaking loose and one savage had almost scaled the roof on a side which had not yet caught fire, which was really nearest us. If we didn't leave then it would have been our end. So we flew down hill into the night over the heads of the murderous tribe. They were so intent on torturing us in the fort that they did not look up or shoot arrows in the sky we flew rather close over numerous camp fires. Then the dream blotted out and I had the shivers of a narrow escape. The second part, started with Larry and I in an Indian camp near by last nights place. We were sort of their slaves but if we behaved they were O.K. to us. There was some dancing going on but mostly just squaws and kids were around. I was given a bundle of raw hide horse reins two pieces, and Larry was given some candles. We were to distribute them thru each tent in camp. A little Indian boy led us thru. We didn't have much trouble or encounter hostility tho I had trouble picking out two different reins every time, and I got some grumbling when I made a mistake -- then the dream discontinued again. And I found myself outside a log cabin on a hill. It was night and the lights were on. I was [[end page]] [[start page]] 129 soon inside. Red headed Pa was getting over a drunk and black haired. Ma was scared with the children. There was an earthenware cask with a fairly wide opening near the wall. Pa had just cracked it with a cleaver because he knew Ma was going to pour the apple jack into it and set fire to it. Nevertheless Ma had another thing ready the cooking pot over the fire which she removed, and I helped pour the apple jack out of the can into the pot. Then Ma started quickly striking matches and throwing them in; there was a flicker of a flame, but no luck so we were foiled. Pa roared with amusement. So we passed the cider colored grog around it was frothy on top and rather thick. It tasted a sweet apple taste; at first Pa was noticeably disappointed but then he cheered up and I shook hands with him, because he knew the joke was on him it was his own bad liquor. Thus the dream ended and I woke up to daylight. I seldom remember dreams or at least so clearly. So I hastened to write this down as part of my case history. I had to urinate badly when I awoke and started to cough badly. But codine and aspirin and the bathroom relieved all shortly. The causal factors of the dream was sleeping on my back, my cold, my full bladder and that I was about to wake up. But how to explain the pschology of it I can only explain in part. First I went to Cornell 37-41 and this was the spring of my senior year. My girl, Bobbie had just married last fall; so I had no particular girl and was not attracted by any particular coed at the time. And I do remember asking Roz and Nat who came
122 Felix Iñigo, Mr. Ohligher re: plane Aug. 10 letter to Lucile July 21 up to a prom that year or the year before. The goats are specific the female is Mr. Nievese's goat that ate all my pole limas in Luguillo, Puerto Rico. Other goats had filed on before but they were not the evil characters. The billygoat was Paco's goat Pepé. He was evil the day he was born and he almost ate up the week's pay roll one pay day. Roy Schall a tall blue-eyed blond was his A-I enemy. Roy could cover ground when he was mad and he could wield a stick. A chase between Pépe and Roy was a daily occurrence. Usually a loud "God damn!" and Pepe would fly out of the Recreation center with Roy hot on his heels. Pepé usually got a beating but it never bothered him. - Larry had never visited Cornell; I asked him a couple of times but he never could make it. the grey rocks and green hills and vales and the blue streams are a common and beautiful site in the Iroquois country of the finger lakes. The Cayuga Indians had a powwow place up the lake on the Cornell side not far from Wells College. It was still being used, and I remember seeing the place on the brow of a hill overlooking Lake Cayuga. Also I have seen Indian wars in movies. This is my explanation. Wind strong northwest this p.m. I got an invitation from the Minister tomorrow. 3 invitations in all I have had to turn down for fishing!!! Damn, but my fishing career is over now. My fish syringe was cleaned out this afternoon and the necessary washings in the Persian Gulf added rust, so I daily cleaned all parts as well as possible. [[end page]] [[start page]] 7/20/48 letter to Lucile, folks, Hussein, Dhahran fishing club Sunday re spot snapper 123 July 19 - the first night I slept practically straight thru I feel a lot better this morning with Schultz report completed etc. with Red Sea Data & Puerto Rican plan. Strong northwest winds today with clear sky. July 20th - I feel much better today and have a lighter I have lost quite a bit of weight and feel weak from my illness. I wrote a long preliminary report to the Aramco Relations office and the fishes of the Persian Gulf and Red Sea. Fever 99.2°F at 6:00 P.M. Dr. Gonet I also got a sick leave slip from Dr. Gonet for bronchial pneumonia. July 21 - Had best nights sleep last night and finished a letter to Lucile. And I feel better this morning. I toke the plane out of Jidda at 2 P.M. It was a bumpy ride over and didn't help my ears. I got a letter off to Lucile and one to Stewart. I bumped a ride up to Ras Tanura since the 8 P.M. taxi did not stop by the clubhouse. I saw Mary Leonardine [[strikethrough]] Sunday [[/strikethrough]] in the new dining hall and she will arrange a lecture for me Sunday. July 20 - Ed and I got up and had breakfast at 11: AM. I am still coughing. Windy and sunny today. Ed and I had fried shrimp and curry mayonnaise for our supper. The boys have been collecting fish for me and Abdullah Soli caught a sbaiti hook & line near sundown. About 500 lbs of large grouper came in. July 21 - Did not sleep well last night tho tired. Ed and I got up about 7A.M.; Scotty called us. It was windy with dusty sky with sun breaking thru 8.A.M. Letter to Ohligher re leaving on plane Aug 10th because of health. Fishery report to Ohligher & Schultz 3r. also a
124 July 22-letter to Lucile & Austin Clark July 22 letter to Hadleys, Lucile, & Aunt Katrine & Mexican survey committee of A.F.S.C a [[insertion]] love [[/insertion]] letter to Lucile and a letter to Felix Inigo telling him that we hoped to arrive Sept. 1 and hoped to do some collecting together. I saw a good movie tonight called the barracuda it was a story of square riggers ploaghing the trades between Cartagena and Tortugas. The girl was beautiful with graceful auburn clear blue eye and black eyelashes a pretty nose kissable lips pretty ears and pretty breasts and a graceful carriage with long arms and legs and a broad pelvis and very pretty teeth. ear rings and jewelry fitted her very well. There was a fort like Morro castle in La Habana and there were pretty sunsets blue and grey seas and white trade cumulus clouds in Cartagena lagoon at night. It was altogether a very pleasing picture. I sweated and cursed roundly at the typewriter today as I banged out my report. July 22 - Airplane trip postponed to Monday. Dusty sky today but almost no wind, quite hot. I went to the movies again tonight finished a book wrote letters to aunt Katrine and the A.F.S.C. July 23 - Clearer today and hot. I went out to the Palestine for the day. The sky became dusty again and there was a light north west wind. With Ahmed's help I straightened out the fishes collected in my absence including a new species of grouper, and wrapped and labeled them. In the early afternoon I ran a short poison station by the fish pier rocks I got a few small fish and 8 interesting blennies. I am still pretty weak on my pins and tire easily. I mailed a color film today, and Letters to Elsie & Lucile. I ate lunch about 4 P.M. and I ran a sailor's [[end page]] [[start page]] 125 report to Schultz July 21, letter Chace: July 23 needle thru my arm while fixing a sandal. I went to the movies tonight. July 24 - Clear and hot today with little wind. I mailed a letter to Lucile ate breakfast, and went to see K.O. Feltmon to get the ball rolling. He got me to call Mr. Johnson in Dhahran to arrange my airplane trip home around Aug 10th which he said he would do. Then we went to the clinic to see the doctor about physical exams, etc I then went to Mr. Sanders to arrange for shipping my boxes back to the states which he said could be done and shipped in two months, he also filled out a shop order for me for two wooden boxes and raise and reinforce lid on one of my old boxes which I took to Mr. Hutchinson's office at the refinery. I will have to give him an idea of the sizes needed. I put the order in for 2 boxes 40"-30"-24" and reinforce lid on #19. I went down and loaded on 4 boxes from the fish pier (3 were fish) and one nets and took them up to the storage house this afternoon. I also got my heavy rubber gloves. I went fishing tonight off the end of the fish pier tonight with the hoop net. I caught only a few small fish scorpaenids, [[duasumierids ?]], and gerrids & red shrimp. I saw a few gub gubs but no snakes. There were a lot of one foot gars and silversides. I weigh only 155 lbs. and came over at 180 lb., and I am still pretty weak on my pins. I sure will be glad to get back to the States. There were clouds in the sky this afternoon, small cumulus, and early this evening. It was hot during the first part of the night. July 25 - I went to Dhahran today. I typed up most of my museum box inventory this morning. I took the bus to Dhahran from 11:30 to 12:40 crawling and bumping along over
126 over the desert blast furnace. I deposited my gear at the club house, got my banking accounts which including the dastardly Arab duty of $30 (damn them), and also got some hemp from Joe Martin which he had saved for Ahmed for me. I slept and read during the afternoon. I attended the Dhahran fishing club meeting at 7:00 P.M. and they carried on business with Mr. Weber, v.p., presiding apparently they were getting a trolling boat from Bahrain. I delivered my talk at 8 P.M. to about 60 people and boys. I talked till about 8:45 P.M. then questions and then I showed them specimens. Mary Leonardini seemed quite satisfied and Mr. Weber so I guess it went over alright, and the young boys asked quite a few questions. July 26- Perfect weather clear sky, clear vision, no wind, and no airplane trip!!! This is the fourth time it has been called off for no good reason at all; I believe they never had any intentions of making good on their promise. I am thoroughly washed up with the whole damn outfit and wish I had asked to go home Aug. 1st instead of Aug. 10th. Also Gurley doesn't think we will make Jez Jenal before the 10th, well I just don't give a damn. If I can find that porpoise and shark skeleton on Chaschase Island in the next day or two I will be satisfied. They won't fix the row boat, make oarlocks, keep the boat supplied, check the raido, or fix the charge motor; just nothing gets done. Mr. Feltman helped me check out at the carpenter shop about my boxes and they will start when I bring in the old box. We also went out to the plant and I wrapped the fish collection. This afternoon I sounded out my last nights talk on the typewriter 4 pages [[end page]] [[start page]] July 26 & 27 - letter to Lucile 127 and 4 copies. I also started the other day my box invoice. I got one letter from Lucile this morning and 2 this afternoon, and she had only received 2 letters from Jidda at that time, July 17. I went to the movies tonight and saw the Bachelor and the Bobby soxer Cary Grant, Myrna Loy, and Shirly Temple (who is a very pretty young lady now). At one disgusted moment Cary Grant was packing his trunk to fly to Africa and then he told the older man near him and then may be Arabia. The older man said "I think you are making a great mistake", and that of course brought the house down, it was so apropos. July 27 - Fair, hot, and hazy today. I got my box of Jidda fish hauled over to the carpenter shop to raise the lid higher; I also got my tank of formalin from the boat, and headed for Dhahran on the 1:30 bus. We made it in 1 hour and 5 minutes a record for me. I drove the last half because the Arab almost fell asleep driving. I got the same room from housing, and paid my camera duty at the bank in ruppees. Then I went to see Jim Stewart to check over my list of additional fish names from the Persian Gulf. I also noted a saw from a sawfish which was given to George Rentz from an Arab at Al Khobar. It was 47 1/2 inches long with 32 teeth on each side. He also had a 5 inch ostrich egg from the desert. He also had a record of an ostrich being shot near Trans-Jordan. I never even knew there were ostriches in the Arabian desert. I also met Joe Smith from Hof[[strikethrough]]t[[/strikethrough]]ūf who seems to be a nice fellow and is starting an agricultural experiment in Hof[[strikethrough]]t[[/strikethrough]]ūf the biggest oasis and date gardens in Arabia. He wants me to look over the local fresh water fish situation. We will leave the day after tomorrow at 7 A.M. by car. It is about 80 miles quite a ride! But it sounds interesting. Our everlastingly post
[[start page]] 128 [[line in corner of page]] July 27 2nd letter to Lucile poned airplane trip over the Gulf and outlying islands is supposed to come off tomorrow, in sha Allah!! I sent a copy of my Jidda fish names by mail to Jim Stewart. I also mailed another letter to Lucile. I went to the movies tonight as usual and saw "Repeat Performance" about an actress who lived a year of her life over again. It was not exactly a pleasant story but it was well acted. July 28- Thick heat haze this morning with the sun a dull silver. Visibility between 1/4 & 1/2 mile light only 25 on my meter. I met Ed at 7:30 A.M. and we left for the airport and as I had rather expected the flight was cancelled because of weather. I went to see George Rentz this morning and got 4 photos of the saw fish saw; also a little one 9 inches long with 36 teeth on the left side and 35 teeth on the right side; the smaller one may be a different species. About 10 A.M. Ed and I headed down to Al Khobar and south along the beach to El Azzizia. I walked a 1/4 of a mile along the waters edge and there was some brown sea weed and numerous wind rows of thin reef grass or rather sand grass along the water's edge. The sky was hazy and a fair breeze from the north and the tide was just about flood and the water was surprisingly cool. I got quite a collection of shells including crab sheds and also about 20 shark vertebrae spread out along the shore over quite a distance. With a 20ft. minnow seine Ed and I cought [[sic]] some small [[underline]] Sillago [[/underline]], some very good and large [[underline]] Cyprinadon dispar [[/underline]], some small mullets, and one small [[underline]] Terapon jarbua [[/underline]]. Also we were privileged to see quite a bit of bird life along the shore: large brown plovers with black bills, large black billed curlews, one sandpiper, [[end page]] [[start page]] Birds July 28 letter to Lucile Birds 129 several killdeer like & sized plovers, one oyster catcher (black & white), several white gulls like herring gulls, several black headed gulls like Buonaparte gulls, numerous small black capped terns, a large black billed sandpiper (possibly a plover because of short neck, but it was spotted grey and white with black spots), a large crow (possibly a raven), and a large flock of about 30 long legged short billed , short necked light brown with lower wings black & belly whitish sandpipers (which did not look exactly like sandpipers). They were about the size of the lesser yellow legs. I collected some sea weed as well as fish & shells, and the trip was quite a success. The sun became hotter, brighter ,and more glaring as noon came on. The meat sandwiches we had were not appetizing, so when I came back to lunch all I could manage was apple salad, cake, & ice tea. Ed went back to Ras Tanura in the afternoon. I think it well to mention here the numerous brown pigeons with black and white tails and the brown horned larks (about robin sized) that one sees often around Qatif on the road from Ras Tanura to Dhahran. I went to see Mr. Bier about the plane home, but he was out of town today. I went to the movies tonight and saw Bob Hope and Dorothy Lamour, Peter Lorre, and Bing Crosby in the last scene. It was a murder picture but was full of laugh's from Bob Hope's wonderful humor. I am a complete movie addict over here now. July 29- Joe Smith , Dick Daggy, and I left for Hof[[strikethrough]]h[/strikethrough]]uf from Dhahran at 7:30 A.M. We reached Abqaiq at 9:00 A.M. and had a second breakfast. Abqaig [[sic]] is quite desolate with very little greenery and is quite a bit smaller than Dhahran or Ras Tanura. Between Abquaig and Hofhūf we passed numerous oasis and wells and camels and a series of Jebels on our right. I saw a large tan pigeon ,called a gutter bird, and also the single [[end page]]
130 birds large crested larks ,and also several black martins by a well. In the wells and springs we saw numerous large and small [[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] and frogs. In one small oasis, we heard and saw numerous cicadas on the palm trees. Dick got hold of one specimen. They sound the same as the ones in the states and about the same size. We arrived about 12:15 at our native house in Hofhūf. The streets are all [[strikethrough]] mud [[/strikethrough]] quite wide. and the houses built of white mud. The trip was about 90 miles and was not bad. In one spring pond I saw a red dragonfly, notonectids, whirligig beetles, and giant water beetles brownish in color. In some ponds there is blue green algae as there was in this. In others is bright green filamentous [[underline]] Spirogyra [[/underline]] like algae, and other thick tan green scum algae. We were going to see the Emir at 4 P.M.; it turned out we did not go till 10:45 P.M. Benji-Louie sounds like part of his name. He is Emir of Al Hasa and signed the letter for the Palestine. He looks about 45 and is fairly stout. He was quite and soft spoken but had humor, we just sort of explained our presence and business in mind which he already knew, but we did for courtesy. We stayed about 15 minutes or 20 thru a round of coffee and tea. His guards were well supplied with swords in silver scabbards, and there were a few guns around. His throne was a sea blue with some decorations and there were simple sofas along side. He did not express optimism for larger fish which is a good sign, but was not against the idea. We slept out on the roof under the stars which was quite cool. July 30- We slept under mosquitoe nets and in the morning Dick got a good collection of small sand flies (the bad kind), numerous calex mosquitoes including one male, and one female [[underline]] Anopheles [[/underline]]. This morning we went out in the field at 7:30 A.M. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 131 [[/right corner]] with Sheik Rāshed as our guide, and Mohammed bin Salim as our interpreter. Outside the near by town of Al Jaffur there was a small deep well, and a few small puddles where water had probably spilled and the was some green algae and they were full of small [[underline]] Anopheles [[/underline]] larvae. From there we went to see the wells and springs ("ain") in the various date gardens. We also went to see the large lake "Asfer" which was entirely dry but was thick with small green vegetation bushes, sedge, grass etc. Then we went to see the large "ains" of El Kadood and Al Hagul. El Khadood was the most interesting and the larger of the two At the head end was close to 50 ft. deep of clear water. There were also numerous rice pattys with about 3 or 4 inches of water. There were numerous grey frogs and also grey frogs with black spots. In one deep pond there was a brown and white flat shelled turtle about 10", and later in the day I saw a black painted turtle. There were a couple of large species of water beetles and I got them. I also saw quite a number of 3 inch mullet ([[underline]] chelon [[/underline]]), but we could not catch them. We had one in the net a couple of times and they cleared the top line by jumping over. I thought I saw some [[underline]] Gambusia [[underline]] like fish on the surface of the turtle ponds, but they were probably [[underline]] C. dispar [[/underline]]. Some of the killies are enormous and they are all rather darker in color than specimens from salt water. In one date garden I saw a small thrasher like bird with a ^[[insertion]] tan [[/insertion]] grey back and reddish brown large tail & also a smaller wren sized bird grey with a black tail (also large). I saw a glimpse of highly colored light blue iridescent bird which [[Sagaz?]] said might have been a kingfisher. It was about that size. In the early afternoon, we went to Jebel Gara a large [[end page]]
[[start page]] *"Kim"="sim" see June 11, p. 83 hill of reddish tan rocks of clayey substance. There was a long cave in one side which was 77°F inside and the outside air temperature was 117°F. We slept for awhile in the cave for a couple of hours. It was almost too cold for me. There were small silver wing bats flitting around tho the cave was not very dark. The sky light hole was about 110 feet above us ,and let in a little sunlight. In the sand outside the temperature was 50°c. I lost both my thermometers today, one in the morning and one in the afternoon!!! Before lunch we visited the sheiks house for a game of Kairam a pool like game with checkers. We also had some of the kings fresh dates, and they were good. They are put up in 2 qut. boxes made of palm branch wood. In Mohammets family garden there were peach trees ,figs, citrons, red dates ,and yellow dates, and a nut like tree that produces the "Sim*" berry used for fish poison. The trees had a 3 inch trunk like a walnut the leaves were pinnately compound. The berries were like small green grapes. When we got back to the house at 7 P.M. we were bushed. But Dick and Joe were heroic and when back with me at 10 P.M. to El Khadood ,and we saw another brown and white turtle ,and saw and heard plenty of frogs roaking they sounded most like leopard frogs. I caught one male grey one with black spots. We saw less mullet than in the day time ,and they were not near shore; so we did not seine. There were a few clouds in the sky before sunset. The weather was clear. The boys beat on tin drums a good part of the night and sang in sort of a whine ,then there is the prayer caller who sounds like he is straining his voice. And then there was the gun that went off ,and it was also hot. [[strikethrough]] Went [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 7/31 letter to Lucile 133 re: plane leaving Aug. 8 July 31- Today was fairly clear ,and the three of us left for Dhahran about 7:30 A.M. . We got there about 11:30 ,and had stopped for a second breakfast at Abgaig. Mr Johnson approved my getting a pickup to collect in Hofhif. I saw Ed Gurley and he had two letters one from Hussein and one from Nat from Bermuda. I had a most miserable rough and hot trip to Ras Tanura from 12 to 1. There was no mail for me in Ras Tanura; they haven't sorted any mail for two days, thats' the pay off. I got the poison from the boat and a dip net ,and found out my plane the gazelle, leaves Aug. 8th, which ^[[insertion]] was [[/insertion]] sooner than I thought but I am inwardly glad. I got back to Dhahran at 4:40, and Mr. Bier did not have my ration book but had it for me in the morning. Below the mess hall I saw a black and [[underline]] white woodpecker [[/underline]] about the same size and color as the red bellied woodpecker. It head was black and tail black. The tail was shortish and the bill long and it flew the jerky flight of woodpeckers. We visited the Rentze's then Daggy before supper. Jim Stewart wants me to take a watch to his wife in New York. We went to the movies tonight and saw "desert fury" with good color but little else. Aug 1- Joe and I did not get away till about 9:45 A.M. tho I had to get my pick up at 5:45. He had a long talk with Mr. Johnson. It was 64 Km. to Abqaiq and 72 Km. to Hofhūf. It was a rough trip for my yesterdays sore back. We ate lunch at Abqaig at 11:30 and reached Hofhūf about 2:30 P.M. I was bushed it was about 110°F in the house. I wrote several letters. At 5:30 P.M., Abdullah the house boy and I went to El Khadood. I used about 3 Quts. of rotenone. The flow was fast and carried the cloud away quickly [[end page]]
134 and for 2 or 3 minutes it seemed nothing appeared, and I thought it was a failure. Then a number of mullet started striking the surface and acted crazy and even went up in a narrow small canal, so I picked up over a dozen 2-3 inches long. There were a lot of kids around who were a damn nuisance so I did not hang around long. The killies were also hit but it seemed to me that they were not as easily affected as the mullet, and very few large killies were hurt at all. Frogs were all over the place on the grass and they were eating small killies by the dozens. It was hot tonight and they drove a noisy truck back and forth near the house for an hour or so. Then the drum beaters started in again about 4 hours later, only they were louder and more of them this time. Aug 2 - Cool at dawn and about 2 1/2 hrs. afterwards where it was 88°F air temperature in the date gardens. It was hazy early in the morning with the sun a silver ball, but it cleared up later on. Abdulla Atīf helped me again as my guide to the different ains. The three new ains we visited were all about N.E. of ain Khadood. In fact we passed over the stream part of El Khadood further east. The first ain we stopped at was Al Jeffūr. It was a small ain with a small flow of water it was about 18 ft. deep and 50 ft. in diameter and was almost round. There was a donkey irrigation well near by which I have illustrated because there was not enough light to take a picture. [[IMAGE: drawing of water well, with donkey walking down an incline. Labeled elements are: goat skin, native mud, cement, well, water]] I used the dip net and caught a frog, a painted turtle, several killies, water striders, and stinging water bugs and a straight spiral tiny snail which is not good news but there were [[end page]] [[start page]] 135 mostly curved spiral snails with thin shells. Frogs were abundant, and there was abundant dark green rooted [[underline]] chara [[/underline]] like weed but no grass. The water was not as clear as most ains and there were apparently no mullet here. The donkeys that work hauling irrigation water are covered with old scars and fresh open sores and cuts and look in pretty rough shape. The rope and sweat probably cut into the hide. The next ain a little further N.E. was another long ain with a deep round spring at the head end like El Khadood and a stream of fair size going east from it, and a small stream going west, thus it overflowed in two opposite directions. The water temperature at Jeffūr was 87°F, and 1 1/2 hours later I got almost 89° at ain Fray henna. Frayhenna is similar to El Khadood but is smaller. In the spring I got a reading of 30 ft. There were apparently mullet present. So I mixed the usual 3 quts[[?]] of poison and laid it deep in the middle of one side of the ain. It tended to drift towards the smaller outlet but slowly. It soon dispersed and within 2 minutes there were mullet rushing around the surface all over the place almost jumping out on the bank upon the grass at the water's edge. It was quite a while before the killies were affected in mass, but when they were it hit them hard. Dead fish drifted as much as 500 yds down the big stream a few jumped into the entrance of the little stream some sank in the spring. Numerous fish were not recovered because a good collection had been made. I also got a couple of black leeches with red lined sides. In the house in the early morning, I caught a small lizard
136/ [[upper margin note]] Hofūf letters Aug. 3 - Lucile, Larry, Roz, Nat, folks, Dr. Hora, 2 to Dr. Schultz [[/margin note]] and a beetle. The next ain [[insertion]] ^ "Mulhīs" [[/insertion]] we visited was more or less north, and was situated in front of a two story good looking Arab house, there were numerous rice paties [[sic]] around probably fed from this spring. And there were also some palms. It was large and square bordered by native cement. It was about 100 feet square. It was possibly 40 feet at its deepest part and root [[underline]] chara [[/underline]] was growing at a depth of 25 ft. It was crystal clear water was a pretty blue color. I only took pictures here. There were no readily visible outlets but I presume there were some. I saw a few killies but no mullet. Because of all the frogs around my mind turned to the idea of bull frogs, for frog farming. This was the last ain I visited, and we returned for lunch. I made quite a collection of pond weeds. All these three ains were in the same series of date gardens and were not separated by desert. At 3:30 P.M. the temperature inside the house was 108°F and outside on the concrete in the sun 131°F. air temperature in the sun 113°F. This afternoon, I wrote a letter to Dr. Hora and wrote notes and wrapped specimens and helped the boys move their generator motor unit into place which was a job, then it was 7 P.M. Buck and Joe finally got the generator working and we had lights tonite, what a luxury! I worked on letters till 11:15 P.M. Aug 3 - The drummers got busy on the drums and singing last nite; I rather had hoped I would sleep thru them, but I didn't. Then some guys started playing a tatoo with a stick on a camel and the camels groaned, and I didn't sleep much after that. The generator plant ran well all nite. We got up at 6 A.M. again when it is still dark, and had breakfast. This morning I [[end page]] [[start page]] 137 [[upper margin note]] In the date gardens I saw a bluish skink lizard with black and yellow stripes on the back (about 8" long including tail) not far from 'ain Khadūd. [[/margin note]] wrote my Hofūf report of my findings and recommended the introduction of carp, and a later experimental introduction of bull frogs. I also, at Joe's suggestion, drew up a short sub report on the possibilities of [[strikethrough]] some [[/strikethrough]] production of sardine fish meal and fish oil, and the use of trash fish and fish carcasses as raw fertilizer. About 9:30 A.M. Joe and I headed for the date gardens and went far in to the east and fished in one of the eastern branches of Al Khadūd. Joe wanted to look at some of the rice patties he is going to plough this fall. I was quite surprised to find mullet in small stream pools in two places. They are wider spread than I had thought. I used three quarts of poison above a pool just below a road culvert the pool was about 10 feet across 15 feet long and 5 feet in its deepest part. Water grass was very thick all over the stream above the culvert; it was only on the sides below. The temperature of the water was 86°F. There was also another hard [[underline]] chara [[/underline]] like weed in one place close to the bank, and I collected some. There were hundreds of whirligig beetles, and a few water boatmen, etc. This afternoon, Buck Dougherty and I left for Dhahran which we reached at 6:30 P.M., and we stopped off at Abqaiq as usual for a rest. I ate in Dhahran and reached Ras Tanura about 8 P.M. and had some good mail waiting for me. I showed Ed my report, and we talked quite a bit about the survey till about 12 P.M. He showed me his report on the second ain trip, and says he saw more pelagic fish than in March. Aug. 4 - I got up at 5:45 A.M. got my pick up, had breakfast, and went out to pick up my stuff from the Palestine
138/ Aug. 4 -letters to Lucile & Dad Aug.5 letter to Hussain I weighed 162 on the fish scales. Ahmed had some fresh "cut" for me. My boxes were made up in the carpenters shop. And I had quite a bit of hauling to do and unloading and loading. Ed helped me out. We left for Dhahran about 12:45 and reached it about 2:15 P.M. I took my stuff (2 boxes) to the storehouse to hold for loading on the plane. I saw Mr. Bier, Cooper, Daggy, Dr. J. de Loughherty, Jim Stewart etc. I am to have my physical exam in Dhahran Saturday. I saw a crow today which was a lot smaller than the raven Ed and I saw at El Azzizia, but it (the one I saw on the Ras Tanura road) was regular crow size. Ed and I got back from Dhahran about 9:30 and were in bed dead tired at 10:15. Aug. 5 - Up at 6 A.M. this morning but no trucks. I spent all morning wrapping and packaging specimens, but I finally got done; and am ready to go to the storehouse this afternoon. I borrowed Mr. Teltmain's truck and nearly died from sweating in that back storehouse, it was enough to drive you crazy. I knocked open the barrel and there was only a formalin stink; all the fish were rusty. I discarded about 10 fish including one large mackerel, the large sbaiti, a small hamoor, the large barracuda, a fashar, a [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] nebulosus, the large puffer, a couple of parrotfish, and one or two mackerel siads. The rest I saved and filled out my 8 gal. tank. I hope they do not discolor the other specimens. I got thru about 4 P.M. and then went back to the house for a shower rested 1 1/2 hours. Typed the Kofūf report till 7:30, had supper, a haircut, and finished the report 11:15 P.M. And I was very tired, and I will be glad not to do any reports for awhile. I saved out box #16 with 16 gal. tank of rotenone for Ed Gurley, also gave him hypodermic [[end page]] [[start page]] Hofuf reports-to Schultz, Gurley, 2 to Smith, Ohligher + Hora letter 139 [[strikethrough]] Aug. 6 - [[/strikethrough]] syringe, 3 hypodermic needles, barrel of formalin 2/3 full, 1 25' minnow seine, 1 6 ft. minnow seine, 1 spool linen thread, tin tags, 3 regular but curved needles, 1 fish gig, 2 eel pots. Aug 6 - I got to bed about 1 A.M. last night but slept well and got up at 8:45 A.M. and had breakfast. Below is the approximate fresh color of the mullet from the Hofūf springs. [[image: hand drawn mullet fish, colored in as described in previous and following sentences, note below the fish: "Hurt"]] The silver stripe along the side between two narrow black stripes is the most striking color of the fish or rather marking. All the fins are clear except the caudal which is short and dusky. The under parts are white silver. In the water the fish has an olive green appearance from above. And as I said before they are all skilled jumpers. At 11:30 A.M., Ed told me the "Tarut" was ready anytime, so I went over and got a bag lunch to take along. I got out to the fish pier about noon, and swam out to get to the row boat which was half full of water. There is still only one oar lock, the two ordered several months ago never appeared. The bottom of the Palestine looks like a forest from sitting around the pier so long. All these signs hardly make me regret that I am leaving ARAMCO. Saif engineer and a new Abdulla from the "Palestine" were the crew. Incidentally 4 Abdullas have been crew on the "Palestine." We left [[strikethrough]] that [[/strikethrough]] fish pier about 12:30 and returned about 8:00 P.M. shortly before sundown. Our course was mostly south by east from Ras Tanura. There was a light northerly wind when we left, and the Gulf was calm, but by the time we passed abeam the new Damman pier the wind freshened N by W to small
140 we saw a dead [[underline]] ablennes hians [[/underline]] floating when we cast anchor west of Chaschuse Id. white caps. The wind was even a little stronger on the return trip, and was quite wet. There were quite a few small high cumulus and cirrus clouds in the sky. There was a distant haze but visibility was good a couple of miles or more. The tide was ebbing and near dead low at Ras Tanura at noon. It was starting to come in when we reached Chaschuse Id. We anchored off the west side of Chaschuse Id. and I struggled ashore paddling the rowboat; of course I had to bail it out first. Being Rhamadan etc. I had the crew stay aboard. I passed over a pretty large area of live coral; branch coral and brain coral in about a fathom of water. I saw no fish but visibility was not good. Inside of the coral area was a coral rock area which was alive with black short spined sea urchins. I did not tarry for them, however, because I had business ashore. The last 200 yds. or so was sand bottom from 2 to 3 feet deep. There were about 30 cormorants sitting on the sand beach, and they took off a bit when I arrived on shore. I went over to the east side where we anchored once with the "Palestine" where the water is deeper a lot closer to shore, but there might be some coral rock bottom there also. I saw a group of coral rocks sticking out from shore, and there was a whole flock of terns about 50 (the white & dusky ones) and one oyster catcher. On the way to Chaschuse we passed a single mast dhow with a pointed stern and a crew of about 20. Saif said it was ^[[insertion]] a [[/insertion]]a Bushire boat, and is called a "farsi." I looked for the porpoise skeleton along both shores in vicinity of the inland pond, but being the island is at least a mile long at low tide, I decided to forego racing all over the beach. The air temperature in the boat cabin while running was 38˚C, 39˚C in the sun outside the cabin, 48˚C [[end page]] [[start page]] 141 on the deck in the sun. The water temperature just under the surface of the water inshore was 39˚C, and also the pond temperature was 39˚C. The air temperature was about 40˚C in the sun. The island is all bare sand except for about a dozen or so widely scattered small glass wort like plants. A few minutes later I saw 3 oyster catchers [[image of long, narrow island with 3 pond areas; labels include cardinal coordinates, numbers 1, 2 and 3 encircled and Chaschuse Id.]] flying along with there distinctive single whistle note. The above illustration shows the approximate position and relative size of the ponds of Chaschuse Id. The ponds empty to the south and out the east end of the Island. They are also situated towards the southern end of the island. The bottom of the inland ponds varied from sand where the tide was strongest to mud sand where the tide was not so strong in the ponds. At low tide the deepest part of the ponds might have been 5 ft., but it was hard to tell by looking. There were 2 real connected ponds of roughly 200 feet in diameter. The only vegetation was a green scum algae. The tide continued to go out of the ponds at least a half hour after the tide started to come in. This was the case when I arrived. I poisoned 2 places one a little side pool with a narrow connection to the main stream at the south end, and pond no. 2 near the center, and one small [[?hilly]] in the far reaches of the upper end in about a 1/2 inch of water. At the waters edge of the north pond I saw 2 large sand pipers one looked very much like a ♂ turnstone with the black throat and brown back, the other was probably a ♀. On the high part of the beach just west of the ponds I saw about the weirdest bird, I ever laid eyes on. Because it teetered a couple of times I imagine it was a sandpiper; it was slightly
smaller than a killdeer (but there the resemblance ends) The bill was long and black and the flat narrow crest was exactly parallel with it sort of like a shoe maker's hammer. [[image: drawing of bird with the words "hoopoe" and "guess who?" full description is in following sentence]] The bill also curved slightly downwards. The head and underparts were a tan sand color the wings and tail were white strongly barred with black the feet were black and not particularly long. The crest disappeared from sight in a miraculous way in flight, sort of the way herons (especially the "quarks") lose their necks in flight. From then on I ignored birds. There were some cat's eye snails and ^[[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] other ones in the rocks on the east side (already mentioned) and some of those purple black crabs. In area [[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] I used a half gallon of rotenone, and recovered 2 [[underlined]] Platycephalus [[/underlined]], numerous mullet, [[underlined]] Sillago [[/underlined]], Hemirhamphus, [[underlined]] Sparus datnia [[/underlined]], and a couple of [[underlined]] Terapon jaibea [[/underlined]]. In area [[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] the center of the pond was dark in color I thought it was bottom grass, but when it moved en masse I saw it was solid atherinids both the white finned and black finned varieties. There were also numerous mullet, some 'afti, [[underlined]] Sparus datnia [[/underlined]], gerrids, a few small [[underlined]] Sargus noct [[underlined]]. Some larger fish were cutting the school up, and I had a glimpse of one about 10 inches long and it looked like a grey snapper but might have been an [[underlined]] S. cuvieri [[underlined]]. The athernids really took a beating from the poison, and were along the beach for quite a ways they were all medium size 1 1/2 - 2 1/2 inches. The mullet reached possibly 4 inches. I packed all the fish in that I could into two small bottles and left. I cursed and sweated all the way out in the row boat using the net handle as an extra oar lock. Saif had started the motor up which helped and we got off back to Ras Tanura. I [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug. 7 letters - Lucile, Schultz with Hofūf report, Hofuf reports to Smith, Ohligher, and Daggy. letter to Mary Leonardini 143 rested a while till the boards got too hard. There were 11 or 12 freighters around east pier. The tide was about flood when we reached the fish pier. I stayed up late getting things ready and packed up. Aug 7- Up at 6 A.M. got things in order, and stopped by Feltman's office to give him two copies [["copies" with overwriting]] of my inventory for the equipment, and I met up with a fellow, [[insertion]] Ned [[/insertion]] Daniels-who is going to Dhahran, but even he had his troubles getting transportation. Dan finally got an ideal car, a coupe with a truck back, and we arrived in Dhahran at 10:30 A.M. and I got Jim's watch to take to his wife, and found out that my plane was leaving Aug. 9th instead of Aug 8th. I dropped alot of bottles off with Daggy, and they wanted me (Mr. [[Cranford? Crawford?]] to look up Paul Oman) in the museum). I finally got my 3 ruppees back from the Aug. 1, breakfast I paid for. It was quite an involved procedure. I had good luck getting my boxes from the storehouse by taxi, and am back again at 1411. Later I talked with Mr. Savage and later Mr. Duncan on my ideas of the fishery problems. I told them I thought the outlook was very encouraging as regards the fish supply. I took my physical exam about 5 P.M. and I was O.K. and now weigh 165 lbs. so I am gaining steadily. I used up my 25 rupees buying 5 T shirts, because I would have trouble getting dollars for them. Jim gave me his corrected list of Arabic fish names, and he had found out quite a bit. This evening, I saw Abbott and Costello in the "Widow of Willow Gap" which was quite amusing; the chief crack being marriage is a 3 ring circus; an engagement ring, wedding ring, and suffering.
[[start page]] Aug 8- I had the runs last night after sort of a stomach ache, so my sleep was rather interrupted. But I managed to stay more or less unconscious until 9:15 A.M. Feltman called yesterday to say there was a lot of mail for me ,and he would try to send it down, or I could come up for it. I don't think I am in the mood to go up for it. I worked all morning copying down a list of corrected scientific, English ,and Arab names for the Persian Gulf. This afternoon there was still no mail so I went up to Ras Tanura and saw Feltman ,and he said he had sent it down; so I went back again ,and still no mail. So I went to see Joe Heftner and he said they had the motor out of the "Gazelle" and the plane would not leave tomorrow. Later he came around with the mail which cheered me up a bit. Vinc came in for a talk later about snakes, etc., and that passed the time til 8:25 P.M. ,and I just squeezed under the rope for supper. I went to bed early. Aug 9- I got up late and it was fair and sunny ,and I feel better today than yesterday. They had a safety poster contest yesterday ,but only one appealed to me. It was the only one that hit the real point and was really original. [[image: poster outline with "You may be tough but Aramco trucks are tougher" at top, a drawing of a Rhinocerus, and on bottom: "Give them room!"]] I did not vote, however, as I am not a regular employee. The others were all similar and sort of the poly anna type about what a good thing safety is etc. This morning, I went to see Jim to get some corrections on the fish name list ,and I copied the list back into my log again; so when questions arise I can easily check back. I got my fish name list pretty well corrected and [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 145 [[/right corner]] back into my log. I left a copy with Jim Stewart with my corresponding numbers. I also checked Maj. Lane and Blegvad for name similarites with theirs and my names,and entered them on pp. 168-169. I talked with Mr. Edwards, Jr. from Al Kharj today at lunch and he gave me some interesting information on the springs or "'ain" at Al Kharj. He says they are not very wide by are very deep as much as 70 feet(?) ,but they are in the open without shade ,and apparently almost no vegetation and the sides fall off towards the bottom in ledges. He did not say that there were any fish there ,but from what he said the prospects do not sound favorable there at all. He also said he knew C.B. Nelson at Jidda, who had attempted to set up a shark industry in the Red Sea ,and he told me where I might find out his address in the states. I think Dr. Hildebrand knows Mr. Nelson. It seemed hot again today, but may be I am getting soft from the air conditioning. I saw Joe again today and the prospects for departure tomorrow of the "Gazelle" do not look good, but he said if it does leave he will let me know by 5 P.M. I guess my luck just isn't good. The bad news came again, the plane will not leave tomorrow. I wrote a short bit on arab name similarity. This evening, I went to the movies as usual and saw "The Miracle of 34th St" with beautiful Maureen O'Hara and John Payne. It was centered around Macy's Xmas parade and a true Santa Claus. Aug 10- I had the runs a bit last night, so I got some paragoric & pills at the clinic. Then I went to the library when it opened and read most of "The Shenandoah" by Julia Davis which was an interesting and detailed history of this beautiful section of Virginia, which is really not far from our present house. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 146./ This afternoon I read some more of "The Shenandoah" and also a story by Dicken's centered around "Belize" an island off British Honduras. The title was "The Hardships of certain English prisoners" or something similar. I found out the bad news again tonight that now the "Gazelle" is expected to leave Thursday so I am doomed another day in Dhahran. I met De La Mar tonight and he was friendly and seems to have a real understanding of a scientist's frame of mind. I scared up 2 or 3 games of chess this evening in the club house which helped to pass the time pleasantly. Aug. 11- Article on similar fish names sent to "Sun and Flare." I feel better today, and rumors still persist that the "Gazelle" is going to leave tomorrow. I went to the library this morning and read short stories, and attended the morning movies. In the afternoon, I continued reading short stories. At 4:30 P.M. I found out the unbelievably good news that "the Gazelle" is leaving tomorrow. That is the best news, I have heard for 5 months. That means we ought to get to New York Sunday, I hope. I guess I would never quite have realized how much I would miss Lucile ,till these 5 months; but now it is good to be homeward bound. Ed Gurley came down to Dhahran tonight. Aug. 12- Sometime early this morning an Indian or Arab stuck his head in the door (it later turned out to be 3:15 A.M.) and I of course assumed he was my chauffeur. I would have been completely convinced I was "sand happy" if Ed had not also seen and responded to this same apparition. At any rate we carried out the bags after getting dressed and there was no Arab or pick up insight. So Ed went down to the car pool to get his car ,and I phoned the pool meanwhile [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug 12- letters to Lucile, Larry and Marion 147 and found out that it was 3:30 A.M. and the[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] guy was convinced that I was seeing things. Ed came back after a while with his car and said rumors were that the "Gazelle" might not even leave. So I showed him my latest notes ,and then we went and had breakfast around 4:15 A.M. We checked back at the car pool around 5 A.M. ,and the cheerful news that the "Gazelle's" flight was postponed indefinitely was reconfirmed; so we went back to bed. I got up again about 8:30(??) and called Joe and he confirmed the news and said they would try to get me out some other way, but that my equipment might present a problem, at any rate more could be found out later. To say that this is a disappointment to me would not only be an understatement but rather an anti-climax. I spent the whole morning in an office reading short histories of Arabian states awaiting the verdict on my fate. My two boxs are to be shipped when and if a carburetor is obtained for the "Gazelle" in the states (two weeks or more at least). I can leave via Pan-Am. on Monday, Aug.16th. I started reading this afternoon Mrs. Ralph Riches "We took to the Woods" which Lucile has just read. This evening ,after supper I fell asleep on the bed with the lights on, and I didn't turn them out for the longest time. Aug. 13- There was a fairly strong N.W. breeze early this morning and it seemed cool until nearly 10 A.M. I had breakfast around 9 A.M. ,and then went swimming in the pool for an hour or so. It is nice but rather small, and is best like it was when not crowded. I also talked with the "Camel" pilots ,and they explained the Gander route because there are too many head winds crossing directly west to New York. [[end page]]
148/ See Daggy for snakes on Sat. Then I went to the movies and saw Red Skelton in "Merton of the movies", which was an amusing comedy. This afternoon, I read more of "We took to the woods" and it is very pleasant and informative reading. This evening, I started composing a vindictive about the Arabian fly. Aug. 14 - Today I took my two boxes to George Jeannerette at the new storehouse, and he will take care of them to send them on the "Gazelle" when it goes. It is charged to SP6620, and I think they are in good hands. I made the 8 A.M. bus to Ras Tanura and they are scraping the road and the desert wasn't too hot at that time. I did find my Persian Gulf coast pilot in the boat, and arrived just as Gurley was moving to his new room; so I was drafted along with Ahmed. This afternoon, I got interested in "Lover of Life" a novel of a 17th century flemmish artist, which used up the afternoon, but I was able to close the book, and take the 6 P.M. back to Dhahran. And a very interesting talk with 2 other fellows developped on labor and management and some of the drawbacks that exist over here. The trip was pleasantly cool; I had more or less sworn that I wasn't going to take any more desert blast furnace trips in the middle of the day. I had a new roommate again tonight. Aug 15 - Fair and hot today. This morning, I spent over in Daggy's office getting his various specimens plus some films to be mailed to his Mother. We also went out to a private lawn to collect some leaf hoppers for Paul Oman at the U.S.N.M. Daggy got hundreds of small ones just by sweeping back and forth with an insect net over the tops of the grass. It took [[end page]] [[start page]] 149 us sometime to sort them into alcohol vials. I called Joe Heftner then housing & personnel and the Pan.-Am. is leaving 5 A.M. tomorrow morning. And we are to go for a baggage check 6:30 P.M. today from the mess hall. I am glad we are leaving early tomorrow morning. This afternoon, I went on a field trip with Daggy and Joe Smith who was in town. Joe was rather surprised to see me! We went as far as the outskirts of Qatif, and stopped at two places near Dammam, and one at saihat on the way. Daggy was after mosquitoes in the local "boracities", and Joe was anxious to meet an Arab in Dummam (or rather in a nice house in a garden near by). He is an Egyptian ^[[insertion]] Hassein [[/insertion]] from Cairo and has written a book on Arabian agriculture. The first place we stopped at was a rural home. Daggy disappeared inside to collect mosquitoes. Joe and I looked at a small spring and a date garden near by, and looked at the outdoor bedding. Then on to the Egyptian. The spring we looked at at the first place was 36°C with the air 41°c. Ain "Tūwazē" was its name there were some blue greens and no fish. The Egyptian's garden had even roses and other pretty flowers, alfalfa, etc. We left Joe to talk farming, and went on to Saihat. While Daggy disappeared after mosquitoes again I took a few pictures and looked around, and found a small pool about 3 feet deep and 4' in diameter. It was full of long spiral snails, U-48-167, some of which I collected, a few notonectids, and a little blue green, and alot of brown scum algae. To go back, Daggy and I saw an iridescent bright blue green crow on the fence of Hassein's garden. I am glad Daggy saw it, otherwise, I would have assumed that I was just seeing things.
[[start page]] 150/ Beyond Dammam the road was unfamiliar to me. As we approached Qatif we passed a summer Bedu village in the outskirts with the old Portugese fort on a small hill in the back ground. I wished I had saved some film for it ,but I had rather wasted it at Saihat. We stopped just this side of Qatif and passed a field full of melons ,and then went in a gate and back to a native hut with a crew of Arabs and numerous black goats. It was a typical native palm hut ,and Daggy knelt down with his sucking bottle and tube which sucks in the mosquitoes. [[image to left: a Drawing of a small hut, like described in previous sentence]] There were a few in the darker parts of the room on the palm leaves of the wall just above the floor. He got about 2 dozen and it was 104°F inside even with the shade. The roof was hardly rain proof. We returned and found Joe had eten several water mellons; Hassein persuaded us to stay, but we had to get back to Dhahran, so I could make the 6:30 bus to the airport. I had time to swallow supper whole in 15 minutes and make the bus ,and then out to the airport for customs and to weigh baggage in [[insertion]] to [[/insertion]] the plane which took about 2 hours, then back to Dhahran again, to leave for airport at 3:30 A.M., a ragged life! We saw dates drying on the ground. Aug. 16- To say that I really slept last night would be an untruth. I tried to drink plenty of water to be sure I had to get up. But as is so often the case water does not have the expected effect here. I only got up twice to phone for the time 1:30 A.M. and 2:27 , the second time was just right to make a 3:00 A.M. breakfast ,and get on the bus at 3:30 A.M. [[end page]] [[start page]] 151 Then I left Dhahran for the last time (though I had my doubts for awhile) without regrets. We were all on the plane at 5:00 A.M. ready to go. One of the booster pumps for a carburetor didn't go so there was a 6 and 1/4 hour delay until they finally got the thing fixed ,and we left at 11:15 A.M. Meanwhile ironically enough the "Gazelle" left at 8 A.M. (I hope with my boxes aboard.) I will not enter into how time was passed; it barely crawled along ,and the benches were hard to sleep on. There is mostly just sand between Dhahran and Damascus. We arrived at Damascus about 3 P.M. There are many beautiful gardens and cultivated fields in the area of Damascus with numerous trees but all apparently planted. I saw a large buzzard like bird tan in color with black and white wings. There were also English sparrows ,and the crested larks like the ones in Arabia. There was a willow like tree in the center of a small park ,but probably none of the greenery was originally native to the valley. There were barren sand rock mountains approximately north and south of Damascus walling the city in a valley. We had lunch at Damascus airport ,and left without trouble in about 1 hour. We arrived in Istanbul about 3 hours before sunset. The airport is several miles from the city. The sea of Bosporus is surrounded by steep and rather barren hills, but with some apparent scrub tree growth. There was quite a strong northwest wind with white caps on the sea. I saw a couple of dhow like rigs and one small fore and aft sloop with two jubs. Flying over it the water was very clear with a tropical look to it. The air was quite cool almost cold and there was a short spell of rain from large cumulus clouds. There was quite a pretty sunset. The fields around the airport were covered with a rough thin tan grass something like [[end page]]
the fields by the sea in New England. A small kind of queen ann's lace was abundant, some old white daisies, small mullen like weeds, yellow daisies, 2 or three kinds of thistle with one kind with a bright blue stem. I saw one maple tree with leaves shaped like the sugar maple, but it was different and then locusts jist like [[underline]] Robinia pseudoacacia [[/underline]] except the bean pods were thinner and less than half as long. There was one wind mill just like ones on Long Island, and there were gull like herring gulls only smaller. To the south across the water were two barren dumpling like islands; the gravel or rock was tan in color, and one had a white light house on it. [[image: drawing of an island with a lighthouse]] They were in the process of finding trouble with the airplane, but after some delay, we finally got off after sunset, bound for London. We also ate at Istanbul. We arrived in London around 4:00 A.M. The night was clear and we passed over strips of sea and I also think the Alps or some mountains which looked high and rugged. London was a pretty sight from the air with its myraids of yellow, white, and light green lights. Our welcome in London airport consisted of watered coffee and hard bread sandwiches and a long wait. The starting of a bridge game ended it nicely. We left just before dawn. Aug. 17- Our next stop was beautiful Shannon Ireland which was beautiful and green with lush green fields and rounded haystacks, and the beautiful wide Shannon river. We got a royal welcome, and a wonderful breakfast, and and were sorry to leave. We had a good trip to Gander with, however, a head wind of 33 m.p.h. and at 10,000 ft 50°F outside, and around [[end page]] [[start page]] 153 70°F at Gander. The greeness and the blue lakes of Gander were beautiful to look at. Even in summer the evergreens are far in predominance. We stopped at Gander long enough [[strikethrough]] So [[/strikethrough]] that I could send a cable to Lucile, and cut my chin with a borrowed razor. It was the shortest stop. We reached La Guardia 5 p.m. New York time. Then we waited around interminably thru customs, but I was lucky, and did not have much delay once my bags were looked at. It was swell to have Lucile and all the family waiting for me at the airport, including George and Gladys. We [[strikethrough]] reached [[/strikethrough]] left the airport probably after 6:30 P.M. and all had dinner at the apartment. Reptiles & Amphibians collected for U.S.N.M. [[underline]] Rana ridibunda [[/underline]] [[underline]] Hydrophis [[/underline]] sp. [[underline]] Clemmys c. caspica [[/underline]] [[underline]] Chelonia mydas [[/underline]] (baby loggerhead) [[underline]] Diplometopon zarudnyi [[/underline]] (worm like lizard [[underline]] Khaduf [[/underline]] Spring, Al Hasa R.H. Daggy
Revised list of Fish names (cross referenced) Phylogenetic order [[underline]] after Blegvad [[/underline]] [[top right corner of right page]] 155 [[/top right corner]] [[table (going across both pages), with 6 columns, and column labels: __, Scientific name, English equivalent, Arabic Persian Gulf, Arabic Red sea at Jidda, remarks]] | Scientific name| English equivalent| Arabic Persian Gulf| Arabic Red sea at Jidda| remarks 1.| Carcharinus| true sharks| naud (small) yaryūr khattaf(large)| oz(small) guerche(large| 2.| Chiloscyllium griseum| nurse shark| hayyasah| 3.| Zygaena| hammer head| agran| 4.| Pristis| saw fish ray| sayyafī| 5.| Rhinobatus granulatus| guitar ray| hirairī (small)| mihrat| 6.| Rhynchobatus djiddensis| [[strikethrough]] djid [[/strikethrough]] spotted guitar ray| sūs (large)| 7.| Trygon gerradi| sting ray| lakhmah| 8.| Chriocentrus dorab| large tooth herring| hiff| 9.| Chanos chanos| milkfish| [[strikethrough]] salmonī[[/strikethrough]]| salmonī| 10.| Trygon sephen| sting ray| lakhmah| lugetta| 11.| Duss umiera| | ūm| 12.| Dorosoma| | īwāf| 13.| Engraulis| anchovy| Ūm| 14.| Sardinella| sardine| ūm| 15.| Platosus anguillaris| poison catfish| 'āī| 16.| Arius thalassinus| sea catfish| kimm| 17.| Ophicthydae| | naukūkah| | P.Gulf 18.| " [[ditto for: Ophicthydae]] ?| | | | Red Sea 19.| Gymnothorax flavomarginata| morays| | shaka 20.| Gymnothorax javanicus| " [[ditto for: morays]]| 21.| Gymnothorax buroensis| " [[ditto for: morays]]| 22.| Gymnothorax petelli| " [[ditto for: morays]]| 23.| Gymnothorax sp. | " [[ditto for: morays]]|
[[top right page]] 157 [[/right page]] [[table using both pages to accommodate columns]] [[table headings]] [[blank]] | [[blank]] | English | P. Gulf | Red Sea | Remarks [[/table headings]] 24. | Conger | conger eel 25. | Tylosurus | billfish | hāqūl (large), ubbari (small) | hilm 26. | " [[Ditto for Tylosurus]] | " [[Ditto for billfish]] 27. | Ablennes hians | flat sided billfish | ghurraidhí 28. | Hemirhamphus | sils 29. | " [[Ditto for Hemirhamphus]] 30. | Dermogenys 31. | Exocoetidoe | [[strikethrough]] jarradah [[/strikethrough]] flying fish | jarradah | abu tayar 32. | Cyprinodon dispar | killyfish | uftī, haracīm (Hofūf) 33. Syngnathidae 34. | " [[Ditto for Syngnathidae]] 35. | Hippocampus | sea horse | wuzz > | Atherinidae [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] see 146 | silverside | mankūzah 36. | Pegasidae [[underline]] Pegasus volitans [[/underline]] | > | Mugilidae see 145 | mullet | maidī, biauh, hurt (Hofuf) | arabī 37. | Variola louti | | [[strikethrough]] l [[/strikethrough]] | lūtī 38. | Grammistes sexlineatus | 39. | Serranidae Red Sea | | | kūshar 40. | " " [[Ditto for Serranidae Red Sea]] | 41. | Epinephelus tauvina | | balūl (small), hamūr (large) 42. | Serranidae black grouper | | subaiti burtam 43. | " [[Ditto for Serranidae]] spotted | | kanainūwah 44. | Terapon jarbua | target fish | dhīb 45. | Terapon | | zamrūr
[[left/verso page, start]] 46. Pelates quadrilineatus 47. Apogon fraenatus 48. Apogon thurstoni 49. Apogonidae Red Sea 50. " [[Ditto for: Apogonidae Red Sea]] 51. " [[Ditto for: Apogonidae Red Sea]] 52. " [[Ditto for: Apogonidae Red Sea]] 53. Cheilodipterus lineatus 54. Sillago sihama 55. Caranx P. G. 56. Caranx " [[Ditto for: P. G.]] 57. Caranx R. S. 58. Trachurus 59. Decupterus? 60. Chorinemus lysan 61. Trachinotus 62. Lutjanus red P. G. 63. Lutjanus spot 64. Nemipterus 65. Scolopsis personatus 66. Scolopsis [[end left page]] [[start right/recto page]] 159 [[end right page--blank except for page number]]
[[left/verso page, start]] 67. Gerres oyeria [[?]] 68. Gerres punctatus 69. Plectorhynchus 70. Plectorhynchus 71. nageb 72. Mullidae 73. Upeneus tragula 74. Lethrinus nebulosus 75. Lethrinus miniatus 76. Lethrinus R. S. 77. Sparus spinifer 78. Sparus datnia 79. Sparus cuvieri 80. Sparus bifasciatus 81. Crenidens 82. Sparus haffara (Forskal) 83. Sargus noct 84. Cirrhitus 85. Platax 86. Heniochus acuminatus 87. Pomacanthus maculosus [[end left page]] [[start right/recto page]] 161 [[end right/recto page--all blank except for page number]]
88. Megaprotodon 89. Chaetodon 90. Chaetodon 91. Chaetodon 92. Pomacentrus P.G. 93. Abudefduf 94. Abudefduf 95. Dascyllus aruanus 96 Pomacentrus 97. Pomacentrus 98. Pomacentrus 99. Scarus dussumieri 100. Scarus 101. Scarus 102. Scarus 103. Labridae P.G. 104. " " 105. Choerodoniskins 106. Epibulus 107. Cheilinus 108. Cheilinus 109. Labridae 110. " 111. " 112. " 113. Pseudochromidae [[end page]] [[start page]] 163 114. Psendochromidae P.C. 115. " R.S. 116. " R.S. 117. Haliophis guttatus 118. Siganus siganus 119. Siganus 120. Ctenochaetus strigosus 121. Acanthurus Sohal 122. Acanthurus 123. Zebrasoma veliferum 124. Mugiloides 125. S. microlepidotus 126. Thunnus 127. alalunga? 128. Scomberomorus commersonii 129. Scomberomorus guttatum 130. Rachycentron canadus 131. Echeneis naucrates 132. Periophthalmus 133. Periophthalmus 134 Gobridae 135 " 136 " 137. "
138. Callionymus 139. Petroscirtes punctatus 140. Blenniidae 141. " [[dittos for: Blenniidae]] 142. " [[dittos for: Blenniidae]] 143. Sphyraena jidd (large) agam 144. Sphyraena dwailmī (small) 145. Chelon maidī, biauh arabi 146. Atherinidae mankūzah 147. " [[dittos for: Atherinidae]] 148. " [[dittos for: Atherinidae]] 149. Scorpaenidae P.G. 150. " [[dittos for: Scorpaenidae]] 151. " [[dittos for: Scorpaenidae]] 152. Platycephalus 153. Brachirus orientalis 154. Bothidae 155. Soleidae 156. Triacanthus indicus 157. Rhineacanthus aculeatus 158. Paramonacanthus 159. Balistes 160. Chilonodon patoca 161. Arothron 162. Arothron 163. Lagodon 164. Batrachus grunniens 165. Myripristis 166. Holocentrus [[end page]] [[start page]] 165 Moawad M. Mohsen Marine Biological Museum Ghardaga, Red Sea Egypt artist and director of museum does water color paintings of fish English Arabic spotted grouper Kūshar abu addis lūti = sharrarah small wrasse = rakadah caranx = seliekh octopus amfasees Platycephalus daffan Parapercis wuzaqh moray shaka [[inserted beneath k]] gh [[/inserted beneath]] guitar fish mihrat ("plow") water color paintings Chaetodon auriga mishait, misht Holocentrus sammara bausayly Acanthurus elegans sohal Trachinotus zimah Rhineacanthus aculeatus Higma [[inserted above]] or egme [[/inserted above]] 'pig' Cheilinus lunalatus aba meless [[abu melees??]] Coris gurat al bahar Serramis sumana (brown) Kushar Upeneus flavolineatus Enber Plectorhynchus gutt reen
166 Aug. 9, 1948 Similarity of Fish names (Persian Gulf and Red Sea) There are few animals or plants that bear a greater variety of names for each species or kind than do fish. The catfish of the middle west is the bull head of New York and the horned pout of New England. Even as small an island as Puerto Rico has one name for the thread herring on the west coast and another on the north and east coasts. There are also a few cases of a fish name being common between languages (sometimes with slight variation in spelling). The half beak, [[underline]] Hemirhamphus [[/underline]], is known in Spanish as the "ballyhoo" in Puerto Rico, and is likewise named by the French, English, Dutch, and native creoles of the Lesser Antilles. In the Persian Gulf there are a few names which are similar between Persia, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia. For comparison I have used three references: H. Blegvad's "Fishes of the Iranian Gulf" ¹, W. H. Lane's "Games Fishes of the Persian Gulf" ², and my own notes taken in Ras Tanura, Bahrain, and Jidda. In all there were 51 names that have an approximate similarity. From a single look at these names one can say that these fishes are among the best known, most abundant, and most edible fishes or in one or two cases they are fish to be feared because of poison or dangerous spines such as the scorpion fish "farjal" and the sting ray "lakhmah." The large spotted grouper, [[underline]] Epinephelus tauvina [[/underline]] is known as the "hamūr" from Ras Tanura to Jask, and possibly is so named all over the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Even the name "balūl" of smaller [[underline]] E. tauvina [[/underline]] is also common to the 3 references and these different places. The large mullet, [[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]], [[end page]] [[start page]] 167 is called "biauh" and is also common to these 3 references. Blegvad's work covered the greatest area and the longest period of time, Lane's work consisted of repeated fishing trips to the area of Jask on Persia's Mehram coast which is actually in the Gulf of Oman. My work consisted of 5 months covering Ras Tanura, Bahrain, and Jidda. Between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf there is no similarity of names, with the sole exception of the shrimp "rubyan". There is, however, the name "wuzāghah" which in Bahrain and Ras Tanura refers to a type of sand lizard that lives on the beach. At Jidda, the same name refers to a kind of sand perch, [[underline]] Parapercis [[/underline]]. Some fish names, if not quite a few, are common throughout the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. For instance, [[underline]] Cybium commersonii [[/underline]], the king mackerel is known as "dorak" in Jidda and Aden, and also the mullet, [[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] is know as "árabī." The fisherman's last hope then is that the scientific nomenclature is standardized with one name for each kind of fish. Unfortunately this is not the case, except in a few instances; but it is the ultimate ideal of most biologists at some date in the distant future. D.S. Erdman, 8/9/48 ¹ Blegvad, H. 1944 "Fishes of the Iranian Gulf" Danish Scientific Investigations in Iran, Part III, Copenhagen Publ. Ejnar Munksgaard Lane, Maj. W. H. 1916 Game Fishes of the Persian Gulf, Part I Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. 24, no. 4 1917 " " " " " [[dittos for: Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.]] vol. 25, no. 1
[[top left]] 168. [[/top right]] Name similarity between regions (note: all numbers # refer to pp. 171-5 unless otherwise designated Major W.H. Lane (Bombay Nat. Hist. Society) see pp. 176-7 1. [[underline]] Caranx speciosus [[/underline]] kobdar (see #100) 2. [[underline]] Serranus miniatus [[/underline]] bahilool (see Blegvad #14 & #45 3. [[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] bi-ach see Blegvad #13 & #94 4. [[underline]] Serranus staliczke [[/underline]] hamūr see Blegvad #12 & #45 5. [[underline]] Polynemus tetradactylus [[/underline]] rajgoo (see Blegvad #1) 6. [[underline]] Caranx ciliaris [[/underline]] kush " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #2 7. [[underline]] Sphyraena obtusata [[/underline]] koot " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #3 8. [[underline]] Serranus areolatus [[/underline]] leddum " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #4 9. [[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] ? [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] ? giddie " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #5 10. [[underline]] Hemirhamphus [[/underline]] moran " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #6 11. [[underline]] Drepane punctata [[/underline]] shungoo " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #7 12. [[underline]] Chorinemus lysan [[/underline]] sarán " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #8 13. [[underline]] Cybium commersonii [[/underline]] seer " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #9 14. [[underline]] Lutjanus argentimaculatus [[/underline]] surkhoo " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #10 15. [[underline]] Echeneis [[/underline]] sukhulla " " [[dittos for: see Blegvad]] #11 H. Blegvad "Fishes of Iranian Gulf" 1. [[underline]] [[insertion]] Eleutheronema [[/insertion]] (Polynemus) tetradactylum [[/underline]] rash goo 2. [[underline]] Caranx armatus, C. speciosus, C. chrysophrys [[/underline]] Kash (Larak) 3. [[underline]] Sphyraena [[/underline]] sp. koot (Bushire) 4. Big [[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] or [[underline]] Epinephelus [[/underline]] ledam 5. [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] sp. gedeer 6. [[underline]] Hemirhamphus [[/underline]] sp. morān (Dobei) 7. [[underline]] Leiognathus equulus, Drepane, Ephippus [[/underline]] shangoo 8. [[underline]] Chorinemus [[/underline]] sp. sarm (Bender Abbas) [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 169 [[/right corner]] H. Blegvad fish names 9. [[underline]] Cybium guttatum [[/underline]] sheer 10. [[underline]] Lutjanus coccineus [[/underline]] sorkhov 11. [[underline]] Rachycentron canadus [[/underline]] sokalah (Jask) 12. [[underline]] Epinephelus tauvina [[/underline]] hamoor (large) #45 13. [[underline]] Mugil blussumieri [[/underline]] (large) beeah #94 14. [[underline]] Epinephelus tauvina [[/underline]] bâlool (Bushire) #45 [[strikethrough]] 15. Caranx [[/strikethrough]] 15. [[underline]] Crenidens crenidens [[/underline]] bataam #28 16. jellyfish dool #84 17. [[underline]] Leptosynanceia melanostigma [[/underline]] fariall[[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]]eh [[farialleh]] #19 18. Tetraodontidae fogol #79 19. [[strikethrough]] gab g [[/strikethrough]] crab gab gob #18 20. [[underline]] Echeneis naucrates [[/underline]] lazâk #91 21. [[underline]] Trygon [[/underline]] & other rays loghmeh #72 22. fish (Iranian) mâhee #104 23. [[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] (small) meid #142 24. some clupeid fish omek #22 25. prawn ([[underline]] Penaeus [[/underline]]) rebioon #56 26. [[underline]] Teuthis siganus [[/underline]] saafee (Bahrain) #67 27. [[underline]] Sparus cuvieri [[/underline]] sebeitee #4 28. [[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] shahree #46 29. [[underline]] Sparus datnia [[/underline]] shâ-ōm (Bushire) #29 30. [[underline]] Rhynchobatus djiddensis [[/underline]] soos (Jask) #63 31. [[underline]] Platycephalus [[/underline]] woahar #26 32. [[underline]] Plectorhynchus schotaf [[/underline]] yennam #6 33. [[underline]] Chorinemus [[/underline]] etc. zardeh #88 34. [[underline]] P. schotaf, P. pictus [[/underline]] jennam #6 35. [[underline]] Dorosoma [[/underline]] species goaff #13 36. [[underline]] Sparus bifasciatus [[/underline]] faskar #5 37. fish seemak 100. [[underline]] caranx [[/underline]] large jackfish Qufdār #100
170 Revised list of fish names, Persian Gulf Aug. 8, 1948 [[table with 4 columns, columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Arabic 1.|[[underline]] Chirocentrus dorab [[/underline]] | large tooth herring | ḥiff 2.|[[underline]] Terapon puta [[/underline]] | striped grunt | zamrūr 3.|[[underline]] Gnathodentex [[/underline]] ? [[underline]] Sparus haffara [[/underline]] | Square nose porgy | qurqufānah 4.|[[underline]] Sparus cuvieri [[/underline]] | snapper porgy | subaiṭi 5.|[[underline]] Sparus bifasciatus [[/underline]] | band head porgy | faskar 6.|[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] | spotted grunt | yanāmah 7.|[[underline]] Scarus dussumieri [[/underline]] | parrotfish | qain 8.|[[underline]] Sillago sihama [[/underline]] | sand perch | hāsūn 9.|[[underline]] Nemipterus japonicus [[/underline]] | pink snapper | bāsīyah 10.|[[underline]] Caranx crumenophthalmus [[/underline]] | goggle eye scad | ṣīnah 11.|[[underline]] Hemirhamphus [[/underline]] | half beak | sils 12.|[[underline]] Parapercis smithii [[/underline]] | barred sand perch | zyb hair 13.|[[underline]] Dorosoma nasus [[/underline]] | thread herring | īwāf 14.|[[underline]] Chorinemus [[/underline]] | leather jack (small) | laḥlāḥ (Saihat) 15.|[[underline]] Sparus spinifer [[/underline]] | hump back porgy | thaur 16.|[[underline]] Seriola [[/underline]] large 2' | smooth jack | rabībah 17.|[[underline]] Cybium commersonii & C. guttatum [[/underline]] | king mackerel | kan'ad 18.|[[underline]] Callinectes [[/underline]] ? | blue claw crab | qub qub 19.|[[underline]] Scorpaena [[/underline]] | scorpion fish | farjālah 20.| Gastropoda | small snail (salt water) | subān 21.| Decapoda | ghost crab | barrjīnn 22.|[[underline]] Sardinella, Dussumiera [[/underline]], Engraulidae | sardines, anchovy | 'ūm 23.|[[underline]] Tylosurus [[/underline]] | bill fish | ubbarī(small), hāqūl(large) 24.|[[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] | killy fish | 'ufṭi 25.|[[underline]] Gerres [[/underline]] | mojarra | muṣallaqah 26.|[[underline]] Platycephalus maculipinna [[/underline]] | flathead | waḥarah 27.|[[underline]] Sargus noct [[/underline]] | spot tail porgy | mushawah 28.|[[underline]] Crenidens crenidens [[/underline]] | brown tooth porgy | baṭṭānah 29.|[[underline]] Sparus datnia [[/underline]] | broad porgy| shi'm [[/table]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 171 [[/right corner]] [[table with 4 columns, columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Persian Gulf Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Persian Gulf Arabic 30.|[[underline]] Apogon thurstoni [[/underline]] | cardinal fish | siḥat al ra'ī 31.| - | sand lizard | wazāg^[[insertion]] h [[/insertion]]ah [[wazāghah]] 32.|[[underline]] Paramonacanthus [[/underline]] | file fish | baghūmī 33.|[[underline]] Scolopsis personatus [[/underline]] | brown line grunt | bzaimīyah 34.|[[underline]] Scolopsis [[/underline]] | brown striped grunt | zarrā'ah 35.|[[underline]] Plesiops, Pomacentrus, Abudefduf [[/underline]] | demoiselle | q'aisī 36.| Labridae, Gobiidae, Blenniidae | wrasse, gobies, blennies | nabbāt 37.|[[underline]] Hydrophis [[/underline]] | sea snake (poisonous) | baljanai 38.|[[underline]] Gerres punctatus [[/underline]] | thread fin mojarra | rīyāshah 39.|[[underline]] Gerres [[/underline]] (see 25) | 40.| Pleuronectidae | thick flatfish | khūfa'ah 41.|[[underline]] Batrachus grunniens [[/underline]] | toad fish | qumqāmah 42.|[[underline]] Megaprotodon [[/underline]] orange & black butterfly fish | ra q'ah 43.|[[underline]] Pomacanthus maculosus [[/underline]] | angel fish | 'unfūz 44.|[[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] | spot snapper | naisarah 45.|[[underline]] Epinephelus tauvina [[/underline]] | spotted grouper | Hamūr (large), balūl (small) 46.|[[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] | dog face porgy | shuḥdhūdh (small), shi'ri (large) 47.|[[underline]] Lethrinus miniatus [[/underline]] | red gill dog face porgy | bakhshīyah 48.| Atherinidae | silverside | mankūzah 49.|[[underline]] Gnathodentex [[/underline]] ? (see #3) | 50.|[[underline]] Heniochus acuminatus [[/underline]] | black & white butterfly fish | mushṭ al'arūs, mushaiṭ 51.|[[underline]] Decapterus russelli [[/underline]] | mackerel scad | jinnaiyah 52.|[[underline]] Cephalopholis ? [[/underline]] | black grouper | subaiti burtam [[insertion above]] ṣakhalah (Bahrain) [[/insertion above]] 53.|[[underline]] Seriola [[/underline]] ? | smooth jack | samak at ṭair 54.|[[underline]] Pelates quadrilineatus [[/underline]] | black striped grunt | jimjāmah 55.|[[underline]] Thenus orientalis [[/underline]] (Lund) | mole lobster | um al rubyān 56.| | shrimp | rubyān 57.|[[underline]] Sparus datnia [[/underline]] (see #29) 58.|[[underline]] Ostracion cubicus [[/underline]] | trunkfish | samak at yūn,is 59.|[[underline]] Arius thalassinus [[/underline]] | sea catfish | kimm [[/table]]
172 Persian Gulf fish [[table with 4 columns: column 1: item number; columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Arabic 60.|[[underline]] Ablennes hians [[/underline]] | flat sided billfish | ghurraidhī 61.| Scombridae | tunas, bonitos | jibabāh (Bahrain), tibbon (Saihet) 62.|[[underline]] Sphyraena [[/underline]] | barracuda | dwailmī (small), jidd (large) 63.|[[underline]] Rhynchobatus [[/underline]] | guitar ray | hirairī (small), sūs (over 1 meter) 64.| Pleuronectidae (see #40) | 65.| Pleuronectidae | thin flounder | ṭabaqliziq 66.|[[underline]] Sphyrna [[/underline]] | hammerhead shark | aqrān 67.|[[underline]] Siganus siganus [[/underline]] | spike perch | sāfiah 'arabī^[[insertion]] y [[/insertion]]ah [['arabīyah]] 68.|[[underline]] Siganus punctatus? [[/underline]] | reticulated " " [[ditto for: spike perch]] | sāfiah sunaifī 69.|[[underline]] Triacanthus indicus [[/underline]] | 3 spined leather fish | kulaib al dav 70.|[[underline]] Crenidens crenidens [[/underline]] | (see 28) 71.| | bottom green rooted grass | mash'ūrah 72.|[[underline]] Trygon [[/underline]] | sting ray | lakhmah 73.| Blenniidae (see also #19) | large blenny | farjāl 74.| | branch coral | 'arīsh 75.| | brain coral | bajimah 76.| Cephalopoda | cuttle fish | khath thāq 77.|[[underline]] Chiloscylliom griseum [[/underline]] | nurse shark | hayyāsah 78.|[[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] | brown snapper | shuqqarah 79.|[[underline]] Arothron (Tetraodon) [[/underline]] | blowfish | fuql 80.|[[underline]] Chilonodon patoca [[/underline]] | smooth blowfish | 'anzah 81.|[[underline]] Carcharias menisorrah [[/underline]] | grey shark (small species) | nā'ūẓ 82.|[[underline]] Rachycentron canadus [[/underline]] | cobia | sikn 83.| Coelenterata | cross jellyfish (poisonous) | lwaithi 84.| " [[ditto for: Coelenterata]] | long tentacled jellyfish " [[ditto for: (poisonous)]] | dūl 85.| " [[ditto for: Coelenterata]] | large white jellyfish etc. (non-poisonous | fughlūl 86.| Echinodermata | short spined sea urchin | shīt ah 87.| " [[ditto for: Echinodermata]] | long spined " " [[ditto for: sea urchin]] | rammāyāh 88.| [[underline]] Chorinemus lysan [[/underline]] | leather jack (large) | ẓul'ah [[end page]] [[start page]] 173 Persian Gulf fishes [[table with 4 columns: column 1: item number; columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Arabic 89.| [[underline]] Brachirus orientalis [[/underline]] | sole | hofār 90.| [[underline]] Plotosus anguillaris [[/underline]] | poison catfish | 'āī 91.| [[underline]] Echeneis naucrates [[/underline]] | shark sucker | lazzāq 92.| | fish hawk osprey | abū ḥaqub 93.| [[underline]] Choerodon [[/underline]] | large wrasse | haqrūr 94.| [[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] | large mullet | large= biauh, maidi small 95.| [[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] | red fin snapper | shekkah 96.| [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] (small) | jack fish | rabīb 97.| [[underline]] Tylosurus [[/underline]] (see 23) 98.| [[underline]] Pristis zysron [[/underline]] | sawfish ray | sayyāfī 99.| [[underline]] Lutjanus coccineus [[/underline]] ? | red snapper | shuqqarah (see 78) 100.| [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] | large jackfish | qūfdar 101.| broad porgy (dried) | probably misnamed "burtam" in Manama market | 102.| Sphyraena | barracuda (4 inch yg. | halir 103. Mullidae (see #9) | yellow lined goatfish | jinnaisī, būsīyah 104.| [[underline]] Euthynnus alleteratus [[/underline]] ? | "bonito" wet salt fillets (Manama) | malhah 105.| [[underline]] Hippocampus [[/underline]] | sea horse | wuzz 106.| Exocoetidae | flying fish | jarādah 107.| Mullidae | red goatfish | hāmar 'arabī 108.| " [[ditto for: Mullidae]] | black goatfish| hāmar bahrainī 109.|[[underline]] Istiophorus [[/underline]] ? | marlin, sword fish | silsāl 110.| Gastropoda | brown snail | wudili 111.|[[underline]] Sparus spinifer [[/underline]] | pink porgy (no hump) | baqarah 112.|[[underline]] Trachinotus [[/underline]] | pompano | bint at tair 113.|[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] | small grey grunt | mthoa, hobur 114.| | Ctenophore shaped jellyfish | qullīyānah 115.|[[underline]] Platax [[/underline]] | crescent angel fish | amord? 116.|[[underline]] Terapon jarbua [[/underline]] | target fish | dhīb (also a shark?) 117.|[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] | silver jack (small) | jibb
[[start page]] 174 Persian Gulf fishes [[table with 4 columns: column 1: item number; columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Arabic 118.|[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] (see #53) 119.|[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]]| jackfish (small) | ūthainī? 120.|[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] | large grey grunt | shukūl (Saihat) 121.| long spined sea urchin (see #87) 122.|[[underline]] Ophichthys [[/underline]] | worm eel | naukūkah 123.|[[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] | black dog face porgy | imokh? 124.| | sea turtle | hamasah 125.| filefish (see#32) 126.| | sea weed | kinn 127.| | brown frizzle sea weed | hashīsh 128.|[[underline]] Ulva [[/underline]] | sea lettuce | Kinn 129.| | clam | ? 130.| pearl oyster | | shigerr, kharāb? 131.| | pearl | lūlū 132.| sea turtle (see #123) 133.|[[underline]] Lutjanos [[/underline]] (spot) (see #44) 134.|[[underline]] Trachinotus [[/underline]] (see 112) 135.| | oyster (true, edible) | kharrātah 136.|[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] ? | jackfish | khail 137.| - | shark | farsh? 138.| | like kan'ad (round white, smaller) | hammām 139.| | rock bottom | gasar 140.| | | imad ?(see 123) 141.|[[underline]] Lethrinus miniatus [[/underline]] (see 47) | red gill porgy | bakashīn 142.|[[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] | small mullet | maidi 143.| | white like subaiti, smaller | badhah 144.|[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] (see #6) | spotted grunt (like sāfi, only has scales") | yanamah 145.| | billfish | ghilī? 146. edible oyster (see #135) [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 175 [[/right corner]] Journal Bombay Natural History Soc. Vol. XXXI, no.4 1926 good references on fish of P. Gulf & pearl fisheries pp.651 -52 pp.643 - 6 History of British marine & river surveys in the Persian gulf "Summary of Sci. research in the Persian Gulf" by A.T. Wilson [[arrow above "A.T. Wilson" pointing to sentence above it]] [[horizontal line across page]] Persian gulf fishes cont. [[table with 4 columns: column 1: item number; columns 2-4 named: Scientific name, English, Arabic]] | Scientific name | English | Arabic 147.| | | luuluh? 148.|[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] ? (blue grey back, dark meat) | | sayd? 149.|[[underline]] Petrometopon [[/underline]] ? | grouper(black spots) | kanainūwah 150.|[[underline]] Istiophorus [[/underline]] ? | swordfish, marlin | jarjūr abú saif (see #109) 151.|[[underline]] Sparus spinifer [[/underline]] (see #15) 152.|[[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] | Killyfish | haracīm(Hofūf) 153.|[[underline]] Mugil [[/underline]] | fresh water mullet | hurt (Hofūf) 154.| | fresh water snail | haswah " [[ditto for: Hofūf]] 155.| | fresh water turtle | jāauni kraidi " [[ditto for: Hofūf]] 156.| | fresh water rooted grass | hashhīsh " [[ditto for: Hofūf]] 157.| | date garden spring | 'ain " [[ditto for: Hofūf]] 158.| | scaleless fish | hīf 159.|[[underline]] Carcharias [[/underline]] | large shark | jarjūr 160.| | grouped rocks on bottom | fasht 161.| | hermit crab | khabbānah 162.|[[underline]] Trichiurus muticus [[/underline]] | (Red Sea) scabbard fish | kumfer 163.|[[underline]] Carcharias [[/underline]] | shark | khaltaf [[/table]] [[end page]]
176/ Major W. H. Lane (cont. from 177) 13. Giddie [[insertion]] ✓ [[/insertion]] & Seea [[insertion]] ✓ [[/insertion]] Lutjanus ? 14. Carcharias tricuspidatus coolie ✓ 15. Thynnus ? Hour ✓ 16. Belone annulata Kharkoor ✓ 17. Caranx crumenophthalmus? dahi ✓ or Priacanthus? 18. Echeneis sukhulla✓ 19. Harpodon nehereus bombil ✓ 20. Tarpon? tulloo ✓ [[underline]] finis [[/underline]] fishes mostly from Jask according to author Middle East Science a survey of subjects other than Agriculture By E.B. Worthington, a report to the Director General Middle East supply centre August 1945 London; His majesty's stationery office 1946 Oxford University Press p.111-121 Chap. X Marine Fisheries (brief account of Red Sea, Caspian, P Gulf [[insert above]] & East Meditteranean [[/insert above]]) p.122-140 Chap. XI Inland Fisheries p.p. 129 - 138 good account of fish farming in Palestine, mostly carp pond culture 1 1/2 meters in depth with mention of a species of [[underline]] Tilapia [[/underline]] as an alternative fish. [[underline]] Tilapia gallilea [[/underline]] 'Musht'. There is also mention of the use of [[underline]] Gambusia [[/underline]] for mosquitoe control in the ponds off the river Jordan. Mention also is made of a species of [[underline]] Barbus [[/underline]] 'salmon' occuring in the Euphrates River. P.130 - "The carp normally breed in the spring and growth is very rapid, so that they attain a market size of 3/4 kg. each about 8 months after hatching from the egg." a kilogram is 2 1/2 lbs. p.119 Gulf of Aden -"At Mukhallu successful experiments - - cooking sardines in vats, expressing oil with hand-press, and drying residue for fodder or manure." [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] [[semi-circled]] 177 [[/semi-circled]] [[/right corner]] Bombay Nat. Hist Soc. Vol. XXV No l. Mar. 1917 Game Fishes of the Persian Gulf Part II Major W.H. Lane pp. 123-135 Mehran & Jask 1. Caranx ciliaris Kush ✓ 2. Caranx speciorus? Kobdar ✓ 3. Caranx armatus Ruslk ✓ 4. Drepane punctata Shingoo ✓ 5. Holocanthus xanthurus Convex & deep no teeth on jaws Tengur ✓ Caudal deeply forked & long 6. Sparus [[insertion]] Pagrus [[/insertion]] spinifer [[Cooper?]] ✓ 7. Chrysophrgs [[haffara?]] Dukh Mullah✓ Mullah's daughter 8. Serranus miniatus Bahilod✓ 9. Lutjanus roseris Kher✓ 10. Mullet (Mugil sp.) Bi-ach✓, Boi✓, Pitt✓ 11. Chanos salmoneus Tir- Mukra✓ 12. Hemirhamphus Moran✓ Part I 723-748 vol. XXIV No 4 Oct. 1916 1. Caranx jarra photos squarehead pirao ✓ 2. Caranx nigripinnis Gishran ✓ 3. Caranx malabaricus shabeni ✓ 4. C. carangus dubsi✓ 5. C. gallus papeel✓ 6. Chorinemus lysan sarán✓ 7. Cybium commersonii surmai✓ or seer ✓ 8. Sphyraena obtusata Koot ✓ 9. Polynemus tetradactylus rajgoo ✓ 10. Serranus stoliczkoe Hamūr ✓ 11. Serranus areolatus leddum ✓ 12. Lutjanus argentimaculatus surkhoo ✓
[[start page]] 178 Red Sea species from Jidda June 30 - July 18, 1948 [[begin left column]] 1.[[underline]] Carcharias. sp. [[/underline]] 2.[[underline]] Dasybatis [[/underline]] grey 3.[[underline]] Dasybatis [[/underline]] spots 4.[[underline]] Bothus [[/underline]] 5.[[underline]] Gymnothorax [[/underline]] brown 6.[[underline]] Gymnothorax [[/underline]] black spot grey 7.[[underline]] Gymnothorax [[underline]] black & grey bands 8.[[underline]] Ophicthy [[insertion]] u [[/insertion]] s [[/underline]] yellow eel 9.[[underline]] Callionymus [[/underline]] 10.[[underline]] Myripristis [[/underline]] 11.[[underline]] Holocentrus [[/underline]] white 12.[[underline]] Holocentrus [[/underline]] red& white 14.[[underline]] Holocentrus [[/underline]] red& orange 15.[[underline]] Sardinella [[/underline]] 16.[[underline]] Hemirhamphus [[/underline]] 17.[[underline]] Atherina or Pranesus [[/underline]] 18.[[underline]] Dussumiera [[/underline]] salmoni 19.[[underline]] Sphyraena barracuda? [[/underline]] 20.[[underline]] Mugil (Chelon) [[/underline]] 21.[[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] 22.[[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] black 23.[[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] black striped 24.[[underline]] Apogon brown [[/underline]] 25.[[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] red 26.[[underline]] Apogon [[/underline]] large tooth 27.[[underline]] Epinephelus [[/underline]] brown & white 28.[[underline]] cephalopholis [[/underline]] white speck black 29.[[underline]] Epmephelus [[/underline]] black spots on white 30.[[underline]] Cephalopholis [[/underline]] red & blue spots seen 31.[[underline]] Epinephelus [[/underline]] longtail red purple spots [[/end left column]] [[begin right column]] 32.[[underline]] Pseudochromis [[/underline]] 33.[[underline]] Plesiops [[/underline]] 34.[[underline]] Pseudochromis [[/underline]] long 35.[[underline]] Dascyllus aruanus [[/underline]] 36.[[underline]] Abudefduf marginatus [[/underline]] 37.[[underline]] Abudefduf [[/underline]] sand color & black spot 38.[[underline]] Pomacentrus [[/underline]] black 39.[[underline]] Pomacentrus [[/underline]] black yellow patch 40.[[underline]] Pomacentrus [[/underline]] yellow tail 41.[[underline]] Pomacentrus [[/underline]] white tail 42.[[underline]] Chromis [[/underline]] blue 44.[[underline]] Heniochus acuminatus [[/underline]] 45.[[underline]] Scorpaena [[/underline]] red 46.[[underline]] Scorpaena [[/underline]] black 47.[[underline]] Scorpaena [[/underline]] high brown 48.[[underline]] Gerres [[/underline]] 49.[[underline]] Sparus bifasciatus [[/underline]] 50.[[underline]] Gnathodentex [[/underline]] ? large 51.[[underline]] Crenidens crenidens [[/underline]] 52.[[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] 53.[[underline]] Lethrinus [[/underline]] black bands 54.[[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] spot 55.[[underline]] Lutjanus [[/underline]] red 56.[[underline]] Chaetodon lunula [[/underline]] 57.[[underline]] Chaetodon [[/underline]] white patch 58.[[underline]] Chaetodon [[/underline]] dorsal black spot 59. White & pink pipefish 60. [[underline]] Mullus [[/underline]] black & rose 61. [[underline]] Mullus [[/underline]] yellow stripe 62. [[underline]] Nasus cornutus [[/underline]] [[/end right column]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 179 [[/right corner]] [[begin left column]] 63.[[underline]] Zebrasoma [[/underline]] 64.[[underline]] [[strikethrough]] Chaetosus [[/strikethrough]] Ctenochaetus [[/underline]] 65.[[underline]] Acanthurus [[/underline]] (black) 66.[[underline]] Acanthurus [[/underline]] white peduncle 67.[[underline]] Acanthurus [[/underline]] blue stripe 68.[[underline]] Acanthurus [[/underline]] 2 orange [[insert above]] black & [[/insert above]] spines 69.[[underline]] Halichoeres [[/underline]] red & green 70. H. red & purple 71. wrasse green & red 3 black dots 72. " [[ditto for: wrasse]] Red dots on dark 73. " [[ditto for: wrasse]] Red lines on green 74. large black Labrid 75.[[underline]] Labrichthys [[/underline]] extensile mowth [[sic]] 76.[[underline]] Siganus siganus [[/underline]] 77.[[underline]] Siganus [[/underline]] black & white spots 78.[[underline]] Scarus [[/underline]] blue 79.[[underline]] Scarus [[/underline]] yellow 80.[[underline]] Scarus [[/underline]] blue & pink 81.[[underline]] Scarus [[/underline]] black 82.[[underline]] Scarus [[/underline]] pink & green 84.[[underline]] Bathygobius [[/underline]] 85.[[underline]] Goby [[/underline]] white 86.[[underline]] Eleotrid [[/underline]] black 87.[[underline]] [[Salarias?]] [[/underline]] grey 88. Blenny short black 89. Blenny long black 90.[[underline]] Periophthalmus [[/underline]] [[pen's ink didn't work on full underline]] 91.[[underline]] Chorinemus lysan [[/underline]] 92.[[underline]] Decapterus punctatus [[/underline]] 93.[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] large white [[/end left column]] [[begin right column]] 94.[[underline]] Cybium guttatum [[/underline]] 95.[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] small silver 96.[[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] black specks [[insert above]] [[?? in]] [[/insert above]] young 97.[[underline]] Conger [[/underline]] 98.[[underline]] Balistes [[/underline]] black 99.[[underline]] Balistes rectangulus [[/underline]] 100.[[underline]] Elops? [[/underline]] salmoni 101.[[underline]] Megaprotodon [[/underline]] Red Sea type 102.[[underline]] Chirritus [[/underline]] 103.[[underline]] Pterois [[/underline]] 104. black wrasse 105. black white & blue wrasse 106.[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] large grey 107.[[underline]] Plectorhynchus [[/underline]] spotted 108.[[underline]] Pristis zysron [[/underline]] 109.[[underline]] Rhynchobatus [[/underline]] 110. flying fish 111. Ostracion cubicus 112.[[underline]] Arothron [[/underline]] black 113.[[underline]] Arothron [[/underline]] white belly 114.[[underline]] Trichiurus [[/underline]] not seen 115. turtle (sea) " [[ditto for: not seen]] [[end right page]]
180/ Arabic names (cont.) Persian Gulf from p. 191 121. long spined sea urchin rummoy [[arrow]] [[insertion]] see 87 [[/insertion]] rammōyī 122. Ophichthys nowchooch naukūkah 123. Letherinus black blotches imo'kk? [[underlined]] Letherinus niger? [[/underlined]] 124. sea turtle [[strikethrough]] ehmisah [[/strikethrough]] ḥamasah 125. filefish goomy (see #32) 126. sea weed chem Kinn 127. brown seaweed & possibly ulva [[image - pen sketch of brown seaweed]] frizzle ḥashīsh 128. green ulva chem Kinn 129. clam [[strikethrough]] cla [[/strikethrough]] edible in winter only 130. pearl oyster shigerr kharāb? good bait 131. pearl lūlū 132. sea [[strikethrough]] turtle ehmise[[insertion]] a [[/insertion]]h [[/strikethrough]] see 124 133. Lutjanus (spot) naisarah 134. Trachinotus Bint al tair? see 112 135. oyster (edible, true) Kharrātah 136. caranx [[strikeout]] Kláihal [[strikeout]] Khail 137. shark farsh? 138. like kan'ad, round white smaller Hammām 139. rock bottom gasar 140. imad? 141. probably [[underlined]] Lethrinus miniatus [[underlined]] bashhayn bakhshīn 142. small mullet maidi 143. white like sbaitī, smaller badhah 144. like safiah, only has scales yenem yanamah Plectorhymohus? 145. ghilī needlefish? 146. edible oyster (see 135) 147. [[luhluh?]] ? Plesiops 67 148. Caranx sayd? blue grey back dark meat 149. Petrometopon (black spots) Chnaynuwah [[insert above Chnaynuwah]] kanainūwah [[/insert above]] 3-4 lbs. 150. Marlin swordfish jarjūr abu saif (see 109) [[end page]] [[start page]] Red Sea Jidda cont. from 182 [[right corner]] [[strikethrough]] 182 [[/strikethrough]] 181 6.4. flounder samak saidna sulaiman 65.[[underline]] Trichiurus [[/underline]] Kūmfer 66.[[underline]] Ostracion cubicus [[/underline]] abu sandūk 67. flying fish Abu Tayar 68. Turtle Bis al bahar 69. Jack [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] Abu baga 70.[[underline]] Nasus [[/underline]] Abu gern 71. guitar fish Rynchobatus Dafam 72. Pristis zy[[insertion]] s [[/insertion]]ron [[zysron]] Abumenshar 73. Serranus black grouper sūhofar 74. Lutjanus (spot snapper) [[strikethrough]] hebia [[/strikethrough]] ? ṣalmuq 75. [[strikethrough]] Parapercis [[/strikethrough]] Parapercis & Platycephalus ? wuzagh [[horizontal line across page]] Persian Gulf (cont.) from p. 180 151. [[underline]] Sparus spinifer [[/underline]] hump back porgy (see 15) thaur"ox" 152.[[underline]] Cyprinodon dispar [[/underline]] (name at Hofhūf) haracīm 153. [[underline]] Mugil (Chelon) [[/underline]] ḥurt 154. freshwater snail haswah 155. freshwater turtle Jāauni kraidi 156. fresh water grass ḥashhīsh 157. date garden spring ʼain 158. scaleless fish ḥīf 159. large shark jarjūr 160. grouped rocks fasht [[end page]]
182 Arabic names Red Sea Jidda [[begin left column]] 63. Agab = devil fish [[out of order]] 1. Chorinemus dorab 2. cybium commersonii dorak 3. Tylosurus Hilm 4. Shark small "OS" large guerche 5. Acanthurus (blue stripes) 6. Caranx biot? 7. Nasus abu gurn 8. Scarus species dowali 9. Lethrinus shaur 10. Siganus siganus sijan 11. Epinephelus (black) & brown Kūshar 12. [[image: drawing of fish]] Balistes sharam 13. Lutjanus (spot) Hebria 14. pink Scarus hareed ī 15. Gerres guss 16. half beak gumburūl 17. Labrids Abu mless 18. [[insertion above]] [[underline]] Variola louti [[/underline]] red [[/insertion]] Cephalopholis blue spots Zarbun, Abu bulla 19. Sphyraena agam 20. Sparus Bifasciatus rubug 21. goatfish abu di^[[insertion]] g [[/insertion]]geen [[diggeen]] 22. Lutganus red fins sha fenna 23. Siganus black white spots sijanna 24. Acanthurus (black) gaham 25. Blue wrasse garab 26. Round scad (15") drak 27.[[insertion above]] [[image: drawing of a red fish]] [[strikethrough]] Fūbrofurcatus [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] Epinephelus (long tail lūti 28. E. " [[ditto for: Epinephelus]] black spotted sha howi 29. Plectorhynchus guttreen 30. Grab (blue) abu mguss [[end left column]] [[begin right column]] 62. barracuda - agam [[out of order]] 75. [[strikethrough]] para percis = wuzakh [[/strikethrough]] [[out of order]] 31. Clupsiod Elops? salmoni 32. Spotted croaker like grunt [[insertion above]] [[underline]] Pristopoma nageb [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] nageb (Ruppell) 33. mullet arabi 34. pompano abu gurs 35. Holocentrus [[strikethrough]] Kanūf [[/strikethrough]] gahaua 36. large Plectorhynchus (grey) Shirtfa 37. Spade fishe Kanūf 38. shrimp rubyan 38. Caranx sp (large) gherrm 40. Ray lūgetta 41. Lutjanus (reddish) temmer, būharra 42. fish ,fish man [[insertion ]] merchandie= awad = [[/insertion]] howadh 43. [[strikethrough]] Red-headed Lionfish [[/strikethrough]] man-eater clam nahīd,zurmbuk 44. Octopus - Kaukabān 45. 1 mast. sailboat - yaulah 46. 2 masted wood vessels - sambūk. 47. Scombermorus commersonii = dorak 48. Chorinemus - dorab. 49. Caranx (silver) - gherrm 50. Croaker - nageb 51. mullet - arabi 52. [[insertion above]] Platax orbicularis Acanthurus gutt[[underline]]atu[[/underline]]s? [[guttatus]] [[/insertion]] Spadefish Kanūf 53.[[strikethrough]] Red headed lion fish [[/strikethrough]] maneater clam - nahīd (see 43) 54. Caranx (large silver)- gherrm 55. 1 black s[[strikethrough]] p [[/strikethrough]] napper [[snapper]] - [[underline]] Metalutjanus [[/underline]] (Gubat 56. Grammistes Gubat Ashra Ashra) 57. yellow parrot (scurus) dūli 58. blowfish dremā [[insertion above e]] ai? [[/insertion]] 60. flounder Abu tūbuck 61. Lutjanus red fares [[end right column]] (cont. 181) [[end page]] [[start page]] Fish species collected from Persian Gulf # seen but no spec. saved 183 (Blegvads' classification) [[begin left column]] 1. nurse shark (Chiloscyllium griseum) #2. Trygon gerradi? Dasybatis #3. devil fish #4. Rhynchobatus djiddensis #5. R. granulatus 6. Chirocentrus dorab 7. Dussumiera acuta 8. Dorosoma nasus 9. anchovy 10. Sardinella (2 spec.?) 11. Arius thalassinus 12. Tylosurus sp. 13. Ablennes hians 14. Hemirhamphus #15. flying fish 16. Cyprinodon dispar 17. Epinephelus Tauvina 18. black grouper white spots 19. Therapon [[strikethrough]] theraps [[/strikethrough]] puta 20. T. jarbua 21. Pelates quadrilineatus 22. Apogon thurstonii 23. Sillago sihama 24. Caranx crumenop^[[insertion]] h [[/insertion]]thalmus [[crumenophthalmus]] 25. Caranx sp. 26. Seriola 27. Chorinemus lysan #28. Trachinotus baillonii 29. Lutjanus (black spot) fuluiflamma? 30. Lutjanus [[/end left column]] [[begin right column]] 31. nemipterus japonicus 32. Scolopsis personatus 33. Scolopsis striped 34. Gerres punctatus 35. Gerres 36. Plectorhychus cinctus 37. Upeneus yellow wiskers 38. Lethrinus nebulosis 39. Lethrinus miniatus #40. Sparus spinifer (thur) 41. Sparus bifasciatus 42. Sparus datnia #43. Sparus cuvieri 44. Sargus noct 45. Crenidens crenidens 46. Gnathodentex ? [[underline]] Sparus haffaea [[/underline]] 47. Megaprotudon 48. Heniochus acuminatus 49. Pomacanthus maculosus 50. Pomacentrus (black) #51. Abudefduf marginatus 52. Scarus dussumieri 53. Halichuerer (green) 54. wrasse (grey & brown) 55. Siganus punctatus 56. Siganus siganus? 57. Parapercis smithii #58. Scomber microlepidotus 59. Scomberomorus [[insertion]] Cybium [[/insertion]] commersonnii? 60. Gobius sp. [[/end right column]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] [[begin left column]] 61. Petroscirtes punctatus 62. Salarias? with tufts 63. Sphyraena 64. Chelon (mugil) 65. Atherina forstali 66. Atherinid (blue head) 67. Scorpaenid 68. Platycephalus maculipinna 69. Arnoglossus aspilos 70. Solea elongata ? 71. Triacanthus inidicus 72. Paramonacanthus 73. Ostracion reddish brown with blue dots in life #74. Spheroides inermis 75. Tetraodon stellatus 76. Chilonodon patoca 77. Batrachus grunniens 78. Syngnathid (2 species possibly) 79. Pegasus 80. Plesiops nigricans 81. Plesiops (brown) 82. Carcharias menisorrah 83. C. acutus 84. Salarias sp. 85. Periophthalmus 86. Callionymus sagitta? U-48-72 87. #Aetobatus May.23 88. Apogon (striped) U-48-71 89. Mullus (red sides) U-48-71 90. Dermogenys U-48-75 [[/end left column]] [[begin right column]] #91. Tuna (black pectoral bronze lateral stripe) #92. [[underline]] Torpedo panthera [[/underline]] ? May 29 #93. [[underline]] Pristis [[/underline]] zysron (teeth at Al Khobar May 30) 94. [[underline]] Brachirus [[/underline]] orientalis U-48-86 95. [[underline]] Plotosus angui[[/underline]]llaris? U-48-87 96. Ech[[underline]]eneis naucra[[/underline]]tes U-48-89 #97. Cybium guttatum (spots) 6/9/48 dried #98. Choerodon " " [[ditto marks for: 6/9/48 dried]] #99. Albacore ? #100. sword fish or marlin (small) #101. Mulloidichthys auriflamma? Bahrain ^[[insertion]] Manama [[/insertion]] suq #102 Gymnosarda alleteratus? wet salt fillets #103. Caranx sp. gūfdar 104. Periophthalmus U-48-95 105. Hippocampus 106. Trachinotus U-48-98 107. pseudochromid (blue & orange) U-48-104 108. Platax U-48-108 109. Ophichthys U-48-113 110. Plectorhynchus schotaf? "shukkuhl" large 111. Rachycentron canadus 112. Bathygobius [[strikethrough]] 113. Cybium guttatum [[/strikethrough]] see#97 114. [[underline]] Sphyrna [[/underline]] hammerhead 115. small goby [[/end right column]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 185 [[/right corner]] Box contents #6/ U-48-9 -56 incl. (several specimens not included) [[insertion]] 8 gal. [[/insertion]] completed May 13, 1948 #22 trammel net, 1 coleman lamp, 1 copper dissecting tray #7/ U-48-57 - U-48-86 (sev. omitted)+U-48-1-8 , 8 gal. tank , completed June 6, 1948 #5/ U-48-87 - 115 , 8 gal. tank completed June 24, 1948 + 2 desert water bags #17/ U-48-87 - 1115, 16 gal. tank completed June 24, 1948 [[insertion]] 1 swim fin 1 15' seine [[/insertion]] 1 bag, 1 knapsack #20 Copper 16 gal. tank with screw top (not used) alcohol #19 U-48-145 16 gal. tank Jidda fish July 20, 1948 & flippers & 2 seines #2 16 gal. tank of rotenone to be taken on plane #15/ 8 gal. copper tank with fish ,2 collecting pails dry shells, Aug. 5 #4 11 jars with rotenone & invertebrates in alcohol,1 waterbag,old ring net 815148 #16 16 gal. copper tank with rotenone saved for Gurley Aug.5 large box 2 rubber boats, [[insertion]] 4 balls twine knapsak & kim [[/insertion]] 2 dredges, mosq. repell., 2 minnow seines, 1 native fish trap, knives etc. #3 tall box 100'seine & [[strikethrough]] bobbinetting [[/strikethrough]] ? [[end page]]
[[start page]] Catch of Shan'ad, Scomberomorus [[table with 9 columns, columns 2-9 labled: date, sex, S.L., lbs, time, stomach, right gill rakers(total), Left gill rakers (total)]] | date | sex | S.L. | lbs. | time | stomach | Right gill rakers (total) | left gill rakers (total) | 1. | Apr. 21 | ♀ imm. | 485 mm. | 1½ | 12:40 noon | empty | 6 | 6 | 2. | " [[ditto for: Apr. 21]] | " " [[ditto for: ♀ imm.]] | 455 mm. | 1¼ | 12:50 " [[ditto for: noon]] | herring | 7 | 6 | 3. | Apr. 22 | ♂ ripemilt | 795 " [[ditto for: mm.]] | 8½ | 8:35 A.M. | shrimp | 4 | 4 | 4. U-48-15 | " [[ditto for: Apr. 22]] | imm. | 48.8 " [[ditto for: mm.]] | 1¼ | 2:55 P.M. | | | | 5. | Apr.25 | ♀ imm. | 580 " [[ditto for: mm.]] | 2½ lbs | 9:25 A.M. | shrimp | 7 | 5 | 6. | Apr. 26 | ♀ ripe but not flowing | 830 " [[ditto for: mm.]] | 8 | 2:30 P.M | shrimp | 5 | 5 | 7. | " [[ditto for: Apr. 26]] | ♂ not quite ripe | 615 " [[ditto for: mm.]] | 3½ | 2:33 P.M. | shrimp (little piece) | 7 | 7 | 8. U-48-23 | " [[ditto for: Apr. 26]] | | 595 | 3 | 3:40 P.M. | | | | 9. | Apr.28 | immature | 500? | 1½? | 9:45 A.M. | pieces shrimp | 8 | 6 stumps | 10. | Apr.29 | [[strikethrough]] imm [[/strikethrough]] unripe ♂ | 600 | 3 | 6:00 P.M. | herring | 7 | 7 | 11. | r&w miller | May.3 | imm. ♀ | 560 | 1½ | 8:30 A.M. | empty | 7 | 7 | 12. | free hook spoon | May.4 | ripe ♂ | 760 | 7½ | 10:00 A.M. | 5 fish | 4 | 4+rudiment | 13. U-48-37 | r&w miller | May 4 | imm. | 510 | 1¼ | 11:10 A.M. 14. | r&w | May 4 | imm | 510 | 1 lb. | 11:40 A.M. | 15. | orange &w miller | May 5 | imm.♂ | 455 | 1lb. | 6:45 P.M. | shrimp | 7 | 7 white worm parasites | 16. small | r&w miller | May 9 | imm ♂ | 555 | 2lbs | 7:45 A.M. | empty | 6 | 9 | 17. | Abdullah spoon | " [[ditto for: May 9 ]] | ripe ♂ | 775 | 7 lbs | 7:50 A.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 6 | 6 | 18. | O&white | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | ♀ not quite ripe | 740 | 6 lbs | 9:20 A.M. | small fish | 7 | 9 | 19. black grouper | O&white miller | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | | 490 | 4 lbs. | 10:30 A.M. | | U-48-49 | 20. shanad | Orange & white | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | ♀ imm | 600 | 3 " [[ditto for: lbs.]] | 10:35 A.M. | empty | 6 | 5 | 21. | r&w miller | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | imm ♀ | 550 | 2½ | 3:00 P.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 6 | 6 | 22. | r&w miller | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | mature ♀ | 860 | 8½ | 3:45 P.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 5 | 6 | 23. barracuda | " [[ditto for r&w miller]] | " [[ditto for: May 9]] | | 660 | 4 | 4:30 P.M | empty | - | - | 24. shanad | white & blue bone | May 14 | imm♀ | 560 | 2 | 10:00 A.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 6 | 5 | 25.barracuda | silver spoon | May 15 | | 520 | 1½ | 7:45 A.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | U-48-59 | 26.barracuda | red&white jig | " [[ditto for: May 15]] | ♀ not ripe | 620 | 3 | 8:25 A.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | | | 27.shanad | " [[ditto for: red&white jig | " [[ditto for: May 15]] | ♂ ripe | 845 | 8½ | 10:45 A.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 8 | 7 | 28. " [[ditto for: shanad]] | silver spoon | " [[ditto for: May 15]] | | 600 | 2 | 12:10 P.M. | | U-48-61 | 29. " [[ditto for: shanad]] | red& white miller | " [[ditto for: May 15]] | ♂ | 810 | 7 | 12:17 P.M. | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 6 | 7 | 30. " [[ditto for: shanad]] | " [[ditto for: red& white miller]] | ♂ ripe | 650 | 3½ | 12:25 P.M. | 3 scads | 6 | 5 | [[/table]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 187 [[/right corner]] [[table, 9 columns, column 7-9 labeled: stomach, R. L.]] | | | | | | stomach | R. | L. 31. barracuda | Abdullahs spoon | May 15 | imm.♀ | 1½ | 47 | 5:05 P.M. | bill of large halfbeak with red tip | 32. " [[ditto for: barracuda]] | orange &white | " [[ditto for: May 15]] | imm.♀ | 2 lbs. | 59 | 5:0 P.M. | empty | [[strikethrough]] 7 | 7 [[/strikethrough]] | 33. Mackerel | white jig | ♂ ripe | May 26 | 10 lbs. | 890 | 11:45 AM | " [[ditto for: empty]] | 7 | 7 | 34. Chorinemus | orange & white | ♂ near ripe | May 29 | 13 | 86 | 9:45 A.M. | shrimp | head saved U-48-79 | 35. barracuda | o & w | ♀ near ripe | June 1 | 3 lbs. 65 cm. | 11:00 A.M. | empty | 36. " [[ditto for: barracuda]] | r&w | ♀ near ripe | " [[ditto for: June 1]] | 43 cm. | 2:40 P.M. | "[[ditto for: empty]] | 37. " [[ditto for: barracuda]] | white bone | - | June 23 | 50cm. | 7:30 P.M. | - | - | [[/table]] Red Sea Jidda Harbor July 5, 1948 1 silver spoon 1 caranx (white) 20lbs ♀ near ripe 9:00 A.M. stomach empty (?) 1 silver spoon 1 Shpyraendbarracuda 14 lbs. S.L. 38" A-9 , D-9 1 Caranx (see above) 33" tail fork, depth 3, head 3¼, 28 hard scales, P-20 DIII-17, A-II-16 #Arab names from Steindachners [[insertion above]] 1907 [[/insertion]] "Fishes of South Arabia & Sokotra" [[underline]] Siganus. siganus [[/underline]] (at Markat) sâfiyeh [[underline]] Lutjanus fulviflamma [[/underline]] Hobêrah (in Othman) [[underline]] Pomadasys hasta [[/underline]] nâgem [[underline]] Echeneis naucrates [[/underline]] lezôg [[underline]] Mugil seheli [[/underline]] arabi # names which correspond to Red Sea & Persian Gulf names [[end page]]
Fish & other names with Arabic according to Thatcher 1. Chirocentrus dorab hiff 2. Terapon puta zamrūr ("whistler") 3. porgy (square nose) [[strikethrough]] faskhar [[/strikethrough]] qurqufānah 4. Sparus cuvieri sba[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] ity [[sbaity]] sbait[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī [[sbaitī]] 5. band head porgy faskar[[strikethrough]] ah [[/strikethrough]] 6. chub(Plectorhynchus or [[strikethrough]] Hyphosus [[/strikethrough]] ) [[strikethrough]] inimih [[/strikethrough]] inimāh 7. Scarus dussumieri qa[[strikethrough]] y [[//strikethrough]]n [[qain]] geen 8. Sillago sihama hāsūn 9. Nemipterus bās^[[insertion]] ī [[/insertion]]yah [[bāsīyah]] 10. Scad S[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] īnah [[Sīnah]] 11. halfbeak s[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] īls [[sīls]] 12. parapercid zyb ha[[strikethrough y [[/strikethrough]]ir [[hair]] 13. Chanos (Dorosoma) [[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]] īwāf [[strikethrough]] ah [[/strikethrough]] īwāf 14. leatherjack lalāh [[strikethrough]] ah [[/strikethrough]] 15 Sparus spinifer Thūr (thaur?) 16 Seriola rab[[strikethrough]] ay [[/strikethrough]]ibah [[rabibah]] (large) 17. Scomberomorus [[strikethrough]] chanad [[/strikethrough]] kan'ad (chan'ad) 18. blue crab [[strikethrough]] gūb gūb [[/strikethrough]] ? qubqub 19. scorpaenid ( frijali ?) [[arrow drawn to this line from below, linked to]] faryaleh [[/arrow link]] 20. small snails subān 21. [[strikethrough]] bursjin [[/strikethrough]] land crab bursjīn (land devil) 22. 'ūm sardines 'ūmah (sing.) 23. Tylosurus ubbar[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī [[ubbarī]] =small, large= hāgūl 24. C.dispar 'uft[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī [['uftī]] 25. Gerrid Musallaqah 26. Platycephalus Waharah 27. sargus noct M^[[insertion]] u [[/insertion]]shawah [[Mushawah]] 28. [[strikethrough]] Common [[/strikethrough]] small porgy battāneh C. crenidens brown tooth porgy 29. common small porgy yellow fins ([[smudged]]hi'm) Shi'm S.datnia 30. Apogon thurstoni [[stirkethrough]] sh [[/strikethrough]] sihat al ra'[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī [[ra'ī]] (shepherd's food) [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 189 [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Parapercis [[strikethrough]] personatus [[/strikethrough]] smithii [/underline]] 31. sand lizard wuzāqah 32. filefish [[strikethrough]] bghymy [[/strikethrough]] baghūmī 33. Scolopsis personatus bz[[strikethrough]] ey [[/strikethrough]]aim [[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]īyah bzaimīyah 34. Scolopsis striped zarra'ah 35. Plesiops & Pomacentrids [[strikethrough]] Q'eysy [[/strikethrough]] Q'aisī [[underline]] Abudeduf marginatus [[/underline]] 36. green wrasse,gobis,etc. nabbāt 37. sea snake baljan[[strikethrough]] ey [[/strikethrough]]ai [[baljanai]] (bu Janāh = like a stick) [[underline]] Hydrophis [[/underline]] 38. Short gerrid (high dorsel) rīyāshah (feather) 39. long gerrid musallaqah (see #25) 40. leftside flatfish khūfa'ah 41. toadfish qumqāmah KumKomah 42. [[strikethrough]] Megaproto [[strikethrough]] Chaetodon raq'āh = "patch" 43. angel fish 'unfūz 44. [[strikethrough]] grunt [[/strikethrough]] Lutjanus (spot) naisarah 45. small Spotted grouper bālūl 46. Lethrinus (greendots) shuhdhūdh [[insertion]] small [[/insertion]] ,shari =large [[underline]] Lethrinus nebulosus [[/underline]] 47. Lethrinus (red gills) bakhshīyah [[underline]] Lethrinus miniatus [[/underline]] 48. Atherinid (man[[doubleunderline]]sh[[/underline]]ūzah) mankūzah 49. silver grunt blunt nose qurqufān (see #3) 50. Heniochus musht al 'arūs ,mushait 51. mackerel scad [[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] C. crumenophthalmus [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] jinnaiyah [[underline]] Decapterus russelli? [[/underline]] 52. black grouper sbait[[y[[/strikethrough]]ī burtam or "burtam", sbaiti, sakhala Bahrain 53 Seriola (small) samk[[strikethrough]]ah [[/strikethrough]] at tair 54. striped grunt (Pelates) (yim yāmah) [[strikethrough]] jij [[/strikethrough]] jimjāmah [[underline]] P. quadrilineatus [[/underline]] 55. Male lobster Um al Rubyān 56. shrimp rubyān 57. silver porgy Sparus datnia shi'[[insertion]] e [[/insertion]]m (see # 29 shiam 58. Trunk fish sam[[insertion]] a [[/insertion]]kat yūnis [[arabic writing] Ostracion cubicus 59. cat fish (chim) ([[strikethrough]] kim [[/strikethrough]]) kimm 60. Abfennes hians ghurraidh[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī flat gar [[end page]]
[[start page]] 61. tuna (scomber) jibābah (Bahrain) or Tibbon (Saihat) 62. barracuda dwailm[[strikethrough]] y[[/strikethrough]]ī {small) jidd (large) 63. guitar fish 1m or less h[[strikeout]] y [[/strikeout]]ira[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ī [[hiarī]], sūs larger than 1 meter 64. thick flounder khaufa'ah 65. thin flounder tabaqliziq 66. shark (hammerhead) (agran) aqrān 67. siganus U-48-41 [[insertion above]] siganus [[/insertion above]] șāfiah 'arab[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]īah spike perch 68. siganus [[strikethrough]] punc [[/strikethrough]] U-48-29 [[insertion above]] [[strikethrough]] puntatus [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] [[underline]] javus [[/underline]] șunaify [[switch words copyedit mark]] (sāfiah) șāfiah sunaifīyah 69. Triacantus [[strikethrough]]] qume [[/strikethrough]] K^[[insertion]] u [[/insertion]] laib al dau (Klaib = little dog) Kulaib al dau 70. brown tooth porgy C.crenidens battānah see 28 71. bottom green grass mash'ūrah 72. ray (manta?) lakhmah 73. blenny far[[strikethrough]]y j [[/strikethrough]]āleh (farjāl) 74. branch coral 'arīsh 75. brain coral (byimih) bajimah 76. cuttlefish Khaththāq 77. nurse shark (Chiloscyllium) Hayaseh 78. Snapper (brown) Shiqqarah 79. Arothron & [[strikethrough]] Chilonodon [[/strikethrough]] fuql 80. smooth puffer Chilonodon 'inizeh [[insertion above]] local [[/insertion]] ('anzah = she goat) 81. Carcharias menisorrah nā'ū[[strikethrough]] th [[/strikethrough]]z (th) 82. Rachycent,ron canadus sikn 83. lwaithy [[image: circle with "+" inside, and 7 lines coming off of it]] 84. dūl [[image: jellyfish with long tentacles]] 85. fughlūl [[image: short tentacled jellyfish]] & aurelia 86. shīt [[strikethrough]] ah [[/strikethrough]] sea urchin (short spine) 87. rammāyi sear urching (long spine) 88. Chorinemus (large) zul'ah (thulah) 89. sole U-48-86 Hofār [[arabic writing]] 90. Plotusus anguillaris U-48-87 'Āī [[arabic writing]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[right corner]] 191 [[/right corner]] 91. Echeneis (lezug) [[insertion]] [[arabic writing]] [[/insertion]] lazzāq 92. osprey abū/haqub [[arabic writing] [[arrow pointing toward arabic writing]] Had abu mukowey near Dammam 93. [[strikethrough]] Chorinerous [[/strikethrough]] Choerodon (black) (negrur) naqrūr 94. large mullet biohk? [[strikethrough]] bioh [[/strikethrough]] biauh 95. broad [[underline]] Caranx [[/underline]] (but thin) [[arrow drawn from this line to the line below]] (chekka ?) shekkah 96. [[arrow drawn from this line to line above]] Lutjanus (red fins) rabīb caranx with narrow black bands 97. Needlefish hāqūl hagul 98. sawfish siyawthy [[insertion]] [[arrow pointing to "siyawthy"]] Abdullah [[/insertion]] , sayyāfī[[strikethrough]] h [[/strikethrough]] (correction) Pristis zysron 99. Lutjanus coccineus? shigerr chigerr [[underline]] shugqarah [[/underline]] 100. Caranx sp. gūfdar (june 12) kūfdar 101. porgy (broad) burtam (this is sbaiti burtam see #52) [[insertion above]] burtamah [[/insertion]] sing. 102. 4" barracuda Halir 103. goat fish with yellow line baussay 104. Wet salt fillets Gymnosarda alleteratus? malhah 105. Hippocampus wuzz? "geese" 106. flying fish jarādah (gerradah) "locust" U-48-69 107. goatfish (red) Hamer arabi hāmarah 'Arabīyah 108. goat fish (black) Hamer bahra[[insertion]] i [[/insertion]]ni (black) " [[ditto for: hāmarah]] bahrainīyah 109. sword fish? silsāl 110. brown snail wudih wudili? 111. Sparus spinifer without bump [[insertion]] on [[/insertion]] head beguerra cow baqarah 112. Trachinotus [[insertion]] small [[/insertion]] bint at tair bint [[strikethrough]] tu terre [[/strikethrough]] at tair "daughter of bird" 113. Plectorhynchus or [[strikethrough]] Kyphosus? [[/strikethrough]] fine comb teeth mthoa or Hobur 114. Ctenophore shaped [[strikethrough]] jelly fish [[/strikethrough]] tunicate [[underline]] Salpa [[/underline]] gileon Qullīyānah 115 Platax amord? 116 Terapon [[insertion above]] target fish [[/insertion]] jarbua veeb? [[strikethrough]] jibb [[/strikethrough]] 117. Smooth jack U-48-107 yeeb, jeeb jibb 118. small carangid black spot u-48-110 semech at tair (samak[[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]]at al tair?) see # 53 119. " " [[ditto for: small carangid]] little larger " [[ditto for: U-48-110]] ūthānī uthainī 120. large [[insertion]] grey [[/insertion]] Plectorhynchus shukhūl saihat (cont. p 180 ) [[insertion]] shukūl [[/insertion]] [[end page]]
192 [[table with 3 main columns, titled Color film subject, time opening; there are 9 total columns across the page, with the information repeating for a total of 3 "table parts" of information]] [[table part 1]] Color film Subject | time | opening 1. sea & skiff | 200 | 8 2. Jidda rock isle | 100 | 8 3 " " [[dittos for: Jidda rock isle]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " ditto for: 8]] 4 Abdullahs 3 boys | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 62 5 " [[ditto for Abdullas 3 boys]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 62]] 6 Manama dusty long boats sky | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 4 7 " [[ditto for: Manama dusty longboats sky]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 4]] 8 " [[ditto for: Manama dusty longboats sky]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 4]] 9. fish cutters Ras Tanura | 100 | 8 10 fish catch | 100 | 12 11 fish contractor | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 12]] 12 Swede & gang & sbaiti | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 8 13 Kid & cobia | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 9 14 cobia | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 9]] 15 Red sea fishing canoe | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 11 16 " [[ditto for: Red sea fishing canoe]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 7 17 Jidda harbor & boats | 100 | 8 18 2 dhows | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 19 squirrel fish 2 parrots, siganus | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 20 long tailed red grouper | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 21 long tail red grouper & boy | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 22 [[underline]] Jidda sunset | 50 | 3.5 [[/underline]] 1 [[strikethrough]] 23 [[/strikethrough]] dugout | 100 | 8 2 [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/strikethrough]] Caranx sp. | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 3 [[strikethrough]] 25 [[/strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Caranx sp. | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 4 [[strikethrough]] 26 [[/strikethrough]] barracuda | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 5 [[strikethrough]] 27 [[/strikethrough]] large dark red snapper | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 6 [[strikethrough]] 28 [[/strikethrough]] man with fish | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 7 [[strikethrough]] 29 [[/strikethrough]] boy with fish | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 8 [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] blue parrots | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] [[/table part 1 end]] [[table part 2, same labels]] 9. blue parrots | 100 | 8 10. Hussein | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 11. " [[ditto for: Hussein]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 12. Ali | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 13 " [[ditto for: Ali]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 14. Hamoor & Ahmed | 50 | 8 15. " [[ditto for: Hamoor & Ahmed]] | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 16. Abdullah & sbaiti | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] 17. sbaiti | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] [[underline]] 18. broken well row boat | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 3.5 [[/underline]] [[insertion]] 19 & 20 [[underline]] Ahmed [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] Ansco black & white Small dhow east pier | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 8 George Rentz & sawfish saw 47 1/2" | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 7 Ali & sawfish saw | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 7 2 sawfish saws | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 7 " " [[ditto for: 2 sawfish saws | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 7 Azzizia curlews | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 11 " [[ditto for: Azzizia curlews crow or raven | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 11 " [[ditto for: Azzizia curlews crow flying | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 11 camels | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 16 Joe Smith & well | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 16 tree & house | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] well | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] goats & jebel | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] spring, garden, & jebel | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] Burrez springs Daggy & Smith | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] " " [[ditto for: Burrez springs]] | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] " [[ditto for: Burrez springs]] car & mud wall | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 16]] Hof hūf filter market | " [[ditto for: 50]] | 8 " " [[ditto for: Hof hūf filter market]] | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] " " [[ditto for: Hof hūf filter market]] | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] " " [[ditto for: Hof hūf filter market]] | " [[ditto for: 50]] | " [[ditto for: 8]] [[/table part 2 end]] [[table part 3]] Ansco cont. Smith & Anopheles pool | 100 | 14 filter " " [[ditto for: Smith & Anopheles pool | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[ditto for: 14 filter]] girl at well | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[ditto for: 14 filter]] " " [[ditto for: girl at well]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[ditto for: 14 filter]] Camels | 200 | 8 " [[ditto for: filter]] " [[ditto for: camels]] | " [[ditto for: 200]] | " " [[ditto for: 8 filter]] Shadepools rice patty | 100 | 7 " [[ditto for: filter]] " [[ditto for: Shadepools rice patty]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[dittos for: 7 filter]] " [[ditto for: Shadepools rice patty]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[dittos for: 7 filter]] donkeys in pool | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " " [[dittos for: 7 filter]] [[1st column title change]] Ansco color [[/1st column title change]] 1. Kim tree? | 100 | 5 2. light struck | [[strikethrough]] 100 | 5 | [[/strikethrough]] 3. " [[ditto for: light struck]] | | 4. ain Jeffūr | 100 | 5 5. ain Frayhenna | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 5? 6. " " [[ditto for: ain Frayhenna]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 5?]] 7. Abdulla & Mulhīss | 100 | 3.5 8. " [[ditto for: Abdulla & Mullhīss]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 3.5]] 9. " " [[ditto for: Abdulla & Mullīss]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 5 10. " " [[ditto for: Abdulla & Mullīss]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 5]] 11. house & Mulhīs | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " ditto for: 5]] 12. Abdulla & pick up | " [[ditto for: 100]] | 8 13. "Farsi" with pointed stern | 100 | 11 14. " " " [[ditto for: "Farsi" with pointed stern | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 15.Joe Smith & Arab beds | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 16. " [[ditto for: Joe Smith & Arab beds]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 17. dates dryind [[sic]] on ground | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 18. " [[ditto for: dates dryind on ground]] | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 19. livestock Saihat | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] 20. Arab house etc | " [[ditto for: 100]] | " [[ditto for: 11]] [[/table part 3 end]] [[/table]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Notes from Shultz Mar 1948 Chen 193 make a collection "Fish Foods for Pond Fish" 1. a. marine common fishes caught by Gurley b. marine fish with special gear c. shore fish by rotenone d. stream fishes e. market fishes f. long line fishes Travele's checks as of June 28, 1948 B 54, 072, 342 - 45 5 $20 A 61, 125, 150 - 52 3 $10 Index to Contents pp. 1-25 shore collections Al Azzizia Apr. 16 to Ras Tanura p.p. 26-105 Ras Tanura "Palestine" Apr.17-June 29 collections pp. 105-123 Shore collections from June 29-July 21 Jidda, Red sea with aid Hussain Tahrr p.p 180 Arabic names Persian Gulf pp. 182 Arabic names Red Sea p.p. 183-4 Persian Gulf fish species list including sight records p. 185 - Museum box reassignment list pp. 186-187 Catch statistics trolling P. Gulf and Red sea pp. 188-191 Arabic fish names P. Gulf p. 192 film (color) subject records. (over) [[end page]]
194 Give [[strikethrough]] Abdullah captain spear [[/strikethrough]] Give [[strikethrough]] Abdullah seaman [[?]] seine needles [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Give Hamed [[/strikethrough]] white sneakes [[checkmark]] [[arrow drawn to * "white T-shirt" a few lines below]] [[strikethrough]] Give Yusif a knife [[/strikethrough]] [[checkmark]] Get Ahmed a [[underline]] [[strikethrough]] [[??]] white T-shirt [[/strikethrough]] [[/underline]] [[* see above]] Index (cont.) Red Sea species pp. 178-9 p. 123 - July 22 - Persian Gulf p. 176-7 Journ Bombay Nat. Hist Game fishes of P. Gulf Maj. W.H. Lane p. 176 E.B. Worthington Middle east fisheries & fish farming p. 139-143 Chaschuse Id. pp. 170-175 revised English-Arabic, scientific fish name list pp. 130-137 Hofūf notes (fresh water springs) pp. 168-169 name similarities between regions p. 165 M.M. Mohsen, names of Red Sea fishes Lebanon fish Tannous, Afif (used by Arabs in Lebanon but not of Arabic origin. fariden subeldish. cuttlefish? marmoor Sanamoora-anchovies "[[underline]] bulldozer fish [[/underline]]" see May 18 U.S.N.M. Red Sea fish 49296 et seq. & 47593 etc. [[end page]] [[start page--back inside cover of journal]] [[underline]] Thenus orientalis [[/underline]] (Lund) mole lobster 195 collect algae of all kinds from outlying Islands. Kerosene Kelvinator kerosene refrigerant flame refrigerator $85 Army Surplus. car - Town shopper - Los Angeles merkub - boat "The Arabs: a short history" Philip K. Hilti Princeton Univ. Press 1943 lizard = wazāghah = dammūsah (burrowing lizard) Beda = Khuswī [[dot under s]] (non burrowing lizard " [[Ditto for: Beda]] Mary D. Winn 129 Bolton St. Baltimore 17 Paul Elliott, Comm. Fisheries U.S. Fish & Wildlife Palmer Kasha = dried sardines from Aden
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