M. W. Gorman, Lake Iliamna, Alaska, June 19 to Sept. 12 1902

ID: SIA Acc. 12-049

Creator: Gorman, Martin W.

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1902

Citation: Martin W. Gorman field notes from the Department of Botany

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This field book contains the specimen list of Martin W. Gorman from his collecting activities in the Iliamna Lake region of Alaska in 1902. The specimen list includes date; collector number; scientific name; collection notes (such as location, conditions, etc.); notations on abundance (six designations from "rare" to "common"); notes on how the plant is cooked or prepared and consumed; and sometimes the common names in Keuai, Aleut, and Russian. A key on the title page verso indicates the notations used for different languages and abundance designations. Localities include Iliamna Lake, Iliamna Bay, and Iliamna River.

Date Range


Start Date

Jun 19, 1902

End Date

Sep 12, 1902

Access Information

At least 24 hours advance notice is recommended to consult this collection. Contact the Department of Botany at 202-633-0920 to make an appointment.


  • Plants
  • Botany


  • Iliamna Lake
  • Iliamna River
  • Iliamna
  • United States
  • Iliamna Bay
  • Alaska


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA Acc. 12-049

Collection name

Martin W. Gorman field notes from the Department of Botany

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Main Library

[On spine of book cover] GORMAN 1-317 1902 S.I.LIB
[blank page]
[[Start Page]] M.W. Gorman Lake Iliamna, Alaska June 19 to Sept. 12, 1902 [[End Page]]
[[start page]] R. = Rare S. or Not ab. = Scarce or Not abundant f.ab = Fairly abundant Ab = Abundant [[underline]] V.ab = Very Abundant [[/underline]] [[underline]] Com. [[/underline]] = Common - i.e., occurring nearly everywhere in the region - [[image - "K" in circle]] = Konai [[image - "A" in circle]] = Aleut [[image - "R" in circle]] = Russian [[end page]] [[start page]] 1. Memo of Plants Collected in [[underline]] Lake Iliamna Region - [[/underline]] Date No. Name Ok. [[underline]] June 19 [[/underline]] 1 Rubus stellatus, Smith Rocky slopes Iliamna Bay [[underline]] Ab. open woods & sandy shores [[/underline]] [[image - "K" in circle]] = Ung - Koothl Fruit is eaten both raw + stewed 8/2/02. Saw patches of this berry still in bloom near Kecjith to day - " 2 Vaccinium Vitis-Idaca,L. ok Rocky slopes Iliamna Bay [[underline]] Ab. [[/underline]] [[underline]] Open woods & tundra [[/underline]] [[image - "K" in circle]] = 'Huig-ah-goh - (thoon-ah) Fruit is eaten raw, stewed + in the absence of sugar it is cooked with lard or grease Vaccinium vitis-idaca L. " 3 Spiraea betulaefolia, Pall. Rocky slopes Iliamna Bay [[underline]] V.ab. [[/underline]] Open woods, shores + river banks [[image - "K" in circle]] = Ung-guth-lah Spiraea betulifolia Pall. " 4 Trientalis arctica, Fisch. Mossy glades + open woods Iliamna Bay [[underline]] Com. [[/underline]] [[image - "K" in circle]] = Thoon-thal-bitz - a Trientalis europaea arctica (Fisch.) Ledeb. [[end page]]
2. 1902. June 19 5 chamaenirion latifolium, (L.) Sweet CK banks Iliamna Bay OK v.ab K= Tsul-bun-a follows shores, beaches, stream banks " 6 Cardamine CK banks Iliamna Bay Ab. K= Knol-nik-a Arabis lyrata occidentalis Wats. " 7 Cerastium arvense var. CK banks Iliamna Bay Rarehere K= Knil-hyock-a Arenaria macrocarpa Pursh. " 8 Oxyria digyna, (L.) Camptd. OK CK banks Iliamna Bay f.ab K. Nong-Kal-chuh-gah [[strikethrough ^The Kenais do not eat this^]] (Chist) The leaves & young stems are eaten both raw & cooked and the dried mature stems are smoked in lieu of tobacco- (Ewanuff) [[end page]] [[start page]] 3. 1902 June 19. 9 Papaver alpinum, L. CK. banks Iliamna Bay f.ab. K= ho-Kol-yoo-ee Papaver nudicaule L. " 10 Silene acaulis, var. CK. banks + rocky crevices slopes Iliamna Bay f.ab K= Khuk-tha Silene acaulis L. June 20 11 Roripa palustris, (L.) Bess. stream banks & shores Iliamna Bay f.ab Livid when young K= Lo-ee-Kul-yash-a Barbarea americana Rydb. " 12 Chrysanthemum arcticum L. OK Sea beaches. submersed at high tide Also occurs on rocky slopes Iliamna Bay Is somewhat heliotropic Not ab. K= Thoos-sthan-Koo-dhool-ya [[end page]]
4. 1902 June 20 13 Argentina Anserina, (L.) Rydb. Sea beach, submersed at H.T. Iliamna Bay Occurs also on stream banks Com. K = Knol-nig-a Potentilla anserina L. " 14 Plantago maritima L. ok Sea beach, submed. at H.T. Iliamna Bay Com. K = Koth-noo-tlyoh-á " 15 Triglochin maritima L. ok. Sea beach submed at H.T. Iliamna Bay f.ab K = Klâiv-zőő-áh " 16 Romanzoffia Sitchensis Bong. ok CK banks Iliamna Bay Ab. K = Jan-jee-de-Koonah Romanzoffia Sitchensis Bong. [[end of page]] [[start page]] 5 1902 June 20 17 Saxifraga punctata, L CK. banks Iliamna Bay Ab. K = Muh-Kindul-Koo-yea Saxifraga nelsoniana Don. " 18 Polemonium caeruleum L. CK. banks moist ground Iliamma Bay not Ab. here Ab.on route K = Thoot-nuh-thoot-yea ok. " 19 Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaie. CK. banks & moist ground Iliamna Bay Ab. 1 to 4 1/2 ft. high. K = Too-sal-thoon Fruit is eaten raw & boiled and sometimes put up in seal oil for winter use. Pith is removed from the straight branches & they are then used for pipe stems by the Kenais " 20 Chrysosplenium alternifolium L. Mucky CK banks Iliamna Bay Not Ab. K = Thoo-Kotz-tsok-ab Chrysosplenium tetrandrum Fries. [[end page]]
6. 1902 June 20 21 Pedicularis Sandy CK. banks Iliamna Bay f.ab. K= Wats-Kil-toots-a Pedicularis verticillata L. " 21 22 Saxifraga bronchialis, L. Sandy CK banks Iliamna Bay Not ab. K= Knil-hyoh-eh OK " 23 Epilobium CK. banks Iliamna Bay not ab. K= Koon-shoh-Koon-ah Epilobium behringianum Hausskn. " 24 Angelica CK. banks + open places Iliamna Bay f. ab. K= Knoh-ah-Kuth-sah Root= Ool-snuh-Kits-na The root is chewed + then held in the mouth in lieu of tobacco Coelopleurum gmelini (Db.) Ledeb [[end page]] [[start page]] 7. June 21 25 Ammodenia peploides (L) Rupr. ok sea beach submsd. at H.T. Iliamna B. Is greedily by horses K= Kon-ooz-Kuth-á [[strikethrough]] Ammodenia peploides major (Hook.) Wight.[[strikethrough]] " 26 Ledum palustre, L. OK Open woods + marshes S/L to 1000 ft. Ab. K= Kluh-ki-y " 27 Heracleum lanatum, Michx. OK Open woods Iliamna Bay In bloom at 1000 ft. not yet out at S/L f. ab. K=Khais Is much eaten raw " 28 Alsine longipes (Goldie) Coville. Sandy CK. banks Iliamna Bay Not. ab K= Knil-hyoh-eh OK
8. 1902 June 21 29 Phegopteris Phegopteris, (L) Underw. OK. Open woods S/L to 1000 ft. Ilianina Bay Ab K Uh-Thoon-ah Phegopteris Phegopteris (L.) Under "30 Dryopteris spinulosa dilatata, (Hoffm.) Underw. Open woods S/L to 1000 ft. Iliamna Bay Ab. K= Uh-thoon-ah OK "31 Alnus Tenuifolia Nutt. ? Slopes + mtn. sides - S/L. to ft. Very ab. 2 to 8 IN. Diam. Iliamna Bay Much infested by a moth grub that destroys the leaves K = Khoon-Kee-ah-thoon-ah Alnus sinuata (Regel) Rydberg. " 32 Geranium erianthum, DC. OK Rocky cliffs + open woods. Iliamna Bay Not ab. in Bay - very ab. in Interior K = Chul-chud-eh [[end page]] [[start page]] 9. 1902 June 22 33 Epiophorum angustifolium Roth OK sphag. marshes. Iliamna Bay Not ab. here f. ab. on trail inside Pass K= Kun-zee-thah Near E. Virginicum but has longer bristles " 34 Picea Canadensis (L.)B.S.P. In sphag. marsh Iliamna Bay Only 4 depauperate specs 1 1/2 to 2 ft. high and almost dead were observed here. At Iliamna Pt. 3 specs. were seen, the tallest only 26 1/2 in. high At Innerskin Bay 8 mls. distant a tree 13 1/2 in. in diam. was 165 years old. This was the prevailing tree along the route until the mouth of Chulitna R. was reached on 7/23. when P. mariana became the prevailing tree. K= Ellh Cone= Kloo-peesh-ah sapling= Schwallah-koo-yah Buds= Blo-uya-Kool-yah Roots= Ko-kul-lash-a Picea canadensis (Mill.) B.S.P. " 35 Comarum palustre, L. OK In ponds in sphag. marsh Iliamna Bay ab. but not yet in bloom Obsvd. in fine fruit on L. Iliamna on 7/17/02 K= Klin-ah-Koon-ah
10. 1902. June 22 36 Rumex occidentalis CK. banks Iliamna Bay Ab. K= Kosh-a It is eaten both raw + boiled Rumex occidentalis Wats. " 37 Valeriana Sitchensis Bong. ? CK. banks + moist ground Iliamna Bay Not ab. on Bay very ab. inside Fragrant K= Thsil-Thool-Thah Valeriana capitata Pall. " 38 Caltha palustris, L. ? In ponds and CK. banks Iliamna Bay Not ab. K= Thlurr Is eaten both raw + boiled Caltha palustris asarifolia (Db.) Huth. " 39 Betula glandulosa, Michx. In sphag marsh Iliamna Bay Prostrate + not thrifty here K= Ahtl-yees " 40 Betula Alaskana, Sargent In sphag. marsh Iliamna Bay Prostrate+ not thrifty here K= Kutz-ee-yah [[end page]] [[new page]] 11. 1902 June 22, 41 Salix Prostrate in sphag. marsh Iliamna Bay Ab. K= Kotch-ah-dhun Salix fuscescens Anders. " 42 Salix Sitchensis, Sauson Open slopes + CK. banks Iliamna Bay Com. Much infested by a moth grub that destroys the leaves. Meased 1 spec. on Iliamna R. 9 inc. in diam. K= Tsul-tshish-a Salix alaxensis (Anders.) Coville " 43 Montia Grassy CK. banks Iliamna Bay Rare K= Kith-ung-koo-yah Claytonia sarmentosa C.A. Mey. " 44 Cardamine bellidifolia, L. OK Sandy CK. banks Iliamna Bay Rare K= Bilyh-nah-Koo-thool-yah
12. 1902 June 23 "45 Diapensia lapponica, L. Dry rocky slopes Iliamna Bay f.ab K= Khon-uz-Kuth-āh OK "46 Lycopodium annotinum, L. In sphag. marshes Iliamna Bay Ab. Thoot-nuh-thoot-yā OK "47 Savastana odorata, (L.) Scribn. Rocky slopes + hillsides Iliamna Bay Not.ab. Savastana alpina (Sw.) Scribn. "48 Sedum roseum (L.) Scop. Rocky cliffs + sphag. marshes Iliamna Bay Ab. Sedum frigidum Rydb. [[end page]] [[start page]] 13. 1902 June 23 49 Rubus Chamaemorus L. OK In sphag. marshes Iliamna Bay Not ab. here ab. inside Rubus chamaemourus L. "50 Cornus Suecica, L. OK In sphag. marshes Iliamna Bay inside Occurs ab. in open woods K= Ung-Kootl Fruit is eaten [[underlined]] raw only[[/underlined]] Cornus suecica L. "51 Cerastium Sandy OK. banks Iliamna Bay f.ab. Near C. vulgatum Cerastium vulgatum L. "52 Primula Rocky slopes 800 ft. el. Jinkel-yash-Pass f.ab. here R = Sweet-Kah K = Ash-shaw-OK-wuh Leaves - [[underlined]]Deep red[[/underlined]], turning [[underlined]]purple[[/underlined]] on drying Res. [[underlined]]P. cuneifolia[[/underlined]] Primula cuneifolia Ledeb.
14. 1902 June 23 53 Streptopus amplexifolius, (L.) D.C. shady woods Iliamna Trail f. ab. both outside + inside OK " 54 Geum macrophyllum, Willd OK Open woods Iliamna Trail Occurs both outside + inside but [[underline]] not ab. [[/underline]] " 55 Sambucus [[strikethrough]] racemosa [[/strikethrough]] pubens, Michx. [[underline]] Com. [[/underline]] Open woods [[Jinkel-yash?]] Pass Sambucus racemosa L. " 56 Calamagrostis Sandy Ok. banks Iliamna Bay f.[[underline]] a.b. [[/underline]] Poa arctica P. Br. This species wherever obsrved, was found to have many of the seeds sprouting while the plant was yet growing- On further observation this [[strikethrough]]g[[/strikethrough]] sprouting appears to be a [[underline]]fungoid[[/underline]] growth of some kind-- [[underline]]MWG.[[/underline]] [[end page]] [[new page]] 15. 1902 [[underline]]June 24[[/underline]] 57 Anemone narcissiflora, L. OK Rocky slopes Ginkel-yash Pass [[underline]]Not ab.[[/underline]] " 58 Chamaecystis procumbus (L.) Kuntze Rocky slopes Jinkel-yash Pass [[underline]]Not ab.[[/underline]] Chamaecistus procumbeus (L.) Kuntze. " 59 Rubus spectabilis, Pursh OK. Rocky slopes Jinkel-yash Pass [[underline]]Ab.[[/underline]] f. ab. on L. Clark near Kee-jik River. [[strikethrough]]below Portage CK.[[?]] op.side of hill near [[?]] CK. but not yet ripe.[[/strikethrough]] [[underline]]June 25[[/underline]] 60 Pyrola rotundifolia, L. ? Open woods Iliamna River, Alaska K= Kheuk-tha Pyrola rotundifolia L. [[end page]]
16. 1902. June 25 61 Rubus Chamaemorus, L. OK Open woods Iliamna River Ab K= Ung-Kootl-too-nah Fruit is eaten both raw + stewed Rubus chamaemorus L. " 62 Menziesia ureeolaria, Salisb. Open woods Iliamna River Not ab. K= Atl-yeas Menziesia ferruginea Smith. " 63 Thalictrum sparsiflorum Turcz. Open woods Iliamna r. f. ab OK " 64 Geranium erianthum, D.C. OK Ab. Open woods Iliamna R. K= chall-chad-ee [[end page]] [[new page]] 17. 1902. June 26 65 Vaccinium Open woods + sphag. marshes- Iliamna R. V. ab K= Tsik-ah-Kah-too-nah fruit is eaten raw, stewed + cooked with salmon roe Vaccinium uliginosum L. " 66 Polygonum viviparum, L. OK Open woods+ c.K. banks Iliamna River " 67 Trisetum subspicatum, Beaur. C.K. banks Iliamna River Trisetum subspicatum (L.) Beaur. " 68 Populus trichocarpa balsamifera L. OK CK. and River bottoms Iliamna R. Ab. 6 to 26 IN. diam. K= Sneh or Snay. Leaves = Ktoon Specimens of this tree ^ in early fruit were collected for P. trichocarpa but a few days after collecting the capsules opened and were found to be 2-valved, thus excluding it from that species- [[end page]]
18. 1902 June 26 69 Picea Canadensis, (L.)B.S.P. slopes + hillsides Iliamna River f.ab. 6 to 22 IN. Diam (sapling) K = Ellh (grown tree) or Churdl-loK-wa-too-nah " Cone = Kloo-peesh-ah " Buds = Blo-ee ya-Kool-ya " Roots = Ko-Kul-lash-a, The ^ fine roots are split & used for making baskets, lashings of all sorts etc Picea canadensis (Mill.) B.S.P. " 70 Betula Alaskana, Sargent Slopes + hillsides Iliamna River Ab. K= Kuss-e-yah or Kuss-i-yah or Ket-si-ah Wood is used for snow shoe frames, sleds, pipe bowls etc. " 71 Betula glandulosa, Michx. Marshes + Mtn. slopes Iliamna River When in marshes it is small leaved + prostrate, but well fruited. When on hillsides + mtn slopes it is large leaved 3 to 12 or 15 ft. high x 1/2 to 2.55 in. in diam. but poorly fruited. K= Aktl-yees Betula glandulosa rotundifolia (Spach)Regel. June 27 72 Fritillaria Kamtschatcensis, Ker. Not ab. Open woods + riv. banks Iliamna River The bulbs are sometimes eaten raw, but generally gathered + put into a soup or stew with meat fish etc. K= Kan-az-dlee. Fritillaria kamtschateensis (L.) Gauter [[end page]] [[start page]] 19. 1902 June 27 73 Rosa acicularis, Lindl. OK. Open woods, Iliamna River f.ab. K= Ung-Kootl-Kuk. Sometimes called Hush- which = thorns Seed capsules are eaten raw, boiled in water or cooked in a stew with meat etc. " 74 Elymus mollis, Trin. Sea beach + sandy riv. banks Iliamna River v. ab. K= Man-thu-thu-sha Elymus arenarius L. " 28 75 Geranium erianthum, DC. OK ab. open woods Iliamna River (Like 64 but has pale pink, leaves + blooms later) K= Chall-chad-ee When the plant has finished blooming the leaves are gathered, dried and used as a tea. The leaves are also bound onto to cuts + wounds. The roots are eaten both raw, and boiled as a remedy for various diseases, and a decoction is used as a remedy for inflammation of the eyes. " " 76 Rubus pedatus, Smith OK Sphagnous marshes Iliamna R. f.ab. [[end page]]
20. 1902. June 28 77 Lupinus Open woods Iliamna R. f.ab. K = Knin-thal-Kuth-a Lupinus nootkatensis Donn. " 78 Oxycoccus Oxycoccus, (L.) Macck. OK Sphagnum marshes Iliamna R. f. ab. K= snil-thu-thah Fruit is eaten both raw + cooked Oxycoccus oxycoccus (L.) Macck. " 79 [strikethrough] Vagnera amplexicaulis, (Nutt.) [/strikethrough] Streptopus amplexifolius, (L.) DC. OK Open woods Iliamna R. f. ab. K= Klitsch-Kah Chief says [underline] sometimes eaten [/underline] June 29 80 [strikethrough] Agoseris [/strikethrough] Taraxacum lividum, (W.+K.) Heller Open woods Iliamna R. Rare Taraxacum chamissonis Greene [[end page]] [[start page]] 21. 1902. Moehringia lateriflora, (L.) Fenzl. June 29 81 [strikethrough] Cerastium Behringianum, C.+S.[/strikethrough] OK Open woods + under spruce trees. Iliamna R Ab. " 82 Empetrum nigrum L. OK Mtn. slopes + sphag. marshes. Iliamna R. Com. Bushes are burnt as an incense Fruit is eaten raw but not cooked. Fruit is said to be beneficial in bronchial troubles. K= Chin-too-nah " 83 Viola Langsdorffii, Fisch. Open mossy woods + sphag. Marshes. I. R. f. ab. Viola palustris L. " 84 Lycopodium alpinum, L. OK Open woods + Mtn. slopes. Iliamna R. Not ab. [[end page]]
22. 1902. OK June 29 85 Sorbus sambucifolia (C.&S.) Roem. Open woods Iliamna R. Rare K =Muk-thil-ehin-a K's say that the Russians eat the fruit. Fruit is partially cooked on hot rocks and then eaten as a remedy in coughs, asthma, hemorrhages etc. Branches are heated on hot rocks and used to beat the body " 86 Moneses uniflora, (L.) A. Gray OK Open mossy woods Iliamna R. Not ab. June 30 87 Limnorchis [strikethrough]Habenaria[/strikethrough] Open mossy woods Iliamna river Rare K = Nan-too-nah [underline]Not the same as 193.[/underline] The leaf is [underline]longer[/underline] and the roots are [underline]fleshy[/underline]- Lysiella obtusata (Pursh) Rydb. " 88 Anemone Open woods Iliamna River Rare Anemone richardsoni Hook. [[end page]] [[start page]] 23. 1902. June 30 89 Iris setosa, Pall. OK Sphag. marshes+ wet ground Ab. K= Tik-nil-ah-kol-ah-jit-lah K's sometimes chew the root but say it is hot like pepper. " 90 Salix Open woods Jinkel-yash Trail Com. K= Thoon-thul-ki-uh " 91 Pedicularis Sphag. marshes Jinkel-yash Trail Not ab Pedicularis euphrasioides Steph. " 92 Andromeda Polifolia, L. OK f.ab. Sphag. marshes Jinkel-yash Trail K= Khuk-i-uh Branchlets and leaves are boiled for one hour and the decoction drunk for coughs + colds Andromeda polifolia L. [[end page]]
24. 1902. June 30 93 Menyanthes trifoliata, L. OK In sphagnous marshes Jinkel-yash Trail Not ab. K= Kull-toots-ah " 94 Dasiphora fruticosa, (L.) Rydb. Moist ground + CK. banks Jinkel-yash T. Ab. K=Kuk-shook-thah Bark is scraped + applied raw to cuts + wounds and a decoction of the bark is drunk as a remedy for headaches + biliousness. Potentilla fruticosa L. " 95 Echinopanax horridum, (Smith) Dec. + Pl. Moist slopes Jinkel-yash Trail Not ab. K= Hush-kurr OK The branchlets are burnt + the ashes applied to cuts + wounds. July 2 96 Aconitum [strikethrough]delphinifolium[/strikethrough] columbianum, Nutt. Open woods + moist slopes Indian Village [Noo-chuk-tol-lit-noo] K= Jan-jee-dee-yil-kad-da Aconitum delphinifolium Db. [[end page]] [[start page]] 25. 1902. July 3 97 Arnica Mossy slopes Jinkel-yash hake Not ab. Arnica lessingii (Torr. & Gray.) Greene. " 98 Juniperus nana, Willd. OK Dry rocky bluffs Iliamna Bay Not ab. Seen also at Iliamna Pt., Lake Iliamna Lake Clark K= Chin-ton-ah " 99 Poa Sea beach Iliamna Bay f. ab. Poa glumaris Presl. July 4 100 Pedicularis Open rocky bluffs Iliamna Point f. ab. Pedicularis lanata Willd. [[end page]]
26. 1902. July 4 101 Campanula lasiocarpa, Cham. OK Open rocky slopes Iliamna Pt. Not ab. Has from 1 to 5 flowers on a single stem but is mostly single flowered. " 5 102 Pneumaria maritima (L.) Hill OK Shingly beaches Iliamna Pt. Not ab. " " 103 [[strikethrough]] Vicia[[/strikethrough]] Lathyrus maritimus, (L.) Bigd. OK Grassy beaches Iliamna Point Not ab. Flowers [[underlined]] red[[/underlined]] to[[underlined]] purplish red[[/underlined]] , turning [[underlined]] purple[[/underlined]] in drying- " " 104 Tofieldia Open rocky cliffs & alpine slopes - S/L. to 2000 ft. F.ab. Iliamna Point. Tofieldia coccinea Richards. [[end page]] [[start page]] 27. 1902. July 5 105 Arctous alpina, (L.) Niedenzon OK Open rocky slopes Iliamna Point Com. " 106 Salix Open rocky & alpine slopes Iliamna Point f. ab. Salix phlebophylla Anders. July 6 107 Potentilla nivea, L. Dry rocky cliffs Iliamna Pt. f. ab. Potentilla villosa Pall. " 108 Artemisia borealis, Pall. Open rocky slopes Iliamna Point Artemisia chamissoniana Bess.
28. 1902. July 6 109 Phegopteris Dryopteris, (L.) Fee OK Open woods among alders. Iliamna Pt. Ab. Phegopteris dryopteris (L.) Fee. " 110 Rhododendron Open rocky slopes Iliamna Pt. Not ab. K= Chitl Flowers- [[underlined]] Red[[/underlined]] , turning [[underlined]] purple[[/underlined]] on drying. Rhododrendron kamtschaticum Pall. " 111 (Moss) Open rocky slopes among Empetrium Hedum Not ab Iliamna Point " 7 112 Salix Open rocky + alpine slopes Iliamna Point Salix arctica Pallas. [[end page]] [[start page]] 29. 1902. July 7 113 Atriplex littoralis, (L. ? Sea beach Iliamna Point f. ab. Atriplex gmelini C. A. Meyer July 8 114 Ligusticum Scothicum, L. OK Grassy beaches Iliamna Point f. ab. Ligusticum scothicum L. " 115 Chamaenirion angustifolicum, (L.) Scop. OK Open rocky slopes Iliamna Point v. ab. The most ubiquitous and abundant plant in the whole region traversed. Grows sometimes 5 ft. high, with foliage 3/4 IN wide in rich moist soil while on the semi- barren tundra it occurs about 1 ft. high, short spiked + with foliage 1/4 IN. wide The next most abundant plants are Empetrum Vaccinium (No. 118.) Ledum K= Neatl-throol-yah. The dry stems are boiled + the decoction drank as a tea. The dry hollow stems are also smoked in lieu of tobacco. July 9 116 Ribes laxiflorum, Pursh. OK Open rocky slopes Iliamna Point f. ab. K= Chull-tung-ul-tlillah.
30. 1902. July 10 117 Polygonum Open rocky slopes Iliamna Pt. Not ab. This species is somewhat alpine + does not appear to be P viviparum. Polygonum viviparum L. " 11 118 Vaccinium ovalifolium, Smith OK Open rocky slopes Iliamna Point Not ab. here. Fruit is nearly ripe at this point already and is large + of fine flavor. K= Kun-sah " 119 Aruncus Aruncas (L.) Karst. OK Open woods + grassy slopes Iliamna Pt. Aruncus aruncus (L.) Karst. July 12 120 Heuchera [strikethrough]micrantha [/strikethrough] glabra, Willd. OK Rocky cliffs + ck. banks Iliamna Pt. Com. [[end page]] [[new page]] 31. 1902. July 13 121 Galium triflorum Michx. Mucky CK. banks Iliamna Bay Rare Galium trifidum subbiflorum Wiegand " 122 Alsine borealis, (Bigel.) Britton OK Mucky ck. banks Iliamna Bay Not ab. " 123 Montia Mucky CK. banks Iliamna Bay Rare Very fleshy succulent on collecting but shrinking greatly in drying- Claytonia chamissoi Ledeb. " 14 124 Galium boreale, L. OK Open woods + glades Iliamna River Com. The most abundant + characteristic plant of the Interior. This plant, Allium Dasiphora fruticosa, Rosa acicularis, Hedysarum Americanum, may all be considered characteristic + typical of the Interior flora-
32. 1902 [[strikethrough]] ? [[/strikethrough]] Fistularia Crista-galli, (L.) Wettst. July 14 125 [[strikethough]] Stachys [[/strikethough]] Shady woods Iliamna R. [[underlined]] f. ab. [[/underlined]] Occurs on Iliamna R., L. Iliamna, Nogheling R., L. Clark (Is rather succulent & hard to cure properly) Rhinauthus crista-galli L. " 126 [[strikethrough]] Polenum [[/strikethrough]] Sanguisorba Sitchensis, C. A. Meyer. Shady woods & grassy glades. Iliamna R. [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] Sanguisorba latifolia (Hook.) Coville " 127 Arnica Open woods Iliamna R. [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Arnica chamissonis Less. " 128 [[strikethrough]] Solidago [[/strikethrough]] Chrysopsis Open woods Iliamna R. [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Solidago multiradiata Ait. [[end page]] [[start page]] 33. 1902 July 14 129 Betula Grassy slopes Iliamna River [[underline]] Ab. [[/underline]] ? Is this B. glandulosa " 130 Pyrola secunda, L. Ok [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] Open woods & grassy slopes Iliamna River " 131 Veratrum viride, Ait. Open woods Iliamna River [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] [[symbol K in circle]] = Chish'-Kin-nȧh The root is boiled 10 or 15 minutes and the decoction used as an emetic. The plant is much infested by a grub or small caterpillar & so is hard to save - Veratrum eschscholtzii (Rocm & Sch.) Gray " 132 Pyrola picta, Smith ? Open woods & grassy glades. Iliamna R. [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Pyrola rotundifolia L.
34. OK 1902. MacM. July 14 133 Gyrostachys Romanzoffiana, (Cham.) Moist woods & hillocks in sphag. marshes [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] here Iliamna River Gyrostachys romanzoffiana (Cham.) MacM. " 134 Vaccinium ovalifolium, Smith OK Open woods Iliamna River [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] here. Fruit is excellent & nearly ripe [[circled]] K [[/circled]] = Kun-sah Fruit is eaten raw & stewed and in the absence of sugar is boiled with meat grease etc. MEEKOWLUH says this fruit is very abundant at Kodiak and that there it is sometimes sun-dried in addition to being eaten raw & boiled. July 15 135 (Moss) Hillocks in open woods Iliamna River [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] July 16 136 Calamagrostis Open woods, glades, lake & stream [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] banks [[underlined]] V. ab [[/underlined]] [[circled]] K [[/circled]] = Kuh-churi Iliamna River This is the most valuable grass in the whole region Calamagrostis canadensis (Mx.) Beau [[end page]] [[start page]] 35. 1902. July 17 137 Aster Sandy beaches & rocky shores, Lake Iliamna [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] Aster sibiricus L. " 138 Parnassia Kotzebuei, C. & S. OK Sandy beaches & rocky shores. L. Iliamna Parnassia kotzebuei Cham. & Schlecht. " 139 Salix Sitchensis, Sanson Grassy glades & open tundra. L. Iliamna 6 IN. to 5 ft high, sometimes prostrate on tundra. Is greedily eaten by the pack-horses. [[circled]] K [[/circled]] = Kith-oon-thil-koo-yah Salix glauca L. " 140 Poa Creek & pond banks, usually growing in water L. Iliamna Colpodium fulvum Griseb.
36. July 17 141 Ranunculus reptans, L. Ok Along creeks & dried banks. L. Iliamna Not ab. "142 [[strikethrough]] Laurunillia palastris [[/strikethrough]] Sparganium minimums, Fries. In mucky ponds L. Iliamna Not ab. Sparaganium hyperboreum Laest. " 143 Hippuris [[strikethrough]] vulgarus [[/strikethrough]], tetraphylla, L.f. ? In mucky ponds L. Iliamna Ab. Hippuris vulgaris L. "144 Roripa Submersed in lake L. Iliamna Roripa palustris (L.) Bess. [[end page]] [[start page]] 37. July 17 146 Potentilla Sandy + rocky beaches. Ilds. in L. Iliamna f. ab Potentilla monspeliensis L. [[image - arrow to top of the page]] " 145 Epilobrium Grassy shores Lake Iliamna f. ab. Epilobium palustre L. "147 Cheiranthus cheiranthoides, (L.) Heller Sandy + rocky beaches L. Iliamna Ab. Erysimum cheiranthoides L. "148 Polemonium humide, Willd.? Ok (Ill scented) Sandy beaches L. Iliamna Ab.
[[new page]] 38. 1902. July 18 149 Rubus Chamaemorus L. (fruit) OK Open Tundra Lake Iliamna v. ab. K= The tundra is now dotted pink in patches with the ripe fruit of this berry. The taste is slightly acid + much superior to the same fruit in S. E. Alaska. After flowering the sepals clasp the fruit tightly + remain so until the berry is fully ripe when they again open out as they did in flowering. If allowed to get too ripe the fruit loses in flavor + turns a light yellow in color. Rubus chamaemorus L. " 150 Saxifraga reflexa, Hook. Rocky slopes + bluffs L. Iliamna Rare here Saxifraga nivalis L. " 151 Saxifraga Dry rocky slopes + bluffs L. Iliamna Rare here Saxifraga rivularis L. " 152 Mimulus Langsdorf[strikethrough]f[/strikethrough]ii, Sims ? About springs West shore L. Iliamna Ab. Mimulus guttatus Db. [[end page]] [[new page]] 39. 1902. July 18 153 Alsine longifolia, (Muh.) Britton About springs [strikethrough] West [/strikethrough] N. shore of L. Iliamna f. ab. Alsine borealis (Bigel.) Britton " 154 Epilobium Ab. About springs [strikethrough] West [/strikethrough] N. Shore L. Iliamna Epilobium bongardi Hausskn. " 155 Cornus Suecica, L. OK mossy shores L. Iliamna f. ab. Colld. to show metamorphosis of leaves into [strikethrough] sepals. [/strikethrough] involucral bracts- K=Ung-Kootl. Fruit is eaten raw only Cornus suecica L " Picea Canadensis, (L.) B.S.P. The tundra about a great part of Lake Iliamna particularly the ^N west shore, while apparently treeless, is found on a closer examination to be fairly well dotted with this species in a perfectly prostrate form. The trees or rather saplings do not form cones at present but I think it is only a question of time until cone-forming individuals get a footing and the species becomes well established about the Lake. At present it has become fairly well established in the east side and about halfway down the west side. Picea canadensis (Mill.) B.S.P. [[end page]]
[[new page]] 40. 1902. July 19 Road House Camp- I am a month on the expedition this morning and have collected 155 Numbers to date, of which probably 130 are separate species. In crossing the first 3 miles of the Kogging trail last night, about 2 miles were tundra and 1 mile open woodland. The chief species seen on the tundra were Ledum latifolium, Empetrum nigrum Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea, Vac (#65 + 207) Arctous alpina, Andromeda polifolia Salix Sitchensis, Salix Betula glandulosa, " 156 Myrica Gale, L. OK Margins of ponds + lakelets. Near [[strikethrough]]Kogging [[/strikethrough]] Nogheling R, [[underline]]Ab. [[/underline]] First place this shrub was seen on trip Myrica gale L. " 157 Ranunculus reptaus, L. OK Margins of Ponds Near [[strikethrough]] Kogging [[/strikethrough]] Nogheling River [[underline]]Not ab. [[/underline]] " 158 Tofieldia palustris, Huds. OK [[underline]] Not ab. [[underline]] Tundra + Sphag Marshes. Nogheling Trail [[end page]] [[new page]] 41. 1902. July 19 159 Gyrostachys Romanzoffiana, (Cham.) MacM. OK Moist tundra + sphag. Marshes [[underline]] f. ab. [[/underline]] Nogheling Trail Gyrostachys romanzoffiana (Cham) MacM. " 160 Linnaea Americana, Forbes OK Moist woods Noghling Trail [[underline]]Ab. [[/underline]] Linnaea americana Forbes " 161 Polmemonium acutiflorum ? OK [[strikethrough]] White [[/strikethrough]]Willd. Grassy slopes Nogheling Trail [[underline]]Rare [[/underline]] July 20 162 Chamaenirion angustifolium, (L.) Scop. OK Open tundra Nogheling Trail [[underline]]Ab.[[/underline]] Showing stunded appearance of plant on Tundra which is here somewhat dry. K= Nil-throl-Kah (or -Klah) The dry [[underline]]stems[[/underline]] are boiled + the decoction drank as a tea. The dry hollow stems are also smoked in lieu of tobacco. " 163 Arnica alpina, ^ (L.) Olin Open tundra Nogheling Trail [[underline]]Not ab. [[/underline]] Arnica obtusifolia Lessing.
42. 1902 July 20 164 Rupinus arcticus, Wats. Open tundra Nogheling Trail Lupinus noorkatensis unalaschcensis Wats. July 21 165 Aragallus [[underlined]] Yel. [[/underlined]] Gravilly slopes Nogheling R. Rapids f. ab. Aragallus gracilis A. Nelson " 166 Dryas octopetala L. ok Gravilly hills Nogheling R. near Rapids " 167 Pedicularis Dried ponds, Nogheling R. near L. Clark [[underlined]] not ab. [[/underlined]] Pedicularis parviflora J. E. Smith July 22 168 Astragalus Sandy beaches Foot of Lake Clark Astragalus alpinus L. [[end page]] [[start page]] 43. 902. July 22 169 Vicia Americana, Muhl. Sandy beaches Foot of L. Clark [[underlined]] f.ab. [[/underlined]] Lathyrus palustris L. " 170 Mertensia sp. Sandy shores Foot of L. Clark [[underlined]] f. ab. [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] Mertensia septentrionalis Wight. [[/strikethrough]] July 23 171 Vaccinium low bush Open tundra The Nanous Foot of L. Clark Vaccinium uliginosum L. " 172 Boschriakia glabra, C. A. Meyer Ok Sandy shores + tundra Foot of Lake Clark " 173 Paruassia palustris L. ok Shores of ponds partly submersed Ft. of L. Clark
44. 1902. July, 23 174 Comandra livida, Richards. ok Open woods & dry slopes Above ^[[ North of ]] Chulitna River [[underlined]] Ab. [[/underlined]] Lake Clark " 175 Lichen In tundra & open woods L. Clark near mouth of Chulitna River Com. " 176 Woodsia Dry rocky cliffs L. Clark, near mouth of Chulitna River Not ab. K = Chool-yin-thoonah. Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br. " 177 Peranrinum repens, (L) Salisb. ok Grassy woods L. Clark near mouth of Chulitna River Rare [[end page]] [[ start page]] 45. July 23 178 Picea Mariana, (Mill.) B.S.P. Ok Slopes + hillsides. L, Clark near mouth of Chulitna River v.ab. This tree was first observed on Nogheling River a little below the foot of L. Clark. Here just above mouth of Chulitna R. it is the prevailing tree. Found one specimen here 16-87 in. in Diam.x 57 ft. high. Almost all the individuals examined were well covered with cones which as usual in this species were more or less persistent and massed near the top. K = Nahtl-yoon, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. ok July 24 179 [[strikethough]] [[Sabucula?]] [[/strikethough]] Bupleurum Americanum, C.+R. Rocky cliffs. Near mouth of Chulitna R. L. Clark Not ab. K= Kol-Kuth-a', Bupleurum americanum Coulter + Rose. " 180 Yel. Crucifer Rocky cliffs. L. Clark above mouth of Chulitna River Draba aurea Vahl. " 181 Potentilla ? Rocky cliffs. West side Lake Clark K = No-Kul-thari-Kuth-in' Potentilla pennsylvanica strigosa Pursh. [[end page]]
46. July 24 182 Dasiphora fruticosa, (L.)Rydb. Dry rocky cliffs. West side Lake Clark Not ab. Colld. to show dry habitat small leaves. K=Tsul-bun-ā' Potentilla fruticosa L. " 183 Drosera rotundifolia, L. ok Margins of ponds. West side L. Clark. f.ab. " 184 Drosera longifolia [strike[Anglica]], L. ok In slimy ponds. West side Lake Clark. f.ab. " 185 Alnus tenuifolia Nutt.? Dry rocky slopes West side L. Clark Ab. K='King-'Kuh-yah' Alnus alnobetula (Ehrh.) K. Koch. July 25 186 Senecio Balsamitae Muhl. Dry rocky slopes. West side L. Clark Not ab. 'Hoh-thung-gīKe'-Kuth-ā Senicio resedifolius Less. [[end page]] [[start page]] 1902 47. July 25 187 Aragallus Wht. flowered Dry rocky cliffs W. side Lake Clark f. ab. K= Tsul-bun-ā'-Kuth-an The leaves are made into a poultice with hot water and applied to painful knees or sore throat also to cuts & wounds. Aragullus gracilis [[A?]]. Nelson. " 188 Hedysarum Americanum,(Mx.)Britton Sandy stream Banks, W side L. Clark f.ab. K= Kee-lah Roots are eaten raw, boiled, & sometimes cooked with meat etc. This is one of the staple vegetable foods of the natives (both Konais & Aleuts) in this region. The dried roots are ground and used (boiled) to make a tea. Hedysarum americanum (Michx) Britt. " 189 Artemisia [stike[vulgaris v.]] Tilesii Ledeb. OK Stream banks + moist ground. Kee-jik Village f. ab. Lake Clark K=No-Kub-than' K's say the bear is fond of the roots of this plant + digs it up to get them. Artemisia tilesii Ledeb. July 26 190. Conioselinum Gmelinii (C&S.) C & R. ? Sandy Ck. & lake banks. W. side L. Clark (10 miles from head) Conioselinum gmelinii (Cham. & Schlechy) Coult. & Rose.
48. 1902. July 26 191 Ribes rubrum, L. OK Rocky slopes & open woods. Ildsim L. Clark 12 miles fr. head [[underlined]]f.ab.[[/underlined]] but not at all well fruited K = Chulld-ung-ul-tlillah [TyoonoK] = Noon-uz-Kuth-ā' Thoonah Fruit is eaten raw, stewed, cooked with other fruit sometimes with meat etc. " 192 Rubus strigosus Michx. OK [[underlined]]Not ab.[[/underlined]] Rocky slopes Ilds. in L. Clark K= Noo-yah-Kut'-lah Fruit is eaten, raw, stewed & boiled with meat fish etc. " 193 [[stricken]] Habrnaria[[/stricken]] limprerchis In masses of Erupetrum. Hd. of L. Clark Rare K= Woz-gill-toots'-ah Not the same as No.87.- The leaf is smaller and the roots firm & big nerves- [[underlined]]MWG[[/underlined]] Lysiella obtusata (Pursh.) Rydb. (177) " 194 Peramium repens, (L.) Salisb. OK. In masses of Erupetrum. Hd. of L. Clark [[underlined]]Rare[[/underlined]] July 26 195 Pyrola [[stricken]]secunda[[/stricken]] minor. L. [[underlined]]f.ab.[[/underlined]] In beds of Erupetrum Hd. of. L. Clark K= Nun-chirrah Pyrola secunda L. [[end page]] [[start page]] 49. 1902. July 26 196 Salix Sandy lake banks. W. side Hd. of L. Clark [[underlined]]Not ab.[[/underlined]] Tree 8 to 15 ft. high [[circled]]K[[/circled]]= Uh-s naij-Kicth-an [[circled]]Rus[[/circled]] = Al-fov-nak Salix nuttalli Sargent. July 27 197 Allium Sibiricum, L. OK Sandy stream bks. W. side Hd. of L. Clark [[underlined]]Not ab.[[/underlined]][[circled]] K[[/circled]]= `Huh-thunl-`hrīk'-ah Both stems & bulbs are eaten raw & cooked. They are also cultiveted by the K's. The bulbs are sometimes gathered for winter use. Allium sibiricum L. " 198 Arenaria vernahirta, Wats. Dry rocky cllifs. Hd. of L. Clark [[underlined]]Not ab.[[/underlined]][[circled]] K[[/circled]]= Nun-thin'-iz, Arenaria arctica Stev. " 199 Salix Sand lakes & sandy bks. [[stricken]]Silty[[/stricken]] Klika-killa river W. side Hd. of Lake Clark [[circled]]K[[/circled]]= Tree= Tsul-chish'-ah, Leaves= Kith-oon'-thil-kī-ā, Amouts=Kol-lul'-uk-ah, Salix alaxensis (Anders.) Coville " 200 ? Festuca rubra v. Sand bars & sandy bks. [[stricken]]Silty[[/stricken]] Klika-killa river W. side Hd. of L. Clark [[circled]]K[[/circled]]= Kuh-chun This grass is used for insoles in mucklucks, to thatch caches, igloos etc. Festuca rubra L. [[end page]]
50. 1902. July 28 201 Campanula lasiocarpa, Cham. OK Dry rocky slopes 1500 ft. above sea level Hd. of L. Clark f.ab. The only spot in which this plant was found were fairly abundant. " 202 Parugssia palustris, L. OK Mossy borders of lagoons. Hd. of L. Clark f.ab. K= Kuh-churi-chill-lah " 203 Erupetrum nigrum, L. OK V. ab.& well fruited Open rocky slopes 1500 ft. above S/L. Not in sphagnum W. side Hd. of L. Clark K= Kuk-Kozh'-nah Thoon-ah Fruit is eaten raw, stewed & boiled with meat etc. Branches & leaves are chewed in lieu of Tabacco. The raw fruit is said to be beneficial in hoarseness & bronchial troubles. The bushes + branchlets are burnt as an incense on festive occasions. " 204 Pedicularis Open rocky slopes 1500 ft. above sea level Hd. of Lake Clark. Not. ab. Now passing into fruit. K= Kin-dhaz'-Kuth-ā Pedicularis euphrasioides steph. [[end page] [[start page]] 51. 1902 July 28 205 Aconitum delphinifolium DC. OK Grassy slopes 1500 ft. above Sea level W. side Hd. of Lake Clark Ab. K= Jan-jee-dee-yil'-Kuth-ā' The leaves are dried in Autumn & used in lieu of tea. " 206 Phleum alpinum, L. OK Open mossy slopes 1500 ft. above S/L. W. side Hd. of L. Clark Not ab. K= Kuh-chung'-Kuth-in Heads= Blō-yuk-thā " 207 Vaccinium Low bush Open rocky slopes 1000 to 1500 ft. above S/L. w. side Hd. of L. Clark v.ab K= Tsik-ah-Kah'-Thoon-ah Fruit is eaten raw, stewed & sometimes boiled with salmon roe (Sockeye roe) meat etc. Vaccinium uliginosum L. " 208 Actaea arguta Nutt. Moist woods 100 to 600 ft. above S/L. W. side Hd. of Lake Clark f.ab. K= Chah-toon-geeK'-ah The fruit & stems are well boiled in water and doses of the decoction drank as a remedy for chills. Actaea rubra (Ait.) Wirrd. [[end page]]
52. 1902. July 28 209 Festuca rubra v. Sandy shores W. side Hd. of L. Clark f. ab. Festuca rubra L. " 210 Festuca Sandy shores W. side Hd. of L. Clark f. ab. K = Tsil-thrall-ghun-a Bromus pacificus Shear. " 211 Boschniakia glabra C. A. Meyer ok Open woods + open rocky slopes - S/L. to 2000 ft. Parasite on roots of Aluus ,Vac. Arctous alpina + Picea Canadensis. K= =Schwôl'-l'a Mthis. Hd. of L. Clark July 29 212 Hippuris vulgaris, L. ok In ponds + lagoons. W. side Hd. of L. Clark f.ab. Showing appearance of plant when grown in deep + mucky ponds. " 213 Picea Canadensis, (L.) B.S.P. Open flats + slopes. W. side Hd. of L. Clark Measured 2 trees, the largest I could find, on grassy slopes, W. side Hd. of L. Clark. One proved to 18 and the other 25 IN. in diam. Specs. taken from a tree 126 years old, 56 ft. high by 12½ IN. Picea canadensis (Mill.) B.S.P. [[end page]] [[start page]] 53. (No. 213) Tree = Ellh, Roots = Ko-Kul-lash'-ā Cone = Kloo-peesh'-ah Sapling = Schwalla-Koo-yah Birds = Blō-ooya-Kool-yah diameter. This is the prevailing conifer all about L. Clark except a small tract near the mouth of Chulitna R. where P. Mariana is the prevailing tree. 7/31. Measured + photoed a small tree of P. Canadensis on E. Side, Hd. of L. Clark 70 yrs. old, 30 ft. - 9 IN high by 30 FT - 9 IN in diameter. Soil a sandy creek delta. The fresh branchlets are boiled for an hour or more and small doses of the decoction drank as a remedy for coughs colds ect. The fine roots are gathered + being split are used to make baskets, lashings, things etc. July 29 214 Utricularia In mucky ponds + lagoons. W. side Hd. of L. Clark f.ab. Utricularia vulgaris L. " 215 Moehringia lateriflora, (L.) Fenzl. ok (S) Sundry plants collected during a walk up steep Canyon water course, E. Side Hd. of L. Clark Not ab. " 216 Senecio sulnudus, D.C. ? Dry rocky cliffs. Canyon E. Side Hd. of L. C. Rare Senecio resedifolius Less. [[end page]]
54. 1902. July 29 217 Primula? Dry rocky cliffs, Canyon E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark Rare Androsace chamaejasme Host. "218 Saxifraga Dry rocky cliffs, Canyon E. Side Hd. of L. Clark Rare Is probably same as No.151. Saxifraga rivularis L. "219 Viola biflora, L. ? Dry rocky cliffs, Canyon E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark Rare Viola glabella Nutt. July 30 220 Calamagrostis Slopes + hillsides in open woods E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark Ab. Calamagrostis canadensis (Mx.) Beauv. "221 Poa Sandy slopes of rock slide E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark f.Ab. Poa pratensis L. [[end page]] [[start page]] 55. 1902 July 30 222 Calamagrostis Open woods + hillsides, E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark Ab. Calamagrostis langsdorfii Trin. " 223 Rubus strigosus, Michx. ok Open woods E. Side Hd. of Lake Clark Ab. here " 224 Lycopodium annotinum, L. ok Sphagnous woods, E. Side, Hd of L. Clark Ab. This is the chief Lycopodium here " 225 Elymus Sandy lake shores. Hd. of Lake Clark Agropyrum repens (L.) Beauv. " 226 Elymus Sandy lake shores, E. side, Hd. of L. Clark Agropyron violaceum (Horn.) Vas. [[end page]]
56. 1902. July 31, 227 Funaria Moss On old sand spits + about old camp fires Hd. of Lake Clark Ab. I am now out 1 mo. & 12 days and have colld. 227 numbers which probably includes 180 species= an average of 5 1/4 numbers per day Aug 2 228 Allium Sibiricum, L. Ok Rocky beaches. Ildo. nr. mouth of Chulitna R. Lake Clark Not ab. K='Huh-thunl-hrīk'-ah or 'Hoh-thung-hrīk-ah Allium sibiricum L. " 229 Conioselinum gmelini (C&S) C&R.? Rocky beaches. Ilds. nr. mouth of Chulitna R. Lake Clark f.ab. K=Klill-ah-thoonah The dried roots & pounded and boiled & the decoction drank in lieu of tea. The root is also eaten in Autumn as a food plant. Conioselinum gmelini (Cham.& Schecht) Coult.& Rose " 230 [strike[Stachys]] Fistularia Crista-galli, (L.) Wattst. Rocky shores. Ilds. nr. mouth of Chulitna R. Lake Clark f.ab. Rhinanthus crista-galli L. [[end page]] [[start page]] 57. 1902 Aug 2 231 Arenaria Sandy shores. Ilds. nr. Mth. of Chulitna R. Lake Clark rare here Close to A. ciliata Merckia physodes Fisch. " 232 Aster foliaceus, Lindl. Sandy shores. Ilds. nr. mouth of Chulitna R. Lake Clark f.ab. K= Hoh-thung-ik-Kuth'-ā Aster sibiricus L. " 233 ?Potamogeton perfoliatus Richardronii H. Bennett OK In 10 to 15 ft. of water. Mth. of Chulitna R. Water fairly clear but marshy to taste v.ab. K= Tah-tloot'-ȧh The Indians say the moose is very fond of this plant & that he will wade into the water & immerse his head to get it. P. perfoliatus richardsonii Bennett. Aug. 3 234 Populus tremuloides, Michx. OK Slopes & hillsides. Mth. of Chulitna R. (about 1/2 a mile from L. Clark) Not ab. Specs. from 2 saplings about 12 ft. high This tree is not ab. anywhere yet thousand on the trip the first observed were among the Nogheling trail between L. Iliamna & L. Clark and it occurred sparingly from that point to the head of L. Clark, but evidently not in its proper habitat as no large trees were observed and no ornents none seen at all. K= Tsaht-al-zoo-yah. The Konais appear to have a superstitious dislike to this tree and if possible avoid using it even for fuel. [strike[Potamogeton perfoliatus richardsonii Bennett.]] [[end page]]
58. Aug 3 235 Chamaedaphne Marshy banks. Chulitna River (near mouth) v.ab. K= Nahtl-nana-thazha-thoon-ah The dried leaves are boiled and the decoction drank in lieu of tea. Chamaedaphne calyculaba (l.) Moench " 236 Myrica Gale L. OK Marshy banks. Chulitna River (near mouth) Ab. K= Klin-ah-loo The stems & flowers are boiled and the decoction drank as a remedy for coughs & hoarseness. Myrica gale L. Aug 4 237 Epilobium luteum, Pursh. OK f.ab About cold springs. Nogheling River K= Nil-throt-Kā The ripe leaves & stems are dried & used in lieu of tea- " " " & also used " " of tobacco- " 238 Dryopteris About cold springs. Nogheling River Not ab. here K = Uh-toon-ah The roots of this fern are boiled or cooked on hot stones & eaten. The roots are also boiled & sugar added to the decoction which is then allowed to stand until fermentation takes place when it is drank in lieu of whisky & hootch. [[underlined]]Athyrium cyclosorum [[/underlined]] Rupr. " 239 [[two words strikethrough ]] Swertia perennis L. OK Moist ck. banks. Nogheling River K = Kazh-ā-Koo'-ah The stems & leaves are boiled & eaten as a greens like spinach [[end page]] [[start page]] 59. 1902 Aug 4 240 Sphagnum Tundra & open woods. W. side L. Clark v.ab. but not fruited in any locality so far visited on this trip. Is dried and used by the natives as a padding or cushion for the basket of birch bark & willows in which infants are carried. At childbirth a bed of this moss thoroughly saturated with moisture is made in front of the fire and the patient placed upon it until a copious perspiration is produced. So far as could be learned this practice appears to be followed as a long established tribal custom rather than for any beneficial effect which it is expected to produce. K= Uh-rō-veet' K sometimes= Nong-Koo'-yah Aug 7 241 Dryopteris spinulosa ? Moist woods. Nogheling Trail f.ab. Dryopteris spinulosa dilababa (Hoffm.) Underw. " 242 Equisetum palustre L. Moist open woods. Nogheling Trail. Ab. The glossy brown lower section of the stem of this plant is used to ornament the baskets [Hockie] made by the Aluets & Konais, by being worn in with the fine spruce roots of which the baskets are made, thus produced a variegated pattern. K= Chi-chi-yul'-Kuth-ā " Brown stem = Thall-thazh-ah 242 a. Equisetum sylvaticum L.
60. 1902. (Aug 3) 243 Betula v.ab. here Moist slopes & banks. Chulitna River. Spec. from small tree 12 to 15 ft. high. The Indians insist that this is not the same as Nos.40 & 70. & call it KunK-kuh-yah', while they call 40 & 70. Kutz-ē'-yah Aug 9 244 Picea Drained flats. Nogheling Trail f.ab. Tree is 168 yrs. old, 45 FT.-4 in high & 10 in Diam. B.H. Has slim long cones like P. can, but has no odor and has short foliage like P. Mariana- Picea canadensis (Miu.) B.S.P. Aug 13 245 Pedicularis parviflora, J.E. Smith OK Not ab. Margins of ponds. Nogheling Trail Mostly submersed now owning to heavy rains of the last 10 days. " 246 Deshampsia calycina, Presl. Not ab. Pond Margins & open tundra Nogheling Trail Agrostis rubra L. " 247 Cornus Suecica, L. OK (Fruit) f. ab. Open woods & ridges in tundra Cornus suecica L. [[end page] [[start page]] 61. Aug 13 248 Aragallus nigrescens,, (Pall.) Heller OK ? [[strikethrough ^ Aotragalus^ and ^Deshampsia calycina, Presl.^]] see 246 Not ab. Dry slopes & ridges in tundra Nogheling Trail This plant was often observed but never found in flower or fruit. " 249 Vaccinium Vitis - Idaea, L. OK Open woods & dry ridges in tundra Com. Nogheling Trail Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. " 250 Euphrasia latifolia, Pursh. ? Dry ridges in tundra Rare here Nogheling Trail Euphrasia mollis (Ledeb.) Wetk. Aug 14 251 Vil[[?]] parviflorum, Pylaia Ok v.ab. Open woods Nogheling Trail This shrub is from 3 to 10 ft high here & is so abundantly fruited that the branches are bent almost to the ground. " 16 152 Pedicularis parviflora, J.E. Smith OK f.ab. Margins of Ponds. Lake Iliamna Mostly submersed at present owning to the late heavy rains. "" 253 Saxifraga Hirculus, L. OK OK. Banks & pond margins L. Iliamna Not ab. Saxifraga hirculus L.
62. Aug 16 254 Moss Moist CK. banks L. Iliamna Not ab. Aug 20 255 Sorbus sonubricifolia,(C.&S.) Roem. OK Hillsides & open woods Lake Iliamna (Wm.) K= Buk-thilsh-nā Fruit is eaten & bark is chewed as a remedy in coughs, colds, asthma etc. The Natives employ the branches of this tree exclusively, for the brooms used about their houses, caches & igloos. " 256 Nabalus hastatus (Less.) Heller. Open tundra Jinkel-Yash Trail Not ab. " 257 Gentiana Open tundra Jinkel-yash Trail f.ab. Gentiana platypebala Griseb. " 258 Silbaldia procumbens, L. OK Not ab. Dry rocky cliffs Jinkel-Yash Trail [[end page]] [[start page]] 63. Aug 21 259 Sea weeds picked up in a trarup across Iliamna Bay tide flats at low tide. Submersed under 20 feet of water at high tide. Aug 22 260 Juniperus nana, Willd. OK Dry rocky cliffs Not ab. Iliamna Point K= Chin-too-na Now in good fruit " 261 Rhododendron Not. ab. Dry rocky cliffs. Iliamna Point K= Chitt Rhodendron kamtschaticum Pall. " 262 Cryptogramma acrostichoides, R.Br. OK Creirces & on dry rocky cliffs Not. ab. Iliamna Point " 263 Achillea borealis, Bong. Ok Open woods & CK. banks Iliamna Point Com. K= Hoontl-Koh'-ah-dhool'-yā [[end page]]
64. 1902. Aug 23. 264 Dryopteris f.ab. open woods among alders Iliamna Point K=Uh-toon-ah = No. 238. The roots of this fern are boiled or cooked on hot stones and then eaten both in Spring & Autumn. The roots are also boiled & sugar added to the decoction which is then allowed to stand until fermentation takes place, when it is drank in lieu of whiskey or hoochinoo. The roots are also sometimes fermented with sugar flour & water or molasses flour & water in making hoochinoo. Athyrium cyclosorum Rupr. " 24 265 Senecio Pseudo-Arnica, Less. OK Shingle beaches Iliamna Bay Not. ab. This fleshy composite was not yet in bloom on July 13. but on Aug. 24. (6 weeks later) it had already matured its fruit which is now disappearing. Senecio pseudo-arnica. Less. " 266 Matricaria matricarioides, (Less.) Porter [[strikethrough]] discoidea, DC[[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Anthemis Cotula[[/strikethrough]] f. ab. Open places about all old Indian Villages & old camps. Iliamna Bay K= Al-lee-mush'-kah This is the most abundant [[underline]]introduced weed[[/underline]] in the whole region. Matricaria discoidea DC. [[end page]] [[start page]] 65. 1902. Aug 24 267 Brassica Not ab. Open places about old Camps Ilaiamna Bay Brassica campestris. L. " 268 Trifolium Open places about old camps Iliamna Bay Not. ab. Trifolium repens L. " 269 Chenopodium leptophyllum, Nutt. [[strikethrough]] album[[/strikethrough]] Open places about old camps Iliamna Bay Not ab. Chenopodium album viride (L.) Mog. " 25 270 Echinopanax horridum, (Smith) Dec & Pl. (fruit) OK f. ab. Open woods & gulches. Iliamna Point " 271 Callitriche Sea beach submersed at high tide Iliamna Point Not ab. Alsine humifusa (Rottb.) Britton " 272 Chrysanthemum articum, L. OK Seabeach, sometimes submersed at high tide also on dry rocky cliff. Iliamna Point Not ab.
66. 1902. Aug 26 273 Sambucus pubens, Michx. [[strikethrough]] racemosa[[/strikethrough]] (flower) Not ab. Open woods Cottonwood Bay This shrub for some reason, possibly the proximity of a snow-bank during the early part of the season, is now in full bloom in this Bay. Sambucus racemosa L. " 274 Iris setosa, Pall. Ok (fruit) Grassy glades & CK. banks f. ab. Cottonwood Bay " 275 Senecio Pseudo-Arnica, Less. OK Shingly sea beaches Not ab. Cottonwood Bay Senecio pseudo-arnica Less. " 276 Echinopanax horridum (Smith) Dec. & Pl. OK Open woods & moist gulches f. ab. Cottonwood Bay Colld. to snow crinkled condition of leaves when grown in the open. K= `Hush-kurr [[end page]] [[start page]] 67. 1902 Aug 26 277 Pneumaria maritima, L. Ok Shingly sea beaches Not ab. Cottonwood Bay " 28 278 Woodsia Dry rocky cliffs Not ab. Iliamna Point Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br. " 279 Arenaria (fruit) Not ab. Dry rocky cliffs Iliamna Point Arenaria arctica Stev. " 31 280 Woodsia Dry rocky cliffs S. of Iliamna Point Not ab. Filix fragilis (L.) Underw. Sept 1 281 Artemisia [[strikethrough]] vulgaris[[/strikethrough]] Tilesii, Ledeb. OK Sandy rocky slopes above high tide Ab. S. of Iliamna Point K= Nō-Kull-than' or Tsul-bun-jā Ks. say the bear is very fond of the roots A poultice of the leaves heated on hot stones is applied to swellings bruises etc. etc. Artemisia filesii Ledeb.
68. 1902. Sept 1 282 Oxyria digyna (L.) Camptd. OK Rocky slopes S. of Iliamna Point f.ab. K= Kosh'-ā The leaves are eaten both raw & boiled & the dried stems are smoked in lieu of tob. " 4 283 Isothecium myosuroides, Brid. (Hypnum myosuroides, L.) Moist Ck. banks & moist woods Iliamna Point Not ab. " " 284 Racomitrium Rock slides & talus slopes Iliamna Point Ab. Not observed in fruit. This moss is usually the first vegetation to obtain a footing on rock slides & talus slopes & is followed in due course by Empetrium, hedum etc. " 6 285 Moss Moist CK. banks & moist rocks f. ab. Iliamna Point [[end page]] [[start page]] 69. Sept. 7 286 Silvery lichen Dry rocky cliffs Near Iliamna Point Not ab. " 287 Solidago Creek banks & margins of rock slides f. ab. Near Iliamna Point Solidago multiradiata Ait. " 12 288 Erigeson peregrinus (Pursh.) Greene OK [[strikethrough]] Astea[[/strikethrough]] Open grassy glades about 1000 ft. el. Not ab. Mtn.ridge E. of Iliamna Point " 289 Geurm Open grassy glades, 1000 ft. el. Mtn. ridge E. of Iliamna Pt. Not ab. Sieversin rossii R. Br. " 14 290 Picea Sitchensis, (Bong.) T. & M. OK Hillsides & slopes from sea level up to about 800ft. Ab. Ellamar (Gladhaugh Bay) From what I observed in this bay I judge P. Sitchensis to constitute say 50 to 60% of the coniferes here, Tsuga heterophylla about 25-30% and T. Mertensiana say 15 to 20% but T. Mertensiana is the prevailing tree on the sphagnous marshes. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Traut. & Mey.
70. 1902. Sept 14 291 Tsuga heterophylla, (Raf.) Sargent OK Hillsides & slopes Ab. Ellaurar (Gladhaugh Bay) One tree of this species observed here, measured 3 FT. - 2 IN (say 9 1/2 dm.) Breast High. " 292 Tsuga Mertensiana, (Bong.) Carr. OK Ab. Hillsides & slopos from S/L to about 800 ft Ellaurar (Gladhaugh Bay) This was the only conifer found growing in the sphagnous marshes. One tree of this species (not living but quite sound) observed here, measured 3 FT - 4 IN = 1 M. - 2 cm. in diameter breast high. Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. " 293 Malus rivularis, (Dougl.) Roem. Sea beach, open woods & edge of tundra, f.ab. Ellamar (Gladhaugh Bay) This point appears to be about the northern limit of this tree as it was not found anywhere N. of Cook Inlet, through fully fruited & well established here. Malus rivularis (Dougl.) Greene " 294 Impatiens biflora, Watt. OK Sea beach & margins of sphagnous marshes Not. ab. Ellamar, Alaska Now in ripe fruit- [[end page]] [[start page]] 71. 1902. Sept. 14 295 Microseris Yel. Comp. In sphagnous marshes Not Ab. Ellamar, (Gladhaugh Bay) Scorzonella borealis (Torr. & Gray) Greene. July 3 296 Diapensia Dry rocky banks. Jinkel-yash CK. Rare Differs from D. Lapponica in having the lobes longer & the tube shorter- Diapensia lapponica L. June 23 297 Arnica alpina, (L.) Olin ?. In sphagnous marshes Rare Iliamna Bay July 3 298 Cassiope Dry rocky banks. Jinkel-yash Creek Rare Cassiope lycopodioides (Pall.) Don. Jy 28 299 Gentiana Dry rocky slopes about 1500 ft. above S/L. Rare N.W. side Hd. of Lake Clark Plant is so badly frost-bitten at this date as to almost past collecting.- Gentiana glauca Pall.
72. 1902. July 13 300 Arcteranthis Cooleyae, (Rose) Greene Moist slopes. Iliamna Pass [[underlined]] Rare [[/underlined]] Ranunculus eschscholtzii Schlecht. " 3 301 Cardamina bellidifolia, L. OK [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Sandy Creek banks. JinKel-Yash Trail " 29 302 Cardamina Rocky cliffs - S.E. side Hd. of Lake Clark [[underlined]] Rare here [[/underlined]] Is probably same as No. 6. Arabis lyrata occidentalis Wats. " " 303 Silene acaulis var. Rocky cliffs - S.E. side Hd. of Lake Clark [[underlined]] Rare [[/underlined]] Silene acaulis L. " " 304 Cerastium Behringanum, C&S. Rocky cliffs - S.E. side Hd. of Lake Clark [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Cerastium vulgatum L. " 3 305 Silene acaulis, L. OK Sandy CK. banks. Jinkel-yash Trail [[underlined]] f.ab. [[/underlined]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 73. 1902. July 13 306 Montia Mucky CK. banks. Iliamna Bay [[underlined]] Rare [[/underlined]] Montia fontana L. " 29 307 Lathyrus maritimus, (L.) Bigel. OK [[underlined]] f.ab. [[/underlined]] Sandy beaches. Hd. of L. Clark [[letter in a circle]] K = Chöl'-yim-bok-ȧh " 6 308 Potentilla [[underlined]] f.ab. [[/underlined]] Dry rocky cliffs. Iliamna Point Potentilla villosa Pall. " 29 309 Hemieva ranunculifolia, (Hook.) Raf. [[underlined]] Rare [[/underlined]] Rocky cliffs S.E. side Near Hd. of Lake Clark Saxifraga cernua L. " " 310 Saxifraga caespitosa, L. [[underlined]] Not ab. [[/underlined]] Rocky cliffs S.E. side Near Hd. of Lake Clark Saxifraga sileniflora Stermb. " 6 311 Saxifraga bronchialis, L. OK [[underlined]] Not ab. here [[/underlined]] Dry rocky cliffs. Iliamna Point [[end page]]
74. 1902 Aug 17 312 Saxifraga reflexa, Hook. ? Not ab. Rocky cliffs - Nogheling Rapids Saxifraga nivalis L. Aug 4 313 Epilobium f. ab. About cold springs. Nogheling River Epilobium bongardi Hausskn. July 23 314 Betula Sandy shores + open tundra Not ab. Foot of Lake Clark Colld. from a small tree about 15 ft. high July 10 315 Agrostis Not ab. Open rocky slopes. Iliamna Point Agrostis rubra L. Aug 13 316 Juncus stygius, L. ? Not ab. Margins of ponds. Nogheling Trail A very slender form if of this species- Juncus biglumis L. [[end page]] [[start page]] 75. 1902. Sept 12 317 Lutkea pectinata, (Hook.)Kuntze. Not ab. Open grassy slopes- 800 to 1500 FT. above Sea level Mtn. ridges E. of Iiamna Point Lutkea pectinata (Pursh.) Kuntze July 19 Fomes igniarius (L.) Fries Fungus from Birch tree (Betula Alaskana, Sargent)- Nogheling Trail The dry mature but perfectly sound fungus is gathered by the natives of this region- Kamishaks, Kenais and Noghelings- placed on a flat stone or piece of old tin in a bright fire and slowly burnt until it assumes almost a white heat. It is then carefully removed from the fire and on cooling falls into a fine gray ash of the most pungent and acrid taste. This ash is collected and carried in a [underline]babiche [/underline] pouch for future use, and the quid of tobacco after being moistened is rolled in it before being placed in the mouth. On being removed from the mouth the quid is placed in a quid-box [[end page]]
76. (Tabaro-thilke) made of white spruce, Cariboo-bone or walrus-ivory, in which there is a small quantity of this ash and is there kept till again required - M.W.G. [[end page]] [[start page]] 77. [[blank page]]
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