Diary, European trip, 1914 (2 of 2)

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The diary (2 of 2) documents Bohumil Shimek's work in Austria-Hungary and Germany, July 23 - September 6, 1914 (2 books). Some entries switch back and forth between English and Czech. Pages are numbered. Entries are dated and describe a wide range of topics. Entries cover weather; local sights visited; institutes, universities and gardens seen; terrain observed especially along river banks; notes on plants observed; photographs taken; maps of buildings of institutions visited; terrain of ridges surrounding Kaiserstuhl (layers, composition, color, appearance, presence of fossils, shells). They also discuss current events: increased military presence battle at site of church, issues with local police, stories are local inhabitants effected by the beginning of World War I, and challenges of travel home. Locations include the vicinity of Rhine River; Mainz, Kaiserstuhl, Germany; Prague.

Date Range


Start Date

Jul 23, 1914

End Date

Sep 06, 1914

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.


  • Geology
  • Plants
  • Paleontology
  • Botany


  • Europe
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Mainz
  • Rhine
  • Germany
  • Kaiserstuhl


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Maps
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007082

Collection name

Bohumil Shimek Papers, 1878-1936

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 3 Folder 4

[[front cover of notebook]] [[label]] 1914 July 23- [[/label]]
Reg 8°/100 l./ns/80 h B. Shimek Iowa City Iowa, U.S.A Prozatim: Praha II Tropcká ulice, č. 14 I patro (u Hejdǔ) Andraea went to Heidelberg from Freiburg. Steinmann is in Bonn, - has been for 8 or 9 yrs. [[underlined]] Radim Kettner [[/underlined]] [[two columns]] [[column 1]] [[underlined]] Wants prints [[/underlined]]: 2 B 3 B 490 B 293 B 499 B 514 B 404 B 45 B [[line]] 2043 3079 2427 2270 2750 [[/column 1]] [[column 2]] [[underlined]] Took slides [[/underlined]] 223 B 442 B 449 48 611 341 41 3466. [[/column 2]] He also wants U.S. Geol. Survey reports, etc., & all papers on Algonquin Silurian Devonian state & national [[end page]] [[start page]] At Cloó Pecelli (near Pecozel, Hungary) want photos: Kollar, Josef. Gozteglagyan. Kowrckse, Josef.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1 [[underlined]] July 23, 1914 - Thursday. [[/underlined]] Left for Halle in a rush at 6:20 a.m., and reached it at 7:25 a.m. We checked our baggage and started for the university, Bertha going with me. I photographed the old university building, and we then went on to the Botanical Garden. I saw no one about, and while waiting concluded to take some photographs, but was stopped by some factotum or other who had been sent by Karsten himself, after I had taken photos 2 and 23. Photo 2 shows a very picturesque lily pond with bright Begonia border. Photo 23 shows the section of an oak felled in 1894. It grew from seed in 1632. A card gives this information: At the time of Westphalia peace it was 15 yrs. old and 8 cm. thick. At the time of
the founding of the university (1694) it was taking on its 61 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]] ring and was 24 cm. in diam. At the time of Frederick the Great (7 years' war) it had half its present circumference. On an average it grew per year 4.8 mm. in diameter. In the first 100 years, - 1633 - 1733 - it made a total of 45.5 cm. In the second 100 years, - 1733 - 1833 - it made 54.5 cm. I met Dr. Karsten, and when he found who I was he waived his objection to photography, but I did not attempt any more. Dr. K. is not an agreeable man, and I did not care to accept favors from him. He took me through his building and gave me a rather hurried view of it. He now has 15 candidates for the PhD. degree. Dr. Karsten has a [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 private laboratory, well-equipped, and he has special laboratories for microscopic, physiological, and other work. The laboratories are clean and orderly, but not extravagantly fitted out. I surmise that he is quite cranky about order. The microscopical laboratory is the best. He has a small plant house on the second floor of a small projection, or annex to building. The work of the department seems to be fairly well balanced. The collection room contains jars with fungi, fruits, etc. It is a working set. The same dark room serves for photography and for plant experiments. He also has another dark room. Also a chemical hood. He lives in the Institute. There is a good reference library and a small reading room.
An assistant then took me to the garden Inspetor, who showed me about. The garden originally belonged to a cloister, and has an area of 8.8 hectares. It contains an old astronomical observatory. It is located on the high banks ^[[insertion]] or low bluffs [[/insertion]] of the Saale, and has a superior position. It is well-kept, and is superior to that at Leipzig. There are ecological groups, such as alpina, cactus beds, fern beds, ponds, etc. There are several ponds with lilies, etc. One in a plant house contains five Victoria Regia plants. The garden contains 500 species of trees. There are also several small (low) sunken forcing beds covered with common window ^[[insertion]] glass [[/insertion]] frames. These are kept open a little for ventilation by blocks of wood. In them are grown [[underlined]] Drosera [[/underlined]], [[end page]] [[start page]] 5 [[underlined]] Sarracenia, Sphagnum [[/underlined]], etc. [[underlined]] Dionaea [[/underlined]] is also grown in a double forcing-bed, - a sort of "house within a house", with a double cover. The gardener (or Inspektor), a man I judge who has passed 40, deplored the fact that he had not gone to America. He says this ^[[insertion]] (his) [[/insertion]] country is suffering and people are poor, because to much money is required to support the nobility and royalty, and the army. He was not enthusiastic in his comments on conditions as they exist in the "Vaterland". I sent postal cards home, and we left for Naumburg and Jena at 11:15 am. It had been raining, and was still threatening, and all the windmills along the way were grinding or sawing wood. The fields were too wet for work. We followed the valley of the Saale to Naumburg, and as we approached
the latter the surface became rougher. We took dinner at the depot at Naumburg, and left for Jena at 12:45 P.M. We still followed the Salle valley. The bluffs became rougher and much timbered. We reached Jena at 1:38 P.M., and checked our baggage. I went at once to the Botanical Garden. It is quite large and the surface runs up in banks or terraces from the lower flat on which the Botany building stands. It rises west and north. The building is a straggling two-story affair. On the S side it has a tablet bearing this inscription: W. Pringsheim. 1864 - 1868. Dr. Strasburger followed Pringsheim, 1868 - 1881 and Dr. Stahl has been here since 1881. (On the plains of Hungary and Germany windmills are in general use.) [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 I called to see Dr. Stahl but was advised by his assistant that he would not be there for an hour, so I went into the garden to photograph. I took photos 6, 29, 30 (Schleiden's monument [[insertion]] Father of [[morpholozual?]] Botany [[/insertion]], with bust, - 1804 - 1881), 3, 4, and 24. The surface of the garden is varied. The more open part is on the flat, and on its far part are the plant houses. The tallest one is used for storing large plants, palms, etc. in winter. The heavier woods are on higher ground, and the ravine in which the palms are located is especially attractive. I returned to the building and found Dr. Stahl. He is a venerable old man, ^[[insertion]] a bachelor, [[/insertion]] rather small of stature, with a white beard, and is a very keen, kindly man, - one of the old school of scholars. He had been one of ^[[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] students of DeBary, - with Farlow.
He piloted me about and showed me both the building and garden. A laboratory on the south side has 3 rows of long tables, with microscopes, - each microscope under a tall bell-jar. It is a laboratory for beginners and will seat about 28. He has a total of 150 students for lectures. The lecture room is roomy and has a projecting apparatus, also for microscopic slides. The library is small. A collection of fine models for class use. There are dissected materials, models, etc. Dr. Stahl has a modest but rather roomy private laboratory, and two laboratories for advanced students, - moderate, with moderate equipment. Attached to the building on the outside, on the south, is a small plant house for experimental purposes. This is all on first floor. Upstairs are the rooms of docents, etc. [[end page]] [[start page]] 9. On the whole the department gives the impression of neatness but modesty. We then went into the garden, which seems to be the pride of Dr. Stahl. It contains 3000 - 4000 plants. The soil is limestone, and hence special place is made for peat plants. [[underlined]] Lycopodium, Sphagnum, [[/underlined]] etc. are cultivated in covered hot beds (forcing beds). [[underlined]] Sarracenia, Darlingtonia [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] Sphagnuum [[/underlined]] are cultivated in a pit (covered with glass) in water. There is a bed of salt plants. The plants are periodically sprayed with salt solutions, and plants other than halophytes disappear. The plant houses have many interesting and unique features. There is a small, rather dark, very humid room which is especially good for mosses and liverworts.
Aquatic plants, such as have roots, are planted in pots and then sunken in water. The houses are sunken, only the roof projecting, because it is easier to equalize the temperature and moisture. There is a small cubby hole, or moist chamber, (with glass door?) for storing plants just brought in from the field. A very damp house is reserved for epiphytes, etc. Experimental work is carried on here and in other houses. There is a taller house, southwest near the garden house, in which the palms, and other tall plants are stored in winter. The plant-house space here, as in all these European gardens, seems very large to one accustomed to our modest room. [[end page]] [[start page]] 11 Another feature in this (as well as most of the gardens) is the lily ponds. These are good, and several. The doctor also showed me about in the arboretum part of the garden (northwest) and said that they made no effort to get all the species of trees, as there was not room, but that he tried to get good common types from various parts of the world. Near the southwest corner of the garden stands the garden house in the upper story of which Goethe often lived during the summer. A gardener, two assistants, and some women for special work, such as cutting grass, weeding, etc., take care of the garden. The outlook, especially from the arboretum (higher) part of the garden is fine, and
Dr. Stahl lead me to one spot from which the view was especially fine, down the ^[[insertion]] palm [[/insertion]] ravine, across the garden, and out towards the nearby mountains. The doctor evidently has the aesthetic sense strongly developed, for he also directed us to some beautiful ^[[insertion]] mountain [[/insertion]] views near Eisenach. When we returned to the building we found Bertha and Paul waiting for me. After a visit with Dr. Stahl we went out into the garden again, and I took photos 24 and 27. We then went towards the old University building. I took photo 1. We walk through the corridor of the university, with its quaint ^ [[insertion]] old [[/insertion]] paintings. This building also contains a ^[[insertion]] students' [[/insertion]] carcer similar to the famous one at Heidelberg. We then took a walk through the [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 quaint, interesting old town, past the old church, the square at the old Rathaus, in which the people take pride in telling you Bismarck once addressed them, to Haeckle's villa and his Institute. The streets are narrow ^[[insertion]] and crooked, [[/insertion]] and everywhere the people swarm over them without regard to sidewalks. This is the greatest place that I ever saw for memorial tablets. There are tablets everywhere recording the fact that famous men, like the von Humboldt's, etc., had occupied the house. In some cases this seems to have been carried by friends and families to cases of inconsequential private citizens. The odd city is strung along a narrow valley for some distance, and its surroundings of mountain scenery are beautiful, and furnish fine opportunities for the botanist.
On returning, after a long journey, to the depot we learned that our train leaves for Weimar from the other depot (the Preussische Staatsbahnhof) at the far end of the city. We reached this depot by car, too late for the earlier train. We left at 8:37 PM, and reached Weimar at 9:13. It had been raining more or less, but fortunately was fairly clear while I worked in the garden. It was late when we travelled, but so far as I could see we kept on along the valley, and the bordering heights were quite rugged. We put up at the Thüringer Hof. Bertha was particularly anxious to visit Weimar because of the old Schiller and Goethe associations, - which the natives know so well how to turn to financial advantage! [[end page]] [[start page]] 15 [[underlined]] July 24, 1914 - Friday. [[/underlined]] Started out at 9 A.M. Sent out cards to the folks, prof. Wilson, etc. We then visited Schiller's house (50 pfg.) There are numerous pictures and busts of him in corridors and rooms. We saw a number of original MSS., among them that of Wilhelm Tell. In the first ^[[insertion]] and second [[/insertion]] room of his quarters, which were on the upper floor of the building, there is a painting of Schiller by Tischbein (1806), and a picture of his wife, Charlotte Langefeld, also his death-mask, a lock of hair, cup, and other personal relics. The MSS. are in the first room, and most of the others in second room. There are three rooms in line, and the last was the one in which he died. The are arranged as follows: [[Image - pen diagram of rooms. L - R, 1st room is study. 2nd room is salon. 3rd room is bed-room. Bed in which Schiller died is indicated in bed-room. There is a small bedroom adjacent to bed-room.]]
In the 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] room are her klaviar and mandolin, etc. An engraving of the Battle of Bunker Hill, a gift from an American friend, hangs on the wall. His desk, chairs, bed and little library are just as he left them. This is all in the second story, - top floor. It is evident that Schiller was not in good circumstances. We then went to Goethe's house, - a much more pretentious place. There is a nice, home-like garden in the rear, - the building fronts on the street. The building is a museum in which the art & scientific collections of this versatile man are kept. There are busts and pictures galore, - among the latter Goethe's own peculiar silhouttes in black. A bust of Goethe examining [[end page]] [[start page]] 17 Schiller's skull, etc., etc. We visited the working room and death chamber in the rear. This part is arranged as follows: [[image - pen diagram of layout of rooms. Cabinet of Minerals to the left and Death Chamber (with the Bed and a square marked A. in it) above Work room to the right. Library is below extending across the width of "Cabinet" and Work room. Front of the house is towards the left, facing E, and Garden is at the back of the house.]] At A. stands the chair in which he died. The cabinet of minerals is quite extensive. This room opens into the library, in which the books are as he left them. The work room is simple, with his working table and all as he left them. A plate of soil, which had been brought to him from the garden for examination
on the day of his death still stands on a desk near his work table. Next to this room is the bed-room in which he died, with the chair in which he died still in place. Upstairs there is a large art gallery. This part of the building was occupied by his grandchildren while he lived. Next to this (south) are the scientific museums arranged about as follows: [[image - pen diagram of museums rooms. Geology is in the top left corner. Zool. & Botany is on bottom left corner. These rooms face E. Physics is on the right side, running the full width of the house]] The Physics room contains a large amount of physical apparatus, - especially such as is of use in light and color studies, to which he devoted special [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 attention. There are here collections of butterflies, shells and corals and birds, all selected with special reference to studies of color and light in the organic world. There are also paintings to show color, color-discs, apparatus for the investigation of the physiology of vision (the eye, etc.), and a dark room for optical experiments. The room for Botany and Zoology also contains much interesting material. There are woods, fungi, and some fine illustrations of plant pathology and plant repair. There are especially fine examples of repair. One stem appears as follows: [[image - pen drawing of two stems. The word "Relief" appears on the left stem. The word "Groove" appears on the right stem.]]
There are also flattened stems. In the Zoological cases are skulls and bones, turtles, starfishes, reptiles, etc. The geological room contains rocks and minerals, fossils, etc. There is a large, crumbling tusk of [[underlined]] Elephas, [[/underlined]] and two very large nuggets of gold. In looking over all this material one marvels at the versatility of this great genius. He is remembered as a literary giant, but he was artist and scientist at the same time, and his scientific work covered a field which would appal the modern worker. We left somewhat with the feeling that the good people of Weimar are very much inclined to commercialize sentiment. After dinner we took the train for [[end page]] [[start page]] 21 Frankfurt a. Main, at 1:18 P.M. The country from Weimar to Erfurt is not very rough. We still seem to be in a valley. From Erfurt to Gotha, and beyond, the country grows rougher and more picturesque. Mountains appear on the left. At Wutha it is much the same. The mountains are heavily timbered all along, - on the left. On the right there are rocky bluffs. This runs about the same to Eisenach. The forest seems to be largely spruce, but there is some scotch pine and deciduous forest. At Eisenach a lady parting with a man whom she addressed as "professor", stood right in the window of the door for a long time with absolutely no concern for the comfort of the other occupants of the section. In all
the German and Austrian sections which I have visited there seems to be an utter disregard of the ordinary niceties in public places. You are pushed aside at ticket windows, etc., if you tolerate it, and such a thing as politeness seems not to be on the list of usages. The women here carry "nus[[superscript]] ͝ [[/superscript]]e". The region continues picturesque to Bebra, where we changed at 3:58 P.M. We have now passed around the end of the great Thuringian Forest (mountains). From Bebra we followed a river valley for some distance. The slopes in places are rough and timbered. Along this valley they build pretty arched stone bridges of reddish granite(?). Some across the river have several arches. The country towards Frankfurt is less rough. [[end page]] [[start page]] 23 Just before coming to Schlüchtern we passed through a tunnel 10 minutes long. We reached Frankfurt at 7:05 P.M., and put up at a German hotel, - Jilk's place. It rained much today. In the evening, after supper, we took a walk about the city. At Frankfurt we had our first glimpse of the [[strikethrough]] Rhine [[/strikethrough]] Main. We have received news of ^[[insertion]] a possible [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] declaration of war against Servia, by Austria, and there is much comment everywhere on the possibilities of a general war. The general reports, however, indicate that some settlement will be reached, - an outcome for which the masses of the German people seem to hope. Everywhere Germans seem to be of the opinion that if a general war breaks out it will be a life and death struggle for Germany.
[[underlined]] July 25, 1914 [[/underlined]] - Saturday. I left for Mainz at 9:51 a.m., and Paul and Bertha will follow later. It is cloudy, but the clouds are somewhat broken, and the sun occasionally appears. The country at first is flat. A big sturdy-looking fellow just came in and carefully closed the window, although it is warm! Most of these people have no conception of the value of fresh air. Along this plain or valley, there is quite a bit of forest, both coniferous and deciduous, - probably on sandy soils. We followed the broad valley to the Main, and down its valley to Mainz, where we crossed the Rhine. I changed at Mainz, after checking my suitcase, and went on [[end page]] [[start page]] 25 to Heidesheim, which we reached at 11:14 am. Germans on the train were discussing the possibility of war with England, and they expressed the opinion that this is a favorable time for Germany, because England is now having its Ulster troubles. I took a lunch at the Gasthaus in Heidelsheim. An old man, who was at the Gasthaus, accompanied me for a short distance, to the sand banks on the way to Budenheim. Just out of the village, east, there is a sand-bank, just south of the road which runs just south of the R.R. My informant says the station at Heidelsheim is 95 m. above the sea, and this sand-bank [[underlined]] no. 1 [[/underlined]] is 5 or 6 meters higher. It looks to me about 50 feet above the general valley.
I took [[underlined]] photo 3, [[/underlined]] and collected a box of [[underlined]] marine [[/underlined]] shells, mostly [[underlined]] Cerithina, [[/underlined]] from cut 1. There are also land shells here, but they appear to be on the surface, and the bleached shells are comparatively recent additions. The sand is stratified, and is said to be 25 + m. deep. There are snails in the deeper parts also, but my informant could give me nothing definite as to their nature. I then took photographs of the sandy area in the vicinity of this bank 1, which still shows the native sand-steppe flora. Photos 4, 29 & 30 show this, the two latter with two little German girls: Eva Kiefer, Bleichstrasse, and Maria Eschborn, Bleichstrasse nr. 26, both in Heidesheim. The sand in this area is almost [[end page]] [[start page]] 27. without humus, and the vegetation is xerophytic and somewhat tufted. The most common grass is a [[underlined]] Koehleria. [[/underlined]] Then there are numerous plants of a yellow [[underlined]] Graphalium [[/underlined]] - like species. Also some [[underlined]] Leguminosae, [[/underlined]] and a good many pads of a fine moss, - probably more than one species. A spiny shrub (Cytisus-like?), pads of purple leguminose plants and a brown [[underlined]] Orobanche[/underlined]] (?), were also noticed. I noticed stunted [[underlined]] Solanum nigrum [[/underlined]]. The sand-bank 1 continues in a second sand-bank, not numbered, and this in a third, long bank, marked [[underlined]] Bank 2, [[/underlined]] from which I also collected a box of shells. Beyond this, in the Budenheim direction, the sand bank extends to the side road. Beyond this road is a sandy flat on which the sand
shifts more or less, and here I also picked up marine shells, and some terrestrials - some of the latter fresh! The marine (Tertiary) shells seem to be scattered all over these sands. [[image - pen drawing of a map showing the location of Banks 1 & 2 alongside a wagon road and the railway line from Heidesheim to Budenheim. Sandbanks, sandy flat, Ancient walls are labelled, indicating the places where certain fossils were found.]] I started for Budenheim, first along the macadamized road, and then by cross-paths. The latter were somewhat confusing, and I ran upon [[end page]] [[start page]] 29 the guard at the powder-storage place, who directed me to the marked tourists path which leads through the forest. All this area is sandy, and there is much Scotch pine forest, - some of it scattered, as if native, and much no doubt planted. There is almost no undergrowth in the forest, only an occasional [[underlined]] Juniperus communis, [[/underlined]] and the ground (sand) is almost covered with mosses and [[underlined]] Cladonia rangiferina. [[/underlined]] Aside from these there are only occasional tufts of rather slender grasses. The commonest moss ^[[insertion]] farther on [[/insertion]] is a coarse, yellow species (See specimen) which has no fruit. There are other species of mosses - [[underlined]] Dicranum, [[/underlined]] etc., - but the yellow species dominates. I also picked up fungi, on sticks in sand.
The farther part of the forest (towards Budenheim, appears like a native forest. I took photo 27 near Budenheim. I reached Budenheim just in time to escape a rainstorm. Many gardens towards Mainz.[[insertion below]] [[dash underlined]] on sand [[/dash underlined]] [[/insertion below]] I left at 5:51 P.M. and reached Mainz at 6:04 P.M. I waited for Paul and Bertha, who, however, had come in earlier, and found that they had put up at the nearby Bayerische Hof, and secured room 8 for me. After supper we took a walk about the city, which also has many narrow streets in the older part, saw the churches [[gap for later completion]] , but the greatest interest was centered in the crowds, much excited over the news that Servia had not accepted Austria's ultimatum, and that war is inevitable. Excited groups gathered about the newspaper offices, and officers showed much excitement. It was raining in the evening and very cool. Bought cards & guides & boxes. [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 [[underlined]] July 26, 1914 - Sunday [[/underlined]] The hotel people failed to call us, but I awakened early. Early in the morning there was much commotion among the soldiers and officers,- quite movements, personal baggage appeared, and evidently much excitement was on. There were also several groups of excursionists who marched by with brass bands. We prepared for the Rhine trip, and started at 8:10 A.M. on the steamer "Rheingold". The day started out bright, but soon became cold and windy, with the sky mostly overcast. We stopped at Biebrich, - first stop down the Rhine. Our tickets read to St. Goar, which is near the Loreleÿ. Biebrich is the port for Wiesbaden. [[wavy line bracketing the right hand ends of the remaining 4 lines of text]] The water of the Rhine is not clear, but rather yellowish, - clearer however than the Danube when I saw it. We stopped at Niederwalluf. All the [[/wavy line]]
way the shores are low, and the rounded bluffs are some distance back. Just below Niederwalluf the banks on the right are a little higher, and the valley narrows somewhat. There are beautiful villas on the right, just below the landing. The next stop was at Eltville. Here there are also villas all along. These are only higher banks between Niederwalluf and Eltville, - the rounded bluffs are farther back. Also saw a "white-above red" flag along the river. The boats have a peculiar way of landing, - illustrated as follows: [[image - pen drawing showing the process of a steamer docking at the landing.]] Here, along the river, I noticed a row of sycamores, trimmed like [[underlined]] Robinia [[/underlined]] in [[underlined]] Prague [[/underlined]], hence top reduced, rounded and bushy. The shores are flatter on the left. [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 On the right the slopes run up gradually to rather distant hills. The next stop is at Oestrich-Winkel. The shores here are rather flat and low, and then a gradual slope rises to a high timbered hill, a mountain, with a castle(?) on top. The whole slope is covered with nice fields. Timbered islands cut off the view on the other side. The next stop is at Freiweinheim, - with Ingelheim on the left side. On the right, on an almost treeless knob, stands Johannisberg. It is modern in appearance, and a town stretches along the flat shore. The bluffs on the left are far back. There are many steamers on the river. Geisenheim is the next stop. There are islands and flat shores to the left. There are hills back on the right, and still farther on the left.
We passed two great boat-loads of lumber. The next stop is at Rüdesheim. Just below this they are building a new bridge across the Rhine, - not yet on map. The shores on the left are low, and recede far back to very low hills. There are no bluffs on the left. Below Rüdesheim, but on high slope, is the "National Denkmal", - a great figure of a woman on a tall and large pedestal, holding a wreath or crown aloft in her right hand. It is near the top of the hill. Opposite this, on left side, the ^[[insertion]] timbered [[/insertion]] bluffs come suddenly close to the river, - like those just at and below Rüdesheim, (or Ruedesheim, as it is at landing). Just below the reddish-stone bluff on left the bluffs recede slightly, and the lower slopes are cultivated. [[end page]] [[start page]] 35 Rüdesheim seems to have attracted a good many of our passengers. The slopes here are covered with vineyards. Just below Rüdesheim the bluffs come close to the river (this is the first narrowing of the valley), and the slopes rise quite abruptly, but are covered with terraced vineyards. Bingen is the next stop, and here the bluffs are close to the river. Bingen looks to me to be a little too smudgy to deserve the poet's title of "fair Bingen on the Rhine". This, however, is the beginning of the most picturesque part of the Rhine valley. On the right, just below Bingen, only part way up the slope, there are old ruins, - an ivy-covered towered and the old walls of a castle, - Ehrenfels. (See postal). Opposite this is an island, - a rock on which Mouse Tower stands, - now used to
control navigation, but once a toll station. Here is the whirl-pool; [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] the Bingen Loch. Below Bingen the valley narrows, and the heavily-wooded slopes rise high, and close to the river. On the right, just opposite Bingen, are beautifully terraced vineyards clear to the top. The terraces are built with walls of rocks. The next stop is at Assmannshausen, and opposite this are the ruins of an old castle,- [[insertion]] Burg [[/insertion]] Rheinstein (see postal) I tried snap-shots at Rheinstein (photo 23) and the vineyards opposite Bingen (photo 24). We also passed the castle of Falkenburg on the left. On the right all along, are steep slopes, with vineyards. [[strikethrough]] Above [[/strikethrough]] Below Falkenhausen we passed the castle Sonneck. In nearly all (or all) of the cases seen the castles are distinctly [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 below the tops of the bluffs or hills. The Sonneck Castle ^[[insertion]] (see postal card) [[/insertion]] is beautiful, with its setting of the forest-covered mountain. Schloss Heimburg is lower down, - both on the left side. The slopes around are cultivated, and the village strings along at the base. The walls are ivy-covered. Above the village of Rheindiebach rises the castle of Fürstenberg. It is about half way up the slope, and has a large tower. On the left the slopes farther on are cultivated. Just above Bacharach rises the castle of Stahleck. Tried a snap-shot = photo 7. Also photo 8 at the vine covered hills below Bacharach, with ledges. Below Bacharach more rocky ledges appear, but every bit of available surface is cultivated. The next stop is at Caub. Here the
castle ^[[insertion]] Die [[/insertion]] Pfalz is located on a low rocky island, low down, - in the river. (See postal card). Above (higher than) Caub rises the castle of Gutenfels (see postal card). It is located on a rock half way up the slope. All along here the slopes are terraced and covered with vineyards. The valley is very narrow all along here. Next on the left we saw the castle Schönberg ^[[insertion]] (see postal card) [[/insertion]] and our next stop was at Oberwesel. Schönberg stands out prominently near the top of the lower bluff. We sailed down the narrow valley, past the Lorelei rock, and stopped at St. Goar, which is the station for Lorelei. Right opposite St. Goar is St Goarshausen and above it towers the castle Katz (see postal card). On the left hand side, just below St. Goar is the castle Rheinfels (see postal card), - another great ruin, and [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 still farther down, on the right side, we could see the ruins of the castle Maus. It rained much of the way down the river, and was raining hard when we landed. We took dinner at the Rheinfels hotel at St Goar, and after dinner the sky cleared for a time. I took photos 27 and 28. We then crossed the river on the ferry steamer "Lorelei" to St. Goarshausen, and I took photo. 5. We then walked down the river towards the Loreley. I took [[underlined]] photo 6 [[/underlined]] from near the base of the Lorelei. We purchased cards at a stand and climbed to the top of the Loreleŷ. At the top I found open steppes, covered with a xerophytic vegetation. I noticed grasses, [[underlined]] Dancus carota, Achillea, [[/underlined]] leguminose plants, etc., - the usual steppe lot. Few camporites. The view of the deep valley, rocky bluffs, terraces & wooded hills, & villages strung along river is fine. - also ruins of castles, rushing waters, etc.
Similar areas appear on the knobs all around, - especially on the Loreley side of the river. This would be a good place to study the remnants of the steppe flora. There patches appear brownish just now, - firm grasses, - like our prairies. I took photo 1 on top of Loreley ridge, with the Castle Katz beyond. I collected a few plants at the top of Lorelei, and after making small purchases (a whistle for Frank and a small mirror for Anna) we descended. Near the top, on the wooded slopes, I collected some land shells. We walked past Loreleÿ, but as we could get no view to photograph, we returned, and I took photo 2, looking up the river. I also took photos 29 & 30, of the Katz. There is a large number of steamers on the river, and many people are hereabouts. [[end page]] [[start page]] 41 The river here is swift, narrow, and seems to have rapids and whirlpools in places. We came down from Lorelei just in time to escape a drenching rain. The climb up to the top of Lorelei is pretty stiff. She used to lure them by water, now she gets them by land! Horrible caricatures of Lorelei combing her hair and enticing fellows in boats (or tubs) are on sale. I refused them, I sent out cards to the folks, Macbride and Wilson, - and Emma. We returned to St. Goar by ferry. A large steamer, - the Drachenfels, - which had been sailing up and down the river, with band playing, was at the landing. It had been chartered by a gay bunch of fellows (old and young) who were fraternity men. They wore flat caps with small visors, and sashes of
narrow ribbon over one shoulder. The colors varied with the fraternity, and the class flags (colors) were also displayed in great variety on the steamer. The men were all scarred more or less, - always on the left cheek, - some being badly disfigured by several scars, - the results of students duels. These duels are fought in the defense particularly of fraternity "honor". We left at 5:00 P.M., by the steamer "Lohengrin", for Mainz. It rained again at intervals. The crowd on the boat was pretty "jolly", - some of them too much so. Some of the women were intoxicated, but men and women kept on adding to their load of beer. When we passed the Loreley rock, the Lorelei was sung by a part of the passengers. Other German [[end page]] [[start page]] 43 songs were sung, - with greater or lesser success. We also found an American artist, - a Mr. Hennings of Chicago, - who was on his way from Coblenz to Mainz. He is quite a companionable fellow. It was miserably cold all day, - excepting when we climbed Loreleÿ rock(!), - and the return trip was especially bad, since it was late, and rained much of the time. My raincoat did good service. There has been much war-talk, - it was the one subject of conversation. It doesn't appear to me that many of the people really want war. We reached Mainz after 9:00 P.M., and had a late supper. We tried to get the hotel people to call us at 5 o'clock A.M., but they said that was too early, and we compromised on 5:30 A.M.
[[underlined]] July 27, 1914 - Monday [[/underlined]] The hotel people again failed to call us, and we had to arouse them to pay our bills and get out. Paul docked them 50 Pfg. each for breakfast, - which we took at the R.R. station. We left at 6:20 A.M. for Heidelberg, via Darmstadt. The sky is overcast, and the day is cool. The country towards Darmstadt is quite flat, an looks well, with good crops, and quite a lot of fruit. We changed at Darmstadt, leaving at 7:55 A.M. Near Bickenbach mountains appear at some distance to the left. The opposite side is flat. We travel close to hills on the left, and on the right there is a great cultivated plain. We reached Heidelberg at 9:38 A.M., - [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 and it is raining! Heidelberg is located at the base of the ridge which we had been following. We checked our baggage, and I started for the Botanical Institute. I met Dr. Klebs, - a shock-headed (bald in front), bearded (bushy), energetic and interesting man. I had a long, pleasant chat with him concerning xerophytic plants, and I discussed my prairie work. He repeatedly referred to the fact that plants transpire even through the epidermis (cutin). Dr Klebs ^[[insertion]] wants [[/insertion]] prairie plants, and my papers on the prairies. He then showed me about. He has a two-story building, with a small two-story plant-house annex. He has a total of about 150 students, of whom (as is usual in German universities)
few take laboratory work. He has a special small chemical laboratory, with hood. A "summer" plant-house, not artificially heated. He has a dark room, with electric centrifugal, etc. I also noticed colored glass compartments. A laboratory for special advanced students A library and reading room, - quite fair. Another special laboratory for advanced work. [[underlined]] In the basement: [[/underlined]] (open & lighted) A collection of plants - products, and demonstration material. Good. A room for models and slides (lantern) A large lecture room. - There is an old green house next to the building, and next to it a double [[end page]] [[start page]] 47 house, one part dry the other hot. He also has sunken forcing beds, which he considers very useful. Dr. Klebs wants wood section for both stufy and exhibition. Specimens half the length of this page will be sufficient. He wants them for comparative study (microscopic) chiefly. Examinations compelled a rather hasty survey of the place, but Dr. Klebs himself impressed me as an energetic, forceful character, - and withal genial. Took dinner at a restaurant near the garden, and waiting until 2 + P.M. for rain to stop. Unfortunately the Botanical Garden is removed some distance from the Botanical Institute. It is not large, as compared with some, and there is some open space in it. There sure to be a good many kinds of trees, but the central part of the garden has few.
There are beds with flowers of one group. There are rather long forcing beds (covered), - one with cacti, aloe, etc., another with young plants, etc. They keep them partly opened by blocks. There is a fine group of Yuccas and Cordyline (latter from Australia) near the entrance. Source of the latter are at least 25 ft. high. There is a small lily pond. Near the center of the garden is a group of plant-houses. There is a big, tall storage (winter) house, in which a big [[underlined]] Phoenix [[/underlined]] remains even now. Next to this are two large, low houses, sunken so that only roofs appear above ground. I took photos 29; 30. The Inspector lives in a rather large house near the entrance. The garden lies along the Neckar river, [[end page]] [[start page]] 49 and is separated from it by an avenue with hickory trees forming a row on the outside, and the wall of the garden on the other. I then took a photo (23) of the Botanical Institute from the Bergheimerstr. entrance, and another on the opposite side (24) from Plôck S., - the Post office side. I started for Königstuhl, but gave it up on account of the threatening storm, - which soon broke out. I followed Hanptstrasse. It is long, narrow and crooked, and still narrower streets run out from it in the old town. It is a quaint old town, - to be compared in part with Jena. I came upon Paul and Bertha, and together we went to the old university building, off Hanptstrasse. In this we visited the famous students.
"carcer", or prison, in which students have been imprisoned for generations, - at first by the University authorities, now by the police. If a student commits an offense he is put in here, instead of the city prison. There are two (or rather 3 connected) small cells downstairs, which once served as the carcer, and the toilet open, with slab, and the small opening through which they received food, are still here. The present carcer is upstairs, and consists of three rooms and a corridor. Every prisoner decorates some part of the walls with paint, - usually his own profile is a part. All kinds of inscriptions appear, - even the american RATS, inscribed by one, Max Saloman of San Francisco. Each prisoner also leaves [[end page]] [[start page]] 51 his photo, and these are fastened with putty in a frame on the door. Otto von Bismarck's photo also graces the door of one cell. There are bars on the windows, - twisted by many efforts. Even the ceilings have inscriptions and paintings. There seems to be some sort of grouping in the cells according to franternities. The duel evidently prevails for I saw a very large number of men on the streets, - young men and old, - with the left cheek (and often nose) badly scarred. A curious display of German "culture'! It rained! We returned to the depot, & got a poor meal for a good price at the R.R. restaurant, - contrary to the rule, for the R.R. restaurants are usually reasonable in Germany. I bought quite a number of postal
cards showing the city, and especially the university. A set of carcer pictures, dwelling, etc. We left Heidelberg at 7:28 P.M. We ran along the Neckar, with bluffs on our left, and a plain (cultivated) to the right. It rained much of the way. We changed cars at Appenweier, and reached Strassburg at 11:25 P.M. We put up at the Pfalzerhof Hotel on Kleine Renngasse. It isn't much of a hotel, but we were glad to get in, as everyone around the square said all the hotels were full. I had room 10 on the 3rd floor. The ventilation was bad, and ^[[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] featherbed had a bad odor. We did fairly well, however. The place is quite evidently French. [[end page]] [[start page]] 53 [[underlined]] July 28, 1914 - Wednesday [[/underlined]] - The day was dark and gloomy, but several times later in the day the sun broke through the clouds. We started to walk to the Pharmacological Institute, and then towards the Botanical Garden and Institute. We crossed several areas of the Ill Fluss, into Little France. Here there are crooked narrow streets, and the town looks [[underlined]] old [[/underlined]]. The buildings here are of a different type, the roofs steep, with high gables. Many arcades also appear along the streets. Dogs hitched to milk-wagons are a common sight. After stopping for a bit at the Pharmacological bldg. we walked up towards the main university building. On the way (we followed the Ill for some distance)
we saw a Strassburg laundry! There are three large covered structures in the river, at first appearing like floating house-boats, on which a large number of women was engaged in washing clothes. They use the river water, and rub the clothes with a brush on an inclined plane, - a wash board. We saw another later. The main university building is quite a structure, and faces towards the river, with a large park in front. I then walked out to the Botanical Institute and Garden. Prof. Jost was not in, being engaged ^[[insertion]] for the day [[/insertion]] somewhere in a "versuch", and his assistant, Dr. K. Noack, evidently a young Jew, who spoke fair English, showed me about. [[end page]] [[start page]] 55 The building is clean-looking, with tile floors in the halls. It was built between 1875 and 1880. There are about 100 students, including the medics. There are two floors and a basement. On the upper floor there are three laboratories for advanced students. These are not large. There is a small plant-house attached to this floor as a veranda. This is for experimental work. After the Franco-Prussian war the university became German. The old De Bary herbarium is still here, and is kept in a sort of garret above this upper floor. It is wholly systematic, and contains no cryptograms. The Physiological work is all done in the three small laboratories.
There is not much apparatus; - a hot-water bath (incubator), and some minor apparatus. There is a small chemical laboratory with hood. There is a long narrow laboratory for microscopic work chiefly. Nearby are the library and reading room, - both fair, - and in charge of an Assistant who has other work to do. On the lower floor there is a large general lecture room, with DeBary's bust. The Assistant had to get up to where he could read the name before he could tell what ^[[insertion]] (or who) [[/insertion]] it is. Adjoining is a room for the demonstration collections. It contains materials in alcohol and formalin, dry fruits, etc. [[end page]] [[start page]] 57 This is quite large, larger than usually. There is also a small demonstration herbarium for lectures. There is a small lecture room with benches and desk-tables. Dr. Jost has two large laboratory rooms for his own use. The basement has a "constant temperature" room, but the temperature is regulated by a stove and common thermometer! It is not automatic. The room has double walls, with an air space between them. On the whole the department is not well-equipped. It may be that Dr. Jost himself has accurate apparatus in his private laboratories (I did not seem them) but certainly little of it appears in the student's laboratories.
When I asked Dr. Noack who did their ecological work, he said they had none, - they are all physiologists. The whole thing looks seedy and "fakish", and this is also borne out by the appearance of the garden and plant-houses. The latter especially have a "run-down" look. They seem to know nothing (or want to know nothing of the old French institution. The place has thus lost its traditions. Small wonder they have few students. The general situation reminds one somewhat of Prague. The university was to be a Germanizing factor, but is is evident that, as in Prague, it did not succeed, for the French sentiment is everywhere strong. De Bary's students: Farlow, Stahl, Rostafinski. [[end page]] [[start page]] 59 The garden, which adjoins, is good-sized, with the trees mostly around the outer part, and the center open. There is quite a group of plant-houses, arranged about so: [[image - pen diagram of the arrangement of the plant houses in the garden. Observatory is to the right of the arrangement. Heating plant is shown as part of one plant house. Two rectangular houses and one round are indicated as "Tall". One rectangular house is labeled 'a'; one round house is labeled 'b']] The large house and (a) are storage houses (for winter). The houses are mostly above ground, some round, and they look dilapidated, - especially the slat blinds, which are loose, broken and faded. The damp, tropical house is at (b)
The house of the Inspector seems to be in the northwest corner. The labels are porcelain, on iron rods, - a common method of marking in European gardens. [[image - pen drawing of a label with iron rods and the word "Label" next to it.]] There are the usual beds of cacti, etc., not so well kept here as usually. There is a long, narrow, informal pond with swampy edges, which is not neat but looks good for work. There are special sand-beds for sand plants. The building of the Botanical Institute is two story, with garret and basement. It is not the building in which De Bary worked. Bertha and I then hurried to the Cathedral to see the astronomical clock strike. The clock is on the inside, and [[end page]] [[start page]] 61 an admission fee (30 pfg) is charged. It bears the dates 1838-1842. It has figures representing the days of the week above, and these move around, and the cock at the left (large) flaps his wings and crows three times during the passing. The figures [[underlined]] walk. [[/underlined]] Death, at the center, strikes the hours, and the angel to the angel at the left strikes the quarters, on a bell. The planets, etc., are also shown. The clock is adjusted to the Gregorian Calendar. This is much like the Prague Orloj in principle, and seems to me not as remarkable, - at least not in the least more-so. The figures are smaller here. There was a large crowd, standing and packed, waiting for the striking. They charge again to see other parts of the cathedral. It's charge, charge, charge!
We took dinner at a restaurant, and then went out to the "Orangerie", a park where they grow some small orange-trees in tubs! There is a fine row of sycamores on each side of the entrance driveway. The orange trees are small, and in [[underlined]] boxes [[/underlined]] . They are evidently stored in a large building nearby in which the windows are broad and large. Otherwise the park is an ordinary formal, artificial park, well-kept. I went to the depot, but learned that the personen-zug does not leave until 5:52, ^[[insertion]] P.M. [[/insertion]] so I returned by car and took photos 5, 7, 8, 6, 3 and 4. On the whole the light was fair, but later it was cloudy and drizzled a little. [[end page]] [[start page]] 63 I found both elders and children quite mean in deliberate interference with photography. I walked down Langestrasse, a long, narrow busy street, and reached the depot in time. We left at 5.32 P.M. for Appenweier and Freiburg. In Strassburg their is still much evidence of French influence, - one feels it in the air. The common speech of many people, the head-dress of the Elsasserin women (with the flaring wings), the cooking, common physiognomies, wine, candy. cakes. etc. are all of a different type from that which we have been seeing and hearing. The buildings are also of a different type, - mostly very high-roofed affairs. Soldiers were everywhere in evidence and I was surprised that in the city, the fortifications of which form a most important
station (military) there were no restrictions on photography. In fact I have had no trouble anywhere on this score. The fact that my photography was perfectly in the open, - I carry a conspicuous outfit, - and that it was manifestly perfectly innocent, no doubt relieved one from trouble. The city of Strassburg has no doubt become largely German (I am told the country is still French), the streets are named in German, one sees many German firm names, and German is very commonly spoken. Yet the French influence is still noticeable, as noted above. In passing from Strassburg to Appenweier we crossed a broad plain, with mountains visible in the southwest. The Rhine, where we cross it, is a large, rapid stream. Indeed, as far as I have seen the Rhine it reminds one of the Missouri river [[end page]] [[start page]] 65 in its rushing, swirling waters. Mountains (or hills) also finally appear in the east. We changed at Appenweier for Freiburg. Along the way, in villages, we saw two storks nests on churches. It was disagreeable and rainy most of the time. We reached Freiburg at about 9 P.M. and put up at the Zum Post Hotel, opposite the post office. Rooms are so scarce that I had to contend myself with a room fitted up from an old bath-room! Freiburg lies on the river plain almost wholly, and back of it rises the Black Forest, and immediately above it the Schlossberg which has been transformed into a pretty park, with promenades, fine outlooks, etc. On the plain to the west are two abrupt elevations, - the nearer lower one is [[blank for later insertion]] and the further one is Kaiserstuhl.
[[underlined]] July 29, 1914, Wednesday. [[/underlined]] In the forenoon I walked over to the old Botanical Garden. Things do not look very bright, but a new garden is being made at the new Botanical Institute, and this one will be given up. The department of botany had been very badly crowded, and it was compelled to do its work in the rooms of the department of zoology. Everything had to be carried back and forth daily! The old garden contains a lily-pond, the usual special beds and a number of old plant houses, arranged as follows: [[image - pen diagram of six rectangles of various sizes in an upside-down "U" shape - labelled, from lower left Low, Lower, Tall house, Lower, Low, Forcing-beds [[(misfit)?]] [[/image]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 67 In the afternoon I went to the new Botanical Institute, and as Prof. Oltmanns had not yet come I took photographs 5, 6, 1 and 2. The gardens and plant-houses are in the making, and everywhere there are laborers digging, grading, etc, and mechanics putting up the houses. The garden is on a flat not far from the base of the mountain, and presents little variation in surface. The building is new, large, and has been occupied since last April. It is the usual concrete affair, very nicely finished within. There are two full stories, a top floor and a basement. I went back to the building, and as Prof. Oltmanns was not yet in, a young assistant, who used fair English, showed me about. There are now about 370 students in botany. One third to one-half are ladies!
Of these 6 are candidates for the PhD, and 12 are on the way. (Some of them do not finish here.) On the first main floor is the large lecture room, ^[[insertion]] two stories high, [[/insertion]] which will seat 340. By elevator and cars plants will be brought directly from the plant-house under cover, - without coming outside. The projecting apparatus is in a small room [[underlined]] back [[/underlined]] of the front wall of the lecture-room, and the screen consists of tissue paper. The apparatus is thus hidden, and the operator is near enough to hear the lecturer. A short-focus lens is used. Prof. Oltmanns has a nice office and private laboratory on this floor. There is a good sized general library and reading-room room, and a smaller adjoining one for daily use. In this latter are the references most frequently used. The physiological lab. is roomy, and the experimental plant house is convenient. This is entered from basement.(?). [[end page]] [[start page]] 69 [[image - hand drawn map of first floor, with all rooms and entrances labeled, oriented so that the North side is on the left, main entrance on West side.]] [[image label]][[underlined]] This is the 1st main floor [[/underlined]][[/image label]] A building for the Inspectors workshop will stand next to the low houses. There are two rows of these houses, - 4 in a row. These 8 houses (as far as shown) are quite low and above ground. They are now being put up. This is the best-lighted building that I have seen. This is a feature.
There is a [[underlined]] bacteriological room [[/underlined]] with fine bath, electrical centrifuge, etc. It occupies a part of the space marked Physiol. Lab., - I think the outside. This is right. The chemical lab is fairly large and the apparatus room is convenient. [[underlined]] The second floor [[/underlined]] has a roomy darkroom for experimental purposes, with good electric equipment. There are several small laboratories for students, - this is a feature. There are also several dark rooms, - another feature. In the curved part there is a large laboratory for beginners. On the north side there are three laboratories for more advanced students. They correspond in location to the labs. marked (Bacteriological, and) ^[[insertion]] (Here are smaller rooms?)[[/insertion]] Physiological, and the Private Lab. and Library. These are all splendidly lighted. [[end page]] [[start page]] 71 Linoleum is used on the floors. There are 36 rooms on this floor, and 12 in the basement. There are also others in the wing above the lecture room. A chart room just back of the front of the lecture-room is a feature. The charts are backed with cloth, and hung on rods. There are many, - mostly home-made. This chart room opens on a narrow gallery above the lecture platform, and the charts are suspended from a narrow metallic rail or rim on the railing of this gallery. [[underlined]] The third floor [[/underlined]] contains rooms for the collections, - which are not yet large. There is a small lecture-room above the large one. There are still other rooms on these last two floors, - for a "sluha" or "Diener", for the dwelling of the Garden
Inspector, and for other purposes. Large storage space is found on the topmost floor. There is good telephone service for the whole building, and everything is arranged in up-to-date fashion. The [[underlined]] basement [[/underlined]] is also utilized to good advantage. There is a [[underlined]] constant-temperature dark-room, [[/underlined]] and a [[underlined]] constant-temperature light room,[[/underlined]]- both automatically controlled by a thermostat, which turns a plate so that the warm currents of air are turned in or out,- as required. There is a sterilizing room, dark-rooms, etc., and a shop, with a mechanician and two assistants! This is by far the finest Botanical Institute that I have seen in Europe, but I am everywhere told (Dr. Oltmanns says the same) that München has the finest. [[end page]] [[start page]] 73 I met Dr. Oltmanns. He is a genial courtly old bachelor, and I enjoyed my visit very much. When he learned that Bertha was waiting for me he insisted on having her come in. He is evidently quite a ladies' man, - though he doesn't like to have so many women among the students! He says the grounds contain 3.8 hectares, and of this .6 is occupied by buildings, leaving 3.2 hectares free. He wanted grounds on the base of the mountain,- or rather a small knob at its foot, - but the cost was too great, and too many owners were concerned. The present grounds belonged to one owner, and negotiations were easier. Prof. Oltmanns is at work on a Flora of the Black Forest, and he showed
us a large number of fine plates, drawn by an elderly artist who is at work in a small room near the Professor's office. Dr. Oltmanns does not speak English. Dr. Oltmanns wants my prairie papers, etc. My raincoat, left for a while outside, was taken. The empty boxes in it were opened and thrown away. Evidently the thief searched for valuables. We returned to the hotel in the rain, and I spent the evening, and late into the night, trying to figure out a course by which I might remain longer with Bertha and Paul. Here we had the first definite news that Austria had declared war against Servia (on the 28th), but still everywhere hope was expressed that peace would come, and it was reported that the king of England would arbitrate the dispute. [[end page]] [[start page]] 75 [[underlined]] July 30, 1914, Thursday [[/underlined]] I went to the Botanical Institute in the morning in the hope that I might learn something of my raincoat, - but in vain. I then called and the Geological Institute to see Prof. Deecke. He was lecturing, and I looked about. I noticed a topographic map, built up by sticking rather thick sheets of paper, cut successively according to contour lines. I found a young assistant, who suggested that Kaiserstuhl is best for loess. He also gave me the address of a man interested in loess and diluvial mollusca: David Geyer Stuttgart Silberburgstr. 165, II. Mr. Geyer has just published a new paper, - 1914. Send for it. I also met Prof. Deninger Freiburg: B Geological Institut.
He is interested in fossil mammals, and wants all papers on the subject for review. I also met Prof. Deecke, who speaks no English. He pointed out in detail two localities which I should visit, - Wasenweiler and Gottenheim. He wishes to exchange European loess and diluvial shells for loess fossils from America. I left for Wasenweiler at 10:09 A.M., and reached it at 10:28. I walked to the quaint village which is strung along the base of Kaiserstuhl. The slopes of Kaiserstuhl are mostly covered with vineyards. There is no crop this year. Kaiserstuhl stands out on a broad plain. My work was only on the lower slopes, ^[[insertion]] the border [[/insertion]] - the elevations rise much higher in the distance. I followed a narrow road, - cut deep into the loess, northwestward [[end page]] [[start page]] 77 up the slope from the north end of the village. This follows up into the notch in this part of the ridge, which is visible from below. [[underlined]] Sections 1 and 2 [[/underlined]] are low down on the slope, 6 or 8 feet high, and show a mixture of loessy stuff, pebbles, sand and lime nodules. I collected a few shells from both. The banks are probably in overwash at base of slope. It certainly is not loess. Sec. 2 is but little higher up. From this on the road cuts a narrow gorge, scarcely 20 ft. wide, and 25 to 50 ft. deep. There are tributary paths leading down, and along these the natives nimbly come, helping themselves on the steep slopes with sharp-pointed alpenstocks. [[underlined]] Section 3 [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]](i.e. its base)[[/insertion]] is about 20 ft. above section 2. Here the cut becomes
deep, and the light-yellow upper loess shows well. This upper loess is lighter yellow than that below. It is exposed in this section in about the upper 12 ft. (See sample.) ^[[insertion]] Total about 40 ft. [[/insertion]] [[image - pen diagram of loess distribution with different cuts in the banks, along a trail which runs E>W and joins the main road shown at the bottom, which runs south to Wasenweiler.]] I found no fossils in it. It looks much like the latest Missouri river loess. Opposite cut 3 there is a high loess bluff in which I found no fossils, but it shows a peculiar oblique rusty band: [[image - pen sketch illustrating loess distribution. Loessy, reddish band, 4ft, passes through two layers of yellow loess.]] This is the highest loess bluff seen here. [[end page]] [[start page]] 79 [[underlined]] Section 4 [[/underlined]] is the finest of the series. The road rises from the base of 3 to the base of 4 ^[[insertion]] (at x) [[/insertion]] about 20 ft. This section shows two loesses. The lower is darker yellow, with large calcareous nodules, some of them great blocks, - one 6 1/2 ft. long and 5 ft. wide. (See photo) Fossils are very numerous in this part. In many cases fossils are imbedded in the large nodules. The fossils are so abundant that they fairly whiten the lower bank. (See collections.) The whole bluff here is all of 40 ft. high, and the fossiliferous lower loess makes [[strikethrough]] nearly [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]]about [[/insertion]]half of this. In addition to the about 40 ft. of the vertical part, the talus measures about 6 feet vertically. There is a rusty, clayey layer under the fossiliferous part, - as is shown at the side of the road. The fossiliferous
loess, when broken, shows the usual lamination. [[image - pen diagram of observation site. Yellow loess with no fossils is at the top with fossil loess below. There is a very large calc. nodule below and to the left of the loess areas. A road runs along the base of the bluff to the right of the observation area.]] Many large nodules are washed away on the road below base of cut 4, and they give the road-surface a bowldery appearance. On the return I stopped at the Gasthaus zum Sonne, and met the proprietor, who has been in New York twice (a total of 9 years.), and who still expects to go back. He has been here now 8 years, but he says his wife doesn't like it. He introduced me to his neighbors as his [[underlined]] countryman! [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] Landsman! [[/insertion]] From all the conversations which I have heard I judge that the Germans fear [[end page]] [[start page]] 81 Russia, rather disregard France, and try to argue themselves into the belief that England has no cause to take part in a war against Germany. There are many soldiers in and about Freiburg, and according to common reports current among the people, many have been moved on towards the boundary (evidently towards Mühlhausen. I left for Gottenheim at 2:42 P.M., which was reached in a few minutes. I went out on the road which leads up on the ridge, and just beyond the last house in the village I found a nice bank of loess exposed on the right hand side. It runs down almost to the level of the road. [[image - pen diagram of 3 loess layers alongside road. Top layer, (a) "yellow (ashen) loess, about 15 ft. middle layer(c) "4 ft." and lower layer(b) Browner, or deeper yellow, loess, with many fossils. About 6 ft. exposed.
There seem to be no shells in a. Stratification, with sand, etc., appears in [[underlined]] c, [[/underlined]] and there are a few shells. The upper part, [[underlined]] a [[/underlined]] is also like the Missouri river loess. The darker loess in [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]] contains many fossils (though not quite so many as at (Wasenweiler in cut 4), and many large calcareous nodules, - especially in the upper part. There are a good many fossils imbedded in the nodules. A good many of the shells seem to be broken, especially in [[underlined]] c. [[/underlined]] An oxidized band sets of [[underlined]] c [[/underlined]] from [[underlined]] a.[[/underlined]] All of c is stratified, and contains lines and bands of sand. The material of [[underlined]] b [[/underlined]] in some places hardly shows ^[[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] lamination of loess, but seems to be somewhat mucky, - almost like joint clay. (See samples of clay, and nodules). (Also shells) I then followed the road for a short distance beyond cut 1. It soon runs [[end page]] [[start page]] 83 into the woods and I picked up some land-shells on the wooded banks. The road is again deep and narrow. The bank opposite Exposure 1 shows stratification & fine lamination, with lines of fine sand, etc. I returned to Freiburg, and after making a few purchases of cards, ink, etc., I took supper. After supper we went out on Kaiserstrasse and watched the crowds that filled the streets, waiting for the expected order from the kaiser to mobilize. It did not come, and when the soldiers disappeared at 10 o'clock the crowds slowly dispersed. The atmosphere was tense all evening, yet it appeared as if the ordinary people hoped that there would be no war. We were told next morning that during the night 150000 men had been sent from and through Freiburg to Mülhausen!
[[underlined]] July 31, 1914 - Friday [[/underlined]] I went to Wasenweiler again at 7:24 A.M., leaving Paul and Bertha asleep. I took my camera with me, carrying it in the suit-case, - the only time I attempted concealment. I took photos 7, 8, 4, 23 and 24. I stopped at the gasthaus for a lunch and then went back to Gottenheim. I expected to leave at 10:23 A.M., and as it was nearly 10 when I reached Gottenheim, I hurried [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] out 1 and took photos 29 and 30. On my return I found that the 10:23 train runs on Sunday only, so I took a train to Breisbach, caught a fast train for Freiburg, and doubled back. An Elsasses, born under French rule, was on the train. He says the young men, especially those who served in the army, are German in sentiment, but the older ones want to go back to France. He talked [[end page]] [[start page]] 84 rather as if he would be willing, but deplored the cost of such a move in blood, etc. We reached Freiburg at 11:15 A.M. I packed, ate dinner, and we took the train for Basle at 12:53 P.M. We passed the Black Forest, - the mountains growing more rugged, - on the left. It is a fine scene, with mountains piling on mountains, and all dark with the forest covering. On the right (west) a flat cultivated plain extends as far as I could see. I became very sick on the train, and lost much of the view. But it seemed to continue about the same to Basel. At Basel (French Basle) we changed to the Schweiz Bahnhof by street car, and then went on to Berne. The country now (in Switzerland) is rugged, mountainous, and heavily forested. In the valleys neat villages nestle, and much fruit is grown.
We passed through 3 tunnels before making our first stop, - at Oltens, - after crossing the Aare. The country looks much like the Black Forest region. I met a Pole on the train who is an Austrian, - one of those ^[[insertion]] to be [[/insertion]] forced out by the Swiss government. He comes from Przemysl, in Galicia. He expects to be called any day. He left home (his people are wealthy manufacturers) because he wanted to marry a poor orphan girl. Now he will not marry. This is only one of the many tragedies which I have recently witnessed. There is no nobility in Switzerland, but many millionaires. In Basel he said there are 103! We reached Berne at 6 P.M., and put up at the Hotel de L'Etoile, or Hotel zu Sterve, 30 Aarbergergasse, a short distance from the station. [[end page]] [[start page]] 85 The war situation is very uncertain, and there is much excitement here. The Swiss will also mobilize, - it is said about 450,000 men. This is especially hard on them because the last two years were not good for tourists or crops, and this season is broken up by the war excitement just when the good results were beginning, and also in the midst of harvest time. The Swiss strike me as a brighter, more self-reliant people than I have seen for some time. It is said that they get along harmoniously, notwithstanding the fact that the population is composite, and there are three official languages: German, French and Italian. I have seen a large number of very red-cheeked girls and women, and some men. It does not seem to be a normal condition. It has been suggested that wine-drinking may be the cause.
[[underlined]] August 1,1914 - Saturday [[/underlined]] In the morning I called on the American Ambassador, no. 6 Hirschengraben, and he advised that Paul get a pass-port. I then went to the Botanical Garden and Institute, and found that Dr. Fischer had gone for his vacation the day before, but Dr. Ritz, his assistant, showed me about. He informed me that he was called out for military service, and that he could give me only a short time. He was very genial, and gave me a good view of the department. They have about 150 students in the department. Of these 7 are candidates for the Ph.D., among them 3 ladies. There are usually 20-40 ladies in all. [[underlined]] On the second floor: [[/underlined]] - Here are located the library and reading room, - fair. A good working herbarium, - chiefly fungi, - not intended for display. The work of [[end page]] [[start page]] 87 the department centers in the experimental work with parasitic fungi. There are three special laboratories, rather small, - with large flat tables. A laboratory for cultures, - with bath, etc. The microtome work is also done in this room. In the hallway are lockers for students wraps and belongings. A rather small dark room, - experimental, etc. The greater part of this building is 2 years old. [[underlined]] On the first (ground) floor: [[/underlined]] A museum of demonstration material, fruits, alcoholic materials, etc. This is especially rich in alcoholic fungi. There are large dry algae, etc. The Direktor's office and small modest private laboratory are on this floor. A large lecture-room with wooden benches and frames for charts. A laboratory for advanced students. Another, larger, for beginners. The living room of the gardener, etc.
I then took photos 23, 24, 5, & 6, in the garden. In the garden there are several plant houses. Next to the tall palm house is a storage house with large windows, - brick walls. There are 4 smaller houses, partly sunken, with brick walls on the side 4 ft. high, and gables rising to about 9 ft. above the ground. These houses are ^[[insertion]] each [[/insertion]] about 21x14 feet. They have slat blinds working with rod & pulleys, - a common plan. One of these is devoted to cacti, etc., - a dry house, - another more moist, - and another tropical. Outside there are special cactus and Yucca beds, palm groups, etc. The garden is neat and well-kept, but not extravagant. There are many trees. It is located in the angle formed by the river Aare and the railway, - partly on a steep bank, close to which the buildings are located, (in fact on a [[end page]] [[start page]] 89 sort of bench above flatter part), and partly on a lower flat which is still 50 feet or more above the Aare which rushes past at the very base of a steep bank or low bluff. On this flat is located a larger lily-pond with various aquatics (mostly not lilies.) A small lily-pond is located near the Institute. The garden is an irregular tract covering several places. It suggests the possibilities of the Welch tract below the President's house! The swift waters of the Aare here (and elsewhere where we have seen it) are of a peculiar pale-blue (skimmed milk) color. (Due to air??) Returned to hotel. We took dinner together, and after dinner we went to the depot to meet Dr. & Mrs. Jackson (and 3 yr. old daughter) of St. Louis. Dr. Jackson has a passport, but we went to the American Consulate to get the necessary
order for passport to be issued by the Embassy. Many Americans were waiting for passports. The consul is an old gentleman who was very courteous to every one (fooled away to much time with it) but slow, - dreadfully slow. He slowly and deliberately filled out the blanks on a typewriter and made no progress. We finally gave it up to take a train for Thun. The next day is Sunday, and he already has a lot of left-overs for Monday, so we concluded to give it up for the present. We have just learn of an order prohibiting the taking of automobiles, horses and mules across the border (i.e. out of the country) on account of the mobilizations. Some Americans are caught with autos. One naturalized Swiss American from Nebraska is among them, - and he has no passport! Mobilization has been ordered, and there is much excitement. Crowds are surging, [[end page]] [[start page]] 91 soldiers appear everywhere, and horses and equipment crowd special trains. Added to this, banks are shaky, food has been bought up and stored, - in many cases the stores exhausted their supplies and long lines of customers, extending into the street, waited for a renewal of supplies. There is a promised rise in prices, - especially on living. All trains are delayed. We finally left after 5 P.M. on a train due to leave at 4:30, and reached Thun in about half an hour. We caught fine views of the Bernese Alps from Berne on. We put up at the Schlosshotel Freinhof, which stands on the banks of one arm of the Aare in that part of Thun on the island. We walked out along Aare towards the mountains, and I took photos 27 & 28. At the hotel all male help was called into military service and even the chef had to go.
[[underlined]] August 2, 1914 - Sunday [[/underlined]] We are at Thun. The male help is all gone excepting one young German who expects to go home. The manager had to do the cooking himself. He declares that he will keep us as long as he is permitted to do so, that he will not increase prices, but that he cannot guarantee the continued quality of meals. He says we must eat what he does. He also cashed Dr. Jackson's travelers check. He certainly acted on the square. The sky is overcast and the day somewhat threatening. We started out at about 9:30 a.m. towards the mountains. We walked past Reutigen to Wimmis. Before reaching Reutigen I took photo 27. Before coming to the point where I took this photo we followed the road which here leads along the deep charm of a rushing mountain stream. The view of the [[end page]] [[start page]] 93 snow-covered Alps through a cleft in the mountains was here beautiful. Indeed we have had many views and glimpses of the great chain of ice-covered mountains in the direction of Jungfrau. We found cherries along the road almost everywhere, - planted trees. We passed the base of the mountain ^[[insertion]] (2) [[/insertion]] which is at the end of the chain in which the Stockhorn is located. Here I collected land shells on moist ledges, and also in a more open space among leaves and sticks. (See the two sets.) Near Wimmis we took the longer road around by way of the bridge at the dam, and after crossing I collected land shells on the rocky bank along the road leading to Wimmis, as the base of the forest-covered (spruce) lower mountain between the above mountain z, and Mt. Niesen. The view up stream from the dam is very
fine, the valley here being narrow to a deep caňon with a very abrupt slope. The mountain marked z is rather barren, very rocky, with precipitous sides, with dead or scrubby trees scattered over it,and it is said to be inaccessible. The small mountain is heavily timbered, - mostly with spruce. The Stockhorn is very abrupt in front, but slopes back. Dr. & Mrs. Jackson of St. Louis, a somewhat incompatible pair, and this little girl not yet 3 years old, took the long tramp with us. Mrs. Jackson concluded to remain at Wimmis with the child while we went up Mt. Niesen. I stopped to gather shells, and also [[insertion]] to [[/insertion]] photograph the snailery not far from the bridge (see [[underlined]] photo [[/underlined]] 28.) The snailery is in a somewhat shaded place, rather low, at base of the mountain, and is boarded [[end page]] [[start page]] in with boards over a foot high, and provided with wire-netting shield all around to prevent the escape of the snails, thus: [[image - pen diagram of and inward curve of wire-netting attached to board.]] The snail pen is irregular, probably 15 ft. wide and more than 3 times as long. Boxes and boards are scattered about for shelter, and even low shed-like shelters are provided. Here thousands of large [[blank space for later name insertion]] are kept, for the French market. They are fed vegetables, etc. (grass). The woman deplores the fact that the war will cut off the French market. I stopped at the station, and then followed Bertha, Paul and Dr. Jackson, who had started for Mt. Niesen. I caught them only a short distance above the base, along the meadows which here reach up the steep slopes for some distance.
For a considerable distance we took the short cut up steep slopes, and had a taste of real ^[[insertion]] mountain [[/insertion]] climbing. We finally reached the regular trail nearly halfway up, and then followed this well up to smaller openings, about two-thirds of the way up. From every open place we had a fine view of Lake Thun, and the valley of the Aare beyond, together with the mountains in the direction of the Stockhorn, and of the great valley ^[[insertion]][[at base of Niesen, [[/insertion]] which is followed by the R.R. The open places on the mountain are grassy and are the great pastures. There are small houses on these slopes, none of them occupied now so far as I could see. In several places water is piped from greater heights to these places (pastures) for stock. The timber in some places is heavy, [[end page]] [[start page]] 97 and consists of black spruce. In some parts (especially upward) the spruce forest is very dense, and the lower branches are largely dead, - self-pruning. We left our high-point at 6 o'clock P.M., and reached the base in 1 hour. We followed the trail. We had a good many cherries (nearly black) at the base of the mountain. We left Wimmis at 8:35 P.M., and had to change at Spitz. The conductor made no suggestion that we would have to change, and it was only after our train was emptied at Spitz that we learned that a change is necessary. On our return to Thun we found that the English people whom we had seen in the morning, had been refused R.R. tickets to France, and they remained at the hotel. The excitement increases.
[[underlined]] August 3, 1914 - Monday [[/underlined]] In the morning I noticed that [[underlined]] Elodea [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] Chara [[/underlined]] are abundant in the Aare, here swift, in front of the hotel. The day is beautiful and clear. We started for Scherzligen afoot, - the point nearer the outlet of the lake where boats land. I took photo 1 from the depot of Scherzligen. We took the boat at 8:47 a.m. At the second stop I took photo 7 from the boat. There is a cloud-cap on Mt. Niesen. Our steamer is the "Beatus". We reached Interlaken and at once purchased tickets (round-trip) for the Jungfrau trip (to Scheidegg 15 Fr., and to Eigergletscher 3 Fr.), but we found that no one would cash check or exchange German or Austrian money (excepting gold), and it was reported that today we could still get through to Munich. We therefore returned the Jungfrau tickets, [[end page]] [[start page]] 99 and hurriedly took the train for Berne and Zurich. the Jacksons just missed the train. At the last moment Bertha was taking care of the little girl while her mother went to find the doctor, and she barely returned in time to take her. The train was moving! It was an exciting moment! At Berne, and in part all along the line, soldiers swarmed everywhere, and every bridge and railway station was under guard, for the whole army had been called out to protect the border. We found the station at Berne crowded, and guarded by soldiers. When I passed out to the toilet and tried to return I was stopped by the guard, and only when I showed my passport and explained that Paul had our tickets, was I permitted to go on. The ^[[insertion]] passenger [[insertion]] trains are crowded with soldiers, and other
mixed trains with horses, men and equipment, and everywhere there's bustle and excitement. We finally left for Zurich at about 3 P.M., - much belated. We passed through a region of rather low rounded mountains, - forest-covered, and reached Zurich about 6 P.M. Here also we found the station guarded and crowded, and everything was in the hands of the military. We left Bertha at the station, and immediately hunted up the Consul-General, who luckily was still at his office. The Consul-General is David F. Wilbur, a big, jolly good-natured ^[[insertion]] typical [[/insertion]] American politician. He was unable to give no definite information, but he called up the Austrian Consul, von Jaeger, and asked if my pass would carry me through to Prague. He reported that it would, and arranged to have me call at the office at 9 the next morning. [[end page]] [[start page]] 101 He ^[[insertion]](our Consul) [[/insertion]] is evidently on chummy terms with Consul von Jaeger. On matters in general he had no information, and insisted on referring us to the Cook agency. It rained, - and we left the consulate in a shower. We started out to look for a hotel, and fell upon the Limmathof, - modest hotel near the banks of the Limmathof river, nearby. Think of it! We started out on the "Beatus" in the morning, and landed in the "Limmat" hotel in the evening! (This should be labeled as Bertha's joke!) We then returned to the station, where a great throng was gathered, and found that the Jacksons had come in. They also went to our hotel. It rained again in the evening. The war excitement continues, and "extras" are being hawked about at 10 centimes often a sheet with only one little item on it, - and that unreliable!
[[underlined]] August 4, 1914 - Tuesday [[/underlined]] A rainy morning. I walked to the Hamburg-Am. office, but found no one there but the "sweep". I then walked to no. 122 Dufour str., the Austrian Consulate. I found a big crowd in the streets waiting for entrance. My card form Mr. Wilber gained prompt entrance for me. In the anteroom I found a Moravian (prospective recruit) who had had his leg badly injured by the street-car. No surgeon could be secured, as all had gone with the army, so a policeman(?) washed and bandaged the wound, and they took him to the hospital, where some nurses remained. I met Mr. von Jaeger, explained the purpose of my visit to Prague, and he O.K'ed my passport. I then bought a ticket to Linz, via Innsbruck, after showing my pass. I paid 29.10 Fr. for a 3rd class ticket, and had 15 centimes left! Hence I could get [[end page]] [[start page]] 103 nothing more to eat until I crossed the Austrian boundary: I had German and Austrian money, but it was difficult to exchange this. I again visited the Hamburg-Am. office on Bahnhoffstrasse, but they had not information. An English-speaking elderly gentleman, evidently American, just came in from Budapest, via Vienna, and he said there was more excitement here than he had seen anywhere along the line. I returned to the hotel and found Bertha and Paul. They cannot cross to Germany or France, and exchange on German money is about 30%! They will get a passport, and as this must come from the Embassy at Berne, it will require at least two days. Hence they will remain. Paul will try to dispose of his German money to those who are going home to Germany, - and there seem to be many such.
I finally left at 12:30 P.M. There is a large crowd, mostly Austrians going back to enlist. It seems that the Swiss government forced all ^[[insertion]] able-bodied [[/insertion]] Germans and Austrians out, thus compelling them to enlist in their respective armies, a move interpreted to mean a desire to help Germany. I heard German, Bohemian and Polish spoken in the crowd. I have not in a long time regretted anything as much as I do the necessity of leaving Bertha and Paul. Of course they are self-reliant, and will not get lost, but I don't like it anyway. The day is gloomy, and so am I. War [[underlined]] is [[/underlined]] hell!, - even in its preliminary features. The notices in the Swiss cars are posted in three languages, - the 3 official languages. We ran along [[blank space for later name insertion]] Lake a long distance. It is on our left as we go. It extends to the fixed station before Reichenburg is reached. [[end page]] [[start page]] 105 At Reichenburg there are low mountains. Just beyond it there appear, in the distance, mountains with quite a number of smaller glaciers. These mountains are high, and masses of clouds appeared far below their summits. The mountain just opposite the next station, looks about as high as Niesen, and has a similar covering, but the slopes are steeper, and no meadows appear at first on the near side. These appear farther on. It is nearby. As the stations the signal to start is given by turning a crank which brings about the ringing of 3 taps. This is repeated once. The next station is Ziegelbrucke. The high mountains are still beyond this. The country is becoming very picturesque, and the mountains are very rugged. The next station, located in a narrow valley, is Weesen. Up to this point we have passed through 4 tunnels, and we
have been following a narrow lake in a narrow valley. At Mühlehorn the great snowy peak showed in the cleft of the mountains. We passed through two more tunnels before we reached Murg. Some of the travelers are Italians, and most of them carry small wooden trunks, or boxes. At Sargans very high mountains appear, - with glaciers. At Menzen we passed through a tunnel 15 minutes long, and at Pelteam there are many small glaciers on high mountains. The region and about Landeck is very rugged and picturesque, and patches of snow appear all over the higher mountains. Fine "fans" of gravel and boulders appear at the mouths of steep canons beyond Landeck. All along these mountains the trees are mostly scrubby and scant. There are many [[end page]] [[start page]] 107 precipitous cliffs, and the slopes, mostly very steep, are rocky. It is a wild picturesque region, much more nearly in a natural state than any part of Switzerland. It is said that there are chamois in these mountains. At Winzel we saw a freight train containing about 30 Serbs and 60 or 90 Russians, - (the crowd reported many more, but the guard said there are 28 Serbians!), - men not captured in war, but picked up. The cars of a transport train were marked up in the outside with chalk, - caricatures, etc., appearing. One showed King Peter (of Servia) hung on gallows. Shortly before this we had a narrow escape from a collision with a fast express at a crossing. It is said the trains stopped only about a meter apart! There is some enthusiasm for war and
much hatred of Servians in this part of Austria. Some of our German recruits on the train call out: "Serben, du mupt sterben", as we pass the stations. In many cases groups of children greet the train with cheers, and at the stops women furnish lemonade, bread and cheese, etc. to the recruits on our train. There are several Bohemians in my car. They have been in Switzerland for years, - are settled there permanently, but they failed to purchase Swiss citizenship (it costs 800 Fr.), and the recent order of the Swiss government forced them out to join the Austrian army. *One man had married a Swiss woman, had two children, and is a tailor. He is now forced out. Another had just married a Bohemian girl, of Swiss birth, and had purchased a flower store for 1500 Fr. This is all gone. One of their Bohemian companions had taken *These are reversed, - the [[underlined]] tailor [[/underlined]] was just married. [[end page]] [[start page]] 109 a boat that morning, rowed out on Lake Zurich and shot himself. There has been much delay all along the line. The train is crowded, - largely with recruits, and it is hard to get food and drink. I managed to get a drink of lemonade thorugh the good offices of one of the Bohemian recruits. When I offered to pay for it he said that it was given to them. At Buch we had got out for the customs inspection. With the great crowd this was of necessity very hasty. My box of loess shells attracted the attention of my inspector, but he was soon satisfied. They did not use the usual stickers, but marked the inspected baggage with chalk. I was surprised to find that no one called for my passport, even on the boundary, and that my camera gave me no trouble. I carried the lenses in my field-glass case, & the plate-holders were empty. We reached Bischofshofen at about 2 a.m., and had to wait until 4:30 a.m. for another train.
[[underlined]] August 5, 1914, Wednesday [[/underlined]] I took a cup of coffee at the R.R. restaurant, with one of the Bohemian ^[[insertion]] (Moravian) [[/insertion]] recruits, and we started for Salzburg at 4:30 a.m. No sleep. Most of the recruits had gone on directly to Vienna. We were not required to change at Salzburg, and went on to Linz. Here at the station (outside) I saw a "spuckuapf", - a cuspidor with this label! After some delay we moved on to Budějovice. The conductor sold me a ticket on the train, - but said he could sell only to Nymburk, not to Prague. At Focklamarkt there are more mountains, - the country is rolling. We learn that we must go to Prague by way of Budějovice, Veselí, Jihlava and Nymburk, - and that we may not be able to get farther than Nymburk, - pleasant prospect of a 50 km. trip overland! [[end page]] [[start page]] 111 Throughout the trip, and especially that part of it in Bohemia, I was surprised at the good nature and helpfulness of R.R. officials, - usually so overbearing. Even where people were without tickets or could not pay they were permitted to ride. The officials remained very good-natured. The passengers suffered much discomfort. They were crowded, without sleep, mostly hungry, and excited and disturbed. At each change there was a rush for places, - worst at Jihlava where we met the Vienna crowd. I had a ticket for a slow train to Nymburk, but I took the first train and rode to Prague, and was not called upon to pay the difference. My case was only one similar to many. On the train rode a young Bohemian Jew(?) who had been in France and was one of those ordered out. A party of 23 was forced to walk 60 km.
They hired an Italian with a cart (which they dragged) and paid him 10 Fr. apiece to take them to the Swiss boundary. He left them 38 km. from the boundary, and they had to hire another. Women and children were in the party, and suffered greatly. When we changed at Budějovice I sat with three young Bohemian ladies who were in this party. They were from Prague, and had planned a pleasure trip into France, Switzerland and Italy, with this result. This young Jew was very helpful to women and elderly persons. He is evidently well-to-do. From Jihlava to Prague I travelled with a young Jesuit priest who was coming to Prague from Lower Austria. He had taken his doctor's degree at the university this year. I had an interesting conversation with him concerning [[end page]] [[start page]] 113 a variety of subjects. He seemed to be quite liberal in his views, and seemed to know that I had been writing for Bohemian papers at home! He remarked that he feared that we had not always had their best representatives come to America. He told me that one of his brethren had just come from the western part of Switzerland, and that he reported the French cantons in a condition of revolution because they objected to the government policy of blocking the French and thus helping the Germans. We reached Prague after a trying journey at about 10 PM. A large crowd had remained at Jihlava waiting for the slower "personen-zug", which was to leave later. A great crowd was gathered at the [[?]] nádraží, and there were no street cars! I took supper at a lunch room on [[?]] [[?]], and then walked to my room with my heavy luggage. My land-lady came to door, - they had been much disturbed as to my whereabouts.
[[underlined]] August 6, 1914 - Thursday [[/underlined]] I slept well, until 8 a.m. I then went to the university and found a good lot of mail from home, from Macbride and Boot. Good! I then visited with Drs. Domin and Kavina. The Domino had also been forced to hurry home from Tyrol some days earlier. I took dinner at home, and in the afternoon I wrote, and then visited the Am. Consulate. I found Mr. Bonchal in charge, and overwhelmed with work. Offered my services. I found that there is no immediate prospect of getting away, - probably 3 weeks. I called at the Hamburg-American office, and they informed me that they would have no further advises until August 10th. I returned to the Botanical Dept after 6, saw the Domins and Danešs for a few minutes, and then went home. It rained in the evening. [[end page]] [[start page]] 115 [[underlined]] August 7, 1914, Friday. [[/underlined]] I have found Prague the most quiet and best-disposed place that I have seen for some time. I am glad that I was able to get back here. I arranged my negatives and wrote until 10 a.m. I then went to the "Zlatá Husa" and found a number of Bohemian Americans there, - Mr. Hájíček and family of Chicago, and others. I went to the bank, exchanged my German money for Austrian (they would not take the nickel & copper pieces, and drew 200 K. This is the limit beyond which they will not pay out deposits, - 200 K every two weeks! I took dinner at the Měšťanská Beseda, - almost desolate, - and worked at my room until evening, when I took a walk up town. News were received that Austria had declared war against Russia and Montenegro against Austria. War is the subject of interest.
[[underlined]] August 8, 1914, Saturday [[/underlined]] The day is rainy and gloomy. I wrote in my room nearly all day. Later in the afternoon I went to the University and numbered my exposed plates. I took supper at the temperance restaurant and went back to writing. At a public meeting the mayor of the city, Dr. K. Groš, "provolal ku konci své řeči sláva Césaři Vilemoví". The rector of the Technical School organized a movement among students to help in these trying war times. I had an interesting conversation with Dr. Peklo. He is not a "nationalist", and seems to be far from a panslavist. He seems to be in doubt as to the qualities of Servians, and doesn't like the Russians any too well. The comments which one hears on the side throw a lot of light on the real sentiments of the people. During these days as I write in my room, ordinarily so quiet, I hear clatter of hoofs, the measured tread of soldiers, and the rumble of wheels on the pavement below. [[end page]] [[start page]] 117 The papers report that a retired railway employee (engineer?) offered his services because so many men were called to arms, [[underlined]] and his offer was returned [[/underlined]] because it was [[underlined]] a request (or petition, [[/underlined]] and did not have the necessary [[underlined]] stamp!!! [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] August 9, 1914, Sunday [[/underlined]] I spent nearly all day writing up my belated notes and arranging my materials, - going without dinner. I took supper at the temperance restaurant and then returned to work. A beautiful day. This day was uneventful, but I did a lot of work. Conditions in Prague have been strained for some time. At times there has been a shortage of food-supplies, and salt especially was absent, - a matter of importance especially to the "uzenáři" whose stock was spoiling, for they do not use ice to any extent. It is also hard to get change. People have been hoarding silver, and in many places notices are posted (especially at the banks) that change is not given. When I drew my 200 K the best I could do was to get four 50's. People bring on much of this trouble in the fear that paper money will depreciate.
[[underlined]] August 10, 1914, Monday [[/underlined]] I wrote until 10 a.m. I then went to the consulate but found no news. Mr. Bonchal is just now rushed with Russian business, for he has taken over the protection of Russian subjects, and at least 30 have been arrested here, and about 15, suitable for service in their army, have been imprisoned. The Hamburg-American Co. has just received a telegram that navigation is closed entirely. I then went back and loaded plates. At about 3:30 P.M. I started for Prof. Němec's home, 1137 "na Václavce, [[Luńchar?]], who had invited me to his home for tea. On account of the much reduced street-car service I was nearly 3/4 of an hour getting over, and then had to walk from the foot of the hill. Prof. Němec related that at first there was great fear in official circles that this would be an uprising. Troops were [[end page]] [[start page]] 119 all moved at night and he says that when they were returning home late at night they saw cannon moved, the wheels of which were tied up with rags, - covered, to deaden the sound. Mrs. Němec's brother, an officer in reserve, has just returned from Italy. He seems to have little respect for Italian soldiers, and he testified to the hatred which Italians entertain towards Austria. There were threats of a revolution if the government of Italy would decide to help Germany and Austria. After seven o'clock in the evening I returned to my room, walking back in much less time than it took one to "ride" out, and spent the evening in writing letters. I had made inquiries at the post office during the day and was informed that letters would probably go through. Wrote to the folks and Pres. Macbride, giving directions for my work, if I should be delayed.
[[underlined]] August 11, 1914 - Tuesday [[/underlined]] I walked about the city and took photos, 29, 30, 23, 3, 4,& 5, 1, 2, 7, 8, 28 and 27, in the order named. I then walked to the consulate, found that the [[živnostenbia?]] banka" would honor Knauth, Nachod & Co's checks, and met Mr. Čejka, who has been here a year. He is working at his trade. His health is better, but Mrs. Č. has had a bad time of it, being mentally unbalanced for a time. She is now better, but very melancholy and wants to go back to her children. Otokar is here, attending school and learning German, Bohemian, etc., - especially Bohemian. In the afternoon I loaded plates, and then went to Mr. Starý from whom I had ordered 18 boxes of ^[[insertion]] Agfa [[/insertion]] dry-plates at much reduced prices (chromo-isolar at 2.99, chromo at 2.66 and "obyčejné at 2.24.) but I found [[end page]] [[start page]] 121 that he had hung up the order, fearing that I would not return. He later informed me that he could not get them through now. I visited with Dr. Domin and gained from him an insight into the real sentiments of the people. In the evening we went to the Návodsú Dŭm, via Vinohradeck, where the remnant of the old "úterháŭ" met. Dr. Niholan is still here, Dr. & Mrs. Domin, Dr. & Mrs. Dameš, and a few others. From them I also learned much of the situation. People here are free to express themselves in strong terms privately, - they don't want the war, - but in public they are very circumspect. Even our company was cautious, though its conversation was innocent enough, because the informer is abroad in the land, - especially the Jew who is now displaying his real nature
in a pretended loyalty. Thus, Dr. Bonček's case is interesting. He was watching recruits on the Václavská square, and remarked: "chudáci". A Jew at once pounced upon him, and finally brought about his arrest for "disloyalty". After some trouble he was released. He was Sviha's attorney in the famous trial. Our company a number of times expressed fear that someone might indulge in similar tactics here, and distort innocent remarks into "treason". It is said that a man was arrested for springing the widely spread "joke" about the soldiers unblacked boots (they wear russet or yellowish leather) and getting "viks" in Servia. I used the expression "viks" in another connection and was warned to be careful about its use. There is no question that most people here are bitter against war, but they maintain [[end page]] [[start page]] 123 a great reserve, and are wondering what will come if, - and especially what the outcome will be so far as this unhappy country is concerned. If only the governing powers had a little sense and knowledge of human nature they could make of these Bohemians the most loyal Austrians in the empire, for there is much distrust of the Russians, and some hatred of Servians, - and they could do this by simply being [[underlined]] just. [[/underlined]] There has been much fraud (according to common report) in the war-store departments, and officers and supply-houses (in the cases named the latter have a remarkable Semitic aspect) are accused of stealing supplies, or taking advantage of the situation to "squeeze". Where small tradesmen, etc. have done the latter ^[[insertion]] to civilians, [[/insertion]] they have been punished. On the way to Návolú Dŭm we met Miss Brzobohatá and her old parents. Her two brothers and her prospective husband have all been called. We stopped at Grafs for icecream, & here the presence of a Jew and an incautious remarker caused some fear of trouble.
[[underlined]] August 12, 1914 Wednesday [[/underlined]] In the morning Mr. Čejka called for me and we went to his house, in a roundabout away around Vyšehrad to Pankrác. I found Mrs. Čejka very excit^[[insertion]]e[[/insertion]]able, and when I came in she rushed to me and cried, saying she wanted to go home. Otokar is making fine progress in his work in school, - and now in swimming! We had dinner, and after dinner, with Mr. Olmer, who was the cvičitel of [[insertion]] I.J. [[/insertion]] Sobol in St. Louis, and is now the janitor of the Pankrác school, we walked about and took photos. Mr. is very familiar with the history of the region, and I found him well-informed, interesting and helpful. Pankrác is located on an elevated flat which slopes of very gradually to Vyšehrad. A large part of it (the flat) is now under cultivation, [[end page]] [[start page]] 125 and seems to belong to or be rented by a man with a remarkably Semitic name. We first went to the small lake or pond which is fed by springs, and from which water was piped to Vyšehrad in the 15th century. Remnants of the wooden pipes have been found. The large spring at the south or [[strikethrough]] south [[/strikethrough]] east side is walled in, being about 15x8 feet, and is known as Libušina lázeň". She certainly had a cold one! On this wall (on the inner face of the S. side, there is an inscription which reads (as far as we could make it out) Anno 1666 [[superscript]] ? [[/superscript]] Obnoveno Nakladem Škole Vdobě kdy Husité oblehali Vyšehrad (1424) byla voda vedená z tohoto pravine (anel jezívka) do Vyšehradn. Vyšehrad hadl 1bo listobadu, 1424, a byl progškon luzon
(úplně nazí hoší a děvčata, od 10 do 14 (et věku, se v tomto jezirku společně kunhali, a nečinili toho nejmenší pokusu se zakryti.) (Pan školnik to omlouvat ze "to jsou jen děti".) úplně spustosěn. Okolo tohoto jezírka byl památný posvátný háj Libušin. Vokolí, na nížších wáhách okolo Výšehradu, atd. zdá se býti muoho pramenů. Severovýchodně od planiny na níž byl tento háj jest Kopec Bohdalec, a na vižnich jeho částech nalezeny byly popelnice , atd. z bronzové doby. Vzal jseue zde fotografie 3, 4, 23, 24, 7, 27, 5, - a dále nad Podolim 6 a 28. Celá tato horijin plamina se zdá býti úrodnon, narzdur tomu že puda je velmi štĭvkovitá. Větší část ovládá jedm hospodář který viživá strojů, a tudíž nepotřebuje tolik koni. Nyiń je čast ječmene již přezrȧlȧ, nile neru dost lidu, a všude pracuji ženy a děti, a starci. M pohodnice (rasovay) ktirá [[end page]] [[start page]] [[tab out of top - "1914"]] [[upper right]] 127 [[/upper right]] je již moderně zařízená, je pole ječmenné na nĕmž pracují dues trestancí pod dozorcm ozbrojené strázé. Šli jsem na brĕhy nad Podolúm, a nalezli jseue vrchni část rozryton kde vybrána byla klína (veliké [[muozĭtui?]]) na cihly. Bylo prý to pachtováno, a pak taklo strašlivě zjizveno v 12 [[superscript]] [[underline]] ti [[/underline]] [[/superscript]] letech! Nyḿ to nestojí za nie. Na okraji, nad břehy a skalami, jsou dosud staré vápenky kde se primitivním zpŭrobem páliko vápno. Každá pozŭstává z doon doliku okrouhlý de, jeden z nichž, v nĕmž se pialilo, je větší, a druhý, z něhož se přikládalo, menší. Mezi nimi byla rizka hráz, též provázená aby se mohlo přihládat [[underline]] pod [[/underline]] vápenee který se nahromadil do větší doliny. [[image - ball on top of a ball, looks like top ball is on a golf tee, almost.]] [[image labels]] [[top ball]] ---Menší,-na pìrhládáni. [[/top ball]] [[bottom ball]] --Větší - [[pec?]]. [[/bottom ball]] [[/image labels]] Navratili jsme se suiér k [[Paukráckeuser?]] kostelìku, [[aprés?]] Pankrácké rìdolì. Vzal jsem fotografii 8. Prěd tìmto kosleteur.
byla svedená klavaí bitva r. 1424, a zde padli Sigmundoví Moravané. Údolí bylo (a dosud je do jisté miry) močálovité, a to mělo uliv na výsledek. Moravané byli pohřbení na místč, u kotela, a zde byl pozdéjí obeeaý, farní hibritor. Kostel je valin starý, ale byl obneven r. 1910. Json zde dosnd stare deslay. Na jedné z nich json vreliefn parohy jilení a jetelový trojlistek. Napi vyrytý hol do hola nelze lehce čísti. (The gateway for lumber-rafts in the dams is known as "vorová propust'".) I came home at about 6 P.M. We noticed striking absence of [[underline]] men [[/underline]] on the streets at this time. I took supper at Zlatá Husa, with the Hajičeks, Mr. ^[[insertion]] Ferd. [[/insertion]] Urbánck, etc. We received news that Montenegro had declared war against Germany. I left at about 10 P.M., returned to my room, after a little walk, and wrote until 1 o'clock A.M. [[end page]] [[start page]] 129 [[underline]] August 13, 1914 - Thursday [[/underline]] I loaded plates, then walked towards the boat-landing, intending to go to Barraude's wall, but gave it up as it was quite hazy. I returned to my room and wrote until noon. Took dinner at the room. I then took a car for Olšany, and spent the afternoon in the cemetery. I took photographs and notes as follows: [[underline]] Photo 1 Vaceslav Klimenl Klicpera. Bas-relief [[/underline]] (pod tím) Váceslav Kliment Klicpera Dramatický básaík. (Dole) Narozen v Chlumci dne 23 listopadn 1792 Zemřel v Praze dne 15 září, 1859 Od ctítelů české dramatické musy. r. 1860. [[underline]] Na západní straně: [[/underline]] Sotcern svýsu tu dřímá večný sen Ivan Klicpera český spisovatel zesmul dne 17 února 1881 v 55 roce víku suého.
[[underlined]] Photo 7 - Karel Sabina. [[/underlined]] Hrob jest čís. 187, oddělení VI. Není zde znáruky na hrobĕ že zde Sabrina odpočívá. Na hřbitoomìn sířadĕ ninĕ sdĕlili že zde skutečně je pohřeben. Byl první, - r. 1877. Po něm prý přišla jeho manžibka, a pak 3 členové rodiny Khelerový. N hlavy stojí kříž s tabulkon: Zde odpočívají v Pánu naši milovaní nezapomenutelní rodiče Anna Khelerová zemi. 19 22/12 02 v stáří 51 roku Karel Kheler zemř. 19 2/5 11 v stáří 65 roku. Spěte [[sladee?]]. O Sabinovi však ani zmínka, - jakoby zde činěn pokus nvísti jej v íriplné zapomenutí! Smutná írpomínka! [[underlined]] Photo. 8 [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] Jos. Manes [[/underlined]] (see older notes.) [[underlined]] Photo 3 [[/underlined]] - Na malém (poměrně) pomní ku je kříž. Na pomviku: nar. 18 6/11 77 [[insertion]] Milada [[/insertion]] † 18 6/12 79 . [[dotted vertical line]] nar. 18 24/3 76. [[insertion]] Jiří [[/insertion]] † 18 3/1 80. [[underlined]] Karel Maixner [[/underlined]] akademický malíř. nar. 18 4/11 40 † 18 2/1 81. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[tab at top]] 1914 [[tab at top]] [[upper right]] 131 [[/upper right]] [[underlined]] Photo. 23 [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] Fuegner + Tyrš [[/underlined]] (again:.) [[underlined]] Photo 4 [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] Anna Náprstková [[/underlined]] Vysoký a široký pomník, - nebylo lze celý fotografovat. Nahoře je andĭl. Hrubý nárys: [[underlined]] Na tubulu 1: [[/underlined]] [[image - Looks like Spanish style house façade with labels in windows & such starting at top 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]] Anna Náprstková nav 24 dribua 1788 skonala 19 řijna 1873 [[underlined]] Na tubulu 2 : [[/underlined]] [[side bracket labeled atd.]] Jan Novák Rosálie Novák Antonin Novák Jindřiška Nováková [[/side bracket labeled atd.]] [[underlined]] Na tabulu 3 [[/underlined]] stojí: Antonín Náprstek Ludmila Náprstková Ferda Pravoslav Náprstek. Jan Serafin. Barbora Serafínová. [[underlined]] Na tabulce 4 [[/underlined]] - Obraz Arnny Naprstkové. [[underlined]] Na Tabulce 5 [[/underlined]] : - Jan Novák Jindřìck Novák Anna Nováková Jan. Novák [[underlined]] Na tabulce 6 [[/underlined]] : Jiřì Kraemer Vychovatel Náprstků. Narozeny v roku 1800 Zemřel 14 rìnova 1873.
[[start page]] [[underline]] Na tabula 7 [[/underline]] : Anna Holubová Matka Cestovatele Dr. E Holuba + 8 cěrvence 1888 ve věku 78 let. [[underline]] Na tabula 8 [[/underline]] : Eliška Králová + 18 15/4 83 v Praze. nav. 18 19/9 51 Chilton Wis. (Amerika) Budiž Zi zde spanek sladský Pratele za Zebe bdí. The monument is of [[strikethrough]] cement (?) [[/strikethrough]] On the large stone slab covering the grave, just in front of monument, is this inscription: Andĭl Páně doprovázy Vás! [[underline]] Photo 24 - Fr. L. Čelakovský [[/underline]] . Cement monument. On E. side: František Ladislav Čelakovský Narodil se due 7 března 1799 zemřil due 5 srpua 1852 Jen svornŷ duch! I velkosť dá ke množství Bůk! (On top a ring (large) is held by 3 hands. [[end page]] [[start page 133 [[underlined]] Photo 2 - Karolina Světka [[/underlined]] (again) [[underlined]] Photo 29 - Karil Sladkovský [[/underlined]] - (again) - fine light. [[underlined]] Photo 27 - Jaroslav Černiak. [[/underlined]] A cement monument, with catafalque above. Na východin straně Milovanému bratru a slavnému mistru Jaroslavu Čermákovi nar. 1 záři 1831 v Praze, zemř. 23 dubna 1878 v Pařiži. Tělesné ostatky jeho přeneseny z Pařiži péči rodiny. Slavný pohřub uspořádala v Praze Tčeneme 1878 Umělecká Beseda. Ostatrú nápisy json německé a na jinino "Cžerniák". [[underlined]] Photo. 28 - Dr. Anton Jindely. [[/underlined]] A small white marble monument stands at the head. It is topped with a cross and bears this inscription: Unseren geliebten Kindern An open book of white marble lies at the head of the gave. On left page: Dr. Anton Gindely geb. 3. Sept. 1829 gest. 24. Oct 1892
On right page: [[underlined]] Anton [[/underlined]] geb. 31/3 1863 [[underlined]] Hanni [[/underlined]] geb. 10/4 1864 + 26/4 1868. [[underlined]] Willi [[/underlined]] geb. 14/10/ 1865 + 23/4 1868. [[underlined]] Mary [[/underlined]] (covered at base with earth). I met an old, old lady, the widow of Poslanec Sokol. She was looking for the grave of some friends and failed to find them. I tried to help her, and also failed. Her husband, a teacher, is buried in the Protestant, or Public [[insert]] part of the [[/insert]] Cemetery. I walked over to the [[underlined]] Protestant section of the cemetery. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Photo 5 - Augustin Smetana. [[/underlined]] A small green monument with a cross. zde odpočivá Augustin Smetana Profesor filosofie a vyobcovaný kněz rytiřskéko řader křizovniku narozen 11 června 1814 zeniřel 30 ledna 1861 [[end page]] [[start page]] 135 Na bile desce n hlavy: Augustin Smetana var. 14 června 1814. zenir. 30 ledna 1851 "Stál jsem pevné, vždyl' jsem stál v přesvědcěni svém." Looking E. [[underlined]] Photo 30 - Pavel Josef Šafařik. [[/underlined]] Červený kámen (veb sadra?) a bilá deska s jménem va západen straně, Na straně severmi je deska s: MDCCXCV MDCCLXI Na straně vjchodmi je v desce ruský nápis, a na straně jižmi zlatý věnce. [[underlined]] Photo 6 [[/underlined]] (looking N.) [[underlined]] Jan Kollár. [[/underlined]] A white limestone monument. It looks like Fusulina rock. Above is a bas-relief of head, in bronze. On scroll below this: [[writing surrounded by ornamental scrollwork]] Slávy Deera [[underlined]] Jan Kollár [[/underlined]] [[/scrollwork]] (over)
[[underlined]] Jan Kollar [[/underlined]] c.k. professor starovidy slovanské na universitě Videňaké, prěd tim kazatel evang, cirkve slov. v Pesti. var. v Mošovcich due 29 cervence 1793 zemřel ve Vidni due 21 ledna 1852. Jsa živ, v srdci celý národ nosil. Zenřev, žije v srdci národ celého. All this is on the S. face, [[insert]] ^ facing building. [[/insert]] The grave is located at the intersection of two of the principal "streets". An arbor-vitae is set out on [[underlined]] each [[/underlined]] side of the foot of the grave. The other faces are bare. I also visited the grave of Mrs. Humbal-Zemanová. Her monument is the figure of a woman (cement?) with raised face, looking upward. It made a dreary impression on me. It faces north. On the lower part the following inscription appears: [[end page]] [[start page]] 137 Památce Pani J. Humbal-Zemanové Neunavné hracovniei o povzbuzeni zeny *9.I.1870 + 23.IV-1906 Navrátil peur se, a po pretrojam pcur navstivil zlaton Husu (k veceri), avsak Americká spolicmost dues scházcla. Francie a Anglie dues prohlanli ze piu ve stasri válecnein a Rakoriskeim. Povsciul peur si ze od vypuknuti války jcit muohem rasine nabiduceti k snatku v Nanodui Politiku, - vekdy pinize jcduo? Toto zdá se byti obycejuy zpusob hledam zevy neb micze. Veno je vzdy udano. Po delsc vychaz [[crossed out]] ce [[/crossed out]] prijemnym vecerem pem se odelval do poloje, a k spánku.
[[underline]] August 14, 1914 [[/underline]] Friday A clear, bright day. I wrote until 10 A.M., and then loaded plates. Visited with Dr. Peklo until 12:30 P.M. I then started for Žižkov, left my shoes at a repair shop, subscribed for Národní Listy for two weeks, and then took dinner at the Temperance restaurant. I then walked to Žižkov, took a photo of the curious narrow, walled-in street "Vozova ulice", and then spent most of the afternoon walking around Mt. Žižkov trying ^[[insertion]] to [[/insertion]] find a good view. I finally took photos 4, 1, 2 and 27, returned to the Temperance restaurant, where I left 3 K. to take out because they could not make change, and went home where I wrote until after 10 o'clock. [[end page]] [[start page]] 139 [[underline]] August 15, 1914 - Saturday. [[/underline]] Arose after 6. Sky overcast. I spent most of the forenoon in arranging my books and papers. Towards noon I suggested to Mrs. Hejda that I would move into my old room (since my return I have been using the small room) if the arrangement with the present occupant was such that he was to have this small room permanently. She agreed, and helped me move in. In the afternoon ( I took dinner at the room) she came to me with the explanation that her husband thought it was like driving the young man out, that he is sensitive, etc. Queer people! I moved back, without assistance. Mr. Uriozek returned. In the afternoon it was clearer and I took photos 28, 29, 23, 24, 30, 7 and 8. I then went back to the room, - it was then Mrs. H. came, & I moved. Took supper at the Temperance restaurant, reloaded plates, & spent evening in arranging papers, etc.
[[underline]] August 16, 1914 Sunday. [[/underline]] I worked at the room, and at about 9 o'clock took a car for Košíře, and then walked to Stodůlky. I passed south of Bilá Hora, and almost due S. from the dry slopes painted with the purple-flower "vřes", - this color is so pronounced that later this [[tint?]] was distinct when the side was viewed from Bilá Hora. As I approached Stodůlky from the East, I took a photo, - 29. At the first house I saw a woman and some men threshing wheat with flails ("cepy"), and took photo 5. On inquiry I found that this house, no. 77, belonged to John Dronský, and was sold (for 1500 "zlatýck") to John Jindra, the father of the present owner, Mrs. Marie Rybářová, who is an old widow whose only son has just been drafted. She is broken-hearted. She remembered that Dronský had written to her father telling of the long dreadful [[end page]] [[start page]] 141 journey (requiring 13 weeks) on the ocean. A son of Dronskys, - John, - died at sea. This east part of Stodůlky is also known as Na Linžínáck". The Dronský house (no. 77) has been partly reconstructed, a low part shown in the fore part of photo 3 (looking S.E. - from the old garden) was built later, and the wall enclosing the front was also added. I also took photo 4 through the gate. On the ground in front is the grain [[thresher?]] by the "urlatci". A woman is sweeping it up with a wisp brush broom (large), - dust and all! On the way to the main village of Stodůlky I took a photo (30) of the new school, - "Jubilýní obecná škola". On the south side, there is a tablet (large) in wall with inscription: Bohn: vlasti: králi. L.P. 1908. I then called on Rev. Augustin Krěmář,
"farář," who is a native (?) of Vamberk. He showed the the "matrika", It appears that Voilar, Marie, Anna and Karel (and Joseph?) Dvorský were all born in Ĕís, 47, - Karel, the last in 1863. The father was Jan Dvorský, and the mother Kateřina, dcera Matěje Karlička, tesaře z Velké Mořiny u Karlovýho Týna (This is the place where we - the Domin party, - stopped for lunch on the way to Karlĭn Zýn from Dobřichovice (across country). Václav was born March 31, 1854, in čís, 47. The father, Jan, was "obecný slouha," - (= pastýř,) and lived in the house no. 47 which belongs to the village. The last "shoula" died about a year ago, and now the house is occupied by Josef Babyka obecní strážní Stodůlky, č. 47. [[end page]] [[start page]] 143 I took photos. 23, 24 and 1 of no. 47, The house is practically unchanged. Its north end is the barn, its south end the dwelling. A little garden is in front. A curbed and covered spring,- public,- is at foot of bank or slope on which house stands,- right at side of street. I took dinner at the "Hostińce se Fafků", & took photo 2. This shows and old thatched roof on a house (& barn), and the new church. This stands on the site of the old church, and is 4 or 5 yrs. old. I also found a Fr. Dvorský, dealer in coal and wood, but he is a newcomer. Stodŭlky is in a slight depression (the church is well-up and prominent) in a high undulating plain practically all of which is cultivated. This extends to Bílá Hora, which is separated from the Stodŭlky elevation by a deep and broad valley. In the
distance southwest can be near the dark, forest-covered ridge of the Karlĭn Týn territory. This whole elevation shows the pebbly (or somewhat bowldery) soil which is so common about Prague. I then walked to Motol, and from an abrupt sharp little peak rising above the village, and just N. of it, I took photo 7, showing the outline of Bilá Hora. The main battlefield is marked by the church "Panenky Marie Vitĭgué", on the top, - not quite the highest place. As I approached the upper part of the slope I realized why this is called Bilá Hora. There is much whitish sandy clay exposed along the road, in gullies and fields, giving to the surface a whitish color. A deep valley runs towards Košíře, parallel to the ridge Bilá Hora. Down this valley a portion of the Protestant army retreated, and were [[end page]] [[start page]] 145 pursued, - the other part following the valley on the other side to the north of the ridge. Both fled eastward. I took photos 8, 27, 28 and 6 on the battlefield, from which I also took a bit of soil as a keepsake. I wandered about over the field in sorrow, which was soon engulfed in indignation when I observed that the place so sacred was ^[[insertion]] desecrated and [[/insertion]] polluted by two, or more properly one, circumstance: - To commemorate the destruction of Bohemian independence a church had been erected, - "Panenky Marie Vitĭzué" on the battlefield. A "pont" (pilgrimage) to this place was held yesterday and today, and crowds of people gathered here, partly to attend the services in the Church, partly to make purchases of trinkets from the long row of booths extending eastward from the church, and partly
to seek pleasure on the merry-go-round, swings, etc., or in the two nearby saloons! And in this sacred ^[[insertion] as well as accursed [[/insertion]] place, where it seemed that I should still hear the tread of battling thousands, the clatter of hoofs, the rumble of wheels, the moans of dying, and the shriek of a fallen nation, there fell upon my ears the discordant sounds of a "Te Deum" in the church sung in joy that the nation had been crushed, and the blare and the clatter of the "music" which accompanied the ^[[insertion]] gyrations of the [[/insertion]] merry-go-round and swings, and the cries of the half-drunken ^[[insertion]] occupants of the nearby saloons! [[/insertion]] And to this place to which the people of Bohemia should come for inspiration, and for the strengthening of a determination which would seek to rehabilitate the Bohemian nation, - the place in which of all others they should find inspiration for the strengthening of the national pride, - to [[underlined]] this [[/underlined]] place the Bohemian [[underlined]] slaves [[/underlined]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Hrozím se zě místo tak posvátné zneuctěno jest zvláštne události. K stále úpomince na zničení české neodvislosti byl zde na bojišti zbudován kostel "Panenky Marie Vítězne." Včera a dnes odbývala se pouť v mista tato, a zástupy lidu se zde shromaždili, častečně aby se účastnili služeb v kostele, částečně aby se bavili jarmareční koupí všelikých drobotin, a částečně aby hledali zábavy bud ' na divokem provém americkém [[underlined]] "Merry-go-'round", [[/underlined]] aneb v blízkých dvou preplněných hospodách! A v tomto posvátném i kletém místě, kde zdá se mně že dosud slyším dupot bojujících tisíců, dunění koúských kopyt, rachot kol, stenání umírajicích, a poslední výkřik padlého národa, - zde padaji na sluch měrj protioné zvuky, - na jedné straně zvuky.
^[[insertion]] "Te Deum" [[/insertion]] z kostela, kde [[underline]] Čechové [[/underline]] oddaně [[strikethrough]] g [[/strikethrough]] pevem projevují svoji vděčnost nad tím že národ jejích byl ponížen,- a na druhé straně vřeskot trub a píštál bláznivého "merry-go-'round", a výkřiky polozpitých návstěvníků blízkých hospod! A v místa tato v která by český lid měl přicházetí aby hledal posilnění v pevném předsevzetí obnovití český národ,- v místá kde více než-li kde jinde by měl naléztí vzpruzění národní hrdosti,- v místa tato přichází [[underline]] češští otrocí [[/underline]] aby se klánělí před svátyní zbudované k jejích potupě a hanbě, a aby hledali "zábavy" v níchž by pocit [[end page]] [[start page]] jejích potupy byl zapomenut neb utopen společně s citem národního sebevědomí! Tak klesají velikáni!" Lépe pochopil pravy stav věcí 16 letý mladícěk, který se mnou smutně krácěl silnici k Praze, a který se slzami v očích vzpomínal hloubky v jakon klesla velká část' našeho národa. s
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 147 come to do homage at the shrine erected to their shame, and to find "pleasures" in which their national degradation might be concealed or drowned ^[[insertion]] with their national pride [[/insertion]]! Thus are the mighty fallen! The journey homeward was sad and full of depressing reminiscence and regret! I walked back a part of the way with a young man, - a mere boy, - who seemed to appreciate the situation and who himself voiced sentiments similar to mine. The view* from Bilá Hora in all directions is magnificent, and is well worth the effort required to reach the place, - even if sentiment does not attract one to the sacred ground. I took supper at the Temperance restaurant, returned to my room, where I spent the evening in work. *We could see Rip, [[Malesovka?]] (& the Stiedshoù) and the mountains beyond the latter.
[[underline]] August 17,1914, Monday [[/underline]] I arose at 6, but the day is gloomy and drizzly, I spent a large part of the forenoon in my room, writing, and then loaded plates, and visited with Mr. Mrázek. It rained all day! Beastly! Mr. [[left blank]] , a citizen of Lichtenburg, said that at [[Judríchŭr Ibradee?]] he was marched to the police headquarters & then escorted to depot because he had a camera. He was not permitted to unpack it. I had dinner at my room, with more bungling apologies from the land-lady for my moving. I wrote again all afternoon, sorted papers, etc., and at about 6 P.M. I went to see my negatives, - or rather, I first had a visit with Prof. Velenovský, who explained his troubles with Wettstein of Vienna (who sued Hansgirg [[insertion]] ^ 2 yrs. ago [[/insertion]] because he charged that Wettstein deliberately disregarded Bohemian references. Then took out negatives as Mr. Mrázek was sick. Took supper at Temperance restaurant and spent evening in writing. [[end page]] [[start page]] 149 [[underline]] August 18, 1914, Tuesday. [[/underline]] In the forenoon I worked with negatives, - listing, etc. Took dinner at my room, and went to the Vyšebrad cemetery, and tried the following photos: [[underline]] Photo 1 [[/underline]] Jan Neruda Černý křiž na černém pomrisku. Križ na plošně hamenné. 18 10/7 34 + 18 22/8 91 (Pismeny zlaté.) Vedle Boženy Němcové, vpravo je hrob Ed. Jelinka, spisovatek. [[underline]] Photo 2 [[/underline]] - (Bilý váheuse, - dvijlý - dua hroby + (Křiž) Univ. prof. Ph. Dr. Jan Krejči Gevlog 1825-1887 Aloisie Krejčová sodem Culdova 1829-1908 [[underline]] Photo 7 [[/underline]] - Svatoplum Čech - Limestone - name only. [[underline]] Phone 8 [[/underline]] - (In arcade, N. side); Dr. J. Kaizl 1859-1901 a dark bronze angle with wings of read, above. (Lower:) Dcernika Milka 18 8/12 95 19 7/5 07
[[underline]] Photo 29 [[underline]] - Jablonský [[or?]] Třebízský. The nearer one, with Christ [[insertion]] ^ (stone) [[/insertion]] , is Jablonsky's. on large flat stone on grave: [[image: cross symbol]] Eugen K. Tupý Jablonský Kapitulár Strahovský 18 27/2 61. Back of this is a rough figure of woman, cut out of rock. Below: Svaté Památie V. - B. Třebizského [[line]] Vedle Preslů (na západ): Eleonora krabénka z [[Kannie?]] rodem hraběnka Woraczická - Bissingen. z Paběnic Nav. 26 ledua, 1809 Zemřela 10 ledua 1898. [[underline]] Photo 30 [[/underline]] - [[underline]] Vítězslav Hálek [[/underline]] - name, only, on an oblique (sloping) marble slab ( a sort of box!). This bears: Vítězslav Hálek 1874 The monument bears the name of: Marie Horáčková Edward Horacěk JU D[[superscript]] [[underlined]] r [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]] Mikuláš Horácěk JU D[[superscript]] [[underlined]] r [[/superscript]] [[/underlined]] Tomáš Černý [[end page]] [[start page]] 151 V Karlachových sadech, východné ad liřbitova, stoji tři kusy "čertového slonpn", kterým prý ert mrštil a zem, - které ale pry byly hozeny Husity, homori prakň, na Vyšehrad. Json as 18 palm a pinmeřn, a 4 1/2, 5 1/2 a 6 1/2 stop alonké. [[underlined]] Photo 27 [[/underlined]]. [[underlined]] Photo 28 [[/underlined]] - I again tried the view of Alberton from Vyšehrad, and again failed. I walked to the river, and along Vábiezi. A long train of soldiers, and military equipment came through from the west. Freight and passenger cars were used. The equipment (on wheels, etc) was loaded on freight cars in the rear. Left my camera at the room, and took car to Liben, Vysočany, with indifferent success. Returned late, & failed to find Mr. Jivánek who had been looking for me. Worked at the room. Saw note in paper that special train was the leave Podmokli Thursday evening.
[[underlined]] August 19, 1914, Wednesday [[/underlined]] It rained again this morning. I packed some of my small stuff, tested negatives, and at 9:30 AM I went to the Am. Consulate. The information received is that the [[insertion]] special [[/insertion]] train leaves Podmoklì (Bodenbach) today (Wednesday) evening, which makes it impossible to reach it from here. Several persons left the consulate with this information. Later in the day it turned out that this was wrong. The train leaves Karlsbad early Thursday morning, later in Teplice, etc., and reached Podmoklì at 5:31 P.M.! The telegram adds that it is not known when the train leaves Podmoklì, and that German money must be used for fares in Germany. It is now to late to attend to banking, exchange of money, and the like, as the train from here leaves for Podmoklì at 5 A.M. Mr. Bonchal (Acting Consul) [[end page]] [[start page]] 153 says they have absolutely no information as to cost, time and place of destination, ships, - or [[underlined]] anything [[/underlined]] beyond the arrival of the train at Podmoklì. He thinks it is much better to wait, as there may be a chance (according to advises from the Embassy at Vienna) to go by way of Trieste, and in any event I could cross Germany by slow stages ^[[insertion]] a week [[/insertion]] later just as well as now. I met Mrs. Kohn and she is anxious about her Coe position. I told her that she need not worry as President Marquis, the Dean of Women, and several members of the faculty are in Europe! I went with her to the Herites house, and took dinner with the family. Mrs. H. related the case of a woman who called for her little allowance as a soldier's wife, and who was given 200 K., the amount paid the widow of a fallen soldier. This was the first advice of his death which she received! It rained also in the afternoon.
The Herites are worried because Mrs. Kohn's younger sister is stranded in France, and the stories of evil treatment of Austrians which are circulated here worry the poor mother to death. I went to "Zlatá Hura", but again missed Mr. Jiránek. I then went to the barbershop, stopped at Oldřach Pyšvejc, opposite, at Jindřišská ulice, č. 17, to arrange for some books, took supper at the Temperance restaurant, and went to the Botanical Institute. Here I found that Mr. Mrázek had developed all my plates and finished the prints, as he expected that I would leave. Dr. and Mrs. Domin had also been searching for me for two days (they found the notice earlier of the preceding day). I visited with them, and then went to my room and arranged negatives. I arranged to take a trip tomorrow with Dr. Domin. [[end page]] [[start page]] 155 [[underlined]] August 20, 1914, Thursday. [[/underlined]] The day is starting out clear, but hazy. In the forenoon I went to Vyšehrad and Karlov, and took photos of the Ra series, 7, 8 & 30 Villiers, 2 Hauff Ostko, 29, Villiers, 1 Ostko Hauff, 23 Hauff, 27, Villiers 24, Hauff, 3 & 4 Hauff, 28 Villiers. I took dinner at home, & left at 12:45 for the Vyšehrad boat landing, where I met Dr. & Mrs. Domin. We concluded to cross on the ferry to "cisařská louka", from which I took photos 27 and 28, of lot S. A little further down, at Zlichov, I took photo 3 of the old Zlichov church, and from the W. side of the river I took photo 4, showing the "Bránické skály", with ads on the river wall! On the way to Hlubočepy I took photo 23. We walked through Hlubočepy and into the St. Prokop valley, - so named
from the church of Svatý Prokop at the quarry. This is a limestone region, and the ridges show steppe remnants, - especially on the north side of the valley, - the slopes on the south side being mostly timbered. As we proceeded I collected plants and took photos in the following order: Galeopsis auguatifolia (wet places) Crepis rhoeadifolia Scabiosa orchroleuea Inula brittanica (low ground) Scabiosa marveoleus Ceutaurea paniculata Artemisia campectre Allium mentamum [[underlined]] Photo 24 [[/underlined]] - Sv. Prokopské siddi, - proti shále, hae byla jeskyně, - pod hodelam So. Prokoka. Ukaysje vrstoy svrásněné. [[underlined]] Photo 7 [[/underlined - same, - farther away. [[end page]] [[start page]] 157 Sesali hippomarathrum Stipa capillata Peucedanum cervaria Inula hirta Aster linosyris (yellow) Dianthus carthusianorum Veronica spicata (blue) [[underlined]] Photo 8 [[/underlined]] - Betula pendula, & Mrs. Domin. So. Prohobcké indoli, - na stráim. [[underlined]] Photo 1 [[/underlined]] - From top of ridge, looking E - So Prohok indoli. [[underlined]] Photo 2 [[/underlined]] Steppe on opposite hill (N. side). Melampyrum cristatum (in woods) Beupleurum falcatum (yellow) Cirsium acaule " " [[ditto marks for: Cirsium acaule]] var. caulesceum. Gentiana amarella [[underlined]] Photo 29 [[/underlined]] - Shila v Sv. Prokopském indoli - Looking N. - Tufts of Sessleria - Silene otilis Sempesvivum soboliferum Berteroa incana (wh.) Anclusa officianalis (blue) Salvia memoma (blue)
[[underlined]] Photo 30 [[/underlined]] - sidoli So, Prohopa, k Hlubočepřum Bare on N. trees on S. side - Steppe has Stixa, Carex humilis, Potentilla arenaria, etc. Campanula glomerata Galium verum Prunella grandiflora Photo 5 - Wheat field - women & children, working in field. Husbands and horses gone to war! Nad sidolium Sr. Prolsopa. We went along the So, Prokop indoli as far as the village Kluhorrie. We then went up on the great plateau into which all these valleys are cut, and it was up here that I took 30 & 5. All this upper land is cultivated. We walked to Butorie, & saw many geese on this stubble. Then to Radlice (the great milk village) and to Prague. I took supper at the Temperance Rest., and then went home. [[end page]] [[start page]] 159 [[underlined]] August 21, Friday [[/underlined]] Int he forenoon I took photos 29, & 30 in the Botanical Garden, 1, 2, 7, & 8 on Karlov, and 23, 24, 3, 5, 4 & 6 Near Karlovo Namesti. I took dinner at Zlata Husa, and there met Mr. & Mrs. Hajicěk, and Mr. Jiránek. Poslanec Klofáč joined us, and complained that his friends suffered because he was closely watched, his mail opened, etc. He advised his friends not to write to him. While he was talking to me, and later, after he left, a young semitic - looking man edged up and closely listened to us, probably expecting to hear something incriminating, but he was disappointed. In the afternoon I walked through Král. Vinshrady and to Olsany, and took photos 3 (spoiled) 27, 28 & 29 both spoiled, 30, 5, 6, 4, 1, 2, 7, 8, 23, and then to Karlov where I took 24. Took supper at Temperance Rest gave Mrazek 20 K. changed driers and listed negatives.
[[underlined]] Aug. 22, 1914 - Saturday. [[/underlined]] This was a disagreeable day and I took no pictures. I worked with plants and negatives, visited in the Botanical Inst., and took dinner and supper at the Temperance Restaurant. I also visited with Dr. Domin and we arranged for a trip for the next day. The "Jedova chipe" which I took yesterday was a bum - joint for the "bursaci", - the German students who worked in the Medical buildings (old ares) along Apolinářvká ulice nearby. They took lunches here and [[busnmed?]]. It is to be torn down soon, as the property has changed hands. This will remove an old landmark Worked at home in the evening. [[end page]] [[start page]] 161 [[underlined]] Aug. 23, 1914 - Sunday [[/underlined]] It has been hazy for two or three days. War? I took a car for Radlice and then walked to Butorice. I took photos 1, 2, 27 & 28, [[insertion]] 3 & 4 [[/insertion]]. The woman with the Núše cried because her two sons had gone to war. The švestky, shown in photo 2, had a wisk of straw tied here and there to indicate that the fruit was sold. At Butorice an old man who had fought in the Italian & Prussian wars, bewailed the extermination of the Bohemian nobility after the Battle of White Mountain. The "dráb" or policeman (marshall) complained of the drain on men, etc. I walked to Radlice and rode back. I had dinner at my room.
In the afternoon the Donims and I walked through Kosise, towards Bula Hora, and then turned to Divoka Sarka. I took photos 23 (twice on same plate also goose-house) and in Sarka photos 7, 1, 29, 2, 3, 8, 30, 27, 5, 4, 6, 28. We walked through Vojkorice [[guess]]. Photo 28 represents the place where Tycho Brahe's ditch from Libocany drops underground. This is a sort of settling-tank. It is said that Tycho Brahe planned this ditch. It supplied Hradcany with water for washings wagons, etc., - it is not used for drinking purposes. Sarka is now much more barren on the rocky parts. The Prinodum Divadlo in Sarka will seat several thousand persons. I took supper at the Temperance Rest. and then went home. [[end page]] [[start page]] 163 [[underlined]] August 24, 1914 - Monday [[/underlined]] The day was spent in shopping, and in looking after plants, negatives, etc. I went up town to look up books for Miss Heyberger, and attended to other shopping. I took dinner in my room and supper at the Temperance Restaurant. Took a walk to Zizkov, and spent the evening at home. The city has been remarkably quiet and things are more normal than when I came. One can hardly meet a person who does not have some one in the army, and it is pathetic to see two or more women meet and with tears exchange their sorrows. Gen. Sherman was right: "War is hell!"
[[underlined]] August 25, 1914 Tuesday [[/underlined]] In the forenoon I took Prague photos. 3, 4, 5, 27, 28 and 6. I rushed about, but on account of slow street-car service, failed to get to Vysehran landing in time for the big boat up the river. Dr. Domin changed the plan to a trip to Zatisc, a summer resort, and to Modřanská rokle. I missed a trip to the latter in the spring. We went by small steamer to Branicky [[pivovau ?]], and walked to Zatisc. This is a wooded (partly) valley, quiet [[insertion]] (now) [[/insertion]] with some cottages, and several restaurants. At its upper end are two small fish-ponds, - both now covered with [[underlined]] Lemna [[/underlined]]. Took photos 1, 2, 29, 28, 27, 30, 3, and then walked from village at head of valley to Modřanská rokle. Near village took photo. 7., and in a valley [[end page]] [[start page]] 165 tributary to Modřanská rokle, photo 8. Modřanská rokle is a deep cleft again in the plateau, running nearly east and west, and shows steppe on the north side & timber on the south. The north slopes are now largely covered with [[underlined]] Robinia pseudocacia [[/underlined]] (plants) and this ruins all the native vegetation. The timber on S. sides is all cultivated: I took a photo (23) of a ledge & slope with patches of [[underlined]] Deschampsia flexuosa [[/underlined]], - it is also the locality for [[underlined]] Arabis petraea [[/underlined]] and then spoils it by exposing again on a [[underlined]] Robinia [[/underlined]] covered slope. Calluna also grows on these slopes. The rock everywhere is a brown shale (Modřanske bridlice), tilled badly, and the rocky slopes are very xenophytic. In Modřanská rokle I also took photos 24, 4, & 5. Dr. Domin says the
flora of these shaly slopes is also xerophytic, but wholly different from the "steppe" flora of the limestone ridges, as at Radotiu. We came to Modrăvy, and found that, as usually, the captain of our boat gave us the wrong time for the return of the boat. We therefore walked along the valley to Branický pivovar. On the way I took photo 6, showing a vineyard on a steep slope, and a part of an old wall. There is also a "hájíček" in front, - the wisp of straw on a stick which is the universal warning to "keep off". We saw several "mănaseks", - little flat-bottomed canoes pointed at both ends, & fit for one person. A double paddle is used. A larger one, with single paddles, is called "kanoe". The mănaseks are very tricky, and are used only with [[end page]] [[start page]] 167 bathing suits! They seem to be very popular with young ladies. We returned to Vyšehrad, and went to the Navoduim Dum in K. Vivohrady, where the "ritery club" met. A comparatively large number was present, - the Domins, Davesc's., Dr. [[blank space for name insertion later]] & wife, Dr. Milbauer (?), etc. About 11 PM we went to Graffs for a "manžeta", an iced whipped-cream affair. Whipped cream is very popular in Prague.
[[underlined]] August 26, 1914 - Wednesday [[/underlined]] In the forenoon I took Prague photos. - + in K. Vinohrady, - 3, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 23, 24, 27, 5, 6, 28, 29. I met Mr. & Mrs. Hajiček and he informed me that the "Rotterdam" would leave Holland Oct. 3, and that 50 places would be reserved for Americans from Bohemia. (He told me that was the affair worked by Mr. Voska.) I took dinner and supper at the Temperance Rest., walked to Žižkov, visited with Mr. Mrázek in the evening, and gave him 10 [[underlined]]00 [[/underlined]] K. Also visited Dr. Domin. On my return to the room I found a note from Mr. Voska saying that we are to leave Friday! This brought me around with a rush. I worked at my negatives and notes until late at night, in an effort to further the packing. Saw Many "nováčky" on streets the last two days on account of second call. [[end page]] [[start page]] 169 [[underlined]] August 27, 1914, Thursday [[/underlined]] Arose early, changed driers, arranged more negatives, called on Mr. Mrázek, secured rest of negatives, and gave Ann 5 [[underlined]] 00 [[/underlined]] K. more. He leaves for home today. I returned to my room, ate breakfast, and worked at notes, etc. The day is gloomy, and promises rain. Mr. Cejka and Mr. Olmer are to call at 8 A.M. and I am waiting. Finally gave up, and called on Dr. Domin. I then went up town to buy a suitcase (20K) and returned to my room and packed. There are still more or less doubt as to our going, and walked about the city looking after various ruins matters. In the evening a number of Americans met upstairs at Glatá Husa, where we had supper. It was announced that we would leave at 4 [[underlined]] 40 [[/underlined]] P.M. tomorrow. I slipped away early and packed late into the night.
[[underline]] Aug. 28, 1914 [[/underline]] - Friday I settled my board and room bill, visited Dr. Domin and told him of the quick decision, went up town to buy another suit-case (17K) and hurried back to pack; [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] then exchanged my Austrian money for Holland, met the Domins at Zlatá Husa. We went back to the Botanical Garden, had our photos taken, and returned to the room for the final gathering up of belongings. I said "good bye" to Mrs. Domin and Dr. Domin drove with me to Holešovice where we were compelled to go (to statui nádraží), to get our train. A big crowd was gathered at the station. Wounded soldiers were brought in and hurried off in Red Cross autos. There were 27 Americans at the station, - all Bohemians. We finally left at 4:20 P.M., and after a tediously slow run we reached Podmokli at 11.30 PM. It had threatened rain but cleared up. We spent a nervous afternoon because Mr. Kofianek still had unfinished military service and Mr. Cerny and Mr. Benedict Had no regular pasports, - but other evidence. [[end page]] [[start page]] 171 [[underline]] Aug. 29, 1914 - Saturday. [[/underline]] We stayed at the station at Podmokli until 2 am. We had a customs examination and our papers were examined, - "Krikava" being the main one. This is the "permit" issued by Police Commission Krikava (of unsavory reputation) for travel in Austria (and ours calls for Germany to Holland. We took coffee at the station. Everything is under military control. I exchanged my Austrian money for German at the rate of .80 M for a K. Along the way we saw only women in the field. The country is swept of men, and countless homes are desolate. Our passes carefully examined at Shandau, where we had to get out, pass through station and out again, for the examination. We took breakfast during a stop at Riesa. All stations are under military control, and stations, bridges, etc. are guarded. There was no water on the train, and none to be had on the way, so we remained unwashed. Old men and oxen were [[end page]]
doing the work in the fields in some places, women & children in others. Along here we found flocks of birds, migrating. Most of the country is devoid of birds. War! We reached Leipzig at about 11 AM., and as the train for Magdeburg left at 11[[underline]]07[[/underline]] we were not able to make it on account of the luggage. We at first planned to go to Magdeburg at 2 P.M., and purchased tickets for Magdeburg. After much promiscuous inquiry, which resulted in contradictory information, we decided to rest in Leipzig. I then purchased a ticked to Stendahl, beyond Magdeburg. We had some kickers in the party who were evidently influenced by a "fresh" Dr. Brűhing, a German who speaks Bohemian, and is a member of the faculty of a Cleveland Medical school. We stopped at the Hotel Monopol near the depot. Mr. Ĉerny and Mrs. Rezels were sick. I did not go about, excepting from hotel to station. Guards everywhere. Wounded soldiers were at station. [[end page]] [[start page]] 173 [[underline]] Aug. 30, 1914, Sunday [[/underline]] We left [[insertion]] Leipzig after an early breakfast[[/insertion]] on a fast train at 5.20 A.M. We were told that the tickets for additional fare on "schnell-zig" could be purchased on the train, but in the morning all but I had to march to one side to get them. I secured mine the night before. It was our intention to go to Stendahl and have the baggage put on again at Magdeburg (to which it had been sent the day before) but at the last moment most of us decided to stop at Magdeburg, and move on with the baggage. Those who elected to go on to Stendahl, and who thus left our party, [[insertion]] ^ Magdeburg [[/insertion]] are the following: [[underline]] Dr. Brűhing, [[/underline]] (Nĕmer) Cleveland, O. [[underline]] Alois Masin, [[/underline]] Lorraine, O. Mladik [[underline]] Fr. Rezábek, [[/underline]] Cleveland, O. Mladik [[underline]] Jos. Kohont, [[/underline]] Clifton, N.J. - [[underline]] Pavlicĕk [[/underline]] a fam [[insertion]] [[underline]] (Agnes) [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] St Paul, Minn. - [[underline]] Alois Zrůst, wife & daughter, [[/underline]], Waconia, Minn. [[underline]] Jos. Záhotocky, [[/underline]] Chicago. - 2459 So Homan Ave. Chicago. [[underline]] Mrs. Havelka, [[/underline]] 3017 - - - Chicago. 11 all told. [[end page]]
Mrs. Havelka did not wish to go, but Gápotoský (a bull-headed saloon-keeper) had her ticket and money, and when she demanded them (I learned later) he told her that we were crazy, and that she should remain on the train. This left us the following: [[line]] [[underline]] Emanuel V. Voska [[/underline]] & daughter [[underline]] Villa, [[/underline]] 535 E.86th etc. New York [[underline]] Karel Va. Janovský [[/underline]] & wife [[underline]]Marie [[/underline]] T. 5043 Western Boulevard, Chicago [[underline]] Fr. Hajiček [[/underline]] & wife [[underline]] Terezie [[/underline]] & daughters [[underline]] Mary T [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Elsie [[/underline]] 3337 - W.26 [[underline]]th[[/underline]] etc. Chicago. [[underline]] Albert V. Ćerný [[/underline]] & daughter underline]] Gděnka, [[/underline]] 2347 Lawndale Ave. South. Chicago. [[underline]] Rudolf Benedict, [[/underline]] Chicago. 1663 Blue Island Ave. [[underline]] C. B. Kofránek, [[/underline]] Chicago, & wife [[underline]] Bozěna, [[/underline]] 1414 W. 18[[underline]]th[[/underline]] etc [[underline]] Rudolf Prŭša [[/underline]] & wife [[underline]] Rŭžena [[/underline]] 312 - E. 79[[underline]]th[[/underline]] etc. New York. [[underline]] Mrs. Frances Doležal [[/underline]] & son [[underline]] Jos. [[/underline]] - Lorraine, O. [[underline]] Emil Kriyčí, [[/underline]] Waco, Texas. [[underline]] B. Simek, [[/underline]] Iowa City, Iowa. Total 22. Of the party who left, most are alone. Pavliček and wife have been "offish" all along, traveling 2[[underline]]nd[[/underline]] class, and keeping aloof. [[end page]] [[start page]] 175 (As a matter of fact Pavliček's did not leave us until we reached Rotterdam. They had purchased a 3[[underline]]rd[[/underline]] class ticket at Prague, good for Oct. 3[[underline]]rd[[/underline]]. But they kept much to themselves). The day is cloudy, but fortunately no rain. We reached Magdeburg at 7:20 A.M. (I lost fare to Stendahl, - about 72½ cents) and purchased tickets for [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] Bentheim, - they would not sell farther. After arranging for our baggage and eating breakfast we started on our ragged journey [[insertion]] ^ from Magdeburg [[/insertion] at 10.25 am. I was in a coupé with three Germans. One an old lady who was going to visit her sons (3 are in the army). She is optimistic and enthusiastic, & declared that the French were already in Belgium when the Germans came. (This is her justification!) Another is a young lady, one of Pfeffer's students, who is very enthusiastically for war; and the third, a youngish man who declared that Germany & Austria already had 2,000,000 men in the field, & [[end page]]
would soon have 5,000,000. (At Magdeburg Ćerný, Kofránek, & 1 or 2 others went into the RR. restaurant and had to show passports.) We reached Braunschweig at 12[[underline]]00[[/underline]], changed cars, & left at 12.15 PM. for Hannover, which we reached at 1:15 PM. Here we again changed. After taking lunch, we left for [[insertion]] ^ at 3:15 P.M. [[/insertion]]. We are the objects of close scrutiny at all he stations where we stop. It is hot. No birds appear along the way. we reached Löhne at about 4 P.M. (Near Seele. a dummy representing [[insertion]] ^ Czar [/insertion]] Nicholas on gallows, - in red & white trowsers. Here we saw many peasants, - the women with big black ribbon-bows on their heads.) We left Lȯhne for Rheine at 9:43 P.M. At [[strikethrough]] Löhne [[/strikethrough]] Rheine we took coffee on arrival. [[strikethrough]] and then breakfast. [[/strikethrough]] supper. [[end page]] [[start page]] 177 [[underline]] Aug. 31, 1914 Monday. [[/underline]] We arrived at Rheine at about 3 A.M. We took coffee, and later breakfast. Out men (some) again had to show passes in restaurant, and were so closely guarded that they did not venture into the town. Here Mr. Černý accosted a soldier on guard at the depot, chatted with him, had him show him that his gun is not loaded, but how quickly he can do it, showed him a map and asked where the German armies were located. We had a nerve-racking time of it. He has been very indiscreet, talks too much, and looks too French for our comfort. An officer and two men examined the trunks, lifted my heavy one, and when I spoke to them they said there was something in it besides "kleider". I told them there were books, showed my university credentials, and they seemed to be satisfied. Several train-loads of soldiers passed [[end page]]
through to the East! Evidently the Russians are advancing from that direction, though the German papers which we see say nothing and only report victories in Belgium and France. My suitcase was smashed at Rheine. We left Rheine at 11:30 A.M. and reached Salzbergen at 12.00; we left Salzbergen at 12:15 and reached Bentheim at about 1 [[strikethrough]] 00 [[/strikethrough]] 15 P.M. Every one of these stops meant a change of baggage (the hans - baggage) and we divided up, sent the women in to take places and then hustled the baggage through the windows. The country is without people, and guards are stationed at every bridge and station. The vigilance of the Germans increases as we approach the boundary. At Bentheim, the last station in Germany, the German officers examined our passes, and the baggage was examined. They objected to my camera, but university credentials fixed it. We took dinner at the depot restaurant, [[end page]] [[start page]] 179 and were closely watched. A tall young fellow, American, tried to be very friendly. When I told him that reports in Austria indicated that advances had been made in Servia and Poland by the Austrians he spoke up enthusiastically for the Germans. He said his wife is German, the daughter of a Berlin banker & Geheimrat, though he also mentioned a wife in California, - explaining as he caught the point, that his Berlin wife is his second wife. When I mentioned California points he knew nothing of them. He also told me that he was going to Berlin (came from England) to his wife, and later told me (& did so) that he was going back to Rotterdam! After the examination we made a short run to Oldenzaal on the Holland side, and here again we had baggage and passports examined by Holland officials. My baggage was not opened. I was asked if I had anything dutiable
Left Bentheium at about 320, reached Oldenzaal at about 350 pm We left Oldenzaal for Rotterdam at 4:30 P.M. Holland time, about 20 min slower than German time. We passed through Hengelo, Almelo, Ryssen, and Deventer, and reached Amsterdam at 9 P.M. The country here is very flat, - more so than the plain of Germany through which we have been passing, but it appears to be rich in crops, cattle (especially), and altogether presents an appearance of thrift and prosperity. Windmills are everywhere. There is not the desolate, abandoned air of the German territory. From Almelo to Amsterdam I travelled with an Amsterdam business man, who used good English. He said they at first sympathized with the Germans, but that the attack on Belgium turned sentiment against them. If they side with England they can keep their coast open, flood the region about Amsterdam for Miles with shallow water (1 ft or so). [[end page]] [[start page]] 181 He informed me that Lowen (Louvaine) the old educational center, had been wiped out and 40,000 helpless people were without shelter. He spoke with feeling. At the station Consul Murphy greeted us, advised us to stay as Rotterdam was full, and [[underlined]] compelled [[/underlined]] the R.R. official to extend our tickets. The latter objected, but he (the consul) said it was a damned outrage and he would see about it tomorrow. The official finally yielded. He recommended the Hotel De Roode Lieux, where we found good accommodations, especially meals, at a reasonable rate. I had room 10. All this region is flat, cut by canals, and is a wonderful stock country. Amsterdam is a fine, busy city with a modern appearance, and of course all flat. After our trials we enjoyed a rest in bed, even if big mosquitoes did try to interfere. We sent our names to New York by cablegram.
[[underlined]] Sept. 1, 1914 - Tuesday [[/underlined]] I arose at 5 A.M., packed and wrote letters to Macbride and the folks. We visited Consul Murphy and found him genial and helpful. He told us that if any were destitute funds, provided by Congress, were at hand, and we should not hesitate to ask. We told him that we could carry our three destitutes (Mrs. Doligal and man, and Mr. Benedict) to London, where the relief headquarters are located. I translated a large part of a chemical and pharmaceutical telegram for the Consul. When he was informed that the Holland officers had insisted on having Mrs. Doligal show at least $250 before permitting her to pass Oldeugaal, he was indignant and said that he would see about it. A similar demand has been made the [[end page]] [[start page]] 183 night before when we appeared before the police officials for registration, & here Mr. Murphy protested, and told the officer he, the American Consul, was responsible. Murphy is a brick! Two women and children came in. They had been sent to a hotel and had poor meals. He took up there case with vigor. He inquired about our hotel, and when we gave a good report he made a note of it. When we came to the station he was there, helping a woman to carry her children. Murphy is all right. We left Amsterdam at 1130 AM- There are here everywhere evidences of oriental [[insertion]] ^ (colonial) [[/insertion]] influences in shipping, wood-blocks, business, etc. From Amsterdam to Rotterdam the country continues low, flat, with many canals, much stock, and great flower gardens. This is the bulb country and ship loads are now being sent out.
beyond Haarlem expecially the flower beds are gorgeous: tulips, gladiolas, Begonias, etc. etc. We passed through Leiden. The stock is mostly Holstein. Here again we see soldiers everywhere, for Holland has partially mobilized, who are ready to repel an invader. Beyond Hoage the stock becomes even more abundant. Heinz's " 57 varieties" are advertised, - here on big signs as in America, - a common method. We reached Rotterdam at about 1 o'clock P.M., hustled the baggage over, secured boat tickets, took dinner at the RR. restaurant, and were aboard the "Batavies IV", for London, at 330 P.M. Rotterdam harbor is a busy place. The channels are narrow here, but there is much shipping. We left at [[strikethrough]] 430 [[/strikethrough]] 500 P.M. to sail all night. They fixed us berths in the dining room. Mine is no. 51. [[end page]] [[start page]] 185 [[underlined]] Sep. 2, 1914, Wednesday [[/underlined]] [[?]] sails all night, - the first time [[?]] boat has ventured to do so since [[?]] war broke out. The sea is calmer day fine. [[?]] woke early and found that we [[?]] passing a line of blockading [[?]] (English) through and by which [[?]] [[?]]ailed to the lauding. There are [[?]] ers, torpedo boats, and a host [[?]] all scouting vessels. a rat [[?]] st get through? Good for the English! [[?]] tered the Thames and landed at [[?]] ry at 10 AM. We had a thorough [[?]] ation of baggage and papers - [[?]] spirits, fire arms, codes, etc. especially [[?]] looked into. German newspapers were [[?]] ermitted to go through, & Mr. [[?]] Bohemian papers were also [[?]] t, but when I explained the [[?]] ire they were released. The officer [[?]] what kind of a language it is, and
Beyond Haarlem especially the flower beds are gorgeous: tulips, gladiolus, Begonias, etc. etc. We passed through Leiden. The stock is mostly Holstein. Here again we see soldiers everywhere, for Holland has partially mobilized, who are ready to repel an invader. Beyond Haage the stock becomes even more abundant. Heinz's "57 varieties" are advertised, - here on big signs as in America, - a common method. We reached Rotterdam at about 1 o'clock P.M., hustled the baggage over, secured boat tickets, took dinner at the RR. restaurant, and were aboard the "[[underlined]] Batavier [[/underlined]] IV", for London, at 3:30 P.M. Rotterdam harbor is a busy place. The channels are narrow here, but there is much shipping. We left at [[strikethrough]] 4:00 [[/strikethrough]] 5:00 P.M., to sail all night. They fixed up berths in the dining room. Mine is no. 51. [[end page]] [[start page]] 185 [[underlined]] Sep. 2, 1914, Wednesday [[/underlined]] We sailed all night, - the first time the boat has ventured to do so since the war broke out. The sea is calm & day fine. I awoke early and found that we were passing a line of blockading ships (English) through and by which we sailed to the landing. There are cruisers, battleships, torpedo boat destroyers, torpedo boats, and a host of small scouting vessels. A rat couldn't get through! Good for the English! We entered the Thames and landed at Tilbury at 10 A.M. We had a thorough examination of baggage and papers - tobacco, spirits, firearms, codes, etc. especially being looked into. German newspapers were not permitted to go through, & Mr. Krejči's Bohemian papers were also held up, but when I explained the situation they were released. The officer asked what kind of a language it is, and
when I explained that it is related to Russian and Servian he was satisfied. We took real English tea at Tilbury, & left for London by train at 12:30 P.M. On the way to London we say a body of English soldiers at target practice. They are a fine-looking lot of fellows, and their khaki (olive) makes them look very similar to a bunch of sheep nearby. They are almost of the color of the drying grass. We reached London at 1:15 P.M. In London we put up at the Three Nuns Hotel in Aldgate. In the afternoon we rode about in an autobus with the Janovsky's, Mrs. Prúsa, and the Rezeks. We saw Westminster Abbey, the Royal Palace, Queen Victoria's new monument, - a fine piece of artistic work. Many soldiers appear on streets, - fine looking fellows. We returned to the hotel and after supper visited until 10 o'clock in the dining room. [[end page]] [[start page]] 187 [[underlined]] Sep. 3, Thursday [[/underlined]] 1914. The day is foggy, - a real London fog on a small scale! After breakfast we went to the American Consulate, cashed my letter of credit, and returned to the hotel for dinner. We have arranged, through Mr. Voska's good offices, to leave Liverpool on Saturday, - 3m class (no 3m class can be had for a month) on the American Line S.S. St. Louis. I went out with Mr. Koprinch, bought strong straps for my trunk & grip, went to the Fenchurch station and fixed up the baggage, bought cards, returned to hotel to write cards, and after supper we visited in the dining room until 10 P.M. Mr. Kopecky, a local artist, again called (we had a visited from several of the members of the local
Bohemian colony the night before.) There are about 300 Bohemians in London, and they have had some trouble because they are Austrian subjects. Three of the waiters are Bohemians. [[insert]] Lichý (head), Černý - in our dining room. [[/insert]] If only the good English people knew how the Bohemians feel in this struggle they would not fear them! A messenger (a crippled Austrian subject) is to go back to notify Masaryk, etc. that the Russians are coming, and that they should be prepared to receive them well. We have received news of Russian successes in Galicia, and Servian successes, and are happy. Three of our people, Mrs. Dolizal and son and Mr. Benedict, have been provided with U.S. government transportation across the sea. Wrote, and retired at 11 PM. [[end page]] [[start page]] 189 [[underlined]] Sep. 4, 1914 Friday. [[/underlined]] Arose at 5 a.m., packed, and wrote notes. There is some fog, but the sun is shining. I have found the busy streets of London interesting, and marvel at the speed and safety of autobuses, etc. on the narrow streets. We are to leave the Euston etc, station for Liverpool. We took taxis (for 4' 7s.) and rode to station. We left at 10:30 am. The country across England is rolling, and mostly cultivated. We reached Liverpool at 2:30 P.M. Took dinner on train. We put up at the Imperial Hotel, near depot. In the afternoon Mr. Janovský and I took a walk to the busy part of the city, purchased supplies, cards (wrote home), and after supper I went to my room (=53). Liverpool is a busy bustling city, with two-story "street-cars" (trolley cars).
[[underlined]] Sep. 5, 1914, Saturday. [[/underlined]] Arose at 6 o'clock. A misty, somewhat windy morning. (Supplementary notes) While we were at London Mr. Voska had meetings with Mr. Kopecký and other local Bohemians, and a police commissioner with officers called on him to investigate. The English are very careful. Of course Mr. Voska has no trouble to show who he is, as he is a "Times" corespondent. The English have also been watching us closely, but we move about here with a different feeling, as we are among friends. The bearing of the Englishman is less overbearing, and indeed the entire atmosphere is different. We are congratulating ourselves that we are out of the oppressive atmosphere of Austria, and of bullying, insolent Germany. The boasted "culture" of Germany is certainly displaying itself! [[end page]] [[start page]] 191 We were informed yesterday that the steamer "Teutonic" was taken by the government. It was to sail yesterday. We saw two passengers at the hotel who have succeeded in getting 3rd class passage on our boat, the "St. Louis". We see bodies of soldiers marching down the streets, and we have seen a few small camps in the country on our way here, but on the whole there does not seem to be any visible effect produced on the activities of the people. There is not that absence of men so noticeable in Austria and Germany, and evidently the English have not more than commenced to use their resources. This promises that England will have the final say in the decision of the great conflict which is sweeping the world.
In Liverpool (and London) I was struck with the large number of women employed everywhere. There are sales girls in almost every business, the fish-markets, vegetable & fruit markets, etc., are conducted by them, there are bar maids in hotels, and I presume in drink-shops generally, and everywhere they are in evidence. They sell papers on streets, etc. The fish-market at Liverpool is interesting. I visited it yesterday. The most common fish is the flounder. There are also eels, and a number of fishes which I do not recognize. Also crabs, lobsters, shrimps, oysters, clams, perriwinkles, etc. Most of this is cheap food, and such a market must be a blessing. This is the day when we are filled with joy and hope at the prospect of starting for home. May the good Angel that has been with us continue to shield us! [[end page]] [[start page]] 193 We finally landed, at about 2 o'clock, on the St. Louis, after examination of eyes, & passports. We found when we got aboard that we were put into the steerage. I am now located in the lowest hold with 2 young Americans. We are trying to have matters improved, as we were sold 3rd class tickets and were then put into steerage. A great crowd is aboard. As we are bunked, Messrs Priša, Janovský & Hajiuk are mixed in with the Indians. We left the dock at 5:30 P.M., but delayed a long time before really going out. We are trying to sleep in the 2nd cabin smoking room. We have a good many German Americans on board, and most of them are German sympathizers, - as might be expected. I found one exception, a New York German who says that
he has been in America 43 years, and this is his first visit, - and he says that he will never go back. He came from Eastern Prussia, and saw the Russian invasion. When we were on the tender Mr. Černý made the remark that we had the hardest time going through Germany. An old German (from St. Louis?) flared up when his daughter (?) told him what Mr. Č had said, and declared that it was some "damned liar", and he was not a German! I told him that we know what we had experienced, and [[underlined]] he [[/underlined]] did not. Things quieted down, but it is evident that there is much subdued German sentiment aboard. The conversation of Englishman on board indicates that they are [[end page]] [[start page]] 195 beginning to realize the seriousness of the war. The make the war one of principle, for they resent the attack of Germany in Belgium. English papers are full of severe comments on the brutality of the Germans, and there is much railery at their culture, etc. The German has certainly lost standing with the English, as well as with the rest of the world, and his vaunted culture is a byword. We have just been notified by a steward that the smoking room is closed at 11 o'clock, and that all must be out. We are in sight of lights on the shore at 10 o'clock. We were routed out of the smoking room, but slept in the seats in the ante-room around the entrance from below. A cool night. (See back of Book I for notes on voyage.)
Z [[underline]] Aug. 26, 1914 - Praha [[/underline]] .3 - Trh - Král Vinohrady - [[underline]] Villiers [[/underline]] 1 - Komenhélio [[strikethrough]] hamistri [[/strikethrough]] spoiled " " [[Dittos for: Vinohrady]] [[underline]] Ortho [[/underline]] .2 - E. ride Karlovo Nám. 2 rows agát - [[underline]] Ortho [[/underline]] .4 - Agáty na nábrěží nad Návod. Div. - [[underline]] Villiers [[/underline]] .7 - Hradiary - - [[underline]]] Ortho [[/underline]] .8 - Rudolfinum " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] .23 - Nová radnice - Staréměsto - " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] .24 - Karolinum - - " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] .27 - Podloubi na Maléun Náměstí - Arcade - Villiers .5 - Orloj - [[underline]] Ortho [[/underline]] .6 - Tablet - Protestant leaders - " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] .28 - Agát na [[Binatské?]] nl. (See protracting sticks - fast with wire) " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] .29 - [[Binatskà?]] ul. - agáty - " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] [[line]] Total 395 Bad 45 - discarded & left ---- 350 [[end page]] [[start page]] 197 A.M [[underlined]] Aug. 25, 1914. Praha. [[/underlined]] . 1 - Mushroom market - uhelný [[brk.?]] [[insertion]] X . 2 - Mushroom market - uhelný [[brk?]] [[/insertion]] . 3 - Karlovo Náměstí - Ortho . 4 - " " [[Dittos for: Karlovo Náměstí]] - park " [[Ditto for: Ortho]] 5 - Čingáh (Sporde) [[strikethrough]] (olo geol. Dept). Villiers . 27 - [[underlined]] Tr.: [[/underlined]] Ferdinands monument - Ortho . 28 - Melantrichova nl.- " [[ditto for: Ortho]] . 6 - Trh - Staré Mesto - Villiers [[line]] Y [[underlined]] Praha, Aug. 25 194 - PM [[/underlined]] . 1 - N Zátiší - zahrada, řeha - Villiers. . 2 - "" [[ditto for: N Zátiší]] - seno - " [[ditto for: Villiers]] . 29 - [[Pirmo?]] silvestris + / Betula alba - V Zátiší. [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] . 28 - Rybnik v Zátiší - Okraj s Praguirtes [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] - v. prozade vrby. 27 - " "" [[ditto for: Rybnik v Zátiší]] - Kacbury, [[underlined]] Lemma [[/underlined]] , etc. [[underlined]] Villiers [[/underlined]] . 30- " "" [[ditto for: Rybnik v Zátiší]] " " " [[ditto for: Kacbury, Lemma, etc.]] [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] . 3- " "" [[ditto for: Rybnik v Zátiší]] Typha anynstifolia, etc. [[underlined]] Villiers [[/underlined]] . 7- Svesthovà aly - od Zátiší k Modraushé rohli. [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] . 8 - Modraushé rohli - [[underlined]] Pinus austriaca [[/underlined]] to right, [[underlined]] Robìnìa [[/underined]] to left. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] 23- [[3 ditto marks - maybe an entry he decided to change?]] Strařu a bridlise [[overwritten]] Sporter [[/overwritten]] light places = [[underlined]] Deschampsia flexuosa [[/underlined]] Locality for Arabis petraẽa [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] (also 2 [[superscript]] [[underlined]] nd [[/underlined]] [[/superscript]] exp. - Agàt u levo, - holé v. pravo) . 24 - Step na reverḿ strauĕ - Urodrauske sohle. [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] v pravo vyra zure agaty. . 4 Bridlicova stràuĕ - vřer, etc. - N. ride. Modrřaushé bridline [[underlined]] Villiers [[/underlined]] . 5- Looking E. up Modraushé vohle - xeroblytin on N. side. [[underlined]] Villiers [[/underlined]] . 6- Vinice pod Modrary - Hàji cek - [[underlined]] Villiers [[/underlined]] [[line]]
198 [[line]] V- [[underlined]] Aug. 23, 1914 [[/underlined]] - a.m. [[underlined]] Towards Butovice [[/underlined]] 1 - Flašinetěv - Na cestě za Radlicemi 2 - Silnice a švetsky - záhaduě ad Radlice 27 - Žena n nušé dřevěného uhli " " " [[ditto marks for: záhaduě ad Radlice]] 28 - Silnice a hameny - looking W. " " " [[ditto marks for: záhaduě ad Radlice]] 3 - Benátská ulice - agáty - Praha. 4 - Geraniums & Petunias - below Vyšehras. [[line across page]] W. [[underlined]] Aug. 23, 1914 - P.M. - To Šárka, etc. [[/underlined]] 23 - Silnice k Bidé Hořc a hrušky - Hanff (Léž busy) 2 exp. 7 - Divoká Šárka - z východy - Hanff. 1 - " " " " [[ditto marks for: Divoká Šárka - z východy]] (Villien) 29 - " " [[ditto marks for: Divoká Šárka]] - ze zihader. Hanff. 2 - Erynquim compestre - Ortho. 3 - Cirsium acande " [[ditto mark for: Ortho.]] 8 - Divoká Šárka - Divčé skok - Hanff 30 - " " [[ditto marks for: Divoká Šárka]] - Špičaté Skály - " [[ditto mark for: Hanff]] looking E. 27 - Vřis [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] - Hanff. 5 - Špičaté skály - Divoká Šárka 4 - Přinodeu divadlo - [[underlined]] Ortho [[/underlined]] - Back lens only 6 - Husy a ovce - Vojkovice - Hanff. 28 - Voda z Libočan do Hudčan [[underlined]] Tycho Brahe - [[/underlined]] Ortho [[end page]] [[start page]] 199
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