Cephalopoda (Squid) 1971-1973, 1975-1979, 1981-1982 (1 of 3)

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The 1 of 3 folders contains notes documenting M. Moynihan's observations of Cephalopoda (Squid) 1971-1973, 1975-1979, 1981-1982. Includes some typed materials relating to descriptions of work done, organized by island location in the San Blas archipelago. The entries are headed with date, location, and type. Pages are numbered. Entries have more than one format. They detail the behavior and appearance of individual and groups of squid, including time of day, habitat, abundance, type of marine life, additional location details (i.e. coves), depth below surface of water, sex, size, weather, references to photographs taken. Includes references to daily work and lists relating to color of squid. There are observations of cuttle fish, relating to releasing of ink. Includes illustrations of squid. Locations include Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia; Guam; and San Blas, Chiriquí, Islas Secas, Panama.

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  • Squids
  • Ethology
  • Animal behavior


  • Chiriqui
  • Panama
  • Guam
  • Islas Secas
  • Lizard Island
  • Australia
  • San Blas, Archipiélago de
  • Queensland


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Illustrations

Accession #

SIA Acc. 01-096

Collection name

Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

Physical Description

1 folder

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 4 Folder 3

September 24, 1982, Lizard Island, Queensland Arrive on island ca 2:45 pm. A has been here for some time. He has been watching cuttlefishes. Probably [[underlined]] Sepia latimanus [[/underlined]]. SAN. There is supposed to be a reef squid here. [[underlined]] Sepioteuthis australis. [[/underlined]] Called "long-funnel flying" (sic!) "squid". A has not been able to find it yet. (Is it coincidental that there is no TC here?) September 26, 1982, Lizard Island A took films of 2 [[male symbol]] Cuttles yesterday, around noon. Today we went touring around adjacent islands and lagoons ca. 9:30am - 1:30pm. Habitat is beautiful. But the only cephalopod we saw was a single octopus inshore, on sand. Disappeared into hole. There are many other holes nearby. Could this be a "colony"??? This evening I walked along the beach, in shallow water, looking for Sepiolids. No luck. September 27, 1982 Lizard Island. A rather frustrating day. We were held up by problems with the motor. A finally starts tow 12:15pm. Beginning Turtle Beach. Nothing. Then we go on to North Reef, where A has seen Cuttles many times before. "Resident" male is still around. Apparently alone now. Not very active. A does some filming. Stops 1:30pm. Then I do some swimming in shallows Mermaid Cove ca. 2:10- 2:20. Nothing. Finally A dives near Granite Bluff(s). Again nothing
Cephalopoda [[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] September 28, 1982 A makes 50 ft dive off Watson Bay in morning. Sees some [[?]]. Nothing else. Then we try to night light in adjacent area ca. 6:30 - 7:30 pm. Technical difficulties Neither fish nor squids. September 29, 1982 Lizard Island Going to try night lighting again. Near Bird Islet. Lots of minnows but no cephalopods. September 30, 1982 Lizard Island A films his Cuttle at North Point again. SAN. [[underline]] No [[/underline]] trace of [[underline]] Sepioteuthis australis [[/underline]] October 2, 1982 Lizard Island It was too windy to go out yesterday. Today the wind was still strong; but A did some filming of his Cuttle. October 3, 1982 Lizard Island A more of same Cuttle. October 4, 1982 Lizard Island Very windy today; but we go out anyhow IT is too rough to work at North Point. So we go into adjacent Merm-
Cephalopoda, Oct. 5, 1982. [[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] aid Cove. A finds another Cuttle apparently single adult [[male symbol]] (territorial? breeding?) Apparently same species seen before ca. 60 ft down. Actually not very far from North Point Cuttle (perhaps 100-150 ft away). Apparently alone. Not very active. October 5, 1982 Lizard Island A looks at Mermaid Cove Cuttle again. Less wind today. But animal still not very active.
[[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] San Blas 5 May, 1982 Arrived here yesterday evening ca 6:00 pm Trip very calm. Rainy season well begun. Water around Naluneka and Smithsoniantuppu is clear. Start out rather late this morning. Everything calm. Heat is oppressive. Clouds and rain coming up. 10:50 am. Lucho sees 3 small Sepiots by anchor rope. They are gone by the time that we get into water. 11:00 am A starts towing, around Naluneka, over to "Wichuwala", almost to Porvenir, and back. Nothing of real interest One group of 3 medium Sepiots by dock of Naluneka. Usual place. Group of 10 small Sepiots by "Wichuwala" Nothing more. Rain comes down in buckets. We stop 12:05 pm. Go on over to San Blas point. A starts towing 2:20pm First out to tip, then along shore in direction of base of peninsula. Water is murky at base. Clearer inside. No squids. But perhaps some good areas for work tonight. So we go back with lights 7:30-8:30 p.m. Explore a wide area. Bare sand and TG flats. Almost nothing. Only 2 small Sepiots in TG. According to A, they are in Yellow with DM! It is suggestive that we did not see any more Sepiots. Are most inds. further out from shore now? Nor did we see any [[underlined]] Lolliguncula [[/underlined]]. Why? The "Benjamin" is anchored far off shore (because of the [[underlined]] Semulium [[/underlined]]) in deep water. After we get back, ca. 9:45, 2 medium-large Sepiots show up to feed on sardines circling under lights. Both animals are in Ord+. At least one ind. catches at least two fishes. Jack says that a similar animal showed up earlier, ca. 7:30.
Ceph., May 5, 1982, II [[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] 9:58 pm. Now there are 3 Sepiots feeding on sardines. Probably all 3 medium large. Feeding at different depths. Not coordinated. All 3 in "Basic". Sometimes with White Stripe. Sometimes just plain? Why have they assumed this "unusual" coloration tonight? Could it be because the moon is full and particularly bright tonight? Thus encouraging diurnal rather than nocturnal coloration? There are many peculiar V and contort movements. Apparently just before and after catching fishes. San Blas, May 6, 1982 To Okupukkyo this mornnig. Sunny, clear, calm and hot. We start out to work 9:40 am. A tows around island in usual way. Does some photography. SAN. I just go to the western end of island where there are large expanses of shallow sand and TG flats. Swim and walk around, looking for "Sepiolids", until 11:50 am. No success. Who is filling the niche of inshore "Sepiolids" here. Young Sepiots may be in TG, but they certainly do not occur over sand (There certainly would seem to be plenty of potential food around. Large schools of small sardines are enormously abundant near the shore line here. Ca. 10:00 am, most of them seemed to be "asleep" on or near the bottom. This is fine for Gloria's egrets. But why don't cephalopods take advantage of the same opportunities? Would they be too exposed to predators?) There is something queer about the "Sepicola." Apparently much more abundant and diverse in the Old World than in the New. This may be almost as true of the "Sepiolids" as of [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] itself. A tows around Okopukkyo and adjacent island this afternoon.
((underline))Ceph ((/underline)), May 6, 1982, II There are some adult Sepiots around, but they don't seem to be doing anything of interest. We go exploring again at night. Out to outer islands and then almost to barrier reef. Lots of TG, sand, coral, etc. No cephalopods of any sort! San Blas, May 7, 1982 Still at Okupukkyo this morning. Sunny. Some wind. A tows all around island 8:25-9:25 am. Nothing at all. Then goes for dive along reef where some inds. were seen yesterday. He does find the animals again. They are not very active.At best (and rather dubiously) engaged in mild courtship. We go on to Tiatuppu-Piryatuppu-Paneuppu area. A starts tow around Piryatuppu, beginning reef point Along mainland side, then channel. Finds group of approximately 25 Sepiots. Medium to large. 10 ft up in 30 ft of water over sand and coral bottom. The animals are very shy. They are all in [[circled]] Ord-Dark [[/circled]] (Medium Dark) with very little or no WS. No courtship. Then they dash off. According to A, they encounter other inds. in Upward P. Clustered around tall thin? (sponge? coelenterate?)Newcomers assume similar P. When I catch up, all visible inds. are in P and semi-Dark. [[image of tall thin specimen]] I get out of water 1:10 pm. A resumes tow. Then, at 1:53, back at tip of coral reef point (where we started) we find another group of 17+ Sepiots. Some large. Some medium. Intergrading. A [[underlined]]lot of courtship [[/underlined]] (at last) Inds. are over [[underlined]]Acropora [[/underlined]] at edge of reef fall off, 15-20 ft. below surface. A does lots of filming (4 rolls) until 3:45 pm.
Ceph., May 7, 1982, II. [[circled]]4[[/circled]] I try not to interfere with the filming. Soon retire to boat. Before leaving, I can follow only one sequence. A courting party of 1 [[female symbol]], 1 near [[male symbol]], and 1 far [[male symbol]] at end of group. [[female symbol]] rises in extreme Pie, with extreme Halter. [[2 male symbol]] in something like Ord+ (at least with WS, probably not with Y) Far [[male symbol]] has RL. RL seems to be permanent or semi-permanent. Then a third [[male symbol]], a second far [[male symbol]], joins party. At about the same time, coincidentally (???), A films some Z performances. Party of four inds. continues. [[female symbol]]Pies and Pies again. All very extreme. Rather surprisingly, this does not seem to discourage her suitors: They press her more and more closely. Near [[male symbol]] starts Fluttering Rushes forward toward [[female symbol]] in apparent copulation attempt. Turns buffy-yellow as he does so. Attempt probably not successful. All members of the party retreat. Come back soon. NOTE: All or most of the [[female symbol]]'s Pies were done with arms hanging downward [[image]] or [[image]] This probably is typical A says that "pair", not party, eventually separated from group. And then [[male symbol]] began to show Lateral Silver. Go out at night. Around Panetupo 7:00-8:00 pm. Explore very large areas of TG, and smaller but still extensive areas of almost pure sand. Not a single cephalopod in sight. COMMENT: We have now done quite a lot of searching in TG at night. And we have found nothing except the 2 small Sepiots near San Blas Point three nights ago. This would suggest(confirm) that small Sepiots leave the flats at night to go out to more open or deeper waters. In this connection, it may be significant that small sardines also seem to scatter at night.
Ceph., May 7, 1982, III. [[circled]]5[[/circled]] 9:00pm. Jack has been running the ship light since sun set. Lots of sardines have shown up, but (again) not a single squid. It does look as if populations are low now! San Blas, May 8, 1982.. Still at Okupukkip. Heavy rain early in the morning. Gradually clearing up. Getting windy. We go straight to site where A filmed yesterday. Group is still there. 9:20 am. A starts filming again. SAN I wander about along shore. Mostly TG. Some sand and coral. See one small blob of ink- that is all. We both stop 10:45am. Start again after lunch. A tows Cuinquintuppu. Finds group of large and medium Sepiots almost immediately. But they are doing nothing. Resumes tow around Cuiniquintuppu. Then over to Teatuppu. Then along flat between Teatuppu and Panetupo. Then along TG area of Panetupo. Then along offshore reef. We stop 1:25 pm. What has gone wrong this year? Later in the afternoon, we go on to Morpeptuppu. A tows all around island 3:25-4:00 pm. Nothing. Staying at Morpeptuppu for the night Make a brief tour of shore facing mainland ca. 7:30 pm. No cephalopods. But lots of small B's. Also wind (thus reducing visibility). Jack runs the ship lights. Occasional visits by small groups of [[underline]]Lolego[[/underline] sp(p). Up to 6 individuals.
[[circle]]6[[/circle]] San Blas May 9, 1982 Still at Morpeptuppu. Cloudy. Occasional rain. A does partial tow along island, all adjacent island, and along farther reef 8:58-9:32 am. No squids. In the afternoon we go to the Rio Sidra area. A tows around both islands, Nusatuppu and Urgandi, 3:00-4:05pm. Sees nothing except some small blobs of ink on the west side of Urgandi. Then we go on to mangrove islet (where mixed school of 3 species was seen years ago). A tows 4:15-4:37. Nothing. We go back to mangrove islet 7:30 pm. Still nothing. A few Sepiots come to the ship lights later on. San Blas, May 10, 1982. This morning we moved back to the Pirijatuppu area. Weather is gray and windless (after heavy rain at dawn). A films courting party and associates (same group filmed a few days ago) approximately 9:30 am-12:20 pm and 2:25-4:05 pm. Apparently with good results. I spend the time inspecting shallows. On Pirijatuppu in the morning. On Cuinquintuppu in the afternoon. No cephalopods seen in shallows of either island. NOTE: Shallows are extremely varied. Sand, TG, "rock" shelves. If Sepiolidae and Idiosepiidae are indeed absent from these areas-as does indeed seem to be the case - it is [[underline]]not[[/underline]] because suitable physical habitats are not available. Jack runs the ship lights. No squids attracted
7 San Blas, May 11, 1982. Still at Piryatuppu in the morning. Wind has come up and the sun is shining after a fastuon [[?]]. A films usual group 8:10-10:05 am. I wander about shores and shallows One possible but dubious ([[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] dubious) of a sepiolid-like animal in 3-4 inches of water over sand near beach. Animal immiediately takes refuge in adjacent TG. No inking. I also looked at some fishes. 2 mixed schools (apparently distinct). In 3-4 feet of water over TG and sand with scattered coral heads (plus sponges, etc.) Each school composed largely of dull parrotfishes. Each school also included [[underlined]] one [[/underlined]] Spotted Goatfish. The association between the Goatfishes was close (physically), and sustained for at least several minutes Goatfishes often in middle. Difficult to tell who, if anyone, was leading whom. The second school also included several individuals of 3 or 4 other species. I couldn't identify them. We go to Niatuppu (Lemon Cays) later. A starts tow around island 1:30 pm. It is still sunny, but sky is turning gradually gray. Finds group of approx 17 inds. far side island 1:54. Most of the inds. are large. Vigorous "courtship". 4 ft down in 10-15 ft of water on steep slope of sand & coral. A films until 3.15 NOTES: This group at Matuppu is much more active, perhaps more advanced in the breeding cycle, than the one filmed at Peryatuppu. On the other hand, the group at Piryatuppu was interesting because we know that they stayed at (or returned to) the same site day after day. ADDITION: According to Janie (?) Wulff, there usually is a group of some 30 (approx.) squids at her study site off Mosquito. But the group
[[circled]] 8 [[/circled]] Ceph., May 11, 1982, II. is much smaller now. Down to about 10 small-ish individuals. Janie says that the reduction occurred about 10 days ago. Could this be disease??? May, 12 1982 Leave San Blas before dawn today. Go first to Isla Grande. Through driving rain. But it is beginning to clear by the time we arrive. A tows ca 12:15 - 1:15 pm. Sees 1 small Sepiot; that is all. Then we go on to Porto Bello. A tows along east coast outside harbor mouth. Finds 2 groups of large Sepiots. One of 6 inds. The other approximately 12 inds. Below heavy surf, over coral, along rocky shore. No filming. Go out to explore part of inner bay with hand lights 7:30 - 8:10 pm. Lots of sardines and a variety of small organisms. But no squids. Lots of large sardines at ship lights. But again no sardines
[[underlined]] NALUNEKA [[/underlined]], San Blas March 10, 1979 - Swim from Smithsoniantuppu to Naluneka's dock & back, nothing, it is windy & visibility is not very good either. Night lite from 7 to 9 p.m., nothing. [[underlined]] NIATUPPU [[/underlined]] March 11, 1979 - Tow around both islands, nothing. Later on we run into a group of 23 larges & mediums, nothing is happening, some very mild courtship from some very young mediums males, but nothing else. [[underlined]] PANETUPPU [[/underlined]] March 12, 1979 - Tow around nursery, and then on to Tiatuppu & Piriatuppu. We spot some 15- large & med. We photograph^[[ed]] some action, courtship & lots of patterns. In the afternoon I photographed a group of some 69 juveniles on sand drop off next to Panetuppu caused by the incoming current from the algal reef. Both this drop off & the protected grass flat are perhaps the reason for it being an ideal area for the young. The grass flat offers protection while the current drop off carries sufficient nutrients necessary to maintain the young. There are very small minnows and lots of macroscopic organisms in suspension. At first glace the impression one gets is that the group of young squid is not in formation, each individual is at a different level giving the impression that they are bits of sargassum slowly sinking to the bottom, one could pass them as so much debris. Upon observing them for a while I notice that there is some structure to the group, the large juveniles are high & nearest to the waters surface they diminish in size, the deeper one goes. I [[strikethrough]] closed [[/strikethrough]] ^[[don]] a diving tank and swim to a depth of 40-45 ft. There I run into a large group of very small young. They each have an overall length of no more than 15 mm. I don't think they are more than 2 weeks old. I photograph them with Barbara's camera both in color & black and white. These little ones produce the same postures as [[strikethrough]] those of [[/strikethrough]] their larger counterparts, however, having fewer & larger chromathopores in relation to their body size cannot produce the same color patterns that the larger juveniles produce, but they certainly try. While I am photographing, a 20"± mackerel rushes a young squid the mackerel attacks and misses, the young squid inks pales & [[strikethrough]] turns [[/strikethrough]] ^[[runs]] up almost vertically towards the surface, then stops moving only 5-7 feet from where it released the ink, it bars & takes the contort posture. The mackerel swims in circles within the ink blbs, stops for a few seconds & swims slowlly away in the direction from where it came. I am not sure but when it swam away it gave me the [[left margin]] ^[[Uro, [[underlined]] Scomuerummo regales [[/underlined]] ?]] [[/left margin]]
-2- impression that at times it did not swim on an even reel. Could his sensing organs have been numbe[[strikethrough]] re [[/strikethrough]]d when it came into contact with the ink blobs? [[underlined]] OKOPUKIP [[/underlined]] March 13, 1979. - Tow around both islands (Niakalupir). Find over 35+ squids med to large on usual area in Okopukip. We photographed them, lots of action. Barbara may have photographed a copulation. In the afternoon I go back to Panetuppu & photograph the young some more, then return to Okupukip for more photographs. This group is quite active and at first does not seem to be very cohesive. Sometimes the group breaks up into 3 subgroups & go into different directions. There are quite a few animals in full and active courtship, and also quite a few displays of half silver. This area is full of floating debris, sea grasses as well as man made refuse. I notice that every time the group breaks up, the different subgroups invariably seem to be attracted by bits of floating white plastic sheeting. From far some of these bits of plastic look like a half silver display, could this be the reason that they are swimming towards it? Also, I have been able to relocate [[strikethrough]] it [[/strikethrough]] ^[[the group]] by watching for half silver displays. Could half silver be a display used to attract other squids & thus form a group? I think so. ^[[unlike a complete display of silver Half silver is or can be also selective since it can be directed at one specific area (either side of the animal)]] We go back to the group & do some more photographing. This time I also use the underwater movie camera. The group is still quite active. [[underlined]] MIATUPPU [[/underlined]] March 14, 1979 - Afternoon, we tow but find nothing here.
[[circled]]1[[/circled]] See [[underline]]Octopus[[/underline]] notes p. 11. Discussions of anti-predator strategies. Startle or threat before crypsis. Is this general? Guam, Nov. 22-26, 1975. [[underline]] S. lessoniana[[/underline]] Guam, Mar 10-14, Mar. 22, 1979 Palau, Malakal Island, Mar. 17-Mar. 20, 1979 Wulung, Guam. Squid not in [[underline]]Euhalus.[[/underline]] Ord+. WS, PCA, trace of Spade. Extreme Y ( silvery?) Downward Curl. Downward V-Curl. Dark with Downward Curl. Full Dark with little or no WS. Belly Bar with Downward Curl. Egg-laying, p. 3 it seq. [[male symbol]] larger than [[female symbol]]! Yellow-Ord. WS not conspicuous Trace of "Accentuated testis" lrg [[male symbol]]? PCA with POA, Waving, White-tips.Drawings p. 5+6. Bar on back. 3 on mantle, Head bar, 1 bar midfins, 1 bar subterminal fins. I.E. 6 in total. But not quite the same as in [[underline]]spioidea[[/underline]]. Bars particularly blotchy. RL with Yellow Ord. lrg both [[male symbol]] and [[female symbol]]. Head up posture. Flash of WS in Yellow-Ord as alarm signal. Gray Ord with WS lrg mediums WML. Silvery white line along upper front border of mantle. Fin Stripe with retreat. White Fins and trace of Flutter with Grey Ord. Related to Pastel-Flutter? (probably not!) General discussion ecology. p.9. [[checkmark]] Squids begin to show-up around March. (Col. Moore). Over 60 inds.in group. Palau Dark Without WS Ink. Sonal spacing as in [[underline]]sepioidea.[[/underline]] No Streaks??? Correlated with absence of TG?
[[circled]]2[[/circled]] Ord +, WS, Y, PCA, Spade (not bulge) WS [[underline]]dis[[/underline]] appears during retreat. Bright tawny Golden all over. "Full Gold". Lateral Silver! Milky light color in milky light water PH flecks in Ord. General comment on variability of Ord, p. 17 Groups + sub-groups? Is Dark relaxed? Y, RL, and [[underline]]WT[[/underline]] in Dark and Ord-Dark. Full Golden with broad WS. Alternating with Dark. Is Full Golden threat? Bilateral Silver! [[underline]] A and B Subgroups [[/underline]], p 19 et seq. BB- Trident, sketch, 19 Trio. p. 19 et seq. Cop. attempt ???? Does the species lack Z? Yellowish = Pastel of [[underline]] sepioidea[[/underline]]? p. 21. Bilateral Double Silver lrg [[female symbol]]. Equivalent to Pied, p. 21. (+ Obvious arm spots!) Partly equivalent to Dark Dorsal Stripe Unilateral DM a base fin in tawny yellow. WT in fishing WS's usually wider toward rear. Flares Hostile. [[underline]]Pale[[/underline]] after catching fish. DM both sides of body in yellowish. Intraspecific BB- hard line With WB outside? In semi-Pie (bilateral silver?) Again DM with tawny and retreat White Fins again. Retreating from sardines in Ord + and WT Catching copepods. Guam. WT WML Bluish bloom in Gray Ord BB
13 chromatic, 6 postural, 5 movement No skin patches or units comparable to [[underlined]] Octopus [[/underlined]]. Lateral display Parallel positioning Fin Beating Stitchwork fins Lateral flame Mid-ventral ridge Arm spots Tentacular stripe Dorsal arm iridophore Ring Downward Curling Clear = Colorless Dominance relations (top [[male symbol]]) more obvious than in Sepiots? Apparent attempts to seize fish from companion [[male symbol]] brooding eggs? [[underlined]] DM absent [[/underlined]] [[underlined]]Lateral Flame instead of Z [[/underlined]] Lateral display includes Arm Spots, Stitchwork fins, Mid-ventral fins, Lateral flame, Tentacular stripe, and dorsal arm iridophores. Certainly aggressive Usually by dominant [[male symbol]] Combined with Parallel positioning and Fin beating. General survey [[underlined]] Lolego [[/underlined]]: spp = [[underlined]] plei[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]pealei[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]vulgaris[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]opalescens[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]forbesi[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]edulis[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]bleekeri[[/underlined]]. Clear and All dark in all species. Mid-ventral ridge in preserved specimens [[underlined]] pealei[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]vulgaris[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]edulis[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]bleekeri [[/underlined]]. Lateral flame in preserved specimens [[underlined]] vulgaris[[/underlined]], [[underlined]]forbesi [[/underlined]].
[[ double underline]] Plei[[/ double underline]] [[underline]] chromatic[[/underline]] 1. Clear (= Colorless) All sizes At night away from lights Also calm inds. both day and night. Also egg-brooding by [[2 male symbol]]. 2. All dark (=Dark) All sizes "Relative stress" (= mild hostility?) 3. Ring (=Bars) 3 or 4 transverse rings around the mantle. 4 most common Medium to adult (?)inds Sometimes with dark head and arms. "[[sometimes]] "[[dark]] Downward Curl Disruptive Relative stress. Perhaps lower intensity than all dark 4. Accentuated testis. All dark plus white area (= WS????) Schooling, aggression, and courtship Often combined with dark. Sexual identification? = RL ??? 5. Shaded testis Both [[male symbol]] and [[female symbol]]. Trace dark stripe? ?? 6. Dorsal stripe (= Dark Dorsal Stripe) Mid. to adult [[2 male symbol]] and [[2 female symbol]] Calm. Feeding. Disruptive? 7. Arm spots. 2 kinds. A dark brown spot base 2nd arm. B diffuse splotch base 3rd arm. Both usually [[male symbol]] Sometimes [[female symbol]]. Probably related to PCA Low intensity stress? 8. Stitchwork fins(=BB)[[underline]]Only[[2 mars]] [[/underline]] Intraspecific aggresion After arm spots. 9. Mid-ventral ridge (=Bellystripe) Usually [[male symbol]]. Sometimes in weak version by [[2 female symbol]] Intraspecific aggression. Also courtship and schooling Relative stress often associated with dominance relations 10. Lateral flame Apparently unique. Lateral mottling. Only [[male symbol]]
[[in top left margin]]Equivalent but not [[underline]]homologous with [[/undeline]] Z !!! Intraspecific agressive encounters, including courtship. With parallel positioning. Often "flashed". 11. Lateral blush. 2 forms A= Fin Stripe. Both [[male symbol]] and [[ female symbol]] Becomes incorporated into Lateral flame as [[2 male symbol]]'s get older. B Diffuse rounded splotch only in mature [[2 female symbol]] Also by courted [[2 female symbol]] of [[underline]] Lolliguncula brevis [[/underline]] 12. Tentacular stripe. Dark Only on tentacles Mostly [[2 male symbol]],once [[female symbol]]Possibly related to some arm stripes Sepiots Intraspecific agression. Sometimes continuous with mid-ventral ridge. Rare. High intensity? 13. Dorsal arm iridophores. Only [[2 male symbol]]. Obviously related to PCA components. With lateral flame. High intensity? Rare. Silver Eyebrows visible in photos Also Dark Spectacles?
[[double underline]] Plei [[/ double underline]] [[underline]] Postural [[/underline]] 1. Bottom setting not ritualized. Exhaustion. Moribund. After Laying eggs. 2. Two raised arms. Perhaps V. Looks like DF. Toward conspecifics. Very aggressive by small [[male symbol]] I.e. pre-attack. Threat. 3. Four arm upward curling. Toward conspecific or observer Obviously a more extensive version of 2. above Threat 4. Downward curling. Both [[2male symbol]] and [[2 female symbol]]. Intraspecific aggression, interspecific hostility, courtship. [[2 female symbol]] before mating (copulation) 5. Downward V curl Same as in Sepiot. Toward observers 6. Downward curling into mantle.^ Only [[male symbol]] Obviously another version of 4. and 5. All their Downward curls are rather specialized in form. seen only once. During prolonged dispute among [[2 male symbol]]. [[underline]] Movements [[/underline]] 1. Parallel positioning. Not (very) ritualized. In courtship? By both [[2 male symbol]] and [[2 female symbol]] Courtship and intraspecific aggression. 2. Fin beating (= Flutter?) By [[2male symbol]] Only after parallel positioning. Exaggerated form of aggression. 3.Forward rush. Not (very) ritualized By both [[2 male symbol]] and [[2 female symbol]]. Often ending in "splay". High intensity aggression.
4. Chase Not ritualized. 5. Flee Not ritualized.
[[circle]] 1 [[/circle]] [[undeline]] Cephalopoda [[/underline]] 22 November 1975 Guam I arrived on the island on the night of November 19th. So did Typhoon June! Impossible to work at all during the first few days. All the local people claim that at least one squid is common inshore. Chuck had an example identified by Gil Voss. It is [[underline]]Sepioteuthis lessoniana[[/underline]]. Inds. are frequently seen at several sites; in channels leading to electric plants at Piti and Tanguisson, and over or around reef at Cocos Lagoon. I looked at Piti channel yesterday. Channel is well protected. Relatively calm, although some swell. Water fairly clear. Bottom rock and pebble (some sand). Quite a lot of fish. But certainly no squid. I suppose that the squid withdrew to deeper water (offshore) when typhoon struck. We went to look at both Piti and Tanguisson twice today. Surprisingly enough, conditions were much worse than yesterday. Huge surge and filthy froth. I didn't bother even to go into water. Several people have also mentioned seeing real cuttlefish. In Apra Harbor (this record seems quite definite), and ca. Orote Point (in or near harbor). 23 November 1975 Guam Visited Piti twice today, ca 8:00 a.m. and 12:45 pm. Went into water (channel) both times. Heavy swell and lots of froth. Apparently no squid. Also swam in adjacent bay in the morning. In shallows near shore. Sand and rubble bottom. Again
Cepholpoda - Guam [[circle]] 2 [[/circle]] no squid. Visited Tanguisson in late morning. Too rough to go in 24 November 1975 Guam To Piti channel 7:45 am. Sunny. Some wind. But still large swell and much froth. Swam back and forth several times. Lots of needle fish at surface. A variety of other fishes. But still no squid. Then swim in adjacent bay. Explore "sinks" not far offshore. Sand, bolder, and broken coral bottom. Perhaps 10 ft deep. Lots of fish, including needle fishes and goat fishes. But again still no squid. (NOTE: these habitats, with no TG and apparently little living coral, would appear, to me, to be unsuitable for [[underlined]]Sepiateuthis[[/underlined]]--but the local fish are very much what would be expected in a [[underlined]]S.[[/underlined]] habitat. Doubtless the fish know better than I do.) Go to Tanguisson at mid-day. Still too rough. Back to Piti ca 2:00pm. Rougher and murkier than ever. Will the swell never stop? Try to run lights at night at Piti but bulbs break! 25 November 1975 Guam Did some exploring today. Toward the south of the island. 9:35 am. Arrive at Rizal Beach in Agat Bay. Shallow beach stretching to reef about 100 yds from shore. Weather is sunny but windy (surf warnings out). I swim along inner side of reef. Shallow. Sand, broken coral, and seaweed bottom. Water very murky.
Cephalopoda - Guam [[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] No squid. Chuck swims along outer edge of reef. Also no squid. Comment: this looks as if it might be rather good habitat for squid and/or cuttlefish in better conditions. 11:00 am. Cocos Lagoon. Shallow bay south of Merizo. Immense "TG" flat. (The local "TG" is [[underline]] Enholus [[/underline]] sp., not [[underline]] Thalassia [[/underline]] ) Then deeper water. Sand bottom. Then nice small "reef" (coral clumps). Lots and lots of fish. Including goatfishes. Water clear. Strong wind and current. No squid visible at the moment; but the habitat looks [[underline]] perfect [[/underline]] 20 November 1945 Guam Go back to bay south of Merizo. Work fairly steadily 9:20 am. -12:30 pm. Generally sunny. Occasional showers. Strong wind. Tide out at first, then comes in strongly. Strong currents and undertow. Cover a very wide area (out to and around two offshore islands on barrier reef) and range of habitats (sand, rock, coral, TG, in 2-20 ft of water) Lots of fish but no squid. NOTE: Almost all the fish seen were of medium size. Very few "sardines." Is this significant? Does it help to explain absence or rarity if cephalopods? Have both squids and sardines been damaged by weather?
[[circle]] 9 [[/circle]] October 23, 1974 Secas Islands Some preliminary explorations today. Weather is sunny with little wind. Ca 9:15 am. Cavada Island. Swim near shore. Over gravel bottom, then out over boulders, sand, small coral heads. Little or no visible macro-vegetation. Lots of large fish. But apparently no cephalopods. Stop ca. 10:05 am. About an hour later. Barracuda Island. Swim over extensive but shallow coral reef (continuous, rounded knobby surface-[[underline]] Porites [[/underline]] sp.?) stretching out from rocky cliffs. Again lots of large fishes. Also many schools (50 to 200 or more individuals) of small fishes that are [[underline]] obviously mimicking squids[[/underline]] [[Pomauntrid ?]]???? [[image of fish]] Generally dark gray. Dark eye. Dark spot bare pectoral fin. Yellowish on throat. Tail either shape shown above, or broader with two dark streaks, giving same effect. Brilliant, shiny, large white "false eyespots" at base of tail (very near top of back) Often swimming in a jerky manner; with rise at end or dip and rise. Thus, the general effect, with eyespot, tailfin; and movements, when a fish was swimming forward,
was that of a squad swimming backward. (It fooled O at first). Why should a vulnerable fish mimic a vulnerable squid? Stop observations abruptly when shark appears. October 24, 1944 Chiriqui Made a small dive at San Jose Island (Near Las Ventanas). From beach, ca. 8:30 am. Over pebble and rock. Again lots of fishes. But water very murky. (rather a strong wind blowing). No cephalopods visible. But I shouldnt be surprised if things like [[underline]] Loliguncula [[/underline]] did not appear from time to time. Obviously [[underline]] Sepioteuthis [[/underline]] does not occur along the Pacific coast because there is no Turtle Grass (or Turtle Grass-littoral [[underline]] Diadema [[/underline]] habitat) But why is the habitat itself lacking?
Cephalopods- Africa [[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] August 8, 1976 MBour and Joal -south of Dakar. Centers of fishing industry. The sites where a cuttlefish fishery may be established by the Senegalese gov't and the Centre Oceanographique (Chabanne) We went down to talk to the local people. Obviously cuttlefishes are more or less abundant- perhaps more so at MBour than at Joal. We saw individuals caught by local fishermen (some in nets from beach, some from boats) Quite large. Apparently [[underline]] Sepia officinalis [[/underline]] (Chabanne says that this is the common species.) Most people agree that cuttlefishes begin to be found ca. 100 m offshore (probably also much farther away. Usually in more or less deep water (50-100 m. ????), usually near bottom. French scientists at MBour (the Dorbath's) say that they saw lots and lots of cuttlefishes high in water column near shore "about 3 months ago." End of dry season and/or beginning of wet season? Mating behavior? NOTE: Chabanne says that there is at least one other species of [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] in the region. Smaller and more rounded. August 19, 1976 MBour Arrange to go out to "offshore" area where most of the local fishermen that specialize in cuttlefishes (and octopi) prefer to work. It is a relatively shallow bank approximately 1 km from the beach of the ORSTOM Station. Start off ca 7:45 am. Reach bank ca 8:10 am. This is obviously a major fishing area. Lots of pirogues (15-20), flags, buoys, etc. Also lots of small pirogues (1 to 3
[[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] men) hard at work. In the course of the morning (until 11:45 am) I do a lot of swimming at 6-8 sites, in craters varying from 3 to 15m. in depth. Without seeing a damn thing!!! This is obviously because water is very opaque. Full of sand. Visibility at surface is no more than 1 1/2 -2 ft. It is a little better around 6ft down (as far as I can dive in the circumstances), but not much. It is also obvious, nevertheless, that the upper surface of the waters here is [[underline]] remarkably impoverished [[/underline]] It is not only that I do not see any cephalopods. It is also that I don't see any sardines, copepods, floating weeds, or anything else. In correlation, there are very few words around. Only an occasional pelican [[underline]] (P. rufescens) [[/underline]] floating on water or tern [[underline]] (Sterna s.s. [[/underline]] and [[underline]] "Thalasseus" [[/underline]] ) flying by. The bottom (invisible) fauna, by contrast, must be rich. The fisherman are catching a variety of fish plus cuttlefishes and octopi. As far as I can tell, all the cuttlefishes are [[underline]] Sepia officinalis [[/underline]] And all are large and apparently adult. The octopi are also fairly large. Perhaps all [[underline]] Octopus vulgaris [[/underline]] ??? Ratio of [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] to [[underline]] Octopiis [[/underline]] caught is approximately 3 to 1. Method of fishing is simple. Pieces of fish used as bait. Placed on circular clusters of hooks [[image]] on line. Line jigged constantly. Bait apparently seized by cuttlefishes and octopi in much the same way(s). Arms (not tentacles in case of [[underline] S. [[/underline]] ?) impaled on hooks. Then animals is gently, still jigging, brought to surface and gaffed. Color pattern of [[underline]] S. [[/underline]] being brought to surface is moderately striped. Presumably "Ord" of the species. As in many published photos. Turns darker (stripes still visible) when the animals are gaffed. The cuttlefishes release enormous amounts of ink when gaffed. The octopi do not (perhaps they do not release any at all).
[[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] ink also seems to be rather more "liquid" than that of [[underline]] Sepioteuthis [[/underline]] It may really be more of a "cloud" than a decoy. One very large cuttlefish was seized by a second slightly smaller, individual as it was being jigged to the surface. From the published accounts (Boycott? Young?), I would suppose that this was an example of a [[male symbol]] seizing a (supposed) [[female symbol]]. If so, the animals maybe in reproductive condition now. If so, the masses of inds. seen near the surface at other times of the year may be "die-offs". (This is confirmed by a local fisherman, Suk, who talked to O. Suk also implied that there may be 3 or 4 die-offs a year. He suggested that the next should be in September-October.) M Bour Jan. 30, 1977 We have been back here now for almost 2 weeks. Mostly working with birds. Weather is cold and windy. (I suppose the "Harmattan") The water in front of the ORSTOM station itself is cold, rough, and murky. I have, however, been exploring various possiblities. I have talked with Maigret (at IFAN). He says that there are 3 more or less common species of [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] along this coast. [[underline]] S. bertheloti [[/underline]] inshore; [[underline]] S. orbignana [[/underline]] rather far offshore in deeper waters; and [[underline]] S. officinalis [[/underline]], intermediate and also overlapping both the other species. [[underline]] S. bertheloti [[/underline]] is distinguished from [[underline]] officinalis [[/underline]] by a narrower bone (doubtless among other things). M thinks that the breeding season of the local [[underline]] Sepia [[/underline]] is May-June He also tells me that Freon recently caught lots of [[underline] Sepiola [[/underline]] and small squids ([[underline]] Lolliguncula [[/underline]] sp) a l'emboudure de La Somone With lights and net at night. This morning went to look at area, 9:15-11:30 am. Tide going out. Wind. Cold. Water murky. Lots of sand in air (Harmattan). Area is rather diverse. Lots of small lagoons and channels. All more or less sale (or salty.) Mostly sand bottoms. A little mud. A little rock. Some mangrove (inner edge) As a whole, it might be ex-
[[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] cellent for certain kinds of cephalopods. but I did not see any myself this morning. CORRECTION- January 31, 1977. I talked with Freon this morning Actually he caught his [[underline]] Sepiola [[/underline]] and [[underline]] Lolliguncula [[/underline]] off the mouth of the Somone. In water 12m. deep. Some time ago. Probably in October. Apparently the 2 species were [[underline]] together. [[/underline]] February 9, 1977 Going out on the boat of the Centre Oceanographique. Leave Dakar 6:15 pm. Go to Cap Rouge. About half way to M'Bour Put out lights ca. 8:00-8:15 pm. It is cold. Not very rough Nothing (in the way of cephalopods) shows up immediately. Later on. Some Sardinellas, polychaetes; the occasional eel or half-beak. No great circles. NOTE: Bottom is 9 m. here. Run another light. Then pull up nets 10:15. A few fish. Second station, halfway back to Dakar, starts 11:40 p.m. Lots of polychaetes, small halfbeaks, immediately. This is off Rufisque. 12 m of water Circling school of small fish shows up 12:55 a.m. Also eels 1 sole, lots of large polychaetes. Circling fishes almost immediately. Net on eside pulled up after a few minutes. But light remains on other side. Then net is lowered again. The concentration of polychaetes here is really impressive. The animals must be poisonous, or at least distasteful. The local fish (whish are also nuerous now) apparently will not attack them.
[[circled]] 5 [[/circled]] Stop this station 5:30 am. Going closer inshore Off point of BelAir. 5m. Water is murky and somewhat rough. Only a few half-beaks around. Then are occasional small sardine. Nothing more-- February 16, 1977 Making another trip. Same route as before. Reach Cap Rouge ca. 8:00 pm. Lower net and set light immediately Then we go to eat. While we are eating, a lot of quite large sardines appear. Net is pulled up 8:30. At this time, we can only see fish. But there is certainly a squid (Loligo type) in the school. The fact that we do not see it while net is being pulled up would suggest that it must be light (pale) at the time. When we finally do see animal it is already in tub. With sardine already in jaws and arm. Quite large . Probably 1 ft. long. Dark red in color. With silvery ocelli all over back (perhaps elsewhere as well) Rather thrashing about. We put it back in water.Seems to be O.K. Swims about. Still clasping sardine. Still dark red. Gradually moves away from light. Apparently getting paler as it goes. This is at least another indication that "Dark" can be either an extreme distress reaction, in some species, and/or a reaction to extreme illumination. Net is lowered again. ADDITIONS: Not surprisingly, the squid released ink (3 times) when released in water. This must be one of the species with a large supply of ink. The local sardines are [[underline]] Sardinella [[/underline]]. 2 species. It is certainly a [[underline]] Sardinella [[/underline]] that this squid was eating. Some sardines come in immediately after net is lowered again. But not very many. 9:20. Suddenly a large group of sardines (30-40 inds?) appears.
[[circled]] 6 [[/circled]] Start to feed on smaller fish (larvae) in apparent frenzy. Then go off again. Net is pulled halfway up. Nearer light. It is now conspicuously light under water. Another concentration of sardines comes in 9:31. Again frenzied "Frenzy-ing" must be efficient as a hunting technique. Net is pulled up again 9:40 Apparently no cephalopods in this batch. Then net lowered again. A few very small fish appear immediately. Then a few sardines again. And an eel. Behaving exactly like a particularly active seasnake. Difficult to tell what, if anything it is feeding on. If it is really feeding, the prey must be very small. Then big school of sardines 9:55. School comes and goes. Animals apparently not very excited . Mostly feeding low. Difficult to see well. NOTE: Perhaps remarkably, there have been no halfbeaks so far tonight. And only a few small polychaetes. None of the large type that were so common last week. Speak of the devil! First (small) half beak shows up 10:24 10:31. Now the sardines themselves are being chased by larger fish (perhaps Jack?) Net pulled up again 10:38 No cephalopods. On to Rufesque, Arrive and lower net 11:45 pm. Large polychaetes arrive almost immediately. Water looks considerably dirtier than at previous station (current is also less strong) There is at least one eel around. No other fish at all 12:05 am. Then a single half beak, briefly. at 12:13 Going to rest 12:25 Net pulled up 2:00 am On to next station (bay Dakar), net down 3:10 am Again dirty water with large polychaetes. By 5:50 wind has come up, adding to difficulties. And there is still nothing of interest in the water.
[[circled]] 7 [[/circled]] Net pulled up 6:20 am Nothing in it but polychastes, [[underline]] 1 [[/underline]] sardine, and a couple of dozen of tiny fish (larvae). February 17, 1977 On boat again. But doing different stations. 8:35 Arrive off M'Bour Net lowered immediately Current is strong. Water does not look very clear. But lots of small crustaceans slow up immediately. Most of them are difficult to identify Some could even be mosquito larvae. Also some small crabs. Actually testing with [[disls?]], the water turns out to be very clear. Much clearer than usual for region! Small fish start to come in 9:00pm. Then some eels. We are running 2 lights tonight. Depth here is 12m. Then a few large polychaetes show up. Probably not (quite) the same type(s) seen on earlier nights. Then a [[underline]] Uranus [[\underline]]. Then some ribbon-like Siphonophore colonies. A band of possibly sardine-like fish appears,rather low, 10:20 Start to pull up net immediately.Lots of anchovies. No cephalopods. Going on to next station Mouth of the Somone. Net lowered 11:55 pm. Water is a little less clear here than at previous station. Depth is also 12 m. Lots of small, active, polychaetes appear at surface almost immediately. Then a few small fish. Then a Siphonophore colony. Then one sardine. Then more Siphonophores. And one small petrel. 1:50 A really big half beak or needlefish appears. Net pulled up at 1:55 am On to next station Cap (or Pointe) Rouge (again). Net put sown 3:45 pm. Water seems almost empty. Only a very few small polychaetes, 1 or 2 "minnows", in next 10 mins.
[[Circled]] 8 [[/Circled]] This situation continues with very little change. Very different from last night! NOTE: Depth here is (again) 11m. Water is about as clear as at last (second) station. Only big fish 4:53 am Comes and goes. Then an eel appears. Doesn't stay long. Big school of fish circling 5:37. Very tightly packed Obviously being preyed on by something. At first low in water, difficult to see. Gradually rise nearer to surface. I can't see what, if anything, is bothering them. Then a second, smaller, group appears. The 2 groups do not merge. Net is brought up 6:10 am. No cephalopods. February 19, 1977 I did not go out with boat last night. So, of course, something interesting showed up. At first station, Pointe (Cap) Rouge. Presumably usual place (depth) for collections. 3 little cuttlefish-types. Species and genus unknown. They were watched and caught by M. (the visiting german scientist from Kiel]) According to him, these 3 little things came up to the surface, to the lights, one by one. I.E. they are [[Underlined]] pelagic at night [[/Underlined]] and [[Underlined]] non-gregarious [[/Underlined]]. He says that they were dark when they first appeared. He captured them and put them in bucket. They stayed dark in bucket. Until one ind. managed to find a shady part. At which point, this individual turned pale. I.E. the species seems to have usual cephalopod (or squid?) habit of going dark in light and light in dark. M says that the 3 inds. kept well apart from one another in bucket. Each in its own "coin". When the boat got back, M had the 3 cephalopods put in large tank (approx. 15'x8'?), in which there are also [[Underlined]] Sardinellas [[/Underlined]], anchovies, and doubtless many other things. They went to bottom. Apparently scattered a little, but probably not far (at first). Presumably just enough to keep out of one another's way.
[[Circled]] 9 [[/Circled]] NOTE: This tank is at the station or center of the Centre Oceanographique at Thiarouye. I don't hear about the capture until noon. don't get to Thiarouye until 2:00 pm. In the meantime, some changes had taken place. One of the technicians had cleaned out part of the bottom of the tank scattering the cephs. even more. When I arrive, it is very difficult to see the little things. (There is a tin roof rather low over tank. Visibility is reduced). Finally see one. On bottom pressed up against side of tank most of the time. I.E. these individuals probably live or near bottom at night. And they probably are not (much) more gregarious during the day than they are at night. The first ind. seen is dark. We go looking for others. Find one of the others at far end of the tank. Can't find the third. These 2 inds. are picked up and placed into dip net near surface of water. Depth of water in net probably reaches 4" in places. One ind. (the only one I saw) turned very pale when taken out of water. But both inds. turn dark again immediately when released into water of dip net. Both go down to bottom immediately. One retreats into wrinkled corner (a "hole") and stays there. Almost completely hidden from me. (Presumably retreat into holes is "natural" and would occur in the wild.) The second settles in middle of bottom. Just "sits", arms swept sideways and under. Arms almost invisible most of the time. Both inds. retain dark.General effect is dark red. Yellower on center of back Grayer on front sides mantle. Darkest top eyes. Some body organs visible from above. SEE SKETCH. Twice ind. in water goes to corner where the other ind. is hiding. Apparently tries to get into hole to. It is not allowed to. No real grappling. But doubtless some contact of arms. Then the approacher hovers a few cm. away. Going back and forth. Then I scare it away. As far as I can tell, there is absolutely [[Underlined]] no change in color [[/Underline]] by either ind. during either of these encounters!!! Are these inds. too small (too young) to be able to produce elaborate
[[circled]] 10 [[/circled]] color patterns??? Their chromatophores are, of course, relatively [[underline]] enormous [[/underline]]. Quite visible to my naked eye. Everyone settles down quietly as afternoon wears on. One ind. in center. The other still in corner. I [[underline]] think [[/underline]] that they are sleeping. The visible wd. gradually becomes slightly, but only slightly, paler. NOTE: neither ind. has done any Inking while I have been here. Has their supply run out? I must ask M if they Inked when captured last night 3:45 I disturb both inds. a little. They are [[underline]] very [[/underline]] reluctant to move. So I leave them alone again. The visible (center) ind. turned darker (again) as soon as it was disturbed. In spite of the fact that the disturbance was not accompanied by any change in light intensity Except, perhaps, my shadow . So these inds. do have a real, ritualized "Dark" These wds. look as if they have triangular, squid-like, fins. Rather than continuous cuttlefish-like bands. If they do have cuttlefish-type fins, the chromatophores are cunningly arranged to produce a squid-like effect. Actually, I have no idea if these animals are cuttlefish or squid. Or whether they are adult or young. Or if their shape is typical of adults or not 4:01 pm. Center ind. suddenly starts swimming around enclosure. Backward jerks. Somewhat erratic. Looks almost as if it is having a fit. Or perhaps wrestling with "prey"??? Then goes to corner where the other ind. is still hiding. Stops outside. And then gradually oozes itself into hole. Starting head and arms first. But then turning around Completes entry rear first. Then settles right next to other ind. Their rear ends are [[underline]] touching [[/underline]] part of the time; separated by only a few mm. at other times. As far as I can tell, the ind. that has always been in hole does not respond in any way. Also (again) as far as I can tell, there is no color change by either ind. at any stage of the joining process. Both are Dark now. Quite Dark. NOTE: this corner "hole" probably is the deepest part of the net. The inds. probably are looking for deep + dark refuges I wonder what depths they sink to in the wild? 4:15 Now the 2 inds are side by side. Apparently in full side contact. Still same color.
[[circled]] 11 [[/circled]] NOTE: last night must have been the new moon or just after. I.E. very dark (And I am not sure that the moon had even risen yet at the time the animals were caught.) 4:28 Both ids. move around a little in their corner. No color change. Settle down quietly again, about 1" apart Then one gradually oozes closer to the other. Until they are in rear-side contact again. Apparently they avoid face to face or arm to arm contacts. I still cant find 3rd ind. PARTIAL CORRECTION: 4:40 pm Now the 2 inds in dip net are side by side. Both with arms extended in front. I.E. curving under and hiding of arms under head and body does not occur in "holes" (or at least is less extreme) Both inds. move arms slightly almost continuously (jet from funnel?) So the arms must touch occasionally. But only "laterally." Animals still asleep as before 5:00pm. Unfortunately the dip net in getting a layer of crud on top. I clear it up as best I can. Which is not very well. The process doesn't disturb the animals at all. (I presume that cephalopods, unlike fish with lateral lines, are more or less insensitive to waves on water?) Disturb the animals more seriously 5:12 pm. Force them out of their hole. One ind. comes out more or less willingly. It seems to be in relatively good shape I shall call it "A". The other (probably the first to go into hole) comes out very reluctantly and apparently with difficulty) It looks as if it might have rear end damaged. I shall call it "B" Both inds. go to middle of net. Then settle down, side by side again. No color change by either. A settles down with arms curved down and to the side From the front this looks almost like a split E by [[underline]] Sepioteuthis! [[/underline]] Actually it may not be a display or anti-display at all. I think that the arms, or the suckers there on, may be grasping much of net. A actually seems to walk or [[underline]] crawl [[/underline]] on its arms a few mms! B, on the other hand, just keeps its arms more or less extended in front Presumably a sign of weakness. After some minutes, B gets restless. Gradually, haltingly goes back to first hole. A remains behind in center. Neither ind, is showing any sign of getting ready to hunt at dusk! Going to leave myself 5:38 pm.
[[circled]] 12 [[/circled]] February 20, 1977 Arrive back Thiarouge 8:00 am. One of the cephs, presumably B, is dead. Turned very very pale in death. I pick it up and preserve it in Formalin solution. Color does not change (at least at first). The other ind is in corner hole. Seems to be alright. Dark NOTE: The picked ind. [[underline]] does [[/underline]] seem to have wing-like fins. When I disturb the surviving ind., it moves out to center net as usual. No color change, still Dark. Swims right above bottom . Then immediately settles on bottom, arms curved down just as yesterday. Again [[underline]] no trace [[/underline]] of Inking. Turns slightly paler after being settled, apparently asleep, 10-15 mins. When I disturb it again, 9:05 it swims off just above surface. Turns Darker as soon as it starts to move. Then settles again as soon as possible. And it definitely does crawl along bottom for a few mm while settling in (making itself comfortable). I suppose that it might well bury into sand, if sand was available. ADDITIONS: these animals were caught at 8:30 pm. M says that one of them did ink after being captured O went to M'Bour market yesterday afternoon. She says that the fisherman had caught (off shore) lots of large cuttlefishes, presumably [[underline]] Sepia officianalis. Only [[/underline]] large inds. Up to 6-8 K yesterday. the coral fisherman claim that the local cuttlefishes can go up to 10K. Are there animals getting ready to breed? February 21, 1977 Arrive Thiarouge 9:15 To find single Ceph still alive. Has been changed to another dip net for some reason or another. Going to try a small experiment Putting animal in (white)basin, with sand on bottom and several inches of water above it. Sand is relatively clear, light and smooth Only a few bivalve [[shelves?]] and rocks on it.
[[circled]] 13 [[/circled]] Transfer occurs 9:25 am Animal remains Dark (at least on [[underline]] top [[/underline]]) throughout. No inking. Immediately goes to edge of basin, rests there. On bottom (arms curved down and behind as usual) Rear end against side of basin. Just sits. Funnel of course, is working steadily. The jets of water form little furrows. First forward, then gradually moving backward along side. Characteristic pattern. Small wall or barricade outside furrows. [[sketched image]] This does not actually help the animal to get into sand. Every once in a while, it also seems to seize something in arms (grains of sand?) and either tries to swallow them or drops them It is difficult to see which. Then the animal moves a few cm down side of basin, repeats performance as before. Again. Perhaps this species does [[underline]] not [[/underline]] burrow??? All this occurs in shady half of basin. Animal remains Dark above. This is not cryptic, in fact, in these circumstances, against light sand. But it might well be cryptic in many situations in the wild. And now I notice that whole underside of body (mantle) is silvery white. Below fin line. Line of demarcation is sharp. Quite conspicuous. I would suppose that I would have seen it, noticed it, if the animal had done this on previous days. So perhaps it is a new pattern. Is it an adaptation to being on continuous substrate. I.E. there is no point to being cryptic on bottom side which can never be seen by anyone. Then animal changes position Faces diagonally into run of basin. Lying slightly on one side. Raised side is Dark to level below fin. It seems to have stopped making furrows! When disturbed, it moves 1 cm and then into as before. Then tilts to other side. White underside is quite exposed in this position. I.E. white may be permanent Or perhaps a sign of physical damage?
[[circled]] 14 [[/circled]] The animal still is not buried at 10:25. It may,just possibly eat some finely chopped fish put into water. ADDITION: Miland ("M") looked at the animal yesterday afternoon. It was, at the time, resting peacefully in its corner hole And Miland says that it was [[underline]] quite [[/underline]] Pale. Turned Dark again, as usual, when disturbed Thus, it would appear that ambient light may have little to do with (these) color changes. Back to Thiarouge 1:30 pm. Animal has been shifted to a large tank, with sand on bottom, which might, conceivably be adequate for it. When I arrive it is sitting peacefully on bottom, in Dark, in center [[underline]] away [[/underline]] from side. This area was rather somber, before I arrived, because tank was partly covered. When I remove cover, animal is left in sunlight. Stays there a coouple of minutes, then moves into shade. Sits. This species obviously likes the dark! NOTE: this tank is at least several (3?) ft. deep. And the animal is stickig to the bottom (during the day). I.E. it obviously goes as low as it can (within reason). I leave again at 1:45 pm. Back again 7:15. Just getting dark. Animal still alive. Still on bottom of tank. And still dark. Moves about on bottom from time to time. Apparently not swimming. Certainly not swimming high in water column 7:32. 7:45. Quite dark outside now. Shine light. Animal still on bottom. Makes funny little "hops" away from light. Generally a little paler (than before) between hops. And then pales much more, briefly, during hops. Movements are funny and erratic.It seems quite possible that the animal is not in good condition. Shine light a few minutes later. Animal very pale now. Rolls over and over. Then lies still. Apparently dead.
[[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] April 9, 1975 Islas Secas Reach Cavada late in afternoon. Going to run light at night. Light goes until 7:50. Then off. On again 10 mins later. Lots of sardines. One eel (sea-snake mimic?) Stop 10:15p.m. April 10, 1975 Islas Secas Make 2 separate swims this morning. One along shore of Cavada. The other along shore of an adjacent island (name unknown). Sunny and windy. Strong surface. Water very murky. Swim over sand, rock, some coral. Nothing of interest. This afternoon try a swim around an isolated rock called Las Brujas. Still sunny and windy. Swell. Lots of big fish. But still nothing of scientific interest to us. Later ca. 3:15 pm. Go back to Cavada. A new side of the island; not the one that we visited yesterday (or this morning). Weather still the same. Swim near shore over a variety of environments, mostly coral ([[underline]] Porites [[/underline]] ?) and rock. No squid. But lots of fishes. Most numerous species is the "squid mimic" ("SM"). Literally thousands of inds.; in separate groups of hundreds. 2-10 ft down in 6-15 ft of water over all sorts of coral and rock
Ceph., Apr. 10, 1975, II. [[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] Still very squid-like. Frequent changes of direction of swimming movements. (Occasional [[underline]] backward [[/underline]] dashes? Short. Look like squid hunting.) Schools of SM sometimes dispersed. Concentrate when apparently frightened. But I did not see any actual predation. SM's seemed to ignore large puffer-fishes, parrot-fishes, etc. Perhaps some tendency to associate with wrasses (brown & yellowish green). Apparently friendly. Mike Bolton photographs SM. Going to run light same place tonight. Lots of fish but no squid Stop 10:15 pm. April 11, 1975 Go into Las Vindas, La Ventana this morning. Water too muddy to work. Go out to Contreras Islands in afternoon. Anchor off one of the large islands (Contreras s.s.?, Brincanco?) Swim 5:30-6:00 along shore. Rock and coral. Lots of fish. Medium sized barracudas. 1 large white-tipped shark. No squid. Running light at night. 7:10 pm. Group ca. 20 small squids appears.Young [[underline]] Lolioloposis]]? Rather scattered; 6"-2' apart Pale. Some traces HD. Apparently not fixated by light. Go straight on by. Nothing more until 9:15-9:30 pm. When we stop.
Cephalopoda [[circle]] 5 [[/circle]] April 12, 1975 Islas Contreras Still at Brincanco this morning. Clear. A little wind. We take a long swim, ca. 7:15 - 8:45. first swimming near surface in deep water; gradually going over to shallows and shore. No squid. Then A and Mike go hunting along rocky shore and reef. Lots of fish, but still no squid. NOTE: A and Mike have been exercising the submarine regularly throughout this trip. Without much success. SAN (?) Later in the morning go over to Uva. Miscellaneous swimming in shallows. water murky in most places. Fairly clear in some spots. Crown-of-Thorns. Fish. No squid. Note: SM seems to be the most abundant fish in both Secas and Contreras, in shallow water over coral and/or rock Why in the world should a species of this type be a mimic of anything? Much less a squid? Is it that squid are more agile in the long run??? Two more swims in afternoon. One, ca. 2:15 - 3:15, along rocky shore far out point. Second 5:15 - 6:15, open water of bay. No squid. Running light at night. Until 9:15 pm. Without success. April 13, 1975 Islas Contreras Two more swims around Uva this morning. No
[[circle]] 6 [[/circle]] Ceph. April 13, 1975, I squid. As usual lots of SM's. I have been watching them as carefully as possible. Very tame and bold. Don't seem to worry about predators at all. Go on to region of Coiba in afternoon. Swim around Rancheria 4:40 - 5:30 pm. Coral and rock. Water still murky. No squid. Going to run light off Rancheria this evening. One or two "larval" squid may drift by; but we can't be absolutely certain about them. A sees [[underline]] Lolliguncula [[/underline]] (1 ind.) from sub. SAN. April 14, 1975 In mid morning, we go from Coiba to Canal de Afuera. A and the kids see 2-3 squid near surface in middle of channel between the two islands. Apparently [[underline]] Loligo [[/underline]] - types. Various swims and dives around Canal de Afuera. A thinks he see ink ca. 80 ft down near shore. Run light at night. Nothing.
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July 22, 1973 Panamá Marine Lab 2:45 pm. We suddently find that one of the Sepiot eggs has hatched. [[Underlined]] [[Tiny]] [[/Underlined]] young swimming in water. [[Underlined]] Dark with definite V [[/Underlined]] (tentacles still very short). Plus one dead by drainage tube. 2:55. Another hatches! In semi-dark. Arms sort of spread, no real V (yet). For first few minutes, swims forward (very occasionally backward) in short spurts (hatching movements???). Has slight tendency to bump into walls of tank. (The first ind. hasn't bumped once since we started to watch.) Then shows one trace of V. Inds. perhaps 15 mm. long? Quite plump. Others in eggs apparently trying to hatch. Making lunging backward movements. NOTE: Young in eggs are Colorless. Only eyes and something else (ink gland) visible. Second young bumping steadily against side. Exploring? (Natural? [[Viz ?]] situation in reefs.) No V 3:10 pm. 3:16. Second has stopped bumping. Still semi-Dark. Still no V. First still in Dark and V. Hardly moving at all. Just drifting No more hatching for the time being. (Note: there was a cover on tank when we first arrived. We have now removed top. Do the eggs naturally hatch at night???) One turns dark in egg. Then pale again. Some are actually turning around in eggs. 3:24. ADDITION: I forgot to mention that the first shot out 2 puffs of ink (blackish) immediately after we arrived, when we poked a finger at it. 3:30. Now both inds. are in Dark and V. Just floating (doubtless moving fins; but this is difficult to see). Second ind. stops V. 3:40 Put cover back. 3:50 Take cover off. One in Dark and V. The other more or less pale without V.
[[Circled]] b [[/Circled]] 3:57 Now one dark + V, the other Colorless + V 4:10. One consistently Dark. The other consistently Colorless. Colorless one in shadowy part of tank. Dark ind.is usually on more illuminated side. Now both Dark and V again. NOTE: All or most of young in eggs still have quite conspicuous yolk sacs. July 23, 1973 Panamá Early this morning, there were no more eggs hatched. Then cluster is transferred to adjacent tank, which has unfiltered water, for some appreciable time. SAN. SON. At which point, several more hatch. Then transferred back to original tank.(This has had unfiltered seawater since yesterday afternoon) NOTE: According to both A and O, several (or all?) of the young hatched with yolk sacs attached. And then shook off yolk sac as soon as possible. When I arrive, 2:13 pm, there are at least 8 young in tank. Somewhat variable in color. Usually 5-6 in Colorless; 2-3 in Dark. Possibly usually same inds. in dark. Colorless inds. are relatively calm. Usually fairly close together (in semi-line, only a few inches apart). Either relaxed or weak. Dark inds. are more scattered and more active. Doing some bumping into sides (Colorless tend to congregate in relatively quiet water near center). One of the Darks is so active from time to time as to be almost convulsive. Both Darks and Colorless show occasional V-curls. Perhaps a few V-forwards. Both also show occasional movements which look like feeding. ^[[See SAN about hatching colors]] Are the Darks more recently emerged - younger and shyer - than the Colorless??? Still some embryos in eggs. One turns Dark briefly; then pales again.
[[Circled]] C [[/Circled]] Dark presumably alarm under these circumstances I go away for a while Come back 3:40 pm. Find 7 inds in Dark! Some in unritualized postures. Some in V, V-curl. [[Underlined]] One does E! [[/Underlined]] The eighth ind. is in Colorless. Also in V-curl. All inds. usually quite close together now. A few minutes later, only 2 Dark. Rest colorless (again) 4:05. See another Colorless on bottom. Just hatched. Or dying??? Situation unchanged. Leaving 4:55 pm July 24, 1973 Panamá A says baby squid fed last night. He transferred eggs to new tank in Bunker this morning. And about 8 more hatched during or immediately after the transfer! SAN. I.E. disturbance facilitates hatching. Are there young 'premature'? I arrive 2:10 pm. Find approximately 13 young. One in Colorless, "bumping" along bottom. The rest in more or less Dark. Most with V-curl, V-forward, or V-downward. NOTE: It is quite light in here now. Some of the Dark may be response to strong illumination. Just as in the case of adults. Dark inds. in mid water or near top. Apparently in two loose, irregularly shaped, groups. One of 4. The other of 8. One of the darks is very small. Still has yolk sac attached. But swimming around moderately actively Apparently normally. (NOTE: Yolk sac uncolored). Actually, there are 3 usually Colorless inds. doing a lot of "bumping". One is also "somersaulting". 2:35. Several inds (3 or 4) pass from dark into what is obviously "primitive" or "primordial" Bar. Just 2 bars on back. One, toward rear, darkens to a "blob" on each side of body or on fin. Obviously "primordial" DM! Other bar is at
[[circle]] d [[/circle]] front of mantle. [[Image]] Head medium-dark Don't know if fin shape is correct. SOP. As far as I can tell there are no bars below at the time. Well! Well! One of the more "disturbed" inds. that is bumping against the side and turning over occaisionally is in pure Colorless or Colorless plus what seems to be a peculiar sort of "Infantile Fin Stripe". Sharp thin line along base of fins (i.e. along only rear half of body). With a [[underline]] connecting [[/underline]] line underneath! [[Image]] Top view Center spot is ink gland [[Image]] Bottom (not quite sure of shape of line). Is this "normal" ??? 3:02. One baby still in egg is turning around quite freely in all directions. 3:30. Now 7 out of the 13 inds. are completely Colorless. The rest dark as before. All fairly placid. Still some Curls + V's. Leaving 3:35 pm.
What is size adult Dorys??? [[Underlined]] Doryteuthis [[/Underlined]] [[Circled]] 1 [[/Circled]] Nov. 20, 71. Night. Group 35 inds. Narrowly circling very close together Not feeding most of time. One ind. may have struck at anchoveta. 6-8" length. Then see single ind. alone. Species obviously has flexible social organization. Nov. 22, 71. Night. Again single ind. at lights. Some on Nov. 23. May 3, 72. Again group at night. Quite far from nearest island (1/4) mile. Species presumably more open water than Sepiot. May 5, 72. Panetupo 3-4 inds with group (subgroup) of Sepiots. Sepiots small to sub-medium. 1-2 ft above bottom. In 6-8 ft water. TG flat. Dorys same size. I.E. young? Sometimes distribution random. Sometimes species clustered. Dorys and Sepiots move together (at least vis a vis us) Dorys "adapting" to Sepiots (moving at same speed). General comment ca.p.187 Then see group 50+ squids, including 10+ ^(25)Dorys. 2 ft up in 6-7 ft water, center TG bed. Sepiots small. Dorys presumably same size. Dorys grouped together Spaces between Dorys same as spaces between Sepiots. No unusual spaces between species. Diagram p.189. Inds. both species retreat together. Once, at least, Sepiot in lead. ([[Underlined]] Must [[/Underlined]] be significant that we don't see Dorys without Sepiots in daytime). Dory movements jerkier than those of Sepiots Dorys HD while Sepiots are horizontal Some Sepiots in large mixed group are larger than the largest Dorys. No feeding by either species in mixed group. Single Dory at light at night.
[[Underlined]] Doryteuthis [[/Underlined]] [[Circled]] 2 [[/Circled]] May 6, 72. Single Dory joins group small Sepiots in 10 ft of water over TG. Maintains same individual distance as Sepiots. June 24, 72. 19 Large Sepiots. 8 Dorys. 6 of the Dorys are large (as large as any seen by A in Washington) 2 Dorys are smaller (mediums?) All inds 1-2 ft up, in 10-15 ft water. Over sand and coral. Then over sand and TG Sepiots courting. Dorys definite subgroup. Dorys do some displays. To us? Display less than Sepiots. Diagram p.233, p.234. Dorys in center. Sketch Dory p.235 Group stays together all day. But fewer inds of both species in afternoon. Dorys asleep 1:20 pm Then group swells again later. Dorys display pp 238 et seq. To fish? To us? Sepiots court. Clustered near green alga [[Underlined]] Halameda opuntia [[/Underlined]] No X's morning of June 25. Aug 25, 72. 1 young Dory in group 60+ young Sepiots. Dory dashes away with Sepiots, maintaining relative position. Aug 29. Single [[Underlined]] Loligo [[/Underlined]] type at light at night Oct 4, 72. Dory and medium-small Sepiot pulled up in same dip of net
[[Underlined]] Doryteuthis [[/Underlined]] [[Circled]] 3 [[/Circled]] Nov 6, 72. Mixed group. 2 large medium Sepiots + 3 Dorys same size. At night at lights. Apparently all travelling together. Then single Loligo type back alone. Pop cycles maybe different in Dorys and Sepiots, p.367 Dec, 72. Arcadio. Dorys at light at night. Also V-octopus [[Underlined]] (briareus?)[[/Underlined]] Not associating. Then Sepiots. Again no association. June, 73 Arcadio Dorys at lights at night. [[Underlined]] Not [[/Underlined]] associated with Sepiots Then associated with one Sepiot. But species usually are not closely associated [[check mark]] 1 [[Underlined]] Lolliguncula [[/Underlined]] large with mixed group large and medium Sepiots Arcadio July 6, 1973 [[Underlined]] Pickfordiateuthis [[/Underlined]] adult (?) 1/2-1 ft up in 7 ft water over TG. Alone. July 5, 1973 Night. Tightly integrated group of Sepiots and Dorys. Dorys matching their speed to that of the Sepiots. [[check mark]] July 6, 1973. 1 large, 5 medium large Sepiots. Plus 1 presumed Lolliguncula, approximately same size. Aug 73 - Lolliguncula - Dory association Bocas del Toro. At night by light.
[[underlined]] Doryteuthis [[/underlined]] [[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] Arcadio. March 11, 1974 100+ medium small Sepiots and 2 large Dorys. At first 2 Dorys not together. But then join up. This in murk at Carti. Loligo pealii present. Night large Arcadio Apr. 4, 1974. Morpeptuppu Alone Arcadio Morpeptuppu Apr. 5, 74. 60+ smalls in deep water. Mds. just below surface Include both Dorys and Sepiots
Barracuda attack 176 Half-beaks, [[Underlined]] Hemirhamphus [[/Underlined]], often in same areas. Higher in water. More active in daytime (?). Feeding same foods. But no interaction. Definitely [[Underlined]] positively [[/Underlined]] ignoring one another. [[Underlined]] Lolliguncula [[/Underlined]] No visible interaction. Ecological separation. No visible interaction with Octopi. React to panics among fishes Tend to avoid areas where Diadema are particularly abundant. Certainly avoid areas of cucumbers. [[Underlined]] Pickfordiateuthis [[/Underlined]] like larval Sepiots Generall ignore irrelevant fishes Gray + yellows definitely stay close to Sepiots. Grazing. [[Rajmund & saul ?]] p.157 Swimming octopus May 3, 72. What species? Possible competitor? What is nest-guarding Pomacentrid??? Group of Sepiots drifts over to site where G + Y's are grazing. Then away again. Do they expect to catch prey disturbed by fishes? p.197 Spotted Goatfishes associated with Sepiots less frequently than are G + Y's?
[[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] Spotted over mixed bottoms. Sepiots move aside when G&Y moves thru group. Sepiots retreat before Surgeon fishes ([[underlined]] Acanthurus [[/underlined]]) Spotted Goats follow squids Goats may follow other fishes as well as squids. Wrasses with goats (Spotted) with Sepiots. Always same size as Sepiots? Arcadio, March 9, 1974
Predatory fishes: Barracuda Hanan Groupers Snappers Blue Runners, [[underlined]] Caranx fuscus [[/underlined]], seem to cause intense fear. Even tho we have seen no attacks Not so afraid of Hammerhead. Not afraid of small [[underlined]] Caranx ruber [[/underlined]]. Then take refuge in TG from large [[underlined]] ruber [[/underlined]]
What is name Staghorn Coral?
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Infants Nov. 71, Salar. Larvae. Nr. boat. 2 inds. A few ft. below surface in 20 ft. Ord. Pie? V. Inks. Feb. 72, Pico Teo. 1 baby. 3 ft up in 4 ft of water over Turtle Grass. Then 1 very small. In shallow water inside rocky barrier. Bar and V Then another. 1 inch down in 1 1/2 ft water. Also Bar and V. Mimicking Sargassum. June. 72. Panetupo region? Babies in group of 40+ inds. (including large-ish smalls In 5 ft water over TG. Ord, WS, Y, PCA Obviously a nursery. Aug. 72. Between Morpeptupo and mainland.Smalls in open water. Over TG. Then "larvae." 2 inds. Six inches below surface in 5-6 ft water over TG and Sand. Considerable difference in size between the 2 inds. Yellow. Whitish Split. Fin stripe. Inking. Dark. Curls. Y. "Freckles" Pale. V. pp.307 et seq. Bar. General comment 311 Nov. 72 Nalunega 2 ft up in 5 ft water over TG flat. P, PH, DM. Splay. Fin stripe etc. Drawings 344-345 V Split. Bar? Dec. 72 Nalunega 2 very smalls at night. Reddish. July 73 Cartí Split Dark arms. Pale body. 1 ind. 6 ft down in 20 ft of water In turbid water March 74. Morpeptupo? By anchor rope July 74 Niatupo?
Distribution in Panama (Description, San Blas). The San Blas Islands begin at Punta San Blas, a point 100 kilometers Northeast of the City of Colon. It arches parallel and less than 20 kilometers from the Caribbean coast of Panama in a Southeasterly direction for about 160 kilometers to Punta Escoces near the border with Columbia. The Archipelago is formed by several island groups, each separated from the other by deep channels. The outer groups, those facing the open sea, are protected by a well developed algal reef formed by [[strikethrough]] crustacea [[/strikethrough]] ^[[CRUSTOSE]] coralline algea and vermetid gastropods (Glynn, 1973). The area between the algal reef and the Islands is a vast shallow flat of sand and turtle grass, [[underlined]] Thalassia testudinum [[/underlined]] with sparcely scattered heads of coral. The islands and cays are located at the leeward end of the sand flats. The islands' leeward side is a steep, sometimes vertical, face of firm strata formed by hard luxuriant corals to depths varying from 5 to 30 meters. The inner islands, devoid of an immediate algal reef, are structured similarly except that their steep coral face is on the seaward side and the shallow sand flats usually occur on the side facing the mainland. Each island is surrounded by patches of sand shallows and [[underlined]] T. ^[[T]]estudinum [[/underlined]] flats on one side and fringing coral reefs that drop sharply to a bottom of coral rubble and sand to depths of 5 to 30 meters. All field observations and pertinent data were gathered in the San Blas Archipelago. However, in order to verify the occurrence of the species throughout the Caribbean coast of Panama, eleven stations were examined starting at the San Blas Islands and extending to Almirante Bay in Bocas del Toro provice, bordering with Costa Rica. [[underlined]] S. sepioidea [[/underlined]] was evident in all stations.
[[underline]] Cop. & Court [[/underline]] May 71, Porveneir [[check]] June 71, Matupo C. ? [[check]] July 71, Matupo Feb. 72, Matupo [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Mar.72, Ogupukip Apr-May,1972 Niatupo. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Apr-May,1972 Ogupukip. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] June,72. Nalunega. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] June,72. Piriatupo [[check]] June,72. Niatupo [[underline]] C.? [[/underline]] [[check]] June,72. Ogupukip. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] July,72. Nalunega C.? [[check]] Aug,72 Nalunega [[check]] Aug,72 Tiatupo. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Aug,72 Ogupukip [[check]] Aug,72 Morpeptupo [[check]] Oct.72. Ogupukip. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Nov.,72. Ogupukip. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] (Not as common as earlier) [[check]] Nov.,72. Piriatupo. [[check]] Dec.,72. Piriatupo. [[check]] Dec.,72 Ogupukip [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Jan.,73 Ogupukip[[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] Jan,73. Carti [[check]] Feb.,73 Niatupo ? [[check]] Feb.,73 Carti [[check]] [[crossed out]] March,73. Niatupo? [[/crossed out]] March,73. Carti C. ? [[check]] March,73 Niatupo [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] May,73. Sail Rock. [[check]] May,73 Niatupo. [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] May,73 Ogapukip [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] July,73 Nalunega [[underline]] C. [[/underline]] [[check]] [[underline]] Egg-laying [[/underline]] May 72, Piriatupo (Holandes end) July 73, Nalunega. July 74, Soledad Mandinga (Mamitupo) [[underline]] Babies [[/underline]] Nov.71, Salar Feb.72, Pico Teo. June 72, Panetupo region ? Aug.,72. Between Morpeptupo and mainland. Nov,72. Nalunega ? Dec.,72 Nalunega ? July, 73 Carti March 74. Morpeptupo? July,74. Niatupo?
July, 73. Ogupukip. [[checkmark]] July, 73. Morpeptupo. [[checkmark]] July, 73. Narascantupo Pipigua ? [[checkmark]] [[X mark]] Aug., 73. Cocos Cay, Bocas del Toro. March, 74. Ogopukip [[underlined]] C. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] March, 74. Island adjacent to Morpeptup [[underlined]] C. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] Apr., 74. Carti [[checkmark]] Apr., 74 Quinguintupo [[checkmark]] Apr, 74. Ogopukip [[underlined]] C. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] July, 74. Piriatupo [[underlined]] C. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] July, 74. Ogopukip [[underlined]] C. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] July, 74. Narascandupipi [[underlined]] c. [[/underlined]] [[checkmark]] July, 74 Soledad Mandinga [[checkmark]]
May 18, 1971. MM [[checkmark]] June 11 - June 13, 1971. Both [[checkmark]] July 24 - July 28, 1971. Both [[checkmark]] [[crossed out-line through]]Nov. 3- Nov.4, 1971. A.R. (?) X [[/crossed out-line through]] Nov. 20 - Nov. 24 1971. Both [[checkmark]] Jan 29- Jan. 30, 1972. A.R. [[checkmark]] Feb. 16 - Feb. 18, 1972. Both [[checkmark]] Feb. 22 - Feb 25, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] March 22 - March 25, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] Florida to Venezuela April 29 - May 7, 1972. Both [[checkmark]] June 21 - June 28, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] July 29 - July 30, 1972 A.R. [[checkmark]] Aug 24 - Aug.30, 1972 A.R. [[checkmark]] Oct.1 - Oct.8, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] Nov.3 - Nov.11, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] Dec.4 - Dec.10, 1972 Both [[checkmark]] Jan 24 - Jan27, 1973 Both [[checkmark]] Feb.16 - Feb.20, 1973 A.R. [[checkmark]] March 26 - March 28, 1973 A.R. [[checkmark]] May 18 - May 23, 1973 A.R. [[checkmark]] June 30 - July 8, 1973 Both [[checkmark]] Mar.9 - Mar.14, 1974. Both Apr.3 - Apr.9, 1974. A.R. July 6 - July 12, 1974 Both
[[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] [[arrow]] [[arrow]] Fin broader than half body Medium Individual 3 arms on top, getting progressively broader from center outward Tentacles drawn extended (but not to full extent) Pair of arms below similar to outer pair of arms above [[arrow drawn to line]] Tentacles when retracted? [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] Underside view
[[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] Dorsal view of one form of arm "blob". Blob can be more retracted at times. Is there a special "Dark Eyebrows" pattern??? [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] Fin shape may need change. A.F.R. Spots perhaps too large for pure colorless. [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] July 23, 1781 O in colorless on coral.
July 24, 1981 OO Buffy & Blob [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] Should be absolutely symmetrical [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] O in Dark [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] Upward curl effect with Arm Stripe [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] OO Lophophore NOTE: Fins may be too large
July 25, 1981 [[image: pencil sketch of a cephalopod]] O attached laterally