Alouatta (Primates), Barro Colorado Island, Panama, 1958-1960

ID: SIA Acc. 01-096

Creator: Moynihan, M.

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1958-1961

Citation: Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

Usage Conditions Apply
The Smithsonian Institution Archives welcomes personal and educational use of its collections unless otherwise noted. For commercial uses, please contact
Download IIIF Manifest Request permissions Download image Print

Narrow Your Results


Filter Your Results

Smithsonian Secretaries Information

Close Browse records and papers of the Smithsonian Secretaries, from 1846 until today. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by individuals who have held that office.

Expeditions Information

Close Browse records and papers documenting scientific and collecting expeditions either affiliated with the Smithsonian, or with which Smithsonian researchers participated. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by geographic regions predominantly represented in expedition records.

Professional Societies Information

Close Browse records of professional societies closely associated with the Smithsonian, that focus on areas of scientific research and museum studies. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by major topics and disciplines.


The field notes of M. Moynihan document his behavioral observations of Alouatta (primates) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, 1958-1961. Pages are numbered. The notes are arranged into three groupings. Entries are dated and headed with location. Describes extended observations of the interactions of a group of primates in captivity, their vocalizations, behaviors eating, and behaviors when separated. Individuals are referred to by assigned letters. Includes sketch of primate's behavior.

Date Range


Start Date


End Date


Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Ethology
  • Animal behavior
  • Mammalogy


  • Barro Colorado
  • Panama


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Illustrations

Accession #

SIA Acc. 01-096

Collection name

Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 2 Folder 3

Alouatta Palliata I
[[blank page]]
[[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata, [[underline]] I. January 19, 1959 Bano Colorado [[left margin: crossmarking column]] I have now got two young howlers here, both apparently [[female symbol]]. One is very young, with incisors (presumably milk), but still pronouncedly silver gray or yellow gray underneath and toward the rear. Presumably just at the beginning of Carpenter's "Infant 2" stage. Something dreadfully wrong with the arm (and presumably the leg) of one side - can't use them at all. I shall call this animal A. The other is much older, at Carpenter's "Infant 3" or, perhaps more probably, "Juvenile 1" stage. Apparently fairly healthy. I shall call this animal C. [[/left margin: crossmarking column]] [[left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] The whole behavior of these two animals is quite remarkably Spider Monkey-like (these two also look very much like young black Spiders in general shape & mannerisms). The similarity is so close that the relationship cannot be doubted!!! I am perhaps a little surprised by this. [[/left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] [[left margin: crossmarking column]] A is very tame and has accepted me as her mother immediately. C is not too awfully shy; but certainly doesn't accept me as a member of the same species at all. I am keeping A with me all the time, or in the cage with the C Titi. The C Howler is down in the large outside cage with the [[Puiche's?]]. Presumably because she is relatively shy, C has shown much less interesting behavior than A. [[/left margin: crossmarking column]] [[left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] C does, however, have a very clear Hdd pattern - must like that of the young Spiders. Quite as extreme in physical form, although she goes into the Hdd much less frequently than the young [[/left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]]
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata [[/underlined]], Jan 19, 1959, II [[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] [[vertical pencil lines along entire length of left margin]] Spiders we had out here on the island (but this may be because she is less shy than they were). So far, of course, she has only had the opportunity to Hdd by herself. The rest of C's behavior has all been B, with associated and related patterns. She seems to give her B only when she is annoyed and/or frightened,when I approach her or pick her up. (This is a great contrast with the behavior of A, but it is obviously due to the fact that C has no filial feelings toward me - in fact, she doesn't seem to have any filial feelings at all - she seems to be quite content, and is certainly quite silent, when she is all alone by herself.) This B is eventually identical with that of the young Spiders. Low intensity B, when I pick her up gently or prod her gently for instance, is a rapid series of very short, deep, hoarse grunting barks: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Often very long sustained. These barks sound so much like the barks which the L Black Spider gave in long series that I am not sure that I could tell them apart by sound alone. At higher intensities, C's B Notes become louder, longer, shriller, & more penetrating, but are still usually uttered in uniform series _ _ _ _ _ _. There is usually little or no opening & closing of the mouth during either type of B. During low intensity B, the mouth is usually kept absolutely closed throughout, although the lips are usually "blown out" a little with each note, to give a momentary PL effect. During high intensity B, the mouth is usually kept
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Jan, 19, 1958, III [[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] [[pencil marks along entire length of margin, three parallel lines and crosshatching]] wide open throughout, without any movement of the jaws at all as far as I can see. Some B's are accompanied by a definite set pattern Usually or always the low intensity B's. (Set may be [[rare?]] or about during high intensity B's simply because the animal is usually actively engaged in doing something else, like running away, during high intensity B's) This Set is sometimes just [[like?]] the Set of the 2 Black [[Spider?]], i.e. scratching one arm with the hand of the other; but it is more often scratching one cheek or side of the face with the hand of the same side. Usually or always, when Set is repeated, the animal scratches first one cheek with the hand from the same side then the other cheek with the hand from that side. Very rarely, the hind foot is used to scratch the side of the head or the body during B, in circumstances which suggest that this may also be a form of "frustration scratching" [[or?]] Set. A has [[given?]] a lot more B patterns & related patterns, simply because [[underlined]] she always gives B continually whenever she is separated from me [[/underlined]] (except say late at night, when she eventually falls to sleep after giving B for a very long time). C is apparently still at the absolutely most completely dependent infantile stage (her paralyzed arm may emphasize this), where she is immediately frustrated the moment she loses her grip on her "parent". If she is free to move around when separated from me, she makes constant searching movements along with her B. Rather surprisingly, the important stimulus which satisfies her filial drive is that of clinging to the parent. She is not happy, for instance, if I hold her tightly in my hand rather than let her hold tightly to my
[[image]] Left margin. From left to right, three vertically-oriented straight lines and a vertical column of stars. Broken into four sections, corresponding with the length of the paragraphs.[[/image]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Jan. 19, 1959, IV [[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] hand. She gives B when I am just holding her and she is not grasping me. As far as I can tell, the B's A gives when she is separated from me are identical with those which C gives in hostile circumstances, in spite of the fact that A doesn't show the slightest trace of hostility during her performance. This would indicate that the B of this species, as usual (at least in the case of young animals), is a general frustration reaction. A gives both the high intensity and low intensity types of B when she is separated from me, the high intensity type when she is definitely put away from me, the low intensity type when she is still partly able to cling to me. In the case of both animals, in all circumstances, the high intensity and low intensity versions of B are connected by a perfect chain intermediate B's; so it would not be justified to give distinct names to the two extremes. It is possible that A also gives all types of B when she is frightened or even both frightened & irritated. She gives bursts of B, for instance, when she falls down from a height (as she does constantly) and when the [[Sets?]] is bothering her. It is also possible that some of her initial B directed toward me when I just got her was partly hostile. She showed a slight tendency to back away from me at first when I tried to pick her up, although she always liked it immediately as soon as she was close enough to me to really cling. Some of this early B was accompanied by an occasional scratching movement, of the cheek by the hand, which may have been Set. But
[[image]] Left margin. From left to right, three vertically-oriented straight lines and a vertical column of stars. Broken into four sections, corresponding with the length of the paragraphs.[[/image]] [[underline]] Alouatta paliatta [[/underline]], Jan. 19, 1959, V [[number 5 circled in right corner]] little or none of her more recent B when separated from me has been accompanied by any scratching of any sort. This would suggest that the [[Set?]] may be really hostile, the direct result of hostility in a way that the B itself never is. There is a peculiar sound associated with the B's of A which I find rather difficult to decipher. Plaintive moan-like notes, many of which might be transcribed as "Ooooaah." [[underline]] Uttered exactly at the same time as B Notes [[/underline]] (of all intensities, I think - or at least a variety of intensities, but not always synchronized exactly with each B note. What I mean by this last peculiar statement may be illustrated by the following diagram: [[image: series 10 long dashes. Elongated ~ (tilde-type) shapes are written beneath the 5th and 6th dashes and beneath the end of the 7th dash, extending halfway through the 8th dash. The letter B is written to the right of the dashes with an arrow pointing back to the dashes. "Moan-like noises" is written beneath the letter B and points back to the tilde-like shapes]] I think I shall call these noises "MB." They are rather reminiscent of the M of the Night Monkeys, but I am not sure that they are strictly homologous with the latter. A apparently only gives MB with B Notes which are obviously the result of frustrated filial motivation: Thus it is possible that the MB is not a general frustration pattern. Once this morning, A did a lot of B-ing when it was separated from me in which "Ooooaaah" Notes took the place of some B Notes instead of accompanying B Notes. These "Ooooaah" Notes almost seemed to be the culmination of the B series A typical performance might be represented comme ca: [[image: Another series of shorter and longer dashes. First, five shorter dashes, each with the letter B written beneath them, then two longer dashes, under each of which is written "Oooaaah," then four more short dashes with the letter B beneath them]]... It is my impression that these "Ooooaaah" Notes were less plain-
[[image]] Left margin. From left to right, three vertically-oriented straight lines and a vertical column of stars. Broken into four sections, corresponding with the length of the paragraphs.[[/image]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Jan. 19, 1959, VI [[number 6 is circled in right corner]] tive sounding than the MB actually combined with B, and I don't know exactly how they are related to "typical" MB. At very low intensities of frustration, A may utter only one or two low intensity B Notes in a "series" Sometimes, in these circumstances (perhaps at even lower intensities??), these single or very short series of notes become high pitched and squeaky instead of deep & grunting. Such notes may well be strictly homologous with the [[Squ?]] of [[underline]] Aletes [[/underline]] & [[underline]] Cebus [[/underline]], but they are certainly very much rarer than the [[Squ?]] Notes of any of the species of the other two genera I have watched. I think that A has only given these [["Squ"?]] Notes when she was just a little bit uncomfortable in my hand. It is also possible that A has a Fill (S Fill) pattern of some sort. She has occasionally given single notes which sound like the high pitched S Fill's of [[underline]] Cebus, Lagothrix, and Ateles [[/underline]]. Usually in my hand. There may really be Fill's of some kind, but I rather think that they are just intermediate notes between B or [[Squ?]] and Mu (see below). The only thing which might make me think that these Fill-like notes might really be a separate distinct pattern is that A once gave a relatively loud Fill-like note when it was startled by someone hammering nearby. It is obvious, in general, that the main part of the vocal repertory of this species is much like those of [[underline]] Cebus, Lagothrix, and Ateles [[/underline]], except that the B patterns are greatly hypertrophied, while the homologues of [[Squ?]] and the Fill are very little developed or absent. The repertory of this species must thus be considered typically platyrrhine.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Jan 19, 1959, VII [[circled]] 7 [[/circled]] [[image - vertical in left margin, 3 bars and 1 column of stars]] A does have a [[Mu?]] pattern like other species. A soft, rather rattling or vibrating, murmer, which sounds almost exactly like that of the [[Sets??]]. This is obviously the "purr" of Carpenter. It is just the sort of thing which is often called a [[conlecetrent?]] note, i.e. the very slightest distress reaction. A gives it, for instance, when she is happily asleep in my lap and I touch her feet enough to disturb her the very slightest bit. A's [[Mu?]] is quite frequently accompanied by "chewing," again just like that of the [[Seti?]] Sometimes, when I put A in the cage, after she has given moderate to high intensity B Notes for a long long qhite, the frequency and intensity of her B Notes gradually declines, and she begins to utter them in fairly discrete 3 -, 4 -, and 5 - note series. I think the 3 - note series are the most common, or, at least, the "basic" pattern (i.e. the 4 and 5 - note series sound like the 3 - note series with just a little bit extra added on). The pitch of the notes in a 3 note series is often quite characteristic [[image - low bar, high bar, low bar]] I wonder if this pattern could be the "distress call" of Carpenter? In any case, I don't think I should give it a separate name yet. All the notes in there 3 -, 4 -, and 5 - note series are obviously just ordinary B Notes. This seems to be just an ordinary [[underline]]"exhausted"[[/underline]] rather low intensity B pattern. (It is interesting that I have never heard A utter these 3 -, 4 -, and 5 - note series when she is working herself up at the beginning of a long series of B. This may be significant.) Surprisingly enough, A and C have quite ignored both the sound and sight of another, even when one or both is uttering
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Jan. 19, 1958, VIII, [[circled]] 8 [[/circled]] [[image - vertical along left margin, 3 bars and 1 column of stars]] Long and loud B. The only possible exception was this afternoon. I was sitting outside the big cage in which C was roaming around, and A was sitting quietly and half asleep in my lap. Then, [[there?]] [[?]], when C was walking quite close to us,A uttered a single loud explosive-sounding bark-like note. Sometimes completely monosyllabic and perhaps could be transcribed as "Noh!". Sometimes almost bisyllabic, like an inspiration [[underline]] and expiration [[/underline]] of breath, and perhaps could be transcribed "Oh-hoh". Something about this performance made me think that it might be a sort of "Alarm B"! The hands of these two animals are really quite peculiar. The division between the fingers is of course 2-3 but the division is much more conspicuous morphologically than I expected Much greater than in [[underline]] [[Aotus?]], Callicebus, [[/underline]] or any of the marmosets or [[tamaries?]] I have observed. (I think that [[underline]] [[Lagothrix?]] [[/underline]] may be intermediate between these other monkeys and the Howler in this respect My notes would imply that the Woolly always divides its fingers 2-3, if it divides then at all; but I don't remember any morphological differentiation.) These two Howlers, however, often spread the fingers wide comme ca [[image - hand with two left most digits spread away from the 3 digits on the right]] even when they are making no attempt to grasp anything!! When C walks along the ground he usually holds his arms (not his legs) "akimbo" in a most Spider Monkey - like manner. Both A and C have occasionally showed signs of trying to clean their faces, after feeding, by rubbing the muzzle along a
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]] , Jan. 19, 1958, IX [[circled]] 9 [[/circled]] [[pencil lines along entire length of margin]] hard surface or a branch; but such attempts are always very rare, slight, and ineffective. Their usual method of cleaning the face is to brush across it with a single swipe of a hand. This may also be another resemblance to [[underline]] Lagothrix. [[/underline]] Now I have heard A start to do a little more low intensity B, and I can describe it a little better. The lowest intensity pattern of the "B complex" seems to consist of notes which sound like "whispered" ordinary B's, with a pronounced "Jib" quality (I shall call these "Jib" from now on). Then, at what seems to be slightly higher intensity motivation (another frustration of motivation)the Jib's are replaced by Squ's. There does seem to be a real S Jill pattern in this species, and it seems to occur at just slightly lighter intensities than the Squ. The S Jill's are rather low-pitched without being wooden-sounding. They are just about the same pitch as the "real" low intensity B's, and they sound very much as if they were the lowest intensity of the actual barks. I can certainly confirm that all the "sub-B" patterns, i.e. Jib, Squ, and S Jill, are relatively very rare in this species; and the S Jill is the rarest of the lot. [[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], I January 22, 1959 Bano Colorado I have now got a third Howler, which I shall call D. It seems to be a female; but its genitalia are rather different from those of A and C. D has nothing at all like a penis or clitoris; but A and C do have a little something which I have been interpreting as a clitoris
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]] Jan 22, 1959, I [[circled]] 10 [[/circled]] [[pencil lines along entire length of margin]] [[image - squiggly line]] Does this mean A and A are males? I think quite possible yes. I have seen a little more behavior recently, which may have clarified a few points, and added a little more information; but nothing very spectacular. The Tsh, Squ, and S Till patterns are still only uttered by A. Neither C nor D has shown a trace of them. And I have seen C start B "apparently from nothing." This process was as follows. C was first sitting quite silently; then began to utter a series of faint notes, so faint that I could hardly hear them at all, but apparently quite similar to the grunting barks (which I called "low intensity B" on Jan 19) in tonal quality. These faint notes gradually became louder & louder until C was giving full-scale loud grunting barks. This performance thus seemed to include all intensities of B except the very highest. The fact that no Tsh, Squ, or S Till Notes were uttered at any time during this performance would suggest that the Tsh's, Squ's, and S Till's of A must be qualitatively as well as quantitatively different from its B patterns (Perhaps the Tsh, Squ, and/or S Till contain some filial motivation ???) It must be remembered, however, that A is much younger than C or D; and some of the differences in its behavior may be due to its age. D seems to be a trifle younger than C. It is much more heavily built, and much fatter than C, but a trifle shorter. It seems to be completely lacking its lower front incisors, which would suggest that it is at the beginning of Carpenters "Infant 3" stage. D's behavior is much like that of C It is a little tamer than C; but it still doesn't like to be picked up, and tends to retreat before me when I approach.
[[pencil lines along margin]] Alouatta palliata, Jan 22, 1958, II [[circled]] 11 [[/circled]] D's B patterns seem to be quite like those of C. D does not utter B when it is by itself alone, i.e. it has passed the stage of filial dependence. It [[?]] to utter B only when annoyed or irritated. I have also heard D utter MB Notes quite like those of A when it was sitting on my lap, which it quite dislikes. This would seem to indicate that the MB is [[underline]] not [[underline]] produced by, or really connected with, filial motivation. C has ocassionally single loud "Hole" or "Ob-hah" Notes while walking more or less peacefully around its cage. These are absolutely identical with the notes that I called "Alarm B" when they were given by A (Jan. 19, p 8); but C showed no sign of alarm when it gave these notes. This would suggest that such notes are perhaps nothing more than brief moderate-intensity "ordinary" B responses to a sudden ((& transitory?) stimulus. D does Hdd just like C. I have also seen D do "chewing when it was sitting on my shoulder, and also when sitting on my lap. Once it seemed to have regurgitated some apple I had given it a few minutes before and was chewing that. Don't tell me this "chewing" is really chewing the cud? A still does all or most of its B when it is separated from me, often when frantically trying climb up and cling to me; but none of this B, particularly, the [[?]] most frantic type when it is clinging to me, is definitely accompanied by biting movements (It will bite my arm at exactly the same place it is trying to cling to.) This would suggest that even at this early stage, frust[[ration]]
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]] Jan. 22, 1959, III [[circled]] 12 [[/circled]] [[pencil lines along entire length of margin]] [[frust]]ration is beginning to lead to hostility (even, perhaps, just plain attack). Several times when I have started to pick A up, it has responded by suddenly pumping its (pink) tongue in and out several times. I think C also did this once, the night it arrived, while it was sitting in Hdd, when I approached it. This might well be hostile I wonder if it is related to the tongue-pumping before copulations described by carpenter ??? When A does "chewing" & Mu on my arm or shoulder, this is usually accompanied by "nuzzling" or licking or very gentle chewing of my flesh. I wonder if this complex of patterns can be related to suckling? All these animals have a strong tendency to climb upward at times of stress. This is certainly true of C and D when they are frightened and trying escape. It is also true of A when it is trying to cling to me or approach me. It will even climb up the side of its cage when it sees me and wants to come to me; even though this climbing leads it away from the door which leads to me. A has a very strong tendency to get as close to my face as possible. This is true even when I am lying down, i.e. when my head is not the highest point of me. The only stimulus that can ever cause A to move away from me is heat. When it is cold it will even leave my shoulder to go a few feet away and lie under a warm lamp. Then, when it gets warm, it tries to come back to me. I think the Set of this species must be a rather low intens
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]] Jan 22, 1959, IV. [[circled]] 13 [[/circled]] [[pencil lines along length of margin]] ity pattern on the whole. Both C and D tend to do Set (of the cheeks) with very soft low intensity B, or after a burst of louder B. I have now been watching A's reaction to heat a little bit more. The light he goes to is on my deck, and when it leaves my shoulder to go under the light, it is perfectly happy to lie there as long as I remain near the deck a few feet away. Just lies half asleep, or even completely asleep, [[underline]] quite silent [[/underline]]. But as soon as I leave to go to the other room, it immediately sits up, and starts to give 3-, 4-, or 5-note calls like those described on Jan 19, p.7 I shall call these "Abandonment Notes" ("Ab"). Tonight A gave relatively few 4- or 5- note Ab's. Most 3-note _-_ or, quite commonly, _-- It also gave a number of what appeared to be low intensity 1- note or 2- note Ab's. [[thick dash]] or [[two thick dashes]] The latter were almost as common as the 3-note series. While A gave these Ab's, it showed intention movements or weak movements of searching for me, but it was reluctant to leave the heat. It's Ab Notes finally stopped after almost 1/2 hour. Some of its Ab was occasionally interrupted by brief bursts of the grunting bark type of low intensity B. It is obvious that the Ab is closely related to B, but I think that it may well be qualitatively distinct in some ways. (If it is just an intensity variant of B, then the motivation where frustration causes the Ab is probably fluctuating [[squiggly line]] very rapidly.) In general, A is showing a tendency to stops its B and other notes more rapidly when I abandon it now This is probably conditioning.
[[circled]] 14 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata,[[/underline]] I January 26, 1959 Bano Colorado [[pencil lines along entire length of margin]] More about the "tongue pumping" of A. (I shall call this pattern "TP"). It did a violent burst of TP (tongue going in and out quite fast) yesterday when I was carrying it in the generator house, when the generator was started. Obviously frightened I think. The TP was followed by long B It has also done a little TP from time to time when I start tp pick it up in my hand. The lowest intensity form of TP seems to be a simple protrusion of the tongue, for a few seconds, without any in and out movements. I put A in the big cage with C and D today, for a little while, to see what would happen. Both C and D seemed mildly interested at first. They came down from their perches, followed A (who was trying to get to me, of course), and eventually came up to sniff at A. Sniffed at both A's face and rear. No rigid nose to tail performance like the Pinche's, if only because A didn't seem to do any sniffing back. When D came up to sniff A, I think she uttered some soft liquid plaintive notes, with mouth closed. Later on, she sat beside A and uttered a series of short, nasal, slightly reedy or trilling "Aanh" Notes, opening & closing the mouth conspicuously each time I have no idea what either of these notes might mean. A seems to be uttering relatively more Tsh Notes, and relatively few B Notes, now, in the cage in my house and in general when I am handling it. A sign of generally lower [[?]] ?? Some of these Tsh Notes are very hard-sounding, about like "Tschuck."
[[pencil markings in margin]] [[circled]] 15 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underline]] I January 28, 1959 Bano Colorado We found that D had worms today, so we took both C and D out of their big cage and put them in separate ones. C was put in one of the small outside cages. Shortly after it was put there, a wild band of Howlers showed up on the other side of the clearing, where C could hear them from time to time. I don't know whether it was the sudden separation from its companion, or the appearance of the band, but C suddenly became quite vocal for an hour or so. Giving short series of loud long hoarse barks. Lower in pitch, however less shrill than the notes I have called high intensity B before, but quite urgent, high intensity, sounding. Actually these notes sounded quite like the BB of the white-faced-Capuchin in quality. Some at least of these series by C were like this:[[symbol representation of call length and pitch]] __ ---- ---- __ This is quite like some of the Ab's of A; and I think that these calls may well have been "older" memories of the Ab. [[underline]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underline]] I February 20, 1959 Bano Colorado A's behaviour has been just about the same for the last two weeks. I think that I have a fairly good idea of its vocal repertory now (We recorded most of its vocabulary yesterday. I misidentified the date on the record, saying February 18th instead of February 19th.) The main elements of A's present repertory seem to be as follows:
[[underline]] Alouatta palliatta [[/underline]], Feb. 20, 1959, II [[circled]] 16 [[/circled]] [[left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] B (including Ab) Waa ("Waaaaah Notes") MB (or M) Mn [[/left margin]] [[left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] The B's are still the most widespread notes, in the sense that they occur in the widest variety of circumstances. The actual sound of A's Bs at the present time is much the same as before, insofar as they range from low intensity "grunting" types to more high-pitched, urgent-sounding high intensity types. A still seems to perform B as a "general frustration reaction. It gives B [[underline]] alone [[/underline]] when I pick it up by its tail or man handle it in any way. The number of B notes, and the type of B notes, in such circumstances, seems to be directly dependent upon the strength of the unpleasant, painful, stimulus. [[/left margin]] [[left margin: three vertical lines, one hashed column]] A also gives B when I abandon it, when I am relatively far away from it and/or definitely moving actually[[?]] away from it. Some of this B seems to be quite identical with the B it utters when I bit it or hold it by its tail or make it physically uncomfortable in any way. Including both low intensity grunting types and higher pitched high intensity types. As noted above, this B is usually long untamed[[?]] & nearly continuous at first, but then slowing & tending to break up into "Ab" as the animal becomes "exhausted." I have now decided that Ab is only a slight variant of ordinary B. It is extremely variable. In the recording yesterday, I called it the "3-note call", but it may vary from a long series of 7 or 8 notes or more to only 2 (probably only 1, but this would be difficult to identify as such). The only distinctive features of the "Ab" types of B is that it consists of a series of notes, the middle notes of which (or the end notes, in the case of a 2-note series [[/left margin]]
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underline]] Feb. 20, 1959, III. [[circled]] 17 [[/circled]] [[pencil lines along entire length of margin]] and some 3-note series) become suddenly much louder and higher pitched than the others. This may vary from something like this: [[two thick dashes]] [[image of seven thick dashes]] to this [[dash]] I presume that these fluctuations must really be due to some sort of fluctuations in the internal frustration. This B as a result of abandonment is not easily suppressed by the absence of any response to it. A will continue doing B almost steadily throughout a whole day when I am away in tone (although it usually stops, pretty much, by the second day, when I am way for two days). The B as a result of abandonment is never uttered alone. It is always accompanied by some of what I called "MB" earlier on. Plaintive "Ooooooah" sounds These tend to occur after particularly high intensity B notes (during "ordinary" B or in "ab"), but are probably not absolutely confined to this situation. They are obviously the result of frustrated gregariousness or filial motivation, as they only occur in abandonment situations. I am now sure that they are strictly homologous wiht the M of the Night Monkey. One of commonest notes of A at the present time, and for some time party is the Waa. This must have segregated out from some form of low intensity B, but it all happened before I actually noticed it. The Waa is another abandonment pattern, and is often associated with B and M; but it is characteristically uttered when A is quite near me, and can't get up onto my neck or shoulders, although I am not actually moving away. It doesn't seem to be so much a low intensity abandonment pattern as a short-range one. It is difficult to
[[centered]][[underlined]]Alouatta palliata [[end underline]], Feb. 20, 1959, IV, [[far right and circled]] 18 describe very well, but it might be transcribed as a hoarse, moderately low-pitched "Waaaaaah" note. Waa's may be uttered singly or in series, but the series are never organized into a distinctive type like the "ab" type of B. The typical Waa note might be said to have a slightly "creaky" "vibratory" quality [[fine jagged line]]. This is never anything like as distinct as the [[thicker jagged line]] of the [[?]] patterns of other species; but I wouldn't be surprised if it were largely or completely homologous with some (at least) of the [[?]]'s of such species as the Woolly Monkey. At very high intensities, the Waas become very loud and high pitched, sort of "Whining screams". This tends to occur when I start to move out of the room in which A is, before it begins to utter B's and M's. It is possible that some of the Waa notes of A are followed by directly by M, without any intervening B, but I am not sure about this. Such cases must be at least very rare. Today I put A in the [[big?]] outside cage with C and D again. C reacted in the usual way, coming up to sniff at A's rear; and then started to run away from A, and then running back to leap on A, doing this repeatedly, in an apparent attempt at "play". During this "play" it uttered a lot of new soft short "Ooh" or "Nhh" notes, occasionally interrupted by a single quite definite and separate M note. Where "Ooh" note may have been nothing but regular low intensity B notes, but they did seem to have a definitely if slightly greater vibrator quality, and I thought that they might be the "adolescent" version of the Waa. Then Mu notes seem to [[integrate?]] almost perfectly with the Waa notes. They might almost be considered just slightly differentiated low
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], Feb. 20, 1959, V. [[circle]]19[[/circle]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 column of stars along the left margin]] intensity versions of the Waa. I don't think A has any other really distinct calls. I haven't heard anything like distinct "Tsh" for some time now. Sometimes, at the beginning or end of a burst of B Notes (or even Waa Notes), it [[may?]] one or a few more notes which sound like the Squ of other species, but these are obviously just low intensity versions of the other notes and not a separate catagory in themselves. Sometimes, during low intensity Waa, A utters a sound which is much more reminiscent of the real Fill's of other species than the usual "Waa", but these notes seem to be almost accidental" in the circumstances. I was interested to note that A completely ignored the sound of its own voice on the tape recorder. A very great contrast with the behavior of young Spider Monkeys in the same circumstances. This lack of "tonal reactivity" is manifested in other ways. A completely ignores C and D when it is in the same cage with them. And C and D usually ignore A after their initial investigation of its anal or genital region. And all these animals seem to completely ignore the wild Howlers (a large band has spent most of the last week in the trees above the cage in which the captives are). The wild Howlers also seem to ignore the captives, at least most of the time. (They once came close & howled when I was giving C medicine and it was doing a lot of B - but they also tend to come close & howl when I am not touching a captive and the captives are silent.) I can understand why the wild animals might ignore the captives, as the captives are all young; but the lack of any reaction by the captives is quite surprising. The captive howlers always seem to clean their rears after
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], Feb. 20, 1959, VI. [[circle]]20[[/circle]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 column of stars along the left margin]] defecation by rubbing along branches or the ground. [[image - squiggly line at left margin]] A's paralyzed arm & leg are much better now; but it still weighs only 500 grams, so it probably isn't doing too awfully well [[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], I February 26, 1959 Barro Colorado I have gradually been breaking A of its dependence on me. First, I started putting it in the outside cage with all the other howlers from [[trecil to tereci?]], approximately every other day for half a day or so. This didn't work at all. A spent all its time in the cage giving frantic Ab-type B - and also developed dreadful diarrhoea, I think probably psychosomatic. (A developed diarrhoea on at least 3 separate occasions after being put in the outside cage.) Then, I put it in the outside every day all day. This seems to be working a little better. The decline of its reaction to me has been interesting. It spent the first day in the outside cage giving the Ab-type B all the time I wasn't in sight. Changing to Waa whenever I was in sight. The Waa becoming particularly high & shrill & plaintive whenever I started to leave. All the Waa (and probably the B) accompanied by attempts to get to me, The next day it did little or no B while I was out of sight; but always did lots of Waa, and made frantic attempts to get to me, whenever I was in sight. On both days, it always did Mu when I picked it up. The third day was today. It hasn't given B when I was away
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], Feb. 26, 1959, II. [[circle]]21[[/circle]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 column of stars along the left margin]] today either. Whenever I come in sight today, it still gives Waa; but when I don't respond it eventually falls silent and tends to wander away & feed disconsolately. Its diarrhoea has stopped. When it does give Waa now, it still tries to get to me; but even this is much less vigorous than before. it still gives Mu, however, whenever I pick it up. When it still gave the Ab-type B, this was accompanied by M in the usual way; but I [[underline]]think[[/underline]] that the M dropped out some time before the B was completely finished. This is certainly a [[f?]] case of the decline of a "drive", or the overt [[cupression?]] of internal factors, by negative conditioning alone. It is obvious that A's internal "filial" drive is as high as ever; and it could revert to its earlier type behavior with just the [[underline]]slightest[[/underline]] bit of encouragement. Even now, for instance, whenever I pick it up (to get it out of the doorway, for example) and put it down again immediately, it shows a brief [[reesudercence?]] of (Ab)B-M just after being put down. Surprisingly enough, perhaps, A still doesn't seem to show the slightest positive reaction to any of the other howlers. While A was still being vocal, I noticed a few more things about its calls. I wouldn't be surprised if the "Tsh" type notes (which I heard again a few days ago) were the lowest intensity form of Waa. At least, they intergrade with Waa. I still think that the "Squ" type notes may be the lowest intensity form (or one of the lowest intensity forms)of B. Several times, a couple days ago, A uttered several notes which seemed to be nearly identical with the S Fill's of other species. These were associated with Waa notes, and I think that they were really moderately low intensity Waa Notes of the shrill plaintive type. In any case, such
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Feb. 26, 1959, III [[circled]] 22 [[/circled]] [[pencil marks along entire length of margin]] performances would seem to be additional evidence that the Waa of the Howlers is homologous with the Till's of other species. I have got a new Howler,probably [[symbol]], younger than D. I shall call it X. When I first go X, put it in a cage by itself. Whereupon it did lots of Ab-type B for an hout or so before shutting up. Did ordinary B when handled. Later on, I put X in the small cage in which A and the young Titi were at the time; and it again did Ab-type B for about an hour, apparently completely ignoring A and the Titi. Still later, I put in the large cage with the other Howlers, where upon it settled down without any B. The response of both C and D to the first appearance of X was just as expected. Both C and D repeatedly came up to X and sniffed at its rear. D also sniffed at X'x face later on. X did a little sniffing of C's + D's rears; but relatively very little. It is becoming more + more obvious that Howlers usually clean the anal region after defecation by rubbing; but they do not do this more frequently when they are excited (if they don't defecate) than at other times This rubbing certainly does not seem to be a social signal. I have noticed that when D runs away from me in the cage (I give her a little medicine from time to time as treatment for a skin disease) she utters [[underline]] very [[/underline]] soft (and rather rapid) B. This seems to be very low intensity as she is not greatly frightened of me. The interesting thing is that these low intensity B's are quite gulping in sound, really quite reminiscent of the Glp's of the Night-Monkey. C is by far the most playful of the Howlers I have now. Presumably just the right age.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Feb. 26, 1959, IV [[circled]] 23 [[/circled]] [[3 vertical lines and 1 hatched vertical line running down the left side of the page]] As far as I can tell, these animals have no Scream patterns. They just seem to do B when I handle them. I think that these may be qualitative as well as a quantitative difference between the shrill whistle-like trill, Waa notes and the ordinary deeper, more rasping, Waas. At least, A can give long series of the deeper type of Waas, apparently rather high intensity as well as brief single whistle-like Waas, apparently rather low intensity. The more whistle-like type may contain a relatively stronger "filial" component, and relatively less hostility (?? less hostility as a result of frustration ???) The whistle-like notes, which are also very plaintive and "wheuing" may also be transitional to M. [[underlined]] Alouatta palliate, [[/underlined]] I March 29, 1959 Barro Colorado Unfortunately A ("Edna") died early this month, while I was away in Chiriquí. But I now have another new Howler. I shall call it "Y". Younger than X (just about exactly intermediate between X and A, I should think. Possibly ♂ ??? Two days ago, it weighed just about 900 grams. Y is not tame, but is partly fixated on me. I have heard it give all the calls that A gave, except M & Mu (it doesn't seem to be tame enough for the latter). The interesting thing; however, is that it gives some of these calls in rather different circumstances, at least sometimes. I am now convinced that the Waa is a generalized distress call. Low to moderate intensity. Y sometimes gives this call just
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Mar 29, 1959, 2[[roman numeral]], 24[[circled]] [[straight and hatched lines on left side of the page]] after I have put it in its cage (it is always kept in a cage by itself), just as A did. But Y also gives the Waa in other circumstances, when it seems to be uncomfortable for one reason or another. When I first got Y, in the market, I brought it back to the office in a box in the jeep. It was generally silent during this trip, but every time the jeep went around a curve, and Y was presumably thrown against the side of the box, it uttered one or more Waa notes! It also utters Waa Notes quite frequently when I hold it in my hands and mishandle it a little. And it always gives some Waa Notes, sometimes may [[many?]] of them, when I give it a bath,which it simply detests! In both the latter circumstances, the Waas may sound exactly like the Waas A used to give when abandoned, but they are often somewhat more irregular, uttered in a burst of notes of irregularly varying loudness &length, and they frequently intergrade with ordinary hostile[[?]] B (see below). In other words, in the latter two situations, Y is both diturnal and annnoyed and either one of these two reitovoits[[?]] may predominate at different times. Sometimes, when Y has been giving quite a lot of Waa Noes in my hands, and then gradually calms down, it may give one or two very squeak-like notes, quite plaintive in tone. They sound rather as if they were the lowest uiteurity[[?]] form of Waa. More important, when Y is giving both Waa Notes & ordinary B, it sometimes utters peculiar Waas which have a distinct quaver or " rattle undertone". These are very reminiscent of the more wooden-sounding trills of such species as the Woolly Monkey. Another indication that the Waa may be strictly howlogous with the Shee of the Woolly. (it may also be an indicator that the Shee of the Woolly is a generalized dutiers [[?]] call.) I also think that the "ab-tyne" B may be another dictiers [[?]]
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata,[[/underline]] Mar. 29, 1959,III, [[encircled]] 25 [[/encircled]] [[3 straight lines and one hatched along left side of the page]] call, or, at least, contains distress elements. I brought Y out on the train in a paper bag, and it detested this. Constantly vocal in the bag, and all or most of its vocalizations were ab-type B, or something very similar Some of these vocalizations were probably quite "typical" ab, just like A used to give when abandoned; but others were a little different. Not organized into definite, "structured" series. But most of their notes were definitely lower than the usual purely hostile ordinary B, and not organized into series comme ca: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .... Ys' purely hostile B seems to be identical with that of A and all the other howlers I have had. We tried recording Y's war notes today. Before doing so, we played back the old recording of A's notes. Y reacted to the sounds of A's voice immediately; but in a rather unexpected way It immediately ran frantically around the room (not going near the recorder) in what was obviously escape behavior. Then it repeatedly tried to climb up some electric pipe on the wall. I stopped it from doing this, and then it went to a dark corner of my book case, get behind a pile of books, and moved around nervously (within a very small radius) and/or sat hunched up in [[Hdd ?]] there. In other words, it was scared stiff by A's voice. This behavior started when we played A's hostile B (the first sounds on the recording), stopped when we played a very bad recording of Mu, then started again when more hostile B came on, and, rather surprisingly, continued throughout all the rest of the recording, even when A was giving ab-type B, and Y or Waa's, in addition to, or instead of hostile B! Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this whole
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Mar. 29, 1959, IV, [[encircled]] 26 [[/encircled]] [[ 3 vertical lines and one vertical hatched line run along the left side of the page. performance, however, was the fact that Y was quite silent throughout. Like the other howlers I have had, Y always or usually becomes very aggressive whenever its "clinging" filial motivation is thwarted. When it is clinging to my arm, for instance, and wants to climb up on to my head (its favorite spot) and I prevent is by grasping the tip of its tail, it immediately starts to [[underline]]bite [[/underline]] me, [[gives?]] battle B, and even jump up and down like a wild Howler on a limb! What effect such behavior must have on its mother in the wild I can hardly imagine! ) There would thus appear to be a peculiar relationship between the reactions of young Howlers to thwarting of their desire to cling to their mothers' hair. When the mother is distant, or at least unapproachable, the young do ab-type B and Waa's without overt aggressiveness (or overt escape, for that matter), usually with searching or approach movements. When they are in contact with the "mother", but "she" prevents them from going to the spot they want, they resort to open aggressiveness & hostile B, without ab-type B or Waa's. [[underline]]Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], I march 31,1959 Y is now giving M's in addition to ab-type B when he is in his cage and badly wants to come to me.
Alouatta Palliata II
[[blank page]]
Alouatta pallita,I May 8 1959 Barro Colorado I have been so busy for the last month or so that I have had practically no time to do much with the monkeys. Still I have noted the following in the case of the Howlers. Y's behaviour has shown various fluctuations - probably not primarily due to maturations or alteration of innate patterns as such, but to the degree to which I have allowed it to become fixated on me. During most of April I largely ignored it, and it gradually grew less dependent on me. Then, around the first of this month, I started to carry it with me again as much as possible, and it has again become very very attached to me. During the period I was ignoring it, it gradually became used to being alone, and did not call nearly as much when it was by itself. Interestingly enough, it stopped giving the ab-type B about completely (perhaps absolutely completely for a few days). Then after being handled a lot again for a few days, it again began to give ab-type B after I put it back in its cage after allowing it be ride on my neck. Yesterday its ab-type B seemed to be "restored" to full strength. I carried it around for a couple of hours in the morning, then put it back in its cage, and it gave ab-type B for hours on end for almost the whole of the rest of the day. This was as long-sustained & vigorous as the most intense ab-type B ever given by A!! At no time has Y ever given ab-type B except when isolated. All or almost all the ab type B has always started immediately after it was put back in its cage after being allowed to ride on
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], May 8, 1959,II. [[encircled]] 28 [[/encircled]] [[3 vertical lines and one vertical hatched line run along the left side of the page. my shoulders for a while. Here facts would indicate either one of two alternatives: 1) the ab-type B is purely an isolation or abandonment pattern (at least now); or 2) the ab-type B is a generalized distress reaction,but relatively high intensity, and only isolation or abandonment produces enough distress (at the present stage of the animal's development) to induce the call. Surprisingly enough, I think the animal continued to produce occasional M-type notes during the period in which it had almost or completely stopped giving ab-type B. What does this mean???? (I may be mistaken about this persistence of M - I must check on it.) Y has continued Waa notes much as before. There were quite common even when the ab-type B was rarest. I am still convinced that these notes are probably really generalized distress notes( see Mar. 29); although it is impossible to prove conclusively that they are not just low intensity isolation or abandonment notes. In any case, Y still utters them when I handle it It also still goes into hostile high intensity B, now that it is fixated on me again, when its filial motivation is particularly intensely thwarted. This tends to occur when it is out of its cage, very near me, or even clinging to my legs or arms, when I physically prevent it from climbing to my neck. It then seems to work itself up into a real hysterical temper tantrum, screaming B's very rapidly at the top of its voice, and even jumping up and down, stiff-legged, like an angry adult howler in the wild, and even trying to bite me. This is certainly one of the clearest cases of frustration producing aggressive hostility that I have ever seen in an animal. These outburst of B when Y is prevented from climbing up to
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], May 8, 1959, III [[encircled]]29[[/encircled]] [[3 straight vertical lines and 1 hatched vertical line run along the left side of the page. my neck can be noticeably increased or prolonged if I poke it from time to time. Presumably an extra added stimulus to hostility. And Y gives exactly the same type of high intensity B when its hostility is provoked without any, or without much, thwarted filial component. If I spank it, or if I give it a bath. If I spank it, and then put it down on the ground, it almost always continues to scream B's for a couple of minutes,[[underline]] usually backing away from me on its hind legs.[[/underline]] This backing away must be an expression of the activated escape drive. It is only interrupted, occasionally, by some jumping up and down, on all four feet, which presumably occurs when the attack drive is temporarily in the ascendant. This backing away on hind legs seems to be quite a characteristic pattern of the species (or at least of Y). When I put Y in the outside cage with all the other howlers, for a few minutes, the other howlers all came up & sniffed it in the usual way. This occurred around May 1, when Y was definitely fixated on me, and it did not respond to the advances of the other howlers in any friendly manner. Sometimes it just moved away from them, and sometimes it went into [[hold?]]. Sometimes, however, it backed away from them, more or less steadily on its hind legs,[[underline]] striking at them with its front paws![[/underline]] This was obviously fairly high intensity hostility, largely produced by the escape drive; but the striking movements would also suggest that Y's attack drive was at least appreciable, even if much weaker than the escape drive. The most interesting aspect of Y's performance in these circumstances, however, was that[[underline]] it was quite intent throughout![[/underline]] This would indicate that even quite high intensity hostility may be silent when the escape drive is predominant. Not really what I would have expected on a priori grounds. (I might add that the new howler Z - see below - showed
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata,[[/underline]] May 8, 1959, IV [[encircled]]30 [[encircled]] [[3 straight vertical lines and 1 hatched vertical line run along the left side of the page]] some evidence of similar behavior, silent retreat interrupted by some silent but apparently aggressive movements, when I first introduced into the cage with howlers C, D and X.) It is barely possible that I have been overlooking a pattern performed by these young animals which is directly related to, and largely the equivalent of, the full-throated howling roar of adults. Whenever I pick up one of these young animals and it becomes particular excited in a hostile manner (i.e. when I just hold C, D or X, or when I hit Y) it gives a burst of B interspersed with occasional longer (and possibly louder) notes. Usually single, sometimes repeated. At very high intensities and/or when the escape drive is particularly prominent, these longer notes become very high & shrill. They are obvious and undoubtedly strictly homologous with the fer[[?]] notes of other species. They also, insofar, as they appear to be the "climax" of B, closely resemble the roars of adults. I shouldn't be at all surprised if they were the pattern from which the adult roars eventually developed. I have heard the fer notes (as I shall call them, at least for the time being) uttered in eventually the same form by both C and Y; so they must have entered over a considerable period of the life of these animals. Y still shows signs of fear when the wild howlers B and Roar in the neighborhood of the station. Performs retreat and escape movement. Usually silent; but during the last two or three days I have several times heard it utter a single note when the wild animals began to call. A very long, low, throaty note, with a definite but slight quaver or rattle quality. Most similar to the M [[?]]iutorie [[?]] notes might conceivably be some low-pitched variant of the fer; but I think that they are more probably the "wooden-" Waa-type notes mentioned on Mar. 29, p.24.
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata,[[/underline]] May 8, 1959, V [[encircled]]31[[/encircled]] ]]3 straight vertical lines and 1 hatched vertical line run along the left side of the page]] In the first part of April, when Y was still in its first period of fixation on me, it began to utter Mu, just like that of A, when it settled down on my shoulders. It stopped this during the period when I didn't allow it to settle on me very often; but it is now Mu-ing again like crazy. Almost always in the first few minutes after it has just settled around my neck. Frequently alternated with "chewing" just like that of the other captive howlers I have had (and Callicebus). I haven't heard U utter any "Irh" notes or Squ[[?]] (or any "real" shrill) notes, at least for a very long time. One thing I forgot to mention above is that several times, in early April, I thought I head Y utter fer's as the climax of a long period of uttering "Waa" notes. It is possible, therefore, that the fer is the highest intensity reaction to several different kinds of frustration. This may be another resemblance to the Roars of adults. Y has suddenly become very playful, especially when sitting on my shoulders. Wrestling with my ears, running up & down my face, rolling over on its back and hanging down my chest (hanging by its tail alone), etc. This behaviour is sometimes accompanied by very, very soft (muffled) B notes, uttered in series with the same speed as ordinary loud B. I shall call this "Mock" B, for the time being. Low intensity B is accompanied by a characteristic form of opening the mouth. The mouth is not opened very widely, but the corners are drawn back, so that both the teeth and the pink gums are displayed quite prominently. Obviously a form of BT; but I don't know if it is ritualized or not. High intensity B is accompanied by while opening of the mouth. The teeth are hidden or most inconspicuous; and it is the whole pink mouth that is prominent.
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], May 8, 1959 VI [[encircled]] 32 [[/encircled]] [[3 straight and one hatched vertical lines run along the left side of the page.]] The Waa Notes are usually given with the mouth quite closed. I have found out what the " sticking out the tongue" pattern is that I mentioned above several times. It is definitely the preliminary phase of yawning. The tongue is always stuck far out, and then retracted before the mouth is opened during a yawn. I don't know if the yawning in apparently hostile situations is ritualized or not. [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata [[/underlined]], I May 10, 1959 Barro Colorado [[squiggly lines along the left side of the page]] Y now weighs 1500 grams. Pretty good! The new arrival,Z, which I got a week ago, seems to be settling in well. My next to largest arrival.Intermediate in size between C and D [[/squiggly lines along the left side of the page]] [[continuation of 3 straight and 1 hatched line along the left side of the page]]. I spanked Y (albert)today, and thus got some particularly good observations of the fer pattern. The highest intensity fers and or the ones containing the strongest escape component are much shriller (sometimes very shrill indeed) than the fers which are lower intensity and/or more aggressive. They [[underline]] all [[/underline]] contain a "rattle undertone," a definitely vibratory quality! This rattle is much stronger & more conspicuous in the lower pitched fers than in the higher pitched ones. The lower pitched fers do have a hollow wooden quality, although they are not at all plaintive, so they may be the notes that Y uttered apparently as a response to the Roaring of wild adults. After Y had worked itself up into hysterics,meaning high intensity fers steadily, I pulled it up gently in my hands and it gradually calmed down, not completely but a lot. The interesting thing was
[[underlined]] Aluatta palliata [[/underlined]], May 10, 1959, I. 33 that is Sers did [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] decline through B The notes gradually slowed down; perhaps they became slightly longer, and the intervals between them certainly became longer. At the same time their quality changed. They became nasal, rather plaintive, "aaaanh" sounds. J.E. I think they became identical or almost identical with "Waaa" notes. His [[woald?]] seem to indicate that the [[hortetely?]] declined faster than the general "discomfort"??? [[underlined]] Alouatta pallrata [[/underlined]], I. June 7, 1959 Bano Colorado Last Monday, June 1, I got still another Howler, for Stewart, the Pamlan geologist. Apparently almost fully grown, with conspicuous beard, and beginning of red fringe along flanks. Apparently [[female symbol]]. I shall call them arrival 0. When I carried 0 out to the island via travelling cage, she was much upset but sat in Hold in corner a lot. [[Are oulz?]] notes she uttered were a few [[nigle?]], but sometimes repeated "Oo" or "Ow" notes. Moderately soft. I wondered if there could be alarm Notes? I shall call them "AlB" for the time being. Y (Albert-Lola) has uttered one or two similar notes once or twice when he is settling down after I have beat him. He might be expected to be somewhat alarmed in these circumstances. In general, Y's behavior now is very much the same as before. I haven't heard him give [[Mis?]] for a long time; but that may be because I haven't been carrying him so much recently. He doesn't give the "ab type" B so much now - probably for the same reason. Instead of ab. type B,
[[underlined]]Alouetta palliata [[/underlined]], June 7, 1959, II [[encircled]]34[[/encircled]] [[3 vertical lines and one hatched line that run along the left dof the cage]] when I leave him in his cage, he gives really [[underlined]] long whining [[/underlined]] Waa Notes, much longer and even more plaintive than earlier. Some of these are almost M-like. And it should be noted that he isn't give very typical M's these days. He has developed a slightly new pattern today. This may be called "Tooth Grinding". (GR). Opening & closing the mouth regularly, at a moderately fast pace. Mouth only opened quite slightly each time. And each time the mouth is closed, there is a definite harsh rasping or grinding sound, apparently made by the teeth grinding together. His pattern in presumably a development of the earlier chewing and/or Gnashing patterns. Difficult to tell what its significance might be; but it has been so conspicuous & [[convon?]] today that I think it must be display. Usually associated with fairly low [[interretz?]] Waa Notes, when he wants to join me but isn't too very much upset about it. Possibly caused by the same factors as low [[interretz?]] Waa. It is my [[nopinion?]] that when Y performs set now, he[[ scratches?]] his cheeks less often than he used to, and [[scratches?]] other parts of his body (e.g. his sides) more often than he used to. Still usually scratching with hands rather than feet. S Y weighed approximately 1650 gr. this afternoon! [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[underlined]]I. June 13, 1959 Barro Colorado One thing I just realized today. I haven't heard Y give any very distinct M's for quite some time now. This may be "because" so many of its Waa Notes are so plaintive and prolonged now. It may be that its Waa and M patterns have "merged" so to speak.
[[underline]] Alouatta palliate [[underline]], June 13, 1959,II. [[encircled]]35 [[/encircled]] [[3 vertical straight lines and 1 vertical hatcheted line run along the left side of the page.]] A lot of the Waa Notes he is uttering now have a really pronounced rattle undertone. Particularly some of the longer Waa Notes. But they don't have the "wooden" or "hollow" quality of many L Fell's of such species as [[underline]] Lagotterex[[/underline]]. Much to my surprise Y gave an [[unsuerlatiable?]] Mu once today. [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], I June 19, 1959 Barro Colorado Got another baby Howler. Possibly [[symbol for male]]? Much smaller than any other I ever had. Weighs only 500 gr. Still a trace of baby coat on back. I shall call this animal [[arrival?]] [[vertical line through a circle]]. Fairly well fixated on me,and moderately vocal. There is no doubt but that its vocal repertory is much more primitive or less differentiated than that of any other Howler I have had It performs approximately four to six "dutiers patterns" in various circumstances. It is difficult to determine the exact causation of each particular type of call. To some extent, they appear to be purely " cutiuntz[[?]]levels" of a single pattern, but this may be slightly misleading. The lowest uiterutz [[?]] distress reaction is what might be termed "Silent Barking." (SB) If, for instance, [[vertical line through circle]] is clinging to me, and I start to lift him off, he frequently opens his mouth once or twice, not very rapidly (but not very slowly either). This appears to be the lowest intensity form of the "Barking Complex" The mouth movements are the same as during B and Squ (see below),and the pattern actually seems to intergrade with B through Squ. The Sb is, how-
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], Jun.19, 1959, II. [[circled]]36[[/circled]] ever, really quite silent - except for a small sound, just like the sudden explosion of air a person might make when suddenly hit in the stomach. Another pattern obviously closely related to SB is the "squeak" (Squ). A thin, highly pitched, moderately long, mournful sounding squeaky note. With the same mouth movements as SB. Q tends to utter this note when I left it off me a little farther and more roughly than when it performs SB. I have also head it give Squ's when I lifted it roughly of my deck (i.e. when it had not been clinging to me). This might conceivability suggest that the Squ contains an appreciable escape component. In any case, it is obvious that the Squ is exactly intermediate between the SB and one of the more bark-like notes, probably pure B in all or most cases I think. Q also has a pure B quite like the other Howlers I have had. It sounds almost exactly like the B of older Howlers, expect that the series of B notes are never quite as large as the longest series of B's uttered by older animals, and the individual B notes are never uttered quite as rapidly as they usually are by older animals. The typical B uttered by Q is probably also slightly hostile. This is the sound he utters if he is struck lightly. He also utters it when his infantile drive is greatly thwarted, when his frustration seems to irritate him. When his infantile drive is slightly thwarted, i.e. when he has been taken off me but I am not too close to him, he utters notes which are apparently the "forerunners" of Waa notes and ab-type B (see below), but when I come very close to him and still don't let him climb on to me, he switches to the real typical B. I should not be surprised if all the series of SB-Squ-typical B turned out to contain a definite hostile component.
[[underline]]Alouatta palliata[[/underline]], Jun.19, 1959, III [[circled]]37[[/circled]] [[3 vertical straight lines and 1 vertical hatched line run along the left side of page]] Q also seems to have some trace of the usual patterns which appear to be produced by thwarted filial motivation without hostility. When, for instance, he is sitting by himself and I come to him, but not too close, and speak to him he utters notes which appear to be early forms of Waa and ab-type B. The Waa notes would appear to be lower intensity than ab-type B. They are the notes he begins by uttering just as he wakes up, and they may be replaced by ab-type B as he becomes more active. And when he only utters one or two notes, they are almost always Waa alone. Sound very much like the Waas of all the other howlers I have had. Nasal, hoarse, and plaintive. The lowest intensity forms of Waa are uttered with the mouth almost or completely closed, without movements. These notes tend to be relatively soft. Louder, and presumably higher intensity, Waas are accompanied by definite opening of the mouth. After Q has uttered a few Waa notes,if he still can't get into contact with me, he may begin to utter ab-type B notes. These notes are apparently exactly like typical B notes, except for the fact that they are uttered in short bursts. Usually two notes - - Occasionally a burst of three - - - There is no doubt but that Q's Waa, ab-type B and B notes are less sharply distinguishable than those of any other Howler I have had. It would be impossible, in all or most cases, to distinguish between a short burst of typical B and a burst of ab-type B. And Q's Waa notes are always relatively short, more like typical B notes than those of any other Howler I have had, and seem to [[intergrade?]] completely with perfectly typical B notes. I have yet to hear Q utter M.
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], Jun.19, 1959, IV [[circled]] 38 [[/circled]] One peculiar aspect of Q's "filial motivation" is that it seems to "cease" completely when I am completely out of sight. In other words, he usually or always stops calling completely as soon as I move far away or behind a barrier, even when he has been calling vigorously with Waa, ab-type B, or B as long as I was moderately nearby. (Other Howlers I have had have probably behaved in a somewhat similar way, but older animals have more of a "carry over", continuing calling some minutes after I have gone from sight.) Like the other young Howlers I have had, Q seems to react to me and to heat ([[underline]] i.e. [[/underline]] a lamp)as if we were exactly equivalent. Q does not seem to have an set pattern of any sort. Probably "because" his muscular coordination is so poor (He can barely walk now). Yesterday, just after I first got him, Q seemed to be very hungry. I gave him some milk, and he gave a perfectly typical Mu as he lapped it up eagerly. "Contentment"? Or just that he couldn't get the milk in as fast as he wanted to? [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], I. Jun.28, 1959, Barro Colorado Carpenter has just pointed out to me one aspect of Y's behaviour which I had not noticed before. Sometimes, when I am near its cage but refuse to allow it to climb up on me, it will eventually subside and utter a few Waa notes as it curls up in a very huddled position. This position may be nothing more than an intention movement of going to sleep; but it is also possible that a real Hold pattern may be produced by frustrated filial or gregarious motivation as well as direct hostility.
[[circled]] 39 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], I. August 18,1959 Barro Colorado I have been far to busy to do much with the monkeys recently. The only interesting thing I have seen occurred when I split up the capture howlers I still have. Y has always been kept apart from the others and has flourished. But C, Z and X have been kept together in a large outside cage, and have not gained weight nearly as rapidly as Y. So I have taken C (the largest animal) and separated it from Z and X. I put C in a small outside cage with Y and the youngest capuchin. I put Z and X together in a small inside cage. C spent most of the first day after being separated from Z and X giving ab-type B. Obviously due to frustrated gregariousness Usually 3-note _ - _ Sometimes the long middle note was quite definitely M-like in quality. Z and X did not utter ab-type B after being separated from C. Presumably the satisfy each other. I have been making a few feeble attempts to tame X (the smallest of the animals). It is really quite incredibly shy. Does lots & lots of B when I pick it up; but then quiets down if I hold it very firmly (although it always tries to escape if I should loosen my grip momentarily. The interesting thing is; however, that if I stroke it [[underline]] gently [[/underline]] after it has quieted down, [[underline]] it always or almost always utters Waa notes! [[/underline]] (If I stroke it roughly, it reverts to giving B). This would indicate that the Waa is either an actual frustration pattern or (more probably???) definitely hostile.
[[circled]] 40 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], I November 13,1959 Barro Colorado Haven't had much chance to watch the animals lately, what with being away in Europe so long, and being so busy since I came back. C died recently, after being sick a very long time. Worms? Y was very sick for a while; but now seems to be [[?]] (It developed a traumatic cataract some time ago - presumably as a result for some early injury - but doesn't seems to be bothered at all by it.) [[3 straight vertical lines and one hatched one along the left side of the page]] Y, X and Z are all in a large outside cage by themselves now. Y's behavior seems to be much the same as before. Same range of calls; (although I haven't heard it give Mu for some time now - probably because I don't carry it much now.) I have noticed that all 3 animals now give ab-type B early in the morning when they are hungry and waiting for their food to appear. This must be significant - at last in the cases of X and Z (it is always possible that Y is just reacting to my absence at any time) Means that the ceb-type B is definitely a generalized distress call, as X and Z all completely fixated on each other and their gregariousness and / or infantile motivation cannot be really frustrated as long as they are together. [[/3 vertical straight lines and 1 hatched one along the left side of the page]] [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I July 10, 1960 Barro Colorado Unfortunately, an epidemic carried off all my Howlers, one by one, except Z. Z, however, is flourishing exceedingly. (Z = "Bully")
[[underline]] Alouatta palliata [[/underline]], July 10, 1960, I. [[circled]] 41 [[/circled]] [[squiggly line along length of left margin]] He has developed into an unmistakable [[symbol for male]] One testes fully descended, the other partly so. Occasional erections A modderately developed beard, a slight trace of reddish fringe along the sides Can produce the full Roar of adult ♂'s. Still very active and "playful", however. I have been acquiring new Howlers since the epidemic. These include the following: Shirley Temple. Fell out of a tree near the clearing a couple of months ago, and caught by one of the boys. Quite small. Apparently in good health, but quite shy, easily frightened, and rather "sullen" Certainly not fixated on me. Gladys. Bought at the nearest market about a month ago. Larger than Shirley Temple; but not much. Not fixated on me; but not nearly so shy as Shirley Temple. Apparently has just reached the playful stage. Both Shirley Temple and Gladys seem to be typical of the local population of Howlers. Quite black all over. Shirley Temple and Gladys were kept in a small inside cage together for several weeks. Became fixated on one another. Now moved into a big inside cage with Bully (Z). Scared stiff of Bully at first; but have now settled down quite well. Shirley Temple is still fixated on Gladys; but I think that Gladys has become fixated on Bully. At night, now, Shirley Temple sleeps by herself, near the lamp, while Gladys and Bully sleep together, away from both the lamp and Shirley Temple. I also have two other young Howlers: Goldilocks & Narceiso. They have been bought, from the same dealer, (on J Street), during the last couple of weeks. Goldilocks is about the same size as Gladys. Very
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, II [[circled]] 42 [[/circled]] [[squiggly line along length of left margin]] tame. Obviously someone's pet before I got her. Quickly transferred her affections to me. As fixated on me as any monkey I have ever had. Very healthy. Narcisso is much smaller, even smaller than Shirley Temple. Also quite tame and fixated on me (perhaps not quite as strongly as is Goldilocks, however). Not very healthy, very quiet and apparently "debilitated", but perhaps making progress. Goldilocks & Narcisso are kept together, in a small inside cage apart from the other Howlers. They do not seem to be very well fixated on one another yet. Goldilocks and (to a lesser extent) Narcisso, are both quite distinctive in appearance. Both have relatively long & narrow-looking bare faces; and both are "blondes". Goldilocks is bright golden yellow on the lower back & flanks. This patch is really very extensive. She is certainly far too old to have retained the first [[?]] pelage. Narcisso is also yellowish on the lower back and [[?]]; but his light patch is much less intensive than that of Goldilocks. On both animals, the yellow intergrades quite gradually with the black, especially on the back. I think it is quite possible that the peculiarities of Goldilocks & Narcisso are "sub-specific"". They may come from the Colombean border region. I have not been paying much attention to the behavior of Gladys and Shirley Temple. As far as I can tell, their reactions are very similar to, or identical with, those of the other young Howlers I have kept. They perform SB, B, and Ab-typic B. They also perform the usual Howler type of Sct. They also "greet" or investigate strangers in the usual way sniffing nose to nose or nose to tail. I have spent a little more time studying Goldilocks and Narcisso. Their behavior also seems to be at least very similar to that of the other young Howlers; but I shall describe it in somewhat greater detail
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, III [[circled]] 43 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] The most interesting observations I have made recently have involved the Ab-type B pattern. I am now more than ever convinced that it is a generalized distress reaction rather than the result of thwarting filial motivations alone. The behavior of Shirley Temple, when I first got her, was particularly significant in this connection. She would sit quite quietly when alone in her cage - and then start to utter Ab-type B when I started to pick her up!!! This Ab-type B was certainly not purely filial. Her reaction to being picked up, at least at first, was obviously largely or completely hostile. She struggled to get away from me and / or tried to bite me. Also she frequently uttered B before and after Ab-type B in such circumstances. As far as I know, Shirley Temple never uttered Ab-type B when isolated by herself alone. Only when I tried to pick her up. The behavior of Goldilocks has been almost equally suggestive. Has uttered quite a lot of Ab-type B, along with ordinary B and Waaa Notes, when she wants to climb on to me. When I approach her cage closely, before picking her up, and especially when I have just taken her off me. Such Ab-type B may well be the result of thwarting of some filial motivation; but other Ab-type B performances are rather different. Twice today, for instance, I let Goldilocks sit on my head for long periods of time; once in my house and once in the dining room. Sat very quietly and happily for some minutes (occasionally uttering Mu - see below); then started to utter Ab-type B, and [[underlined]] immediately [[/underlined]] moved off my head. Started to roam around the room(s), altering lots of Ab-type B (occasionally interspersed with ordinary B), obviously "searching" for something. Occasionally would return to my head, settle down quietly for a few recon-
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, IV [[circled]] 44 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] do, then utter more Ab-type B and immediately start searching again. I think that she may have been looking for food during such searching. I am almost certain that she was not looking for Narcisso, her cage-mate, as she does not seem to be greatly attached to him. (This evening she remained sitting contentedly on my head, even though Narcisso was uttering Ab-type B in the next room (out of sight)). These incidents do not absolutely preclude the possibility that at least some slight filial motivation is thwarted during all Ab-type performances, but they do make it seem most unlikely. Both Goldilocks and Narcisso utter Waaa Notes as well as Ab-type Notes; but they utter these notes with very different frequencies. The healthy active Goldilocks utters lots of Ab-type B (& ordinary B), even when I am right outside her cage, when she wants to climb on to me. She only utters relatively few Waaa Notes in such circumstances. The less healthy and active Narcisso utters many [[underlined]] many [[/underlined]] Waaa Notes in such circumstances; and relatively few or no Ab-type and ordinary B Notes. (He only utters Ab-type B frequently when locked in a strange room, away from me.) The circumstances in which both animals utter Ab-type & Waaa Notes, however, would confirm my earlier theory that the Waaa Notes are eventually or completely short-range patterns; while the Ab-type Notes are largely (almost completely ????) long-range patterns. It is now fairly obvious that both the Waaa Notes and Ab-type Notes are [[underlined]] non-hostile [[/underlined]] reaction to some kind(s) of thwarting; while the ordinary B Notes are [[underlined]] hostile [[/underlined]] reactions to some kinds of thwarting, possibly sometimes the same kinds of thwarting. I am also beginning to think that all the Waaa Notes may be always the result of thwarting filial motivation; in contrast to the Ab-type Notes which may be po-
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, V [[circled]] 45 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] deered by any one of several different kinds of thwarting. (The not-very-healthy Narcisso seems to have become particularly dependent and infantile - like all sick monkeys). Goldilocks' Ab-type B usually includes more notes, and is much more frequently associated with ordinary B, than is Narcisso's Ab-type B. Goldilocks, at least frequently performs M, during high intensity Ab-type B. Like many of the M's of other animals I have observed, her M's seem to overlap some of the Ab-type Notes More or less completely. [[one red line]] [[two thick black lines]] [[three smaller thick black lines]] black = Ab-type Notes red = M Note Like many of the M notes of Night[[?]] Monkeys, three M's [[underlined]] appear [[/underline]] to be little or nothing more than "by-products" of the production of other notes. Difficult to determine if they have their own peculiar causation[[?}] Low intensity Waa Notes and ordinary B Notes may be uttered with the mouth apparently absolutely closed. But I think that the mouth is usually opened (& closed), a little, drawing most Waa & ordinary B performances. It [[underlined]] certainly [[/underlined]] is drawing some of these performances. I think that the mouth is always opened (& closed), a little, during all Ab-type performances - at least during the loud notes of the A-type B. When the mouth is opened slightly, at least during the ab-type
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, VI [[circled]] 46 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] and ordinary B Notes, the corners of the mouth are pushed out further than the center. Both Narcisso and Shirley Temple, the smallest animals in their respective group, have performed lots of "SB". Usually an obviously defensive reaction to "mauling" by their companions. In most cases, at least, this mauling seems to have been an invitation to "play" wresting.) Mouth opened very widely and kept wide open, with little or no movement. Emphasizing pink mouth very conspicuously. Sometimes this is quite silent. Sometimes accompanied by rapid, rather smothered B Notes. As the opening of the mouth seems to be the most important feature of this performance, I shall call the whole pattern "MOP", and specify, each time, if it is accompanied by B or not. The MOP is obviously high intensity hostility, with escape strongly predominant. Frequently accompanied by overt escape movements, frequently (but not always) retreat standing up on the hind legs, facing the opponent all the while. I presume that the uleut MOP is either lower intensity, or contains an even stronger escape component, than MOP & B. I might add that I am not sure that the soft B Notes frequently accompanying MOP, are really different in sound from some ordinary B Notes uttered without MOP. (I forgot to mention that I have been able to confirm, repeatedly, that higher intensity[[?]] ordinary B Notes, without MOP, are [[?]] pitched, and probably somewhat longer, than lower intensity B Notes). Goldilocks seems to utter Mu in more often the same circumstances as the other young Howlers I have had. She also however, sometimes utters 1 or 2 Mu's, after a long period of silence, while setting quite quietly on my head, even when I don't touch her or otherwise disturb-
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] July 10, 1960, VII [[circled]] 47 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] her in any obvious way. The way they utter 1 or 2 Mu Notes and then relapse into apparently contented silence. Certainly this cools as much like a pure "contentment" pattern as anything I have ever seen. Both Goldilocks and Narcisso have also performed a lot of "chewing" or "gnarling" patterns. (Relatively intent chewing and relatively loud Gnarling seem to intergrade completely.) Difficult to determine the stimuli provoking behavior. Narcisso, for instance, may gnash frantically for quite a long period of time all by himself. But I have noticed that Goldilocks, at least, always or almost always does some chewing just after I have let her climb on to my head, just as she seems to be "settling down" comfortably. Both Goldilocks and Narcisso have uttered single plaintive; rather squeak-like notes from time to time. There may be what I called "Lqu" earlier. I think that all there have been low intensity indications of the Waa pattern. Feud to occur just after an animal settles down on me, and / or when I make a slight movement to take it off me. [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] October 1, 1960 Barro Colorado I have been far too busy recently to do anything intensive with the Howler Monkeys; but I have noted a few of their behavior patterns from time to time. [[squiggly line along side of left margin]] I have been paying particular attention to Bully (Z). He seems to be flourishing; although he does have a tendency to diarrhoea. Both testes descended now (most of the time - they seem to be retracted when he is cold); but still, I think, smaller than those of adults. Only a little reddish fringe along his sides.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Oct. 1, 1960, II [[circled]] 48 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Bully has been very "playful", engaging in mock wrestling matches and mock fights with his cage-mates, (he is usually the aggressor during these encounters), ever since he recovered from the illness that carried off all his earlier companions. His playfulness has not decreased since his testes descended. Gladys is getting more and more playful all the time. Goldilocks is also very playful. Even Narcisso is quite playful, although it is so much smaller than Goldilocks that it has rather a rough time during most wrestling bouts. Only Shirley Temple is not playful at all. Presumably because it is so much smaller than both its cage-mates (Bully and Gladys) that it always has a very hard time when they try to play with it. Shirley Temple spends most of its time in the corner of its cage, in more or less [[?]] Udd "willing". Every time Gladys or Bully approach it, and give it a poke or a pull, it turns on them, uttering "furious", obviously very high intensity, high-pitched, urgent-sounding; very rapid (almost continuous) B This sort of B is always accompanied by MOP throughout. Sometimes accompanied by striking with the hands. (This species also fights by striking with the hands quite frequently.) I find that I can always provoke Bully into performing hostile behavior (possibly partly "mock") by going up to his cage and "barking" at him. He always utters B's in return. There are always fairly low intensity Low-pitched, and the successive notes separated by quite appreciable intervals. All or most of these B's are uttered with the mouth almost or completely closed. When the mouth is opened only slightly, it is only the corners that are opened (the lips remaining firmly pressed together in the center). The visual effect of such slight opening is most peculiar, as the inside of the mouth are light pink. When only the corners of the mouth are opened, this displays two conspicuous light pink spots on either side of the otherwise completely blank face.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata [[/underlined]] Oct. 1, 1960, III [[circled]] 49 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] This B by Bully is always accompanied by much activity. A few scratching movements of the usual Howler type (i.e. loud scratching side of the face, on the same side) [[underlined]] A few definite Lsh's. [[/underlined]] Lots of running and leaping back & forth, and swinging on the poles in his cage. Also a lot of what appears to be a definite ritualized Jud pattern. This Jud is much less extreme than the Jud of White faces. Bully may perform the intention movements of jumping up and down, i.e. straightening the legs and flexing them alternately, but I don't think he ever actually lets go of his perch (with either of his hands, or his feet, or even his tail). Another pattern which seems to be part of Jud is lunging back and forth, repeatedly and rapidly. This may be accompanied by some stretching and flexing of the legs; but again he always keeps his hands, feet, and tail firmly grasping some support (s). I frequently let Bully out of his cage. He then runs around, and we engage in mutual Babyrites[[?]]. He performs Sct, Lsh's, and Jud in these circumstances as well as when he is in his cage. In addition, I have several times seen him assume a definite [[underlined]] arch [[/underlined]] Posture when engaged in a dispute with me outside his cage. Quite like the Arch of Night Monkeys in form (see the drawing in the large sketch pad). But obviously much rarer, and presumably less important in the usual life of the species. Some of these Arch Postures were accompanied by the usual low intensity type B; others were silent. When Bully gets out of his cage, he frequently runs over to the top of the cage of Goldilocks and Narcisso. He may perform B, plus Jud, etc., there; or he may just SNF at them. May care [[?]] his presence usually drives Goldilocks and Narcisso into transports of fury. They also fight among themselves a lot. As a result I have quite a lot of their horrible behavior. They both perform Sct and Jud like Bully, and utter high intensity B, with MOP, like Shirley Temple. I have also seen Narcisso (not Goldi
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Oct. 1, 1960 [[circled]] 50 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] locks, I think) perform Leh's like Bully. Both Bully and Goldilocks have performed [[underlined]] frequent redirection attacks. [[/underlined]] Goldilocks almost always attacks Narcisso when Bully comes over to their cage. (Goldilocks can't get at Bully through the wire mesh - besides it would probably be afraid to attack Bully, even if it could.) The usual sequence is as follows: first Goldilocks threatens Bully, usually with MOP and Jud, then it immediately turns to attack Narcisso (who is probably also threatening Bully with MOP and Jud at the time), then it goes back to threatening Bully, then it turns to attack Narcisso again, etc., etc., etc. Bully's redirection attacks have been performed during barking matches with me. He almost always interrupts such matches, usually repeatedly, to go over to push, pull, or actually leap onto, Gladys and / or Shirley Temple (this is the preliminary to wrestling with them.) I can say just a little about the motivation of these patterns. Low intensity and high intensity B have already been discussed. So has MOP. Sct seems to be very low intensity. Usually at the beginning or end of disputes. Usually uleut[[?]]. Apparently never with MOP. Loh's seem to be quite high intensity, possibly aggressive. Narcisso, at least, usually performs Lh's with silent MOP. Jud seems to occur during both high intensity and low intensity disputing. Arch Postures only during high intensity disputes. Redirection attacks also seem to occur only during high intensity disputes. Obviously produced when the attack drive is very strong, and the escape drive is at least moderately strong. The great problem in analyzing all these patterns will be determining the relationship between silent and vocal patterns!!! About a month ago, there were quite a lot of wild Howlers around the animal house for several days. Bully tended to utter a lot of low intensity B's when he heard them making a variety of moves. He also Howled, in the completely adult manner, whenever the wild Howlers howled.
[[underlined]]Alouatta palliata[[/underlined]], Oct. 1, 1960, V.[[circled]]51[[/circled]] [[3 vertical line and 1 vertical hatched line run along the left side of the page.]] At this time, whenever Goldilocks heard Bully and the wild Howlers Howling, it usually uttered prolonged and repeated Waa Notes. Would this suggest that the Waa Notes of infants are homologous with the Howling of adults ? (I don't know if I have already mentioned it or not, but Goldilocks always uttered lots of Waa Notes - more than any other young Howler I have ever had - w all sorts of circumstances for quite a long time after we first got her.) Since then, both Goldilocks and Narcisso seem to have stopped both Waa Notes and ab-type B completely. They still like to climb upon me, however. When prevented, or taken off me, they usually utter ordinary low intensity B or remain silent now. Sometimes, in such circumstances, the last few B Notes they utter are definitely more plaintive, "pleading", in sound than the first notes. The last B Notes uttered by Bully after a barking match with me may also be rather plaintive. It is possible that these plaintive-rounding B's are something quite different from ordinary B's - but I doubt it. (They are certainly [[underlined]]not[[/underlined]] the same thing as the M's I have heard earlier. Just modified B's at best.) [[underlined]]Alouatta palliata[[/underlined]], I October 18, 1960 Barro Colorado Today I changed some of the animals around. I took Goldilocks out of the small cage with Narcisso and put it in the large cage with Bully and Gladys, and took Shirley Temple out of the large cage and put it in the small cage with Narcisso. I thought Shirley Temple was getting too battered by Bully and Gladys. As might be expected, both the animals which were changed uttered a lot of ab-type B during the hour or so after they were changed. Shirley Temple's ab-type B included a definite M component. More or less comune ca
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Oct. 18, 1960, II [[circled]] 52 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] [[one red line]] [[one thick black line]] [[two thin black lines]] [[two black dots]] (I am not quite sure that the M component really began later than the [[?]], loud, note.) Goldilocks' Ab-type B did not contain any M components, but was usually composed of many more notes. Comme ça: [[five thick black lines]] [[two thin black lines]] Quite stereotyped. [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Goldilocks seemed to be quite afraid of Bully and Gladys, and spent most of its time [[?]] in a corner of the new cage. Usually silent, except when uttering Ab-type B. Whenever I came up to the cage however, it would rush to me, uttering very excited, long, rapid, [[?]] of ordinary B Notes. Obviously wanting and expecting to be let out. It is interesting that it didn't utter Ab-type B or Waa Notes in such circumstances. When I did not let it out, it usually turned and bit the cage furiously. Obviously frustrated. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Neither Bully nor Gladys reacted to Goldilocks very strongly. But just after I first put Goldilocks in their cage, Bully uttered a few distinctive single note. Like wooden, "hollow", B's, (B's without any "soaring" quality). Sometimes slightly plaintive in tone; but much less so than M Notes. They appeared to be a sort of "mothered" or half suppressed B. I shall call them "HB" from now on. they may be a very low intensity form of B, or even contain a "friendly" element. I heard Bully utter an occasional HB before; but never in illuminating circumstances. It is interesting that none of the animals which were left in their old cages, [[underlined]] i.e. [[/underlined]] Narcisso, Gladys, and Bully, reacted to being separated from their old companions by uttering Ab-type B or any comparable call. I.E. the Ab-type B is really much more of a "lost" call than a separation call. All Narcisso, Gladys, and Bully did was listen more or less intently when the
Alouatta Palliata III
[[blank page]]
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Oct. 18, 1960, II [[circled]] 53 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] is erstwhile companions uttered Ab-type B, and sometimes, look toward their erstwhile companions. [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I October 20, 1960 Barro Colorado [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Shirley Temple and Goldilocks have reacted to their new surroundings in slightly different ways. Shirley Temple approached Narcisso, and allowed itself to be approached by Narcisso, almost immediately after being put in its new cage, even when it was still uttering Ab-type B very frequently. Goldilocks, on the other hand, [[underlined]] still [[/underlined]] has hysterics (uttering high intensity B with extreme BT) whenever Bully comes near, and still retreats from Gladys (although seldom uttering B & BT) whenever the latter comes over and tries to play. This difference between Shirley Temple and Goldilocks is probably the result of 2 factors. It is probably partly due to the differences in their ages. And Goldilocks is also very afraid of Bully, who is much larger. (Goldilocks and Gladys are approximately the same size, although Gladys is a little larger. Shirley Temple and Narcisso are also approximately the same size, although Narcisso is a little larger.) [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Gladys, who had very bad fur when we first got it, has now grown a beautiful new coat. With a sprinkling of golden hairs along the sides and on the lower back. So it may have a few Red Howler genes too. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] This morning I heard a wild baby Howler utter a lot of Ab-type B (always or usually of the 3-note type; I think), and a few Waa Notes. Quite like those of my captive animals. But unfortunately I couldn't locate the arrival which was uttering three notes (it was raining quite hard at the time).
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I [[circled]] 54 [[/circled]] February 15, 1961 Barro Colorado [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] While I was away on vacation, Nov-Jan, both Shirley Temple and Narcisso died. The other three continued to flourish. Since my return, I have got two new individuals. One [[?]] apparently adult ♀, "Ramona". Dreadfully battered and scraped when I got her; but otherwise quite vigorous and apparently in good health. Settling down well, and her wounds are healing. The other is quite a small young arrival, "Owen", very shy and wild. Ramona was probably raised in captivity. She didn't know what to do with leaves when we first got her. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Ramona was kept in a cage by herself for the first few days. Then I put her, still by herself, in a big cage right next to the big cage which contained Bully, Gladys and Goldilocks. All four animals apparently greatly excited. Ramona did a lot of Suf toward the other 3 animals, and they did a lot of Suf toward her, through the netting of their cages. A lot of this Suf-ing was face to face; but part of it did not appear to be very well orientated in any way. One animal would just Suf at any part of one other animal. At the same time that this burst of Suf-ing occurred, some or all of the animals (I am pretty sure all) uttered lots and lots of plaintive "Oo" or "Ow" Notes. Usually in series of indefinite length. Rather reminiscent of M Notes; but slightly different, I think. Clearer & louder. With a definite "oo" or "ow" quality. Obviously at least partly friendly. Not accompanied by any B. Usually or always uttered with the mouth quite closed. I have heard these "Ow" Notes uttered by captive animals before; but only very rarely. I have heard them uttered more frequently by wild anim
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Feb. 15, 1961, II [[circled]] 55 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] als in the forest (when they tended to occur in indeterminate series, just as during this incident when Ramona met the other captives). I always presumed that they were just low intensity B before; but they are obviously [[?]] rather special. [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] After several days, we put Bully in with Ramona, and Omar in with Gladys and Goldilocks. They all seem to be settling down well with their new companions, although Ramona and Omar are both still a little nervous. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] The arrivals have not uttered as many Ow Notes since their first encounter; but some or all of them still utter a few brief series of Ow's from time to time; when they get particularly close to an animal with which they are not too familiar. Ramona (at least) also utters brief series of Ow's, sometimes; when I come moderately close to her cage. So the Ow's may contain a slight hostile component in addition to their dominant friendly component. When I came very close to her cage, Ramona usually just sits quietly in a well-marked Hold Posture. Usually silent. Sometimes utters a few hostile B's. If I continue to stand by her cage for some time, Ramona frequently begins to "yawn" (complete with preliminary sticking out of the tongue). I am beginning to think that this must be significant. "Duplacement". (The other animals also yawn from time to time; but I don't know if their yawning is significant or not.) [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] The black part of Bully's scrotum is beginning to turn white, in patches, now. Both testes permanently descended. He must be nearly adult by now.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I [[circled]] 56 [[/circled]] August 13, 1961 Barro Colorado [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Unfortunately, both Ramona and Goldilocks died a few months ago. But Bully and Gladys seem to be flourishing. Bully's testes are completely white now. He is presumably adult. And Gladys seems to be almost adult. She has developed a quite long but scraggly beard during the last month or so. The day before yesterday I got 2 new baby howlers. Both are smaller than I have ever had before. One is [[underlined]] very much [[/underlined]] smaller. I shall call this very little one "Ike". Definitely a young "infant 1" according to Carpenter's description. Pelage completely grayish Sparre. Pinkish sheen showing through quite prominently on limbs and body (naked face is grayish) The other infant is about 1/4 or 1/3 larger. I shall call it "Mike" Probably an old "infant 1" Pelage appreciably darker than Ike's; but still definitely silvery. I am starting to experiment with these animals tonight; at 9:30 p.m. Starting with Ike. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Ike spends most of his time sleeping quietly on a towel but moves around a little bit from time to time; presumably to get more comfortable. At such times he utters a few "Waaah" type "[[?]] notes". He also utters such notes when I poke him while he is sleeping, or move him (gently) a little. These "Waaah" type notes are extremely variable. Sometimes very short; sometimes quite long. They all have a "vibratory" quality, at least some degree of "hoarseness". The shortest notes have a faint "[[?]]" quality. Somewhat sharp.
Aloualta palliata, Aug 13, 1961, II [[circled]] 54 [[/circled]] These are presumably the notes I originally called [[?]] notes. The vibrating quality [[squiggle line]] is more pronounced in the Conger notes. If Ike is pulled up and handled roughly, or taken off its towel and put on the cold floor, it begins to utter increasingly longer and louder notes. Almost all these longer and louder notes would have to be transcribed as "Waaaah" or "Ooooooah", but they are obviously [[?]] to other calls [[?]] (or in addition to) the typical "Waah" notes of older infants and juveniles. Sometimes Ike will utter a lout "Waaaaah" note with a [[underline]] very[[/underline]] pronounced rattling quality [[squiggle line]]. Such notes sound very much like the wooden [[?]] of a young Woolly monkey. Ike utters such notes both when being handled roughly and when violated on cold floor. Sometimes such notes are preceded by softer notes (thus forming an Ab-type call - see below), and/or followed by softer notes (the softer notes both before and after are usually relatively short). At other times, presumably when the little thing is [[?]] fairly suddenly, the [[?]]-typic notes are not preceded by "introductory" notes. Nor are they always followed by other notes. Some of the long and loud "Waaaaaah" notes have much less vibratory quality. No more than the shout and soft "Waah" notes. Sometimes Ike will utter a call which is quite reminiscent of the Ab-type B of older animals. Both when handled roughly and when isolated on cold floor. Usually counting of 3 or 4 notes quite close together. [[2 short lines with one longer ascending line in the middle]] or [[2 short straight lines and one below with 2 longer ascending line in the middle]] The longer central notes are "urgent" sounding like the central notes of the Ab's of older animals. Sometimes with an [[?]] quality, sometimes without. There seems to be a complete utter gradation between long "Waaaaahs"
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Aug. 13, 1961, III [[circled]] 58 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] notes with a very strong [[?]] quality and those with only the faintest hoarseness. Ike can utter Ab-type B's with both or either an[[?]] quality of only faint hoarseness both when being handled roughly and when isolated on floor. (I.E. the [[underlined]] Ab-type calls may not be purely "lost calls" yet.) [[/underlined]] Ike usually utters all these various types of "Waaah" like notes in series when [[ dutrened?]] to a moderate degree or more. Frequently jumbled together apparently at random. The Ab-type calls are only partly segregated yet. I.E. Ike may utter notes comme ça. [[image of note lines]] In this case, the last 3 notes may be considered a distinct Ab. But Ike may also utter notes comme ça. [[image of note lines]] In this case, there are no distinct Ab's. I have not been able to determine why some of the long "Waaaaah" Notes have an [[?]] quality while others do not. Both types of notes seem to occur in the same circumstances. And are accompanied by similar [[clulctring?]] and locomotory movements. All this would suggest that Ike has a single "Distress Call" pattern now. With variations. Variations beginning to [[segregate?]] out to form the differentiated patterns of older infants - but only just beginning! Ike has done absolutely nothing which sounds like the B or M patterns of older infants.
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I [[circled]] 59 [[/circled]] August 14, 1961 Barro Colorado I kept Ike and Mike in my house last night (no power in the animal house!) [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Ike became uncomfortable from time to time; and uttered a variety of Distress Notes from time to time. As described above. Some of the very shortest and softest of Ike's Distress Notes are slightly Squ-like. But never completely Squ. And such notes are selectively very rare. Ike hasn't done anything like real SB yet. Nor has it performed overt escape. When poked, it just utters Distress Notes (and clutches its towel more forcibly). Doesn't make any real attempt to move away. [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Testing Mike this evening; 9:45 p.m. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] When is [[?]] on floor, utters a few short "Waah" Distress Notes. Plus one or two single loud [[?]] type notes. Plus one Ab-type series. [[image of three note lines]] Central note with only faint rattle undertone. Then starts crawling continues to utter occasional single or double "Waah" Note. Usually utters with quite pronounced [[?]] quality. When poked and handled roughly, utters a few nondescript short to medium length "Waah" Notes. M irregular series. Then utters a fairly rapid series of 6 or 7 rather short but rather loud "Waah" Notes, rather deep in pitch, which sound as if they might be the first stage of B (only very poorly segregated as yet). Last night, after being disturbed, Mike uttered 2 or 3 Mu type notes as it settled back on its blanket. Quite like the Mu's I have heard
[[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] Aug. 14, 1961, II [[circled]] 60 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] uttered by other young Howlers. But also hardly distinguishable from very soft "Waah"s. (Such Mu-type notes differ from the [[?]] type short "Waah"s in being a little longer and less sharp, but not much softer.) All this is beautifully consistent. The "Waah" Distress Notes of young Howlers are strictly consistent. The "Waah" Distress Notes of young Howlers are strictly comparable to the Distress Notes of young Night Monkeys and young [[?]] Only they tend to break up into separate patterns, each with its own causation and function(s), at a comparatively very early stage. Mike's vocal repertory would seem to be considerably more advanced than Ike's. It seems likely the [[?]] type notes uttered by Mike when violated tonight were somewhat lower intensity than the most urgent sounding central notes of the Ab-type calls. The most urgent sounding notes did not have much of a rattle undertone. And some of the notes which had a very pronounced [[?]] quality were moderately short. The [[?]] type notes of infants are probably strictly comparable to the wooden "hollow", ratchet type notes sometimes uttered by adult (or older juvenile?) howlers at the very beginning of early morning howling in the wild. [[underlined]] Alouatta palliata, [[/underlined]] I August 30, 1961 Barro Colorado [[one squiggly line along length of left margin]] Regret to say that both Mike and Ike died a few days after the notes written above. [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] The day before yesterday, I let Bully out of his cage and let him unloose. Then I grunted at him in my usual way. Worked him
[[underlined]] Alouatta Palliata, [[/underlined]] Aug. 30, 1961, I. [[circled]] 61 [[/circled]] [[three straight lines and one squiggly line along length of left margin]] up into a rage. Beside himself with fury. Lots of running about. Redirection biting on any pieces of wood or other objects available. Some B (usual sort). And also lots and lots of [[underlined]] extreme [[/underlined]] Arch posturing. Much more extreme than any Arches of Night Monkey I have seen. Sometimes done while he stood on his hind legs (preparatory to leaping) This sort of thing. [[drawing of howler monkey]] Arms dangling. As far as I can remember, all or most of these arches were quite select.
[[blank page]]