Gull Notes (2 of 3)

ID: SIA Acc. 01-096

Creator: Moynihan, M.

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1955-1956

Citation: Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

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The field notes document behavioral observations of gulls, recorded by M. Moynihan during 1955-1956, in Chile and Peru, South America. The entries are dated and headed with type of bird and location. Pages are numbered. Contents include behavior with time of day, changes in appearance, and bird songs. Includes sketches of birds and is annotated. Locations include La Puntilla, Chincha, and zoo at Lima, Peru; as well as Antofogasta and Punta Arenas, Chile.

Date Range


Start Date

Oct 25, 1955

End Date

Jan 06, 1956

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Ethology
  • Animals
  • Animal behavior
  • Birds
  • Ornithology


  • Lima
  • Chincha
  • La Puntilla
  • Antofagasta
  • Chile
  • Arenas, Punta
  • Peru


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Illustrations

Accession #

SIA Acc. 01-096

Collection name

Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 1 Folder 26

[[start page]] fuliginosus, Oct. 25, 1955, II 20 [[left margin column of crosshatch marking]] Good evidence that LCN is aggressive. Gradually increasing burst of LCN's by adult bird on ground before flying up to attack me by aerial charge. Lots of T from H, presumably FB, by juvenile birds. These attacks by the one territorial pair of adults, resenting my intrusion, have continued, off and on, for two hours. The LCN's are given so often and so loudly by there adults that it suggests that they can extend into regions of rather strong motivation. LCN's often given when I would expect a long call. This attracting pair must be on their pairing territory, I think, but they are well along in the pairing process. No FB or regurgitation today (possibly yesterday, however): but still there isn't much violent hostility between the birds. Often their MC is confined to a vague, (i.e. difficult to tell if ritualized or not), V, with or without equally vague HF movements, or a series of LCN's. Each LCN on ground is accompanied by definite forward movement of head and neck. Presumably [[uit.]]/[[int.]][[ mov.?]] of O, but also often looks like T [[uit.]]/[[int.]][[ mov.?]]. This [[lart?]]/[[last]] appearance is almost certainly misleading. "Kow" syllables in complete L.C number about 5-8, followed by "Kiow"s with T's. Have heard one try syllabic [[al.C.?]]/[[call]]: "Kek Kek Kek" Otherwise all mono - or bi - syllabic. To sum up: This species would appear to be a typical hooded gull of the atruilla-pipixcan, and presumably primitive, type In addition, the Tuking would suggest a relationship with furcatus. [[end page]]
[[underline]] stolidus [[/underline]] 21 [[page start]] October 27, 1955, Santa Cruz, Academy Bay [[left margin column of crosshatch marking]] Form of LCN? Bird on ledge of cliff. Looks like potential nest-site. Gives note whenever another Noddy flies nearby. Each note a Rattle or Tuking (will call Tuking in my notes, but really a rattle), quite mechanical in sound, "r-r-r-r-r-r." Each note accompanied by slight by definite upward and forward stretching of the neck. Head remains more or less horizontal. Bill widely opened during note. Relaxation complete between notes [[sketch--head and torso of bird with beak open]] [[caption]] Posture during Tuking note]] Have heard same note given by flying birds, (from usual unritualized postures) [[end page]]
[[circled]] 22 [[/circled]] November 1, 1955 Guayaquil On my return from Galapagos, found Guayas River stil full of [[underline]] cirrocephalus [[/underline]], but also many [[underline]] pipixcau [[/underline]], both juv. & adult November 5, 1955 Chancay, Peru [[crosshatch marking]] Adult [[underline]] modistus [[/underline]], non-nuptial plumage, does T when juv. approaches & tries to steal food. T from H. [[crosshatch marking]] Huge flocks of juv. gulls around. Mostly [[underline]] pipixcau [[/underline]] I think. No or very few adults. Maybe a few [[underline]] atucilla [[/underline]] in crowd Juvs. are giving typical juv. LCN's in air November 7, 1955 La Puntilla, [[underline]] belchere [[/underline]] Nr. Pisco, Peru [[left margin has vertical column of single hatch ending in a crosshatch marking]] [[underline]] Larus belchere [[/underline]] Looks very much like Herring Gull. Perhaps a little smaller, infinitesimally smaller headed. Short winged, not at all like Rug-bill. Bill & legs bright orange yellow. Dark eye (looks small) Small black spot on upper mandible tip, & large red spot on almost all distal half of lower mandible, gives most peculiar effect. M.C of mutual V & HF One U rather intermediate, on "aux" side, other U very "aux" "Aux" U head-shape like Mike's photographs of Herring, my drawing of Rug-bill.
[[top of page]] [[underlined]] belcheri[[/underlined]], November 7, 1955, II [[encircled page number]]23[[/encircled page number]] [[cross-hatchings all down left margin of page]] [[page start]] Bill pointed very strongly upward in "aux" V. [[blotted-out]]. Eye semi-closed, in at least one case. Carpal joints visible, but not held out very far. Voice of this species quite "large Larus" in type. Perhaps particularly reminiscent of fuliginosus. Rather nasal. Quite prone to give LCN's in flight. Usual postures. Have seen one, rather slight, swoop & soar. About as extreme as the most extreme Ring-bill patterns. Swoop accompanied by series of loud, rather long, LCN's. No real L.C. or PCC. Have seen several Trumpeting Calls, but not close enough or frequently enough to be able to describe in detail. Still, some aspects are obvious. HD is about vertical, head pointed straight down, not too stretched. 3rd phase O is rather like Herring Gull. Angle [[arrows showing angle mentioned, about 10-20 degrees]] like this, quite low, straight. [[underlined]] Neck not very stretched [[/underlined]][[underlined]] No sign of T or TT[[?]][[/underlined]] All in all, this species seems surprisingly like the Herring Gull and unlike the Ring-bill [[left margin asterisk]] [[side note - communal area]] V+HF - HD - [[underlined]] O before attack -v after attack v before attack [[underline]] [[underline]] v after attack [[underline]] ch. [[underline]] ch before attack -v after attack [[underline]] V.V. 6[[circled 6]] MC MC V-HF [[check marks above HF]] by [[female symbol]] V - HF - HD - O - V [[check marks above all previous characters]] by [[female symbol]] Correction. Carpal joints [[underline]] held way out [[underline]] during HD [[sketch-left margin: side view of gull with head and neck extended vertically downward with bill opened wide]] [[sketch - bird bowing with head way down, frontal view]] [[underline]] Held out very little [[/underline]] during the succeeding O All the Trumpeting Call performances I have seen so far have had only two phrases: HD - O Lots of notes during O [[drawing of eight short horizontal lines each lower than the previous possibly indicating dropping pitch?]] [[end page]]
[[underline]] belchere [[underline]], Nov. 7, 1955, III 24 [[Choking?]] looked just like one type of Herring gull ch. No. squatting [[image - pen sketches side view of 2 birds, left bird upright and right bird bending down]] Alc. after uttered in air Notes like [[underline]] "large Larus" [[underline]]; but only 2 or 3 syllables, like [[underline]] Hydrocolocus [[underline]]. I.E. whole performance is rather like [[underline]] modestus [underline]] White bar at rear of wing couspiceous [[conspicuous??]] when wing folded. But very little white typing of scapulars. Only rear scapulars Sometimes not visible at all LCN's on ground accompanied by int. mons. of HD General Notes about birds around La Pantella A small number of [[underline]] [[belcheri?]] [[underline]] Rather active Presumably breeding nearby. Lots of [[underline]] pipixcan [[underline]]. Almost all juv, rest almost all imm. Very inactive. A [[underline]] lot [[underline]] of [[underline]] modestus [[underline]] Almost all juv. or imm. Very inactive. A few [[underline]] unocephalus [[underline]] Adult, non-nupt [[??]] Very inactive
[[encircled 25 - page number]] [[start page]] inca November 8, 1955 Obigo, (near the Ballesta Is.) Larosterna Inca Silent panics. Then, as birds presumably calm down a little, still flying in tight flock, a hoarse "rusty", "twittering sound "Ka,ha ha ha...." form of Glik? Also a longer note, same hoarse quality. Might be transcribed as "Waah". LCN? Ballestas Islands On ground. Vast variety of postures & movements. 1. Chattering. A high phase & a bow. frequently repeated [[sketches of 3 birds demonstrating following explanation]] Seems to be largely directed toward companions high phase varies from something like a stretch to something like an upright [[sketch large well defined head]] Bow phase is very rapid, instantaneous, much shorter than high phase. Bird at bottom of bow looks rather like Goethe Settings. Accompanied by the rapid, chattering call, mentioned above, given in air. I think that call continues during Bow, but it is so rapid difficult to tell. [[end page]]
Inca, Nov. 8, 1955 II Sound might better be transcribed as "Keh lich key…", but so rapid almost a rattle. Very reminiscent of GKK, (is round noted in flyway birds) Bill opened a little) and closed very rapidly 2. Stretch. Silent Bill closed. On landing usually Looks much like high phase of chattering. Not quite vertical [[ two sketches of head only]] 3. LCN In more or less V posture. "Wah" note Bill opened quite widely and then loses. Often directed toward me. 4. "F" Seen once Looks quite like F With a soft whining note. Perhaps just a variant. 5. Agg. V. Quite clear. Short necked [[sketch]] 6. Also something much like Ch posture of sustained bow chincha sud. 7. Something of an aerial stretch with glide 8. Peculiar H or F posture Might even be 0+ FB Accompanied by slight up and down head movements, but primarily back of head or whole head. No sign of T [[ sketch of whole bird]] Response of mate was chattering performance, both high & low
inca. [[encircled page number: 27]] Wednesday November 9, 1955 Chincha Sur More about Larosterna inca. The peculiar hunch with ruffle (H&R) is a form of FB apparently. Saw a [[female symbol]] do it to a [[male symbol]], for several seconds, eventually inducing [[male symbol]] to mount. The head movement, especially when there is only one isolated low-intensity movement, is quite reminiscent of short distance HB (i.e. head-bobbing in the Bh.G.) This copulation was apparently preceded, by several minutes, by the presentation of a fish. Unfortunately, I did not see the intervening patterns. The usual M.C. appears to be mutual chattering (Cht), with both (|) and low phases (__). This may be followed by some sort of V & HF; but I am not sure about that. Cht. is perhaps less aggressive than LCN. It is my impression that LCN is particularly likely to precede attack. A flying bird charging me is apt to give LCN. Aerial attack call is perhaps a version of the LCN. Perhaps particularly loud, harsh and rattling, with sort of "tik" in it at the climax of the charge---tah-er Ordinary LCN might better be transcribed as "aaanh", (Boston accent a) Thursday, Nov 10,1955, Chincha Sur. Watching [[underline]]inca[[underline]]s on communal area of rocks, showing some behavior
inca, Nov. 10, 1955 I 28 Some cut from "F". "F" looks rather like low intensity F. Seems to occur when bird gives brief to another bird some distance (2-3 ft) away and slightly below. Many Lileut Paruis Two birds just standing on rocks, hold fish longitudinally with bill. Fly off in circular flights from time to time, usually returning to much the same spot. Not getting any response except aurousal hostility from neighbors. Copulation attempt Again immediately preceded by male H with R. The slight head movements definitely auros pareued by opening and closing of bill. Couldn't hear sound. Then male who has been standing in V (long neck, horizontal bill, not very "aug".)with ours. Goethe ostellings and OCB's mounts. Stand female behaves like female gull, caressing his breast, etc. Then male attacked by neighbors general pandemonium female stands with agg" V Seen several apparently silent Stratihes (ST) By one bird when another lands closely. By landing bird after landing near others. Low intensity "greeting"? Much of this St. looks like ( of Cht performance without sound. Some comments on LCN & related pattern. Often anouyansed by incomplete or complete raising of wings. This is obviously just just over crit. mob. of flying, and the birds do a lot of it when "disturbed" Birds also stand in LCN posture, with or without wing-lifting, but apparently silent. This appears to be sort of Gape pattern (G) and may well be a low intensity version of the LCN pattern. Explanitory note. I put up blind yesterday afternoon in a spot where there had been many terns the day before, but yesterday there were no birds! Then this morning 6:00 a.m., there were lots of birds on rocks 50-200 yds away from blind. Now 6:35,they are making occasional flights over blind.
uica, Nov 10, 1955, II 27 our landing, with much LCN, etc. at place where they were day before yesterday. Fl off again immediately in silent panic Is this proun of colon - occupation? Or just reaction to presence of blind? All gone now 642 This LCN note may have a form of "rattle" or "tutting" undertow, but slight, certainly much less conspicuous than in stolichis. The levels not back yet 8:00 a.m. but I don't think that the blind is wholly to blame. At least, I see, in the far distance, groups of birds reaching flights from the rocks to another potential breeding -- place, Can old deleted shack, with lattice work openings at the top, where they only remain for a second before returning to the rocks. Leaving blind to go watch communal area on rocks. What often looks like forward also often looks like forward stretch [[bird sketch horizontally]] sort of business * Communal aea 8:10 V&G St. LCN ST&G Agg.V LCN 0--1. F& Cht. 1-1-1 Goethestething (gost) - 1 F&cht--- )MC m.c. male Agg v female more extreme Agg. V - HF- AggV-HF - Agg V Cop attempt Didn't preliminaries. Like all the attempts so far can the male mounted there just sat for a long while. Fionally copulated twice Post cop display vertical 1---1-aux V female then flew away.
inca, Nov. 10, 1955, III [[page number: 30]] *communal. [[horizontal penciled oval, check mark]] - [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] - [[horizontal penciled oval, check mark]] - [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] - Agg. [[check mark]] V F+Cht.[[check mark]] F+Cht.[[check mark]] F+Cht.[[check mark]] F+[[check mark]]Cht. F +[[check mark]] Cht. Agg[[check mark]] V - F+[[check mark]]Cht. [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] [[vertical penciled oval check mark]] V.[[check mark]] [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] - F+[[check mark]]Cht. [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] - F+[[check mark]]Cht. F+Cht.[[check mark]] F+Cht.[[check mark]] - Aux.[[check mark]] V. [[vertical penciled oval, check mark]]-[[horizontal penciled oval, check mark]]-[[vertical penciled oval, check mark]] Gost[[double check mark]]-St[[double check mark]]-LCN [[check mark]]-LCN [[check mark]] Gost[[double check mark]]-V[[check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]] G is never wide, apparently. (Tongue & much of inside of mouth are yellow; but this does not appear to be emphasized in G [[image in margin: circled 6 M.C., red vertical strike mark above 6]] M.C. [[male symbol]] Agg.[[check mark]] V+HF[[check mark]] - Gost[[check mark]] - V[[check mark]] - preening[[check mark]]. [[female symbol]] Agg.[[check mark]] V - Gost[[check mark]] - V[[check mark]] - Gost[[check mark]] - V[[check mark]] - preening[[check mark]] [[image in margin: circled 6 M.C., red vertical strike mark above 6]] M.C. [[male symbol]] Agg[[check mark]]V&HF[[check mark]] ^[[female symbol]] Agg.[[check mark]] V. + what looks like ^[[(O+G)]]LCN, but can't hear sound [[female symbol]] invisible most of time. This HF is less a vigorous, sharp, flag, than a slightly slower "showing the back or the side of the head." In any case, it does appear to "remove" the bill. When relaxed, head is perfectly rounded [[sketch of bird profile]] front part of mustache often almost straight. Comme ca [[squiggly line under 'c' of 'ca']] Have now seen aerial St. with glide; with unusually rapid, almost vibrating, wing-beats of small amplitude; and with normal wing-beats(during Select Panic). Aux. V. in this species is essentially same as pre-flying posture Gost is perhaps the same thing as [[horizontal penciled oval]]. I think that there is tendency for call to cease during [[horizontal penciled oval]]; but this probably varies.
[[page start]] inca, Nov. 10, 1955, IV [[circled page number: 31]] [[sketch of bird in flight]] Aerial ft. posture [side note with 3 heavy vertical line with hash grid to right]] Given once by bird escaping from another that had seized its tail in mid-air. Aerial ft. given by bird after being shared by another, when the original had flew ahead overhead then bill opened, still in ft, [[underlined]]an LCN noise uttered[[/underlined]]!! I think the birds separated after this. The bird who did ft. in air landed,gave brief ft., eventually continuation of aerial ft. it had renewed after LCN. Then relaxed. [[side note: asterisk communal]] Gost[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]] (this appears to be low-intensity form of [[penciled oval - horizontal penciled oval]] Cht performance. Silent. Bird comes up into relaxed posture between gosts, but bill is pointed slightly upward during this relaxed posture) Gost[[double check mark]]-ft-[[double check mark]] Gost[[double check mark]]-ft[[double check mark]]ft&G. [[circled: 9:15]] [[penciled oval]][[horizontal penciled oval]] & Cht performance appears to be the usual display toward flying birds by a bird on the ground. At least, quite common. Sometimes Cht with F instead, I think Bird circles in "vibratory" flight(call it Moth flight)after aerial flight. About 4 times, then begins to fly normally, with flock. No trace of ft during this Moth flight. Went back to blind. Visited a couple of times, but birds gone most of the time. Back to communal area, 10:05 a. m. [[horizontal penciled oval]]-[[check mark]][[penciled oval]][[check mark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[check mark]]-[[penciled oval]][[check mark]]-[[horizontal penciled oval]][[check mark]] LCN[[check mark]]-LCN[[check mark]] [[penciled oval]][[check mark]]-[[horizontal penciled oval]][[check mark]]-[[penciled oval]][[check mark]]-Gost[[check mark]]-ft[[check mark]]LCN.[[check mark]]LCN.[[check mark]]ft[[check mark]]-V[[check mark]][[penciled oval]][[check mark]][[penciled oval]][[check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]]O&G. [[page end]]
[[page start]] inca, Nov. 10, 1955, V [[encircled page number: 32]] [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]]. LCN. [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] Gost. [[double check marks]] Gost. [[double check marks]] Gost. [[double check marks]] LCN. [[check mark]] Aux V.[[check mark]] O&G. [[check mark]] Gost. [[double check marks]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - Gost. [[double check marks]] - Gost. [[double check marks]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]].[[vertical oval w/check mark]] F+Cht. F+Cht.[[check mark]] [[vertical oval w/check mark]] - [[horizontal oval w/check mark]] - [[vertical oval w/check mark]]. St [[double check marks]] - St&G [[double check marks]]. Gost [[double check marks]] - Gost[[double check marks]]. LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]]. Two birds flying in circles, in Moth Flight. Perhaps disturbed by me. Trace of St. occasionally by one or both, (I think strongest in following bird). Change to screaming LCN's when over me. Back to silent Moth Fight for a few more circles, then separate, land. [[2 sketches of side view head and head and body]] [[sketch caption]] Body. head proportions in normal flight. Some variation in final twist of mustache. Wind may blow it upward. The usual posture accompanying aerial Cht & LCN is certainly [[double underlined for emphasis]]not[[/double underlined]] a St. More or less normal flying LCN postures. Perhaps a tendency for neck to be stretched upward & head downward during LCN. [[sketch of bird in flight with beak open]] [[sketch caption]] Coune Ca. [[side note: asterisk Communal Ending 10:55]] Gost [[double checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmark]] - G [[checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmark]] - V&G [[checkmark]] V+HF [[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval w/checkmark]] - [[vertical oval w/checkmark]] - [[horizontal oval w/checkmark]] - [[vertical oval w/checkmark]] - [[horizontal oval w/checkmark]] - [[vertical oval w/checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] - St. [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval w/checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] - St&G [[double checkmarks]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] [[vertical oval w/checkmark]] - [[horizontal oval w/checkmark]] - St.&G [[double checkmarks]] - Gost. [[double checkmarks]] G [[checkmark]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] LCN [[checkmark]] - LCN [[checkmark]] Aux. [[checkmark]] V&G. St [[double checkmarks]] - Gost [[double checkmarks]] - St. [[double checkmarks]] Have seen again that Cht. performance is usual "mod. int." M.C between birds that appear to be mates (i.e. birds who stay side by side for long periods of time, without disputing; and then turn to face one another and give repeated Cht. performances during. [[page end]]
[[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov. 10, 1955, VI. [[encircled page number: 33]] [[left margin column of crosshatch marking]] [[page start]] disputes with 3rd birds). Can begin with either [[horizontal oval]] or [[vertical oval]], tends to decrease into Gost & St. Then perhaps brief V Then preening [[left margin column of vertical marks in two rectangular patterns then crosshatch markings]] There appears to be a strong tendency for mates to redirect Cht. performance toward one another. Often reminiscent of upward & downward Ch of Kittiwakes Leaving 10:55-, 1:55 pm Now have blind in better place. Near a colony of nests (with eggs) and also near a communal area. Birds coming back in distance, but rather shy. I think that I am looking at an outlying part of the colony now. [[left margin column of vertical marks in two rectangular patterns then crosshatch markings]] Bird vibrates all over during Cht. Much like Glik of Franklin's Gull [[left margin column of vertical marks in a rectangular pattern then crosshatch markings]] [[Female symbol]] Fly[[or Fb]] from [[Male symbol]]. Not most extreme [[female symbol]] posture, wings not drooped, just carpal joints out. [[male symbol]] stands in agg. V, mounts, slips off, stands in agg. V. [[side note: upward pointing dark triangle]] [[darkened triangle]] toward flying birds. F&Cht.[[checkmark]] H&R&Cht. [[checkmark]] F&Cht. [[checkmark]] F&Cht. [[checkmark]] F&Cht. [[checkmark]] [[vertical, darkened oval]] [[checkmark]] St[[checkmark]]&G - Gost[[checkmark]] - St.[[checkmark]] [[left margin column of vertical marks in a rectangular pattern then crosshatch markings]] Another cop attempt. Again unsuccessful. [[Female symbol]] FB in H with R. [[male symbol]] in agg. V. [[male symbol]] mounts. Slips off. Stands in agg.V - Gost - agg V. [[left margin column of vertical marks in two rectangular patterns then crosshatch markings in a diamond shape]] St. after attack. Apparently territorial defense
inca, Nov. 10, 1955, VII [[encircled page number: 34]] [[image: head and neck of gull, beak pointed down, "!!" written with arrow to back of neck]] Extreme agg.V bulge in neck is just about where the light grey stops. [[image: head and neck of gull, neck extended, beak pointed slightly up]] Extreme aux. V Almost St. Pre-Flight [[image: head and neck of gull, relaxed position, beak straight]] Much less aggressive V, (also occasionally shown as pre-flight posture) Head sometimes more rounded. Fight on ground. Then one bird escapes. Second flies after in Moth Flight Circles. Lands. Makes little circular Moth Flight. Lands. Disappears. [[Image - Picture of bird from profile view, extended horizontally]] "Forward" with Cht. sometimes almost exactly like the F of the B.A.G. [[Image - Picture of bird profile view, non-extended]] semi_F posture.
[[underlined]]inca[[/underlined]], Nov. 10, 1955, VIII [[encircled page number: 35]] One bird lands on rocks in distance. Fish in mouth, dangling. Stands in semi- H, long time. Then another bird lands, very near, does [[vertical oval]] _ [[horizontal oval]] _ [[vertical oval]] _ Gost - V & HF - Gost - V - pr - V - pr - V relax. [[image -rough sketch- bird with fish in beak]] The bird with fish makes some response to [[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]] performance, as if doing very low intensity [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] itself. Then just sits, facing the other bird. (Too far away to hear sounds. Bird with fish may have been calling continuously for all I know.) Other bird flies away. Bird with fish just sits. Eventually flies away too, in silent unritualized flight. Silent G in flight. Very pronounced. By bird that had been doing it on ground. Just heard a very loud "honking" version of Cht. Don't know in what connection. Might just possibly have been [[female symbol]] Piquero. The usual LCN does sound like creaking of rusty hinge. Considerable variation. E.g. "attack" LCN [[short diagonal line under which is written "a"]] [[up arrow indicating insert note: semi "tik"]] [[horizontal line under which is written "aaah"]]. Also higher-pitched, "purer", more plaintive version. [[vertical oval]] [[horizontal oval]] Cht performance after followed by semi- V. Have once seen Cht from definite agg. V. This must be relatively rare, however. V's definitely appear to be "low-intensity". So, in fact, do all the silent patterns. LCN on ground accompanied by definite, rapid, halfway raising of wings. Repeated. During [[underline]] intra-specific[[/underlined] dispute. Bird not frightened by me. [[several vertical lines in rectangular patterns and cross hatched marks, down left margin of page - different numbers and patterns next to each paragraph]]
[[underline]] inca [[underline]], Nov. 10, 1955, IX [[encircled page number: 36]] Definite Cht toward flying bird first in H with R, then F. Also noticed that just few notes of Cht may be slower than later on, and that these slow notes are much more like LCN notes in quality. (Adding these incidents to count on p. VI). Just saw transfer of fish from one bird to another. Preceded by Cht performance that I didn't catch. Followed by [[underline]] silent St. [[underline]], by the donor. Bird with fish. Stands in semi-H, fish dangling. Then another bird lands. Birds facing one another. Newcomer (looks larger than bird with fish) immediately begins Cht., beginning with [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - V (with much OCB) Bird with fish does something similar. [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - St. (Could't hear its call, but tail vibrated as during Cht. Then bird with fish, flies away on circular flight. Other bird flies off. Other bird back. Bird with fish back. Again mutual display, exactly like before. Other bird does [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - V + HF (slight) + OCB. Bird with fish does [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - St. Again bird with fish goes on circular flight. Back. Other bird does [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - V + HF + OCB. Bird with fish does [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - V - eats fish as does HF. Bird that had fish flies off Doesn't return for several minutes. [[image - pencil sketch of bird looking proud with its head up and !! with left arrow pointing to its neck]] [[image caption]]Low intensity St St + G -- V + G after attack during territorial defense [[end page]]
[[encircled page number: 37]] [[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov. 10, 1955, X [[Roman Numeral]] [[To the left of the paragraph below and extending to the bottom of paragraph are three columns in pencil; the first two are solid up-and-down strokes; the third is cross-hatching]] Territorial bird ohu [[??]] H & R & HB toward another bird, a few feet away in H with fish. Then first attacks second! [[underline]] Then agg. V & HF & slight G -- agg. V after attack[[/underline]]!! [[To the left of the paragraph below and extending the length of the paragraph are two columns in pencil; the first is solid up-and-down strokes; the second is cross-hatched.]] None of the H's with R I have seen today have been with really drooping wings. Perhaps latter is only immed. pre-cop. The birds I have seen have just had their carpi held out as in usual threat. [[To the left of the paragraph below and extending the length of the paragraph is one scribbled column in pencil.]] Ring of bare flesh around anus, of [[female symbol]] at least, is bright yellow. [[To the left of the sentence below are four columns in pencil; the first three are up-and-down strokes; the last is cross-hatched]] St & G after attack during territorial defense. St very extreme. [[to the left of the paragraph below, are again four columns, this time in ink; the first three in up-and-down strokes; the last cross-hatched. Writer switches to pen after first sentence.]] Another copulation attempt. Nearby, saw well [[female symbol]] begins, by going into H & R & HB Bill opened & closed slightly during this performance, usually opening on downbeat [[male symbol]] in agg. V, perhaps once or twice OCB, usually bill quite closed, certainly quite silent. [[female symbol]] circles [[male symbol]], repeatedly, in same H & R & HB [[Male symbol]] stands more or less stationary, just turning to face [[female symbol]] [[female symbol]] appears to be getting frantic, finally sidles [[underlined]]backward[[/underline]] beside [[male symbol]], backs into him, then starts to turn head from side to side, over shoulder, as if caressing [[male symbol]]'s breast as during copulation. [[Male symbol]] finally mounts. [[female symbol]] remains in H. Still turning head from side to side. (Note about [[female symbol]]'s posture Her carpi were out, but wings not drooped. Wings separated a little, [[underlined]]tail raised[[/underlined]] between them, when [[male symbol]] mounted this time throughout copulation). [[Male symbol]] just stands. Finally copulates twice. [[Female symbol]] continues head turning before & between. [[Male symbol]] slides off. [[Male symbol]] does agg. V + HF -- agg. V -- relax & begin to preen. [[Female symbol]] resumes [[?]] H & R & HB for a second, then relaxes & preens 3:45. [[The following sentence preceded by a cross-hatched column on the left.]] [[Male symbol]]'s belly feathers very ruffled after mounting. Also breast feathers to some extent. [[The last sentence on this page preceded on the left by four columns. The first three are up and down strokes; the last is cross-hatched.]] Have again been watching persistent H & R & HB by [[female symbol]]. Circling round & round, & chasing [[male symbol]]. Her posture is really remark- [[end of page]]
[[underlined]]inca[[/underlined]], Nov. 10, 1955, XI [[encircled page number: 38]] [[Left margin again with patterns of vertical lines in rectangular shapes and crosshatched or squiggly shapes which seem to group observations on the page]] ably like F of Bhg. Managed to hear sound accompanying HB; an extremely soft "wah", repeated with each down beat. (When a neighbor intruded, the [[female symbol]] turned to face it, [[underline]]continued H & R & HB[[/underline]] but sound became intermediate between normal HB sound & LCN. The high plaintive LCN I mentioned earlier). Noticed that [[female symbol]]'s abdomen feathers also ruffled during H & R & HB. Wings [[underline]]not[[/underline]] drooped. Usual [[male symbol]] response to [[female symbol]] was agg V. & retreat. Occasional semi - HF movements. [[male symbol]] responded to intrusion by F & Cht. [[underline]] Once went down into H & trace of R [[/underline]]. Then [[renewed? / resumed?]] F & Cht. Noticed that when [[male symbol]] was running away from [[female symbol]], when he was in agg V, his scapulars were slightly raised, as a [[tract?]], but no sign of R. 4:05 Usual St., when not a "silent [[horizontal oval]] or LCN", is rather short-necked. Like a V posture superimposed on an F [[image - bird with head and neck pointing perpendicularly upward from body]] This whole Cht performance is remarkably like both the Glik of Franklin's Gull & the Ch. of the Kittiwake. Call itself is probably strictly homologous with Glik of Franklin's. Birds very often do St, and nothing else, when landing amidst their fellows in a communal area. Then begin to preen immediately. Long continued & sustained G in LCN type O posture. Wings raised each time as bill opens. Looks, in fact, just like extreme LCN, but certainly silent or call at least as weak as HB call. This pattern can't be too low-intensity, although presumably weaker than LCN itself.
[[underline]]Inca[[/underline]], Nov. 10, 1955, XII [[encircled page marker 39]] Have been watching [[female symbol]] H+R again. Top of head + back are slightly ruffled, but this is slight enough, and the feathers are short enough, to render this inconspicuous Real conspicuous [[best guess]] R begins with scapulars [[underlined]]Chin smooth [[/underlined]]. [[image sketch of bird]] Live [[best guess]] is like this. Underside of wings silvery. Lighter color is moderately conspicuous when wings are raised during LCN's V+G by[[best guess]] ruin[[?]]. after retreat, after being attacked Must mention that St & some [[vertical oval]] reveal yellow between the 2 sides of the lower mandible. This is sometimes very conspicuous. Probably an important releaser. [[image - drawing of lower mandible of bird]] yellow[[label on image]] relatively light grey chin [[label on image]] V-Gort[[?]] after attack during territorial defense [[male symbol]] does quick, nervous, but complete, preening, apparently as a response to [[female symbol]] soliciting V+G after attack during territorial defense. Bursts of LCN by neighbors [[and symbol]] disputants. During vigorous territorial disputes. Also other hostile patterns. Haven't been able to see circumstances of these LCN's at all clearly I have again seen several birds, just "waiting" on rocks, with fish dangling from beaks; most peculiar. Can't be purely a digestive process, as they often regurge again Appear frozen.
40 inca, Nov. 10, 1955, XIII [[image - bird in high intesity LCN posture]] !! High intensity LCN posture Wing-raising is almost inevitable Peculiar incident. Bird, Presumably [[image - male gender symbol]], lands beside another, presumably [[image - female gender symbol]]. "[[image - male gender symbol]]" with fish. Just stands for a moment, in usual fish carrying-posture (which we will call "Fish-Oblique", FO). "[[image - female gender symbol" starts [[out?]] from F. [[Anonas?]]. slight trace of R. "[[image - male gender symbol]]" goes down into F also, less [[?]], and probably silent. Then "[[image - female gender symbol]]" flees to another "[[image - male gender symbol]]," presumably her mate. This "[[image- female gender symbol]]" and the other "[[image - male gender symbol]]" then go through a mutual [[lit?]] with [[strikeout]] + [[strikeout]] performance, followed by mutual [[V?]]. This this "[[image - female gender symbol]]" and the second "[[image - male gender symbol]] behave like mates. The fish-carrying "[[image - male gender symbol]]" meanwhile flies to another bird, presumably a second [[image - female gender symbol]], and sits in front of her with fish. She goes down into H+R, and begins HB. "[[image - male gender symbol]]" just sits, finally [[hands?]] over fish. Then, as second "[[image - female gender symbol]]" begins to swallow fish, a fifth bird attempts to steal it, and general pandemonium ensues. Several fight. All fly off. 5:40 [[image - bird in fish-carrying posture, labeled "FO"]] Does this incident suggest that pair-formation consists of [[image - male gender symbol]]'s flying from place to place, resting every now + then on ground, and trying to get [[image - female gender symbol]]'s on ground to accept fish??? Suggestive of something, anyhow. Leaving 5:45
[[circled]] 41 [[/circled]] [underlined]] inca [[/underlined]] Nov. 11, 1955 South Chincha Is [[left margin]] [[image - pencil doodles - squiggly lines, vertical lines in rectangular forms and crosshatches]] [[/left margin]] Blind same place as yesterday afternoon Enter at 7:17 a.m. Day clear. Still cool here in shadow of cliffs. Birds still a little shy. Note about "real" St. Have seen it again & again by birds landing; near, but not too near others. Much more vertical than most of the stretches which appear to be "silent" calls. Perhaps body more horizontal and neck a trifle shorter also. [[image - pencil sketch of complete bird with head and beak vertical]] [[image - close up pencil sketch of head and beak vertical]] [[image - arrow pointing to head of image]] variant !! "Real" St. Not caricatured at all. [[left margin]] * displays provoked by terr. defense, and redirected on mate [[/left margin]] [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]]. [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]]. [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost - [[√ over it]] - [[vertical oval√ over it]] - gost - [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] [[horizontal oval √ mark over it]] - [[vertical oval √ mark over it]] -[[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost -[[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost - [[√ over it]] -St [[√ over it]] [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - gost - [[√ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - gost - [[√ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - gost. [[√ over it]]. Agg. V [[√ over it]] + HF St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]]-[[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √over it]] - St [[√ over it]] gost [[√ over it]] - St. [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - ost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] [[left margin]] * terr. defense. (or at least hostility on territories). [[/left margin]] [[underline]] St.[[√ over it]] Agg. V [[√ over it]] before attack. [[/underline]]. Aux. [[√ over it]] V - [[underline]] V before [[√ over it]] attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] St. [[√ over it]] after attack [[/underline]] (not extreme, almost aux. V) LCN [[√ over it]] - LCN [[√ over it]] - LCN [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - Agg [[√ over it]] V - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - [[vertical oval √ over it]] - [[horizontal oval √ over it]] - [[underline]] [[vertical oval √ over it]] before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]][[√]] after attack [[/underline]] St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - St [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - V. [[√ over it]] St [[√ over it]] - F [[√ over it]] - St. [[√ over it]] [[underline]] Aux. [[√ over it]] V. during retreat.[[/underline]] V [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it and other pencil mark]] - gost [[√ over it and other pencil mark]] [[underline]] Aux. V. before [[√ over it]] escape.[[/underline]] Aux. [[√ over it]] V. F+ [[√ over it]] G - O+ [[√ over it]] G. gost [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]] - V [[√ over it]] - gost [[√ over it]]. [[underline]] F+ [[√ over it]] Cht between attacks.[[/underline]] LCN [[√ over it]]. [[underline]] St [[√ over it]] after attack [[/underline]] - V+ [[√ over it]] G. LCN [[√ over it]] - LCN [[√ over it]] - LCN [[√ over it]]. LCN [[√ over it]]. LCN [[√ over it]]. LCN [[√ over it]].
[[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, II. [[encircled page number: 42]] [[side note: circle w/vertical red line above - M.C.]] M.C. [[male symbol]] Agg. V - [[check]] - gost [[check]] - Agg. V - [[check]] - gost [[check]] - V [[check]] - gost [[check]]. [[female symbol]] Agg. V [[check]] - gost [[check]] - Agg. V [[check]] - gost [[check]] - V [[check]] - gost [[side note: circle w/vertical red line above - M.C.]] M.C. [[male symbol]] Agg V [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - gost [[check]] - St.[[check]] - gost [[check]]. [[female symbol]] St. [[check]] - gost [[check]] - St. [[check]] - gost [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - gost [[check]] - St. [[check]] - gost [[check]] Bird just flew by. In extreme St. At first a trace of Moth flight, wing-beats very rapid, but of [[underline]]remarkably small[[/underline]] amplitude (no more than 2" at most). Then glides while continuing in extreme St. This St. definitely silent. Bird soon disappears from view around a rock. [[side note: * redir. on mate.[[/side note]] Gost [[check]] - Gost [[check]] Gost [[check]] - Gost [[check]] [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] [[vertical oval]] [[check]] [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] [[vertical oval]] [[check]] [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] [[vertical oval]] [[check]] [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] [[vertical oval]] [[check]] [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - St [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - St. [[check]] Gost [[check]] - St [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - St [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - St [[check]] - Gost [[check]]. [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check]] - [[vertical oval]] [[check]] - St [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - St. [[check]] [[side note: circle w/vertical red line above - M.C.]] MC [[male symbol]] St [[check]] - Agg. V. [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - V. [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - V[[check]]. [[female symbol]] V [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - V [[check]] - Gost [[check]] - V[[check]]. 8:00 Wing feathers also ruffled during H+R+HB. Quite conspicuous at times. [[Left margin image shaded triangle]] Toward flying birds. F&Cht. [[check]]. Cht [[check]] (alone, no posture) F+Cht. [[check]] [[image: two gulls in profile both with fish in bills]] Extreme FO. Notice that neck is sometimes greatly swollen, which means that fish must be partly swallowed. Occas. regurge movements. Sometimes head & little lower momentarily. Then perhaps reminiscent of M posture or L posture of some gulls.
[[circled]] 43 [[/circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, III. [[margin]] [[image - pencil doodles of vertical shapes followed by crosshatching]] [[/margin]] Interesting incident. Apparent [[male symbol]] (large), with fish in bill, approaches apparent [[female symbol]] (small). [[female symbol]] reacts by F & Cht. - Agg. V. - F & Cht - Agg. V. [[male symbol]] just stands in posture varying from semi - H to complete F. When in most extreme F, a trace of R. Finally flies away a few feet. [[female symbol]] then relaxes, doesn't follow him. [[male symbol]] stands in F for a while, finally swallows fish. OCB OCB OCB Stands. Then involved in some attack with another bird; can't follow it. Both fly off. [[female symbol]] remains, relaxed & preening. This encounter [[underline]] looked [[/underline]] much like an amorous [[male symbol]] making advances to an already mated [[female symbol]] [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] F & √ Cht. Agg. √ V. St. √ [[horizontal oval]] √ -[[vertical oval]] √ - [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - [[horizontal oval]] √ - [[vertical oval]]√ -Agg. V[[check]]-gost [[check]] Agg.[[check]] V-gost[[check]] - [[underlined]] Agg.[[check]] V before attack [[/underlined]]. Aux [[check]] V & G Agg. [[check]] V. Apparent nest-site selection "ceremony"!! [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]] land. M.C quite mutual Agg. V & HF - Agg. V- [[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]- gost- Agg. V. [[female symbol]] walks away in Agg. V. [[male symbol]] follows in Agg. V. [[female symbol]] goes from potential nest-site to potential nest-site, i.e. crevices and hollows under rocks. Each place, she looks down repeatedly, (like a series of gosts) [[male symbol]] joins her, does same thing. Birds orientated comme ca [[cedille under c in ca]] [[image-two arrows pointing upward; left arrow pointing slightly to right; left arrow pointed slightly to left]]. Then [[female symbol]] scrapes briefly (without turning). Then [[female symbol]] walks to another site, in agg. V., [[male symbol]] follows in agg. V. Then whole performance repeated. Saw 5 sites visited in row, before birds disappeared around boulder 8:40 [[left margin]] *[[check]] [[check]] terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underlined]] Gost [[check mark]] before retreat. [[/underline]] LCN [[check mark]] -V [[checkmark]]- [[underlined]] Aux. [[check mark] V before retreat. [[/underlined]] V.[[check mark]] [[underlined]] St after attack. [[/underlined]] O+G [[check mark]] [[underlined]] O+G [[check mark]] during retreat- St after retreat [[/underlined]] O+G [[check mark]] V+G [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] [[underlined]] Aux [[check mark]]V before retreat Aux [[check mark]]V before retreat [[/underlined]] St. [[check mark]]. [left margin]] * redir. on mate [[/ left margin]] St [[check]] - gost [[check]] St [[check]] - gost [[check]] St [[check]] [[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]]-St [[check]] [[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]]-St [[check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]][[horizontal oval with check]]-[[vertical oval with check]]-St[[check]]-gost[check]]-St[check]]- There is always a great burst of LCN's by flock returning from a Silent Panic 8:50
[[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, IV [[encircled 44]] *redir. on mate Ending 9:35 gost[[checkmark]] - St[[checkmark]] - [[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-St[[checkmark]] [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark] - gost[[checkmark]] - St[[checkmark]] - gost [[checkmark]]- St.[[checkmark]] F +[[checkmark]] cht - [[horizontal oval]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]]- St[[checkmark]]-F +[[checkmark]] cht - gost[[checkmark]] - St.[[checkmark]] [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]- F +[[checkmark]] cht - [[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]] - [[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]] During these bouts of mutual displays, provoked by an intruder and redirected upon mate, it is noticeable that mates tend to do the same things but are only synchronized part of the time. 9:05. [[circle with red line extending out at 1 o'clock]]M.C. [[male symbol]] does agg. V [[checkmark]] - HF[[checkmark]] - HF[[checkmark]] - agg. V [[checkmark]]- gost[[checkmark]] - V [[checkmark]]- gost[[checkmark]] -V[[checkmark]] [[female symbol]] does agg V [[checkmark]]- HF[[checkmark]]- gost[[checkmark]] - V[[checkmark]] - gost[[checkmark]] - V[[checkmark]]. Watching another copulation. Much as yesterday [[female symbol]] HB in H + R, with much head-turning. [[male symbol]] in agg V - [[horizontal oval]] - agg V - [[horizontal oval]] - agg V. Again slow. Notice that [[female symbol]]'s [[underline]] yellow-winged cloaca is constantly opening + closing during her soliciting [[/underline]]. (This may be visible to the [[male symbol]] in some circumstances; as the whole rear end of her body is tilted [[and symbol]] raised.) Again, she didn't droop her wings until [[male symbol]] mounted. [[male symbol]] copulated twice. Then slid off. No display by [[female symbol]]. Agg V - HF - V by the [[male symbol]]. 9:17 There is almost certainly no Copulation Call in this species. Almost certainly no Alarm Call. Almost certainly no Landing Call. Watching nest-site selection going on. Perhaps same pair as earlier, but in a different area. Behavior just as described above. Have twice seen one of the birds in Silent Panics fly off in Moth Flight [[and symbol]] aerial St. Unfortunately didn't see what provoked the panics. [[drawings -Vertical lines in rectangular pattern and crosshatches of differing directions and patterns along left margin.]]
[[underline]] inca[[/underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, V [[page number 45]] Bird flies in aerial St with Moth Flight-glide. After break up of aerial fight. This bird was aggressive during fight. [[side note]]*terr. defense end 9:35 begin again 11:25[[/side note]] O & G. [[checkmark]](ending temporarily 9:35) (begin again 11:25)[[horizontal oval]] St. [[check mark]] O & G. [[check mark]] Aux V. [[check mark]] Agg. V. [[check mark]] [[underline]] Agg. V. [[check mark]] after attack.[[/underline]] St. after supplanting attack by immature bird! Quite as extreme as most of those of adults. Also a gost later on! [[side note]]*common-area[[/side note]] [[encircled time: 9:35]] St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] LCN [[check mark]] - LCN[[mark]] - LCN[[check mark]]. St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] F. [[check mark]] F [[check mark]] - St. [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - V. [[check mark]]. [[underlined]]LCN before [[check mark]] attack[[/underlined]] - [[underlined]]LCN after [[check mark]] attack[[/underlined]] St. [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]]. [[side note image: upward triangle]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] LCN. [[check mark]] LCN. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] Tail often closed when gliding. (Remember this for drawing of aerial St with glide. [[side note: * [[double check mark]] communal area]] [[underlined]]LCN before attack [[check mark]][[/underlined]] - [[underlined]]LCN after retreat [[check mark]][[/underlined]]. Gost [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] V [[check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - V [[check mark]] St [[double check mark]] [[underlined]]F & G before attack [[check mark]][[/underlined]] - [[underlined]]St. after attack [[check mark]][[/underlined]] St. [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] St. [[double check mark]] LCN [[check mark]]. V. [[check mark]] V. [[check mark]] Aux. V. [[check mark]] Aux.V.[[check mark]] V. F & Cht. [[check mark]] LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]] - O & G. [[check mark]] LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]] LCN [[check mark]] - [[underlined]]LCN before attack [[check mark]] [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]]LCN after attack [[check mark]][[/underlined]]. St. after attack by immature. Agg. V. by immature. [[side note: *[[double check mark]] comm. area. Ending 10:45]] [[underlined]]St. during retreat [[check mark]][[/underlined]]. St [[double check mark]] - St [[double check mark]]. St [[double check mark]]. F & Cht [[check mark]] - [[horizontal oval]] [[check mark]]- F & Cht [[check mark]]. Gost [[double check mark]]. St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]]. F & Cht [[check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St. [[double check mark]] Gost [[double check mark]]] - St. [[double check mark]] St [[double check mark]] - [[underlined]]Aux . V. [[check mark]] before attack[[/underlined]]. St. [[double check mark]] LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]] - LCN [[check mark]] [[vertical oval]] [[check mark]] [[vertical oval]] [[check mark]] - [[horizontal oval]][[check mark]] [[underlined]]LCN [[check mark]] before attack[[/underlined]] - [[underlined]]LCN after attack [[check mark]][[/underlined]]. - St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St.[[double check mark]] St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] - St. [[double check mark]] LCN. [[check mark]] St. [[check mark]] St [[double check mark]] - Gost [[double check mark]] [[side note: 2 concentric circles with vertical red line at top of outer circle. M.C.]] M.C. in communal area. [[male symbol]] V [[check mark]] - HF [[check mark]] - V [[check mark]] - HF [[check mark]] -V[[check mark]] [[Female Symbol]] V[[check mark]] - HF[[check mark]] - V [[check mark]] - HF[[check mark]] - V[[check mark]]. Then both begin to preen. Notice an interesting performance (included in count above). Bird lands in communal area. Does St - Aux - V - attacks a bird a few yards away. Latter flies up immediately. Attacker chases briefly; first gives brief burst of Cht in usual aerial
[[top of page]] [[underlined]]mca[[/underlined]], Nov 11, 1955, VI. [[cross-hatchings all down left margin of page]] [[encircled page number]]46[[/encircled page number]] [[page start]] cht posture, then goes into definite aerial St, with [[trace]] of [[Moth?]] flight. The Cht & F performance, as shown briefly toward flying birds, may be even more grating than other cht's At least it appears to be so in the case of one bird near the blind, 10:30 The aggressiveness of this species is somewhat peculiar When it does fight, it fights hard & long; but it is my definite [[impression?]] that attacks & fights are relatively rare, (as compared with such species as the B&G, Franklin's, & the Ring-bill) Have noticed one thing about the LCN's in this communal area. They seem to be be very efficient as threat Almost always bring about retreat by opponent. LCN can vary downward to almost complete inaudibility. This helps to explain some of the G performances. [[bottom of left margin]] [[thick circle]]MC. MC in communal area. [[male symbol]] does Agg[[check mark]] V+H[[check mark]]F - [[ga[[check mark]]it?]] - Agg[[check mark]] V [[&?]] G. Agg[[check mark]]-V-F&[[check mark]]cht-F[[check mark]]-aggV. [[symbol female gender]] does V[[check mark]]-F-F--V[[check mark]]. [[image extends to bottom of page: frontal view of head, neck, & body with closed wings of bird with pendant feathers on both sides of head]]
[[circle]] 47 [[circle]] [[underline]] inca [[underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, VII [[left margin]] * redir, on mate [[/left margin]] [[circle]] 11:25 [[circle]] [[image - vertical oval with check mark above]] - [[image - horizontal oval with check mark above]] - [[image - vertical oval with check mark above]] - [[image - horizontal oval with check mark above]] - [[image - vertical oval with check mark above]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] -St. [[image - check mark above word]] Gost [[image - check mark above word]]- St [[image - check mark above word]]- Gost[[image - check mark above word]] - St[[image - check mark above word]] - Gost[[image - check mark above word]] - St[[image - check mark above word]] - Gost[[image - check mark above word]] - St[[image - check mark above word]] Some, at least, of the mutual [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] performances by mates are apparently not provoked by intrusions of third birds. Just seem to start off in vacuo. Peculiar incident. Presumably connected with pairing. One bird ("[[image - male symbol]]") hands fish to another ("[[image - female symbol]]") "[[image - male symbol]]" in semi-F Also "[[image - female symbol]]". Possibly some Cht in these semi-F's. Then "[[image - female symbol]]" runs around with fish, half-swallowed, protruding longitudinally from bill as usual. In FO posture. Occasionally rejoins "[[image - male symbol]]" or he rejoins her. Then "[[image - male symbol]]" does cht performances, mostly from F and [[image - horizontal oval]], little [[image - vertical oval]] "[[image - female symbol]]" then sometimes does same thing, more or less F usually, weak, can't tell whether [[round?]] or not.(Fish carrying Bird always seems much hampered by it. Rather sluggish, unable to display properly). Then "[[image - female symbol]]" makes repeated (at least 5) circular flights. Quite unritualized. Very brief. Comes back to 3 different sites, in same general area, but separated by many yards and territories of other birds Sometimes lands & nobody pays any attention. "[[image - female symbol]]" just sits, in more or less FO. Sometimes threatened (agg V) by a nearby bird. Then "[[image - female symbol]]" retreats. More often there is some display, mutual, with a nearby bird. "[[image - female symbol]]" in FO, occasionally F + cht. Occas. [[image - horizontal oval]] or gost. (some of these latter are at potential nest-sites, may conceivably be accompanied by trace of scraping The bird displaying, with "[[image - female symbol]]", which may or may not be the original "[[image - male symbol]]" each time, does more varied displaying: Essentially an alternation of Agg V & H F and Cht patterns, mostly [[image - horizontal oval]] and F, occasional Gosts, perhaps an [[image - vertical oval]] or two. Always get confused after this, as their are repeated, enormous, Silent pauses throughout the colony. But the "[[image - female symbol]]" is back, with fish, at least twice before I lose her again 12:25. No, back again & again. To the same three sites. Sometimes a few others. Actually approached usual birds, ([[underline]] once [[underline]] a copulating pair, which may be significant). Little
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, VIII [image-number 48 in circle]] circular flights in between: Mostly stays in FO when landed. Most of the times, it land beside one particular bird Probably original "[[male symbol]]" Displays as before "[[male symbol]]" [[horizontal oval]], [[vertical oval]], & F + Cht. "[[female symbol]]" occasional cht in F & [[horizontal oval]]. "[[male symbol]]" occasionally in Agg.V. Much moving about, not only because of circular flights & [[pauses?]], but also because "[[female symbol]]" much threatened by neighbors. Finally, on last return from a circular flight, "[[female symbol]]" swallowed fish Then she and "[[male symbol]]" did much parading around in Agg, V, V, V & HF, etc. "[[female symbol]]" goes to a nest - site once, [[scrapes? wrapes?]] briefly, relaxes. (I have no idea, really, which sex was which in this lengthy & dull imbroglio). 12:50 Leaving 12:55 Back 3:12 p.m. Birds come back fairly quickly. [[in margin: M.C.]] Both birds do V&HF. [[two check marks above V, check mark above H, check mark above F]] Flying posture of bird carrying fish in incident described above. [[bird with a fish - image]] [[image-arrow to left pointing to bird's neck]]prominent curve (almost as in [[ft.?]]) Moth flight by both birds, after one attacks other on the ground. No [[ft.?]] !! [[bird with opened wings - image]] Extreme Moth Flight. Bird circles with body almost as vertical as head & bill. After some sort of dispute on ground
[[circle]] 49 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[underline]], Nov. 11, 1955, IX [[left margin]] * terr. defense. [[three vertical lines one crosshatch column]] ending 3.55 [[/left margin]] [[check marks appear above each letter or set of letters in following sequence]] [[circle]] 3.35 [[/circle]] F&Cht - [[horizontal oval]] Gost. St-Aux.V. V. V - [[horizontal oval]] St. LCN. LCN - O&G. [[underline]] O&G before attack. [[/underline]] (attacked bird escapes, attacker chases in Moth Flight with St). F&Cht. [[vertical oval]] - F&Cht F&Cht. St. Agg.V. St - Gost [[underline]] St. during retreat [[/underline]] St. Agg.V. St - Gost - St. 3:55 [[left margin]] [[crosshatch column]] [[/left margin]] Case of feet dangling in one Moth Flight with St [[left margin]] * commun. area !! [[/left margin]] [[circled]] 4:00 [[/circled]] Remarkably un-hostile here now. [[check marks appear above letter or set of letters in following sequence]] St.- Gost. St - Gost - St. St. F&Cht F&Cht F&Cht F&Cht F&Cht. [[underline]] H&R [[/underline]] !! St. LCN - LCN. LCN. LCN. Gost - O&G - Gost [[image - horizontal oval]] F&G. St. - Gost [[left margin]] [[2 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch column]] [[/left margin]] Notice that, in the case of preening birds, the earrings don't stand out very much. Does this mean that they are [[underline]] erected [[/underline]] in display? Earrings are actually 2-part. [[left margin]] [[vertical column]] [[/left margin]] [[image - pencil drawing of C-shaped "earrings"]] - attached to head, except for tip - loose [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] [[/left margin]] Now I'm not really sure there are two kinds of St. The "silent calls" are usually quite O. "F" varies considerably [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch column]] [[/left margin]] [[image - pencil drawing of open mouthed bird]] [[image - 2 arrows pointing towards both bird images]] 2 extremes. [[image - pencil drawing of open mouthed bird]] [[image - arrow pointing toward image of second bird]] Differs from [[horizontal oval]], really, only insofar as bill is not really pointed to ground [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch column]] [[/left margin]] O with G is usually characterized by bill open only slightly One of the things that make it look like low-intensity LCN. Sometimes, however, bill is open very wide. Then, I think, the tongue is apt to be visible, [[image - pencil drawing of beak with tongue visible]] something which rarely, or more probably never, occurs with real LCN.
[[circled]] 50 [[/circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 11, 1955, X [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern beside each paraphaph]] [[/margin]] There are several other patterns which may be produced by hostile motivation; but which I am not counting. Among these are OCB, head-shaking, and preening. Speaking of preening, incidentally, although I have seen plenty of "nervous" preening, I have seen nothing that looks "ceremonial". The preening following M C's is usually relaxed. Wings during Moth Flight with St, especially when body is slightly tilted (as I think it often is - slightly) are usually or always, apparently, "held above the body" slightly. I.E. they must form a slight dihedral. I think that this is true even at the bottom of the downbeat 4:32. [[margin]] [[image - one crosshatch column]] [[/margin]] These birds certainly have far more Silent Panics than any other larid species I have ever studied at a comparable stage of the breeding cycle, (i e many with eggs) [[margin]] *territor - defense [[/margin]] [[underline]] √LCN before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St & G between attacks [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St between attacks [[/underline]] - (This is just one incident I witnessed Took much less than a minute). [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] [[/margin]] Apparent low-intensity, low posture [[image - crude drawing of gull head]] LCN by immature before attacking. [[margin]] √√*Comm - area [[/margin]] [[image - check mark above each symbol or set of letters in following sequence]] St- Gost. LCN. LCN. Gost - V. [[horizontal oval]] St. St. Gost. LCN. St. [[underline]] V & G before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] Gost- Gost- St. St. St. St. Gost. V & G. Gost. St. Gost St. St - St. - Gost St. [[underline]] St after [[image-horizontal one in left margin]] escape [[/underline]] - Gost. Gost [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - Gost - St - Gost - St - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN. LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] [[/margin]] Yes! The ear-rings are certainly erected during some display postures at least. The V's. Probably all the ground threat postures. The immature birds are certainly more aggressive in the communal areas than the adults Tend, I think, to do relatively
[[circled]] 51 [[/circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 11, 1955, XI. [[margin]] [[image - three vertical black lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] [[/margin]] more simple attacks, without display [[margin]] [[image - one vertical line and vertical crosshatch pattern next to bird drawing]] [[/margin]] Repeat [[image - drawing of gull]] St posture Emphasize angles of breast Most of the hostile displays can probably be schematized as follows: [[margin]] [[image - three vertical black lines and one vertical crosshatch column beside each following paragraph]] [[/margin]] 1. Agg V - V - Aux. V. HF related 2. LCN, with O & G and V & G as low-intensity forms 3. Cht patterns. [[vertical oval]] & [[horizontal oval]] & F. [[horizontal oval]] & F intergrade The alternation of Gost & St is probably the low intensity form of this pattern Agg. V, V & G, O & G, LCN, and F & Cht are obviously threat. The intimidating effect of the other patterns is less conspicuous. Does seem to exist, however; at least in the case of [[horizontal oval]] and [[vertical oval]] When the hostility is at its lowest in the communal area, almost all you see are St. and Gost. And these are infrequent. But when hostility increases, you not only get other patterns, you also get more of them. This means that my counts of communal area hostility are biased, as a guide to low intensity hostility They will tend to be "skewed" to the higher intensity end of the scale. One slight point might be emphasized. Low intensity St may be oblique, but it is short necked. The low-intensity O of O & G or LCN tends to be like a long-necked V, at least moderately long-necked
[[Vica?]], Nov. 11, 1955, XII [[circled 52]] *Commun. area [[left side pictures]] St-Gost-St-Gost-St. St-Gost-St. St. St. St. LCN-O+G. As birds are landing after a Silent Panic, the call birds on the ground make toward flying birds is LCN. Very noticeable. *Commun. area End 6:05 [[left side pictures]] LCN, O&G, V, V&G. St LCN. St. St. St. St - Gost. Some variants of LCN note by flying birds might be transcribed as "Kee-a-ar" Real, extreme, short-necked, bill pointed strongly upward, F is the introduction to H&R. Shape of tail, whether spread or closed, during Moth Flight with St is apparently dependent upon aerodynamics. Either one can occur Leaving 6:05 [[vica?]] Saturday, Nov 12, 1955 Chincha fur 7:40 a.m, have moved my blind to center of colony. Don't know how the birds will take it, but they come back quickly. [[image on left hand side with text]] Redir. mate [[image of filled in circles with lines and dashes. some abbreviations through out]]. [[bottom left hand triangle with text]] Post- cop. [[check-mark in middle of page]] Post-cop display by [[male symbol]], St [[female symbol]] doesn't do anything.
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, II [[circled 53 on top right of page]] [[image: side view of gull]] [[under image]]St. St. St. F & Cht. [[on right of image]]Extreme Aux. V posture (Followed by Gost) *[[sidenote on left]] terr. defense St-gost [[underline]]St & G after attack [[/underline]] - gost V-gost Aux.V. St-St-St-gost. F&G-gost. St-gost-gost-gost. St.V. St. St-gost-St [[underline]]Agg.V. after attack[[/underline]] [[underline]]St & G after attack.[[/underline]] St. St-gost-St-gost. gost. St-Gost. St. [[underline]]Agg.V. after attack-[[/underline]] Gost. Agg V-/HF. [[underline]]St after retreat[[/underline]] - [[underline]]St after retreat[[/underline]] -St, Agg V. gost. St, st. [[underline]]St after attack[[/underline]] -gost. [[underline]]St & G after attack[[/underline]]-St. [[underline]]Aux. V & G after attack[[/underline]] -gost - Agg.V. St-gost-St. St. [[underline]]St. after attack[[/underline]]. [[underline]]St. after attack[[/underline]]. St. - St-gost-V. St. [[underline]]F & G after attack[[/underline]]. [[underline]] St after attack[[/underline]] - host St. V-gost V-gost. [[underline]]Ag. V before attack[[/underline]] - [[underline]]Ag.V. between attacks[[/underline]] [[underline]]Aux.V.after escape.[[/underline]] St-gost-St. St-gost-St. St, Agg.V. St St & St. - Aux. V. [[underline]]St. after attack[[/underline]]. [[underline]] Agg.V. before attack[[/underline]]. St. St. St. St-gost-St-gost. [[underline]]St after attack[[/underline]] St. St-gost. O&G - V- gost [[marked by blue pen lines on left and bottom:]] LCN-LCN. [[this paragraph full of checks and crosses on top of words]] [[sidenote in blue pen]] X discount last 2 LCN's It is fairly obvious that the most extreme Agg. V's, perhaps the only extreme Agg. V's, are performed during M.C.'s, (including vert-relays Faint HB sound of [[female symbol]] might be transcribed as "oo-ah", very soft & plaintive Agg. V is [[underline]] very frequently [[/underline]] accompanied by a sort of "Twisted neck, sort of an adumbration[[?]] of HF [[Hatching patterns bottom left corner]] [[image bottom right corner]]
[[circled]] 54 [[/circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, III. [[margin]] [[hashed column]] [[/margin]] [[image - pencil sketch of gull with outstretched wings, raised head]] Very long, lean, look to birds flying in aerial ft. with Moth flight. [[margin]] [[three vertical lines with hashed column]] [[/margin]] Moth flight seems to be common in flights after fights on ground. 8:40. [[margin]] [[three vertical lines with hashed column]] [[/margin]] Bird standing in semi-V, semi-Gost posture, utters peculiar muffled sounds Like muffled, long-drawn syllables of Cht What are they? [[margin]] M.C. [[image- circular drawing with 6 in center and red vertical line]] [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] √St - √gost - √st [[female symbol]] √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √St!! [[margin]] * redir. mate. [[/margin]] √St √AggV - √gost - √st - √gost - √st - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] √F&Cht. √F&Cht √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √St - √[[image - vertical oval]] √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]]. √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √F&Cht - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √F&Cht - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]]. √Gost-√St-√Gost-√St [[margin]] [[one vertical line with hashed column]] [[/margin]] Front bird of two flying, in Moth flight & St, attacked by second. [[margin]] [[three vertical lines with hashed column]] [[/margin]] One St in Moth Flight & G! [[margin]] [[three vertical lines with hashed column]] [[/margin]] St & HF. [[margin]] [[three vertical lines with hashed column]] [[/margin]] When there is a slight slowing down of Cht syllables, each syllable sounds almost like "Barrrrup". There is certainly much less "rise & fall" to this Cht than to the Glik of Franklin's Gull. Loudness waxes & wanes, primarily, in correlation with intensity of performance, (i.e, in most cases, with the nearness of the opponent) Call certainly continues full blast during high intensity [[image - horizontal oval]]. Sounds perhaps a little deep-
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, IV [[circled page 55]] er[[completion of 'deep' of previous page]], more muffled, but still very loud, in [[horizontal oval]] Transcription of rapid high intensity syllables as "ch-ch-ch-ch...." is about as good as any. Eventually un-transcribable. Have seen presumed male scraping while presumed female looked on. 9:12 [[in left margin]] Large* redir. mate F+HB-F+HB-F+HB!! [[checkmark over each of the three pairs F& HB]](Definite indication of the sexual element in some of these redirected performances). [[image - transcript of bird calls]] Again notice LCN by birds after landing after Silent Panic. Not including them in counts, because I'm not sure of the stimuli provoking them. Period of panics again: 9:30 Mutual parading [[female symbol]] in Aux. V and St & HF. [[female symbol]] in Agg. V [[Left margin note]] Large* redir mate Ending 10:30 [[image - transcription of bird calls]] Ending 10:30 The usual hostile G is certainly very slight. [[image]] [[Arrow and label]] Almost appears closed at lip [[Left margin with vertical lines in rectangular patterns and crosshatching]]
[[start page]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, V. [[circled page number 56]] [[left margin]] [[large asterisk]]^terr. defense. [[/left margin]] LCN[[checkmark]]-O[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]-O+G[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]-O[[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]]-O+G[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]-O+G[[checkmark]]- O[[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]. O+G[[checkmark]]. [[gost.]][[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]] gost[[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]-LCN[[checkmark]]. [[underline]] AggV[[checkmark]] before attack-Agg V after attack [[/underline]] LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]] [[underline]] St & G[[checkmark]] after attack [[/underline]] LCN[[checkmark]]. LCN[[checkmark]] O+G[[checkmark]]. LCN[[checkmark]]LCN[[checkmark]]. St.[[checkmark]]. [[underline]] St+G[[checkmark]] after attack. [[/underline]] St[[checkmark]]. [[l. margin note in dark blue]] [[X]] discount the whole burst of LCN+O+O+G Apparently directed toward lizard. !!! One thing about redirection upon mate & Cht performance. Not only do the mates turn to face another, they usually turn to face, even enter the nest cavity 9:55 [[image-drawing of a nest cavity]] [[captions]] birds[[arrows]] entrance to cavity [[arrow]] [[checkmarks in following paragraph appear avove the letters indicated]][[underline]] F+G[[checkmark]] before attack-St[[checkmark]] after attack [[/underline]] LCN[[checkmark]]-O+G[[checkmark]] LCN[[checkmark]]-O+G[[checkmark]]. [[underline]] St[[checkmark]] after attack. [[/underline]] St[[checkmark]]. St[[checkmark]]. St[[checkmark]]. Gost[[checkmark]]. st[[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval] [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval] [[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval] [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval] [[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval] [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval] [[checkmark]] St [[underline]] St[[checkmark]] after escape. St[[checkmark]] after attack. [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]] before attack-O+G[[checkmark]] before attack. Agg.V.[[checkmark]] after attack. [[/underline]] Moth flight with St. by attacker after attack [[underline]]Again [[/underline]] Loudest cht is incredibly loud & metallic. Probably higher-pitched than other variants. Obviously high intensity Have seen many attacks preceded by no display. This may explain some peculiar features of my figures Again burst of LCN's from nearby birds when I can hear lizard running over my blind. [[underline]] Again. [[/underline]] 10:35 Again some pairing behavior. Much as before, but seen much nearer and in much greater detail. [[male]] (quite large, almost sure of his sex), stands with fish (as usual half-down throat, tail protruding longitudinally) Just stands, looking half-stupefied. Another bird approaches him. He attacks it Flies off on little circular flight, apparently quite unritualized Then back. This alternation of little circular flight and periods on ground goes on for a long time. [[end page]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, VI [[circled & written in blue ink]] 57 [[Image in left margin - three rectangles made of vertical lines one crosshatched rectangular shape, extending through almost 3/4 of the page]] Each time when the [[image - male symbol]] comes back, he comes back to same small area, and spends much of the time sitting half-stupefied in FO. But also does other things. Sometimes brief dispute with neighbors [[image - male symbol]] does F & Cht then Relatively rare, these disputes A couple of times [[image - male symbol]] approached by another bird. [[image - male symbol]] just sits or does F & Cht Then advances toward other bird (who has not displayed, just in weak semi - aux. V, if anything) and other bird flies off Sometimes [[image - male symbol]] chases in air, briefly, before returning (The "other bird" was probably different at different times) Sometimes [[image - male symbol]] suddenly flies up, charges bird some distance away, and then goes off on circular flight & returns. (I.E his numerous circular flights are probably all hostile, but they are certainly not usually ritualized). Sometimes [[image - male symbol]] approaches another bird, particularly [[underline]] a neighboring [[image - female symbol]] soliciting her mate [[image - male symbol]] [[/underline]] in more or less F, possibly trace of Cht. No response Sometimes [[image - male symbol]] goes down into what is obviously a potential nest-site. Did this at least 4 or 5 times Sometimes brief Cht as enters. (Due to the topography of the ground he was always in F or semi-F when entering) Sometimes stayed several minutes. [[underline]] Once definitely scraped. [[/underline]] All this, to repeat, alternated with periods of just sitting, occasional walking about, & circular flights (and joining in numerous Silent Panics as well) This certainly appears to be the invitation to pairing, but how the hell does the response occur? Leaving 11:00 a.m. Back 1:45 pm. Have to get in blind by myself. Doesn't seem to bother the birds too much [[Left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[image - transcription of bird calls with following order of interspersed writing; check mark above each call]] St. LCN LCN St-St-Gost Gost. St St-Gost St. St. V&G St. St. [[image-vertical oval]] F&Cht St. Aux.V-LCN [[underline]] St. after attack [[/underline]] O&G. Aux.V&G (immediately followed by Moth flight and St.) F&Cht. St. [[underline]] Agg.V before attack - Agg.V&G after attack [[/underline]]Gost-Agg.V-Gost-[[underline]] Agg.V before attack. V before attack - Agg.V after attack [[/underline]]-St. St. [[underline]] Agg.V before attack [[/underline]] [[image-vertical oval]] St. St.-Aux.V Aux.V O&G-Aux.V Gost after attack. St. Agg.V before attack-St after attack
[[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov.12, 1955, VII 58[[page#, circled]] [[image - left margin from main entry - colored in circle with adjacent text "Toward lizard or other pot. predator" drawn with a red line extending from text to a triangle drawn below the circle. Below the triangle is a drawing resembling an asterisk with lines extending from a center point with the text "redir, mate" adjacent.]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] LCN^[[checkmark]] [[Male symbol]] Agg.V^[[checkmark]] [[female symbol]] H+^[[checkmark]]R+HB^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] - [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]] - St^[[checkmark]] St^[[checkmark]] - gort - St^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]-[[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]-[[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]-[[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [dark vertical oval]]^ [[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]] - [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] - [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] F^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] F&Cht^[[checkmark]] H+R+HB. [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark horizontal oval]]^[[checkmark]]- [[dark vertical oval]]^[[checkmark]] Fights much like B.h.G. Aerial [[pounce?]]. Often much tumbling about with interlocking bills, or one bird holding on to wing or neck or tail of other. But all this is very aerial No "stationary" tugs of war Only on ground for more than a second when they are inextricably tangled and tumbling about in the dust There is a definite intermediate between Agg. V and Gort Seems to be very aggressive. Have seen it several times before attack (classified as Agg. V, because it was nearer that than anything else) [[image -- outline sketch of profiles of two birds (neck, head, beak), both facing the right side of the page with beaks pointed downward]] !! Note about Agg V. This is the one posture I have noticed so far in which carpi are really drooped [[image -- line sketch, possibly of left bird wing seen from above or the side.]] Seen another bird standing at entrance of nest-site. With fish. In F posture. Just standing for a long time. I look away, and when I look back it is swallowing the fish.
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, VIII [[image-number 59 in circle]] M.C. M.C. [[4 left margin images- (1).25 darkened vertical thick line, 1 inch in length(2).25 in darkened vertical thick, 1 inch in length (3).25 darkened vertical thick line, 1 inch in length (4)1 inch by 1 inch area of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with right upper corner diagonal lines descending to left lower corner]] Notice presumed pair. Land, in or near communal area, do mutual V+HF ^ [[four check marks]] ceremony (age, 1y [[male symbol]], plain V [[?]] [[female symbol]]) Fly off. Land another place Repeat Fly Off. Is this connected with pairing in some way? [[Left margin image - 2 inch length by 1 inch width area of connecting horizontal lines descending from right upper corner layered with right upper corner diagonal lines descending to left lower corner]] [[drawing of gull in middle page, right of left margin image - 3 inch by 3 inch pencil outline drawing of gull, with head facing upward and beak slightly opened, light shading on top of head]] Extreme [[dark oval]]. Differs from St. primarily in even longer neck, less angles on neck Again peculiar fish business. 2 birds, possibly pair. "[[female symbol]]" with fish in bill. FO-F "[[male symbol]]" in F. "[[male symbol]]" does F+Cht "[[female symbol]]" may conceivably answer with a little cht, still in F, but as usual difficult to tell Then "[[male symbol]]" [[underline]] flies off, in circular flight, in [[Moth Flight?]] and St, [[image-symbol for female]] follows, in circular flight, largely unritualized, possibly trace of Moth. [[/underline]] (This is quite like Fish Flight). Both birds back together. As before Almost no display, but both showing tendency to F "[[image-symbol for male]]" flies off in St, possible trace of Moth Flight "[[image-symbol for female]] remains until general Silent Panic 3:00. Notice that bird has been resting peacefully all afternoon in spot where bird with fish (A) was active in morning. Hope this is A. Showing no interest in other birds. More fishy business. Probably involving a pair already mated. One bird with fish, in F. Other bird HB in H+R ([[image-symbol for female]]?). "[[image-symbol for male]]" hands over fish, or, rather, allows "[[image-symbol for female]]" to seize it. [[image-symbol for female]] out of H+R, into semi-H, semi-FO Then interruption as "[[image-symbol for male]] goes to threaten neighbor with [[image-dark oval]]. Then both birds of pair fly off. Fish carrying bird first. What may possibly function as ALC is a sound like a brief, smothered version of Cht. No more than 3 syllables usually, at
[[underline]] [[inca]] [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, IX. [[image-number 60 in circle]] [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines,.5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] longest rapid "atukatuk" Some birds give this as they fly off at the beginning of a Silent Panic. [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] Actually, one might as well transcribe full Cht as "Tuk tuk tuk tuk tuk" as well as anything. [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] Before I forget, I am not sure that, during these fish episodes, the bird carrying fish in FO or F doesn't utter "ooah" notes like HB [[symbol for female]]. Can't really tell who's doing what [[left margin]] *[[check above mark]] terr.[[check above mark]]defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] Agg.V before attack - St after attack.[[/underline]] Aux. V St-Gost [[underline]] Agg. V after attack [[/underline]] -gost. St-Gost-Agg. V-Aux.V [underline]] St. before attack - St after attack St after attack [[/underline]]. St. Gost [[underline]] Agg V after attack. [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] Notice, during extreme [[horizontal oval]], belly feathers are somewhat ruffled and go in & out rhythmically, but yellow ring around areas is [[underline]] not [[/underline]] visible 3:40 [[left margin]] *[[check above mark]] terr.[[check above mark]]defense [[/left margin]] F & Cht [[check mark above]] [[vertical oval w/ check mark above]] [[horizontal oval w/check mark above]][[vertical oval w/check mark above]] [[horizontal oval w/check mark above]] [[vertical oval w/check mark above]] [[underline]] F & R [[check mark above]] before attack [[/underline]] O & G [[check mark above]] V & G [[check mark above]]St [[check mark above]] - Gost [[check mark above]] - Gost [[check mark above]] [[underline]] O & G [[check mark above]]after attack [[/underline]] - Gost [[check mark above]] Gost [[check mark above]] [[underline]]O & G[[check mark above]] after attack [[/underline]]. [[underline]] V & G after attack [[/underline]]St. [[underline]] St [[check mark above]] after attack [[/underline]] - Gost [[check mark above [[underline]] Gost[[check mark above]] after escape. [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 2.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] One bird of pair, presumably [[female symbol]], HB in H [[and symbol]] R. [[male symbol]] in semi H - semi-F, with slight trace of R. Then up, begins gosts. [[underline]] (This is the nearest thing to "mutual FB" that I have seen - I think.) [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] I think that I can provoke bursts of LCN from neighbors if I make a sudden noise or they see a sudden movement in the blind. This is contagious. If one bird doesn't, others are bound to. [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by .5 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] Cht performances are also very contagious but the silent performances, (e.g. St), seem to be almost absolutely very contagious) [[left margin]] [[image-3, .25 inch width X 1.0 inch thick vertical darkened pencil lines, .5 inch width by 1.0 inch length of connecting horizontal lines descending layered with diagonal lines from upper right corner descending to left lower corner.]] [[/left margin]] After fight on ground, both birds fly off in Moth Flight with St continues quite a while, but then both relax,and I lose them from sight.
[[underline]]inca[[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955,X Have seen another case of soliciting with both wings drooped, several cases with one wing drooped. 4:00 [[image-- bird with head pointing upwards and wings folded on its back with back feathers fluffed over the wings. There are three arrows and exclamation marks pointing at the bird's back, head, and throat.]] Obviously much less common than posture with wing tips crossed over tail. [[image- in margin, asterisk with words "redir. mate"]] [[image/shorthand- a series of tall or short filled ovals and abbreviations, all checked off.]] 0-o-0-o-0-o-0 0-o-0-o-0-o-0 0-o-0-ft o-0-o-0ft 0-0 0-o-0-gort-0-gort-ft ft gort-ft 0-o-0-ft 0-o-0-ft 0-o-0 0-o-0 0-ft 0-ft 0.0 0-o-0 0-ft 0-o-0-o-0-o-0-ft 0-o-0-o-0 o-0-ft F+Cht-o-0-o-0-o-0-o-0-o-0.0-o-0-0 A back several times with fish. Seems nervous. On fourth return with a mumite [[?]], has obviously swallowed fish. Stands off again. (Burst of silent Panics in colony.) This might conceivably be A back, 4:40. If so, has another bird more or less[[associated?]]. Both birds do [[sway?]] OCB, parade around,some distance apart, in Agg.V. ([[verging?]] on Gost occasionally) and perform mutual Cht performance toward neighbors. All this much interrupted by Silent [[Pauces?]]. Off again. Then [[female symbol]] back then [[male symbol]] ( I presume this is still A). Mutual [[vertical oval]] [[horizontal oval]]Cht performance Then relax,start to preen. [[image-- cross hatching and shading with an asterisk and two check marks over the asterisk and the words: terr. defense]] [[underline]]St^[[check mark]]after attack.[[/underline]] [[underline]]St^[[check mark]]after attack.[[/underline]] Gost^[[check mark]][[vertical oval w/check mark above]]-[[horizontal oval w/check mark above]] [[underline]] St ^[[checkmark]] after attack. St after attack. [[/underline]] St [[checkmark]] agg V + G-V ^[[checkmark]]. St^[[checkmark]] - Gost ^[[checkmark]] [[underline]]O +^[[checkmark]]G before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] St ^[[checkmark]] after attack [[/underline]] [[underline]] Gost ^[[checkmark}before attack[[/underline]] - [[underline]] Gost^[[checkmark]] afer attack[[/underline]] anx.^[[checkmark]] V. Sustained St on ground sometimes accompanied by slight side to side head-turning (HT). Looks like "nervousness", like gull in Alert Posture. [[underline]] Have also noted HT in aerial St.[[/underline]] Rare. Again + Again I have seen winner of fight fly after loser, and then turn, making circular flight, in Moth Flight + St.
62 [[page no circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 12, 1955, XI [[image - front half of bird flying in]] Common "normal" flight posture, over colony. Bill pointed slightly downward. There are lots of copulations going on in the colony, so the colony as a whole can't be too far advanced. 5:17 [[left margin]] MC [[circle symbol]] [[/left margin]] [[image - female symbol]] does [[ check over horizontal oval - check over vertical oval - check over horizontal oval - check over vertical oval]] [[image - male symbol]] does [[check over vertical oval- check over horizontal oval - check over vertical oval- check over horizontal oval- check over vertical oval]]. Confirm how rare real fights are The only really long fights occur when one bird gets a hold on the the others' neck and won't let go. I have seen this several times Once the loser nearly drowned, couldn't take off from the water for minutes. [[image - very loose contour sketch of 2 gulls, wings forward]] This might make a nice drawing. Probably from above. I think the birds are silent during these long sustained fights, part of the time at least When a fight continues like this for minutes, other birds will circle around, swooping, etc. Just like BhG I don't know what calls if any, they make [[left margin]] [[image - asterisk]] redid mate [[/left margin]] F&Cht [[check above]] [[horizontal oval with check above]] -[[vertical oval with check above]] -[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] - St [[vertical oval with check above]] [[horizontal oval with check above]] -[[vertical oval with check above]] Gort [[check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] [[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]] [[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] [[vertical oval with check above]] F&Cht [[check above]] - Gost [[check above]] - F&Cht [[check above]] - Gost [[check above]] F&Cht [[check above]] - Gost [[check above]] [[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] - Gost [[check above]] Gost [[check above]] -[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] - St. [[check above]] Agg.V [[check above]] - [[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]] - St. [[check above]]. [[end page]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 12, 1955, XII. [[image-63 in circle]] [[left margin]] [[image-Heavy asterisk with 2 checks above]] terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] St after attack. [[/underline]] [[image-vertical oval (check above)-horizontal oval (check above)-vertical oval (check above)]]-St (x)-gost (x)-St (x)]] Aux (x) U. Agg (check) U. St (x)-gost (x)-St. (x) St.(x) St (x)-gost (x)-U+G (check) St (check) after attack. St. (x) St. (x) Agg (check) U Aux. (check) U & G. gost (x)-[[vertical dot (check)-horizontal dot (check)-]] St (x)-gost. (x) St (x?)-gost.(x) UN(check)-O&G (check) [[vertical crosshatched patches in left margin for each of next 2 paragraphs]] Confirm Lots of attacks from no ritualized posture. During territorial defense. Almost always a trace of display, at least a momentary weak St, after attack. Also confirm. One of the best signs of pair is when two birds parade around in V. Both usually agg.V. With repeated HF's. [[left margin]] [[asterisk with 2 checks above]] terr. defense [[/left margin]] St-Gost-St-Gost-St. [[all x'd]] [[underlined]]St (x) after attack. [[underline]] Agg.U (check)-Gost (check)-Agg U (check)-Gost (x)- O&G (check)- Gost (x) Aux.U&G (check) after attack. St (x) [[underlined]]gost (check) before attack- St (check) after attack St (check) after attack. St (check)after attack St (check) after attack [[underlined]] Aux. (check) U. [[left margin]] * redid. mate [[/left margin]] [[image-check mark above each following symbol]] [[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]] [[left margin]] [[image-3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] I think that aerial attacks (flying up to attack another bird on ground, are sometimes accompanied by "attack LCN" like LCN used to charge at me. Always happens so fast, however that I can't be sure. A brief, marking "a-aaar" or "tu- saar" Leaving 6:25 [[underlined]]inca [[underlined]] Sunday, November 13, 1955 Chincha Sur Arrive blind 7:10. Have to get in by myself [[left margin]] [[image-3 vertical ones and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] Notice one thing about Silent Panics. Some birds in it, (particularly, I think, those that start the panic, fly in air Erratic Flight. Spectacular downward twisting plunges,(from the top of the cliffs to sea- level, sometimes), twisting & turning, etc).
[[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 13, 1955, II. [[64 in circle]] [[left margin column of crosshatch marking, changes each entry]] There is certainly something like a "Butterfly flight", buoyant flight, (quite like buoyant flight of some gulls). I doubt if it is ritualized, however; and I am not sure of its circumstances [[left margin]] [[image-two checkmarks]] * terr. defense ]] [[/left margin]] St. Aux.V [[underlined]] F & G between attacks [[/underlined]] - ([[underline]] Moth Flight & St after attack [[/underline]] ) [[checkmark]] Aux. V. [[checkmark]] Agg. V [[checkmark]] - Gost [[checkmark]] [[underline] V & G before attack [[/underline]] [[checkmark]]- [[underline]] St & G after attack [[/underline]] [[checkmark]] St [[checkmark]] - Gost.[[checkmark]] Gost. [[checkmark]] V&G[[checkmark]] -Gost [[checkmark]] - V&G [[checkmark]] - Gost [[checkmark]] - V&G [[checkmark]] [[underline]] St after attack [[/underline]] [[checkmark]] - Gost [[checkmark]] - Agg V [[checkmark]] & HF [[checkmark]] [[image: bird shape with arrow and exclamation mark pointing to shape. Text follows to right of image.]] Ordinary position of wings during hostile performances [[left margin]] * redir. mate]] [[/left margin]] Agg V [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-St [[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]-[[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-ST-[[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]-[[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]-[[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]-[[vertical oval]] [[checkmark]] F & Cht. [[checkmark]]F & Cht. [[checkmark]]F & Cht. [[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]- St [[checkmark]] [[Vertical oval]][[checkmark]]ST [[checkmark]]-Gost. [[checkmark]] St [[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- St. [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]] -St. [[checkmark]] [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]] [[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-[[horizontal oval]][[checkmark]]- [[vertical oval]][[checkmark]]-St [[checkmark]] [[Image of bird]] [[Text above:]] these feathers visibly ruffled, [[underline]]above[[/underline]] the wings [[followed by line down to image]] [[Text left:]] Wing raised [[followed by arrow down to image]] [[Text above right:]] forehead [[Text lower right:]] carpi little raised, if at all. Just visible [[line to wing]] [[Text beneath:]] no body visible under wings [[arrow to image]] [[Text left below image:]] tail somewhat lowered! [[arrow to image]] Wings appear to be 1/2" to 1" longer than tail [[left margin]] * terr. defense. [[two dark heavy vertical lines down side of page]] [[ area of crosshatching next to lines]] [[/left margin]] St [[checkmark]]& HF [[checkmark]]- Gost.[[checkmarks]]. St. [[checkmarks]] [[underlined]] St & G [[checkmark]] after attack[[/underlined]]. LCN. [[checkmark]] V & G [[checkmark]] (those 2 were provoked by a terrific fight [[darbing??]] through his territory) [[underlined]] V & G [[checkmark]] before escape [[/underlined]] (escape in Moth Fl. & St) [[underlined]] V & G [[chechmark]] before attack [[/underlined]] Aux. V (followed immed. by Moth flight &St). St [[checkmark]]. Gost [[checkmark]]. [[underlined]] F before attack. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] St.after being attacked [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] St [[checkmark]] after escape. [[/underlined]]
[[circled]] 65 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 13, 1955, III [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following sentence]] [[/left margin]] Moth flight usually, I think, with tail closed [[image - wing shaped sketch]] [[left margin]] [[2 vertical lines and crosshatch pattern next to following image]] [[/left margin]] [[image - Sketch of gull with tail in air, head down]] One type of [[horizontal oval]] posture. Bird perched on rock with plenty of room. Looks much like some forms of choking [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underlined]] Agg. V. after attack. St after attack [[/underlined]]- Aux. V. St [[underlined]] St after attack V&G between attacks - Gost between attacks St after attacks - Gost St. V&G before attack - V&G between attacks [[/underlined]] V&G - Aux. V. - [[vertical oval]] -[[underlined]]Aux. V before escape[[/underlined]] . Gost - Gost - Gost- Gost - Gost. Gost - Gost - Gost. [[left margin]] * redir.mate Ending 8:30 [[/left margin]] [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - St.[[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - Gost - St - Aux.V.[[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - Gost - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - St.[[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] [[vertical oval]] St - [[horizontal oval]] - St - [[horizontal oval]] - St - [[horizontal oval]] - St. St - [[horizontal oval]] - St - [[horizontal oval]] - St - [[horizontal oval]] - St. 8:30 [[left margin next to following 2 paragraphs]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] [[/left margin]] Most of what you might call the "usual" hostile circular flights by paired territorial birds are in both Moth Flight & St. Sometimes maintained straight through; bird still in St after landing. One thing about redirected mutual Cht. performances. If one bird is less active than the other, it is usually the female. 8:08 [[left margin]] [[image-crosshatch pattern next to following image]] [[/left margin]] [[image-Sketch of two gulls, apparently joining beaks, right most gull lower and facing up, with wings flung out, left most bird upper most facing down and wings also out] Other common fighting position Bills interlocked
[circled page number 66] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, IV [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] St. before attack [[/underline]] St- Gost. F&Cht. Gost [[underline]] St & G after attack [[/underline]] - Gost V&HF - [[vertical oval]] - V - Gost - Gost. St & HF O&G. V&G Gost O&G - St. St. Aux.V. Aux.V Gost. Aux.V St. St. Gost [[underline]] St after escape [[/underline]] LCN - O&G. LCN. LCN. LCN. LCN. LCN. [[underline]] St after attack [[/underline]] St Gost - St [[left margin]] [circled C] MC [[/left margin]] [male symbol] Agg. V - Aux V - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] -[[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - St. [female symbol]] [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] -[[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - St. [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following 3 paragraphs]] [[/left margin]] Watching A again. I think A must have been slightly paired yesterday morning, even though [female symbol] not present. Certainly paired yesterday afternoon. Saw [female symbol] (recognizable because of smear on forehead back most of this morning). Also [male symbol], presumably A. [Female symbol] on ground, [male symbol] back, with bit of food in bill. [Male symbol] in "F", [female symbol] also in "F" [female symbol] a little Cht in F [male symbol] perhaps a little also [[male symbol]] takes food. Then both join in redirected mutual Cht performance with neighbors. [Male symbol] more vigorous than [female symbol]. Gradually dispute subsides. [Female symbol] walks away in Agg.V. [Male symbol] flies away 8:30. This F, in which food is presented, incidentally, is much like the food-presentation posture of [male symbol] Laughing Gulls described by N & W. [[left margin]] [[black hand-drawn triangle]] [[/left margin]] St. [[vertical oval]] LCN. LCN. St. St. St. St. Gost. [[each with a check-mark above][ [3 vertical lines beside cross-hatching] A pair again [female symbol] on ground. [Male symbol] back with food. [Male symbol] in FO-F. [Female symbol] [[underline]] burst of F & Cht. [[/underlined]] [Female symbol] takes food. [Male symbol] V-[[vertical oval]]-V-flies away again left margin]] [[2 hand-drawn triangles with red ink mark on top]] [[/left margin]] [Male symbol] Agg.V. [Female symbol] H+R+HB [[each with check mark above]] Again, exactly the same. [[left margin]] [3 vertical lines beside cross-hatching next to following text and image]] [[/left margin]] A pair. Land together after Silent Panic. Both F + Cht [Female symbol] takes food. [Male symbol] Gost - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]][Female symbol] [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]], but much less vigorously than [Male symbol] (Don't know if this last Cht performance was provoked by neighbor or not) [[image-Drawing of bird in flight, side view]] Another posture of bird carrying fish This also appears unritualized, but it suggests that other posture is per-
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, V [[circled 67]] haps a low-intensity St.; (i.e. this posture [[sketch of bird neck and head with head facing right and beak horizontal]] ) Fighting birds with bills open, [[underlined]] but definitely silent. [[/underlined]] Seen it twice. [[left margin]] [[image- circle with dot in center and red line on right side]] MC [[lines and crosshatch pattern below MC]] [[/left margin]] Apparent MC. Possibly early pairing. [[male symbol]] on ground, [[female symbol]] lands [[male symbol]] does [[image-vertical oval]] - Gost - [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]] - [[vertical oval]] - Gost - walks around in Agg. [[check]] V. - Gost [[check]] - Agg. [[check]] V - walks to nest-hole, disappears into it. [[female symbol]] does almost nothing but stand & walk around. Finally, follows [[male symbol]] to nest-hole, stands outside, stands, does about five [[five check marks]] gosts from time to time. [[left margin]] [[squiggly line extending down full length of following drawing]] [[/left margin]] [[sketch of bird with head raised]] Low intensity St. [[left margin next to following paragraph]] *terr. defense. [[/left margin]] [[Check marks above each letter or set of letters in the following sequence; some have single check mark; some have double check marks]] Gost-V-Gost-V-Gost-V-O&G-O-V-Gost-V-Gost-V. [[underlined]] St & G after attack [[/underline]] - Gost - Agg.V. [[underlined]] St & G during escape [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] St & G after escape [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] St before escape. [[/underlined]] (Moth flight & St after attack) O+G V+G - V - Gost St. St - Gost Agg.V - St. O+G. [[underlined]] Agg V before attack [[/underlined]] - Once in V or O+G, bill slightly open, saw tongue visible. This is certainly not usual. [[sketch of bird with head raised and beak pointed directly upward]] [[vertical oval]] posture much like St. Same angles. Still - looks "longer-necked" somehow Is it that the neck is thinner?? Another case in which it appeared to be the [[male symbol]] of the pair scraping, (or, rather, digging, in this case)
[[circled]]68 [[underline]]inca,[[underline]] Nov. 13,1955, VI [[left margin]] [[image-small circle inside larger circle]]MC. [[/left margin]] Both [[double check mark]]Agg.V&HF 9:30 [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]][[underline]]Agg V after attack[[/underline]] [[check mark]] St, [[underline]]St after attack[[/underline]]O&G[[check mark]]LCN[[check mark]]St - Gost.[[double check marks]]St.[[double check mark]] LCN[[check mark]] LCN[[check mark]]LCN [[left margin]] [[image-large black circle]] [[check mark]]LCN. [[check mark]]LCN- [[check mark]]LCN- [[check mark]]LCN. [[check mark]LCN- [[check mark]]O&G- [[check mark]]LCN- [[check mark]]LCN [[check mark]]LCN [[check mark]]LCN [[check mark]]LCN- [[check mark]]LCN [[check mark]]LCN [[check mark]]O&G. [[check mark]]O&G. [[underline]][[check mark]]LCN before attacks.[[/underline]] Bird in nest-site. Possibly scraping. Approached by a [[female symbol]], more or less constantly in Aux.V. Nest-site bird slowly alternates Agg.V's & Gosts. Finally attacks [[female symbol]], St after attack, returns to site. [[female symbol]]flies away, starts to return again in Aux.V This is certainly part of pairing. I am almost certain that same [[female]], after starting to approach nest - site bird again in Aux. V., flew away several yds, started to approach another territory in Aux V, then flew away again Is this a possible part of pair-formation?? Have seen another bird which appears to be "searching". Again small, may well have been [[female]]. Just standing between territories, in Aux.V, looking nervous. Then flies to another place, approaches nest-site, unoccupied, stands looking at it a long time, in long-necked semi-F [[image-drawing of bird neck and head facing to the right]] or semi-L. Then flies away, to a third place, approaches a pair at another potential next-site. Again in aux V + nervousness. Pair react by mutual redirected Cht performance "Searcher" finally flies away to a fourth place. Lose it from sight This incident certainly looked significant. The "Searcher" was not looking for place to nest & preen. Made only one "nervous" preening movement when at its most "nervous". 10:00 [[left margin]] [[image- small circle inside larger circle]] MC [[/left margin]] [[male symbol]] AggV [[check mark above]] - [[dark vertical filled oval with check mark above]] - [[horizontal filled oval check mark above]] - [[dark vertical filled oval with check mark above]] - St [[check mark above]]. [[female symbol]] [[dark vertical filled oval with check mark above]] - [[horizontal filled oval check mark above]] - [[dark vertical filled oval with check mark above]] - St [[check mark above]] Again & again have seen Moth flight & St after attack. [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] St[[check above]] after escape [[/underline]] - St[[check above]] - [[underline]] O&G after escape [[/underline]] Aux.[[check above]]V. St[[check above]]-Gost.[[chceck above]] [[underline]] Agg.[[check above]]V, after attack. [[/underline]] [[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-Gost[[check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-G. G. [[underline]] V after[[check above]] escape [[/underline]] Aux.[[check above]]V. [[underline]] Aux[[check above]] V before escape. [[/underline]] Aux.[check above]]V. Aux.[[check above]]V. Aux.[[check above]]V. Gost[[check above]]-Gost[[check above]]-Gost[[check above]]-Gost[[check above]]-vertical oval with check above]]-[[horizontal oval with check above]]-[[vertical oval with check above]]-horizontal oval with check above]]-Gost[[2 checks above]] Gost[[2 checks above]] Gost[[2 checks above]] Gost[[2 checks above]] Aux.[[check above]]V. Agg[[check above]]V-V[[check above]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, VII [[circled page number 69]] [[left margin]] [[image-squiggly vertical line extending down all lines covered by the bird drawing]] [[/left margin]] [[image-gull]] head quite round, foreparts slightly "swollen' FO Notice [[male]] standing beside [[female]], holding fish in FO shown above. [[female]] just sits, one burst of Cht in semi F, semi [[horizontal dark oval]] [[male]] off; circular flight, back. Stands in FO [[female]] another small burst of Cht in semi-F, semi-[[horizontal dark oval]] [[male]] off, circular flight (It may be the same [[male]] back now, 10:25, but if so he has swallowed fish, alighted some feet away, given up after one attempt to reach female –– neighbors threatened in his way –– and begun to preen) [[left margin note]] [[circle with dot in center]] MC [[/margin note]] Both Cht in[[two checkmarks above]] F-[[horizontal dark oval]][[two checkmarks abvoe]]- go into nest-site to Cht there in semi-F, semi-[[horizontal dark oval]] postures. [[[left margin]] [[image-large black circle]] [[/left margin]] [[underline]] O+G[[checkmark above]] before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] St[[checkmark above]] after attack [[/underline]] - Gost.[[checkmark above]] LCN[[checkmark above]]-O+G[[checkmark above]] O+G[[checkmark above]] Note about return from silent Panics Come in with burst of LCN's. Stand at first with burst of LCN's. [[underline]] Then [[/underline]] lots of mutual redirected Cht; and [[underline]] then [[/underline]] relative peace reigns in the colony. HF is sometimes accompanied by a trace of tilting, always much less extreme than that of the Little Gull 11:00 Again see that "presentation of fish" posture in an F. Have seen another "searcher". Much as before. Single bird, going from potential nest-site to nest-site. Nervous.
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, VIII [[circle] 70 [[/circle]] [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] gost after attack [[/underline]] LCN LCN LCN LCN LCN LCN - gost LCN - LCN. LCN - O&G LCN - O&G [[underline]] Agg-V before attack - Ft after attack [[/underline]] - gost. [[underline]] O&G before attack - O&G after attack [[/underline]] O&G. [[underline]] gost after escape [[/underline]] LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - O&G. V&G Ft. aux.V. O&G - gost. [[underline]] gost after attack [[/underline]] gost - gost - gost - gost - gost. [[underline]] Agg V. after attack [[/underline]] Ft. Ft - gost Ft - gost. One LCN call by flying bird, flying away after being attacked. The only thing I have seen even remotely approaching a long-sustained territorial dispute are long bouts in which 2 pairs stand side by side, performing mutual bouts of redirected Cht [[image - vertical oval]] and [[image - horizontal oval]]. One copulation in which [[image - male symbol]] pecked down at [[image - female symbol]]'s head [[left margin]] * terr defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] Agg V before attack. gost after escape [[/underline]] gost - gost - gost - gost - gost - gost. aux.V. aux.V. O&G. [[underline]] Ft&G after attack Ft&G after attack [[/underline]] - gost. V. [[underline]] Aux V before escape. Gost after attack [[/underline]] V&G [[underline]] gost&G after attack [[/underline]] Ft - Ft - Ft - Ft - Ft. LCN [[underline]] Ft after escape [[/underline]] Ft - gost - gt. gost [[underline]] V&G after attack [[/underline]] O&G. O&G. Ft. Ft. gost - gost. [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] gost After being attacked in air, one bird circles, low, in posture comme ca [[image - drawing of bird's neck and head with beak open and pointing downward]] with LCN's. Then lands (It is possible that this peculiar posture is just a landing posture. [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] Ft after escape [[/underline]]. Ft - gost - Ft - gost - Ft - gost. Ft[[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] - gost. Ft - gost [[image - vertical oval]] - gost - Ft. Ft&G - gost. Ft&G. Ft. gost Once HB with bill opening & closing and [[underline]] absolutely no sound [[/underline]] audible Leaving 12:10 p.m. [[left margin]] Stop 3:00 [[/left margin]] Back at 2:35. Have to get in blind myself [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] gost. gost. gost. Ft - aux.V. [[underline]] O&G after attack [[/underline]] Ft - gost - Ft.
[[circle]] 71 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, IX. [[left margin]] Begins again. 4:10. [[/left margin]] √[[underline]] Agg V after attack [[/underline]] √Gost-√Gost. √[[underline]] V after attack [[/underline]] √[[underline]] Agg. V before attack.[[/underline]] - [[underline]] bird in St attacked [[/underline]] - √[[underline]] Agg V after attack [[/underline]] F+√cht √F+R - √F+Cht √Gost - √St - √Gost - √St - √Gost - √St - √Gost. √Gost. √St. √F-Cht - [[underline]] √AggV before attack [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[triangle with a red line coming off of it]] [[/left margin]] [[male symbol]] √Agg V - √HF - √V - √OCB - relax. [[female symbol]] √semi - V [[margin]] [[three vertical lines and vertical crosshatch column]] [[/margin]] Notice that [[female symbol]] loses R as soon as [[male symbol]] mounts. 3:00 [[margin]] [[three vertical lines and vertical crosshatch column]] [[/margin]] "[[male symbol]]" stands in semi - OF, semi - H, with fish. Goes to pot. nest-site. F & Cht into hole. Walks away in F. Walks toward a [[female symbol]], a few feet away. [[female symbol]] in H & R, is HB. [[male symbol]] stops [[female symbol]] stops. [[female symbol]] flees away [[male symbol]] off in little circular flight. [[underline]] Absolutely unentuaged [[/underline]]. Back to same nest-site. Looks in it in F. Flies off, to attack a neighbor. Back immed. without circular flight. Then visits two other nearby potential nest-site. In F each time, almost in hole. [[underline]]F & Cht in one of these holes also [[/underline]]. Then backs out, stands in F & FO. Approaches [[female symbol]] of adjacent pair. "[[male symbol]]" in O [[female symbol]] and her mate do mutual redirected Cht performance at "[[male symbol]]". He flies off, back to his 3rd potential nest-hole. [[underline]] F & Cht into hole [[/underline]]. Stands in F or FO Then flies off to [[underline]] attack another tern who was near his first hole. [[/underline]] Latter flies off. [[male symbol]] goes into first hole Cht in F. Another bird ("[[female symbol]]" 1) approaches [[male symbol]] turns toward her. She in Aux. V [[female symbol]] 1 flies off. "[[female symbol]]" 2 lands, does St.-Aux V - St Aux. V. [[male symbol]] looks at her in FO. Then another bird, "[[female symbol]]" 3 or "[[female symbol]]" 1 again lands, in Aux. V. Starts to approach [[male symbol]], then flies off. Then things begin to happen a little more rapidly, become difficult to follow [[male symbol]] starts flying back & forth between his first & 3rd nest holes. "[[female symbol]]" 2 flies off. [[underline]] But, [[/underline]] as [[male symbol]] flies back & forth, standing in F or FO in between times, there are at least 2 smaller birds in the general neighborhood, who seem to be facing [[male symbol]] and "eye"ing him, and who are standing or walking in aux V & St, with occas. gost. This continues a long time. [[male symbol]] [[underline]] finally F & Cht in his first nest-hole. Then attacks one of his "admirers" [[/underline]] who has been standing in St. Goes back to third hole. Stands in FO (Fish half-digested now) F & Cht in third hole. Walks around F & Cht in 3rd hole. Stands in FO. Visited by "admirer", who stands in low intensity aux. V. [[male symbol]] faces her. In F & St (latter probably attempt at [[vertical oval]]). Then flies off to attack 2 consecutive intruders at first hole. Goes to hole F & Cht. His admirer starts to follow him on foot. [[underline]] Another admirer [[/underline]] shows up. Also
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 13, 1955, X [[roman numeral]] 72 [[page no circled]] starts to approach [[image - male symbol]] on foot, in weak Aux.V. [[image - male symbol]] attacks latter, who flies off. [[image - male symbol]] back to first hole, F&Cht; [[underline]] then approaches neighboring [[image - female symbol]] who is soliciting from her mate. [[/underline]] [[image - male symbol]] in F. No response. [[image - male symbol]] back to first hole F&Cht in hole. Then alternates between [[underline]] first and second holes. [[/underline]] F & Cht in both. Meanwhile, the admirer he had not attached has gone back to 3rd hole, walks around, looks in hole from time to time in forlorn fashion. Approaches neighbor once Finally flies off. Two more admirers show up at considerable intervals. (There might all be the same bird, for all I can tell) One in Aux.V, one in St-Aux-V. Each time [[image - male symbol]] sits and looks at them. Finally rushes toward them Admirers fly off at once. [[image - male symbol]] back to 3rd hole. Stands in F.O. Goes into hole once or twice. Once attacks a nearby bird. Back to 3rd hole. Approaches neighbors. In F. Back to 3rd hole. Walks to 1st hole. Back to 3rd hole. (Usually in F while walking) . Stands in FO. In O briefly during nearby scuffle which probably alarms him F&Cht toward a nearby bird (first time he hasn't done it in hole). Back to 3rd hole. Stands in FO. Walks to first hole. Sees nearby bird and rushes to first hole, F&Cht into it. Out Approaches a nearby bird. In FO Is attacked. Retreats a few feet Does F&Cht toward attacker. Stands. Then approaches a nearby bird who is in H&R. (This may be the bird that attacked him) Latter stops H&R [[image - male symbol]] stops. [[image - male symbol]] goes to first hole. F&Cht into it. His neighbor does brief H&R, then goes to her own hole. [[image - male symbol]]walks to second hole. Looks into it. [[underline]] Then his heart's desire arrives.[[/underline]]. Lands right beside him. Burst of [image - vertical oval] by both bird. [[underline]] Newcomer, "[[image - female symbol]]", takes fish immediately, keeps it in bill [[/underline]] Another burst mutual Cht [image - vertical oval]. Then [[image - male symbol]] walks around in usual "mated" Agg.V.& [[oceds?]]. HF and [oceds?]]. Gort Then, again, things become complicated. Much flying around. Also Silent Pauses in colony. Anyhow, one [[image - male symbol]] flies off in circular Moth Fight with St. Several times, [[image - female symbol]], still with fish in bill, flies off in usual unritualized "fish-carrying circular flight" Each time birds come back immed. A variety of "greetings". Once no display at all. Several times mutual [[image - vertical oval]], (quite low [[image - arrow pointed towards right edge]] angle), more vigorous on part of [[image - male symbol]] He starts preening in quiet intervals. [[image - female symbol]] [[underline]], still with fish in bill, twice approaches him in F, with R. [[image - female symbol]] finally swallows fish [[/underline]] Birds start facing each other. Then, after both have flown off in a Silent Panic & returned, [[underline]][[image - female symbol]] approaches [[image - male symbol]][[/underline]],[[underline]] HB in H&R [[/underline]]. Continues a minute. [[image - male symbol]] looks at her. [[underline]] Suddenly attacks her [[/underline]]. Both birds do Agg V (more extreme on part of [[image - male symbol]]) - [[vertical oval - vertical oval-vertical oval]]. Then everyth[[ing?]], quiets down. It is all over for the moment [[end page]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, XI [[circle]] 73 [[/circle]] This began 3:00, ended 3:50!!! Add a few notes about this incident. This was certainly [[underline]] at least [[/underline]] a relatively early stage of pairing. Certainly shows how actual pair-formation can occur. The "admirers" were very reminiscent, in their general "nervousness", of the "searchers" I watched this morning. When I look back at this pair (call them B), all is serene & placid. I do notice, however, that they perform a mutual redirected [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] ceremony during dispute with neighbors. Another fish incident, which I didn't catch well - but a few points are clear. [[image - male symbol]] stood in FO with fish. [[image - female symbol]] HB in H with R. [[underline]][[image - male symbol]] obviously reluctant [[/underline]], turns away Flies off Back, [[image - male symbol]] may Cht in F. [[image - female symbol]] begins HB in H with R again. Again [[image - male symbol]] turns away Flies off. Back [[image - female symbol]] HB in H with R again, [[image - female symbol]] finally [[??]] fish. [[underline]] [[image - male symbol]] immediately [[image - vertical oval]] [[/underline]], in angle comme ca [[image - arrow pointing towards upper right corner]], [[image - female symbol]] swallows fish. Then both retire behind rocks, but I can see that mutual [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] performance is proceeding. Later on [[image - male symbol]] brings another fish. This time less reluctant. Can't follow it well; but obviously hands over fish; mutual [[vertical oval]] - [[horizontal oval]], (after [[image - female symbol]] swallows fish) After handing over of fish there is always much swallowing, OCB, and head-shaking in V or semi-O. To sum up - about displays between [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] during early pairing phase - it is V and related patterns (HF, and possibly St) during periods of relatively low intensity, and Cht performances at moments of "crisis" Still and all - this species has nothing like the conspicuous, rapid & varied sequence of "pairing" displays I am used to seeing in gulls 4:30. Although I haven't been able to make decent comments, it is my impression that an attacked bird is usually either in no display at all or in something like weak aux.V or St [[left margin]] * Terr defense [[/left margin]] [[image-single or double check mark above each set of letters in following sequence]] St - Gost [[underline]] St after being attacked [[/underline]] - Gost [[underline]] St&G after attack [[/underline]] - Gost. LCN - LCN - LCN. [[underline]] St after escape [[/underline]] F&Cht [[image - vertical oval]] [[image - vertical oval]] F&Cht.
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, XII 74 [[page no circled]] [[left margin blank]] [[underline]] St before attack [[image - check above]][[/underline]] aux [[image - check above]], V, gort [[image - check cross above]], gost [[image - 2 checks above]] gort [[image - 2 checks above]] - gort [[image - check cross above]] - Agg [[image - check above]] V - gort [[image - check cross above]] - V [[image - check above]] - gort [[image - check cross above]] - V [[image - check above]] - gort [[image - checks above]] - gost [[image - checks above]]. gort [[image - check cross above]]. gost [[image - check above]]. St [[image - check cross above]] - gort [[image - check cross above]] - Agg [[image - check above]]. V. St. [[image - check above]] O&G [[image - check above]] O&G [[image - check above]] St - [[image - check above]] gort [[image - check above]] - St [[image - check above]] - V [[image - check above]] - gort [[image - check cross above]] - St. [[image - 2 checks above]] gort [[image - check cross above]]. gort [[image - check cross above]] - gort [[image - check cross above]] [[left margin]] [[i vertical line and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] [[image - left - bird and wing]] [[image - arrow pointing at bird wing]] another form almost "F" [[image - arrow pointing to under wing or under-carriage]] One form of [[horizontal oval]] that looks very much like choking. 5:00. [[image - right - bird with arrow pointing at back]] another form almost "Beuge" Another pair in which it was the [[image - male symbol]] doing the excavating Again, same pair. O&G can also be with winges raised & spread Have again noted, this time definitely, that the one sound heard during actual aerial fights is LCN [[underline]] And this is not [[/underline]] uncommon Don't know which bird is doing it; but I presume an aggressive one. No doubt about it, it is the mutual redirected [[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]] performances that are characteristic of long-continued boundary disputes I think that the relatively short-necked "Bengestelling" form of [[horizontal oval]] is most characteristic of the intense mutual redirection performances. This may be only a consequence of the limited space available in the entrance to the nest-hole. [[left margin]] [[vertical squiggly line next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] [[image - left - bird, neck bent with beak open like picking something up]][[image - right - partial body, head and beak silhouette]] [[end page]]
[[circle]] 75 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 13, 1955, XIII [[left margin]] * terr. defense [[/left margin]] G Gost Gost. F&Cht F&Cht. Gost Gost - Gost. St Gost O&G - O&G - O&G. LCN [[underline]] F before attack - St after attack. St after attack F before attack - St after attack [[/underline]] St. Gost - V - Gost - V - Gost - V Gost St - gost - St - Gost - Gost - St. St. [[left margin]] [[vertical crosshatch pattern next to following image]] [[/left margin]] I think perhaps I have been drawing the earrings to short [[image - gull with head up and beak closed]] [[image-arrow from following statement to gull's neck]] length of neck probably exaggerated [[image - gull beak open]] Extreme O's [[image-arrow from following statement to 2d bit's neck]] one LCN posture. Other has horizontal head [[image - gull head]] top of head very flat in O, very shallow [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] Notice that inside of mouth is not brightly colored, at least relatively. I think tongue is yellowish, rest pinkish 5:45 [[left margin]] [[vertical squiggly line next to following paragraph and image]] [[/left margin]] Circular Moth Flight chase. Both birds in St. [[image - gull head and neck]] One form of St. Low intensity Neck absolutely straight [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] [[/left margin]] There is no doubt that this species displays relatively very little toward flying birds. Rather surprising.
[[circle]] 76 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 13, 1955, XIV [[left margin]] [[upper corner of page is missing]] [[?]] √ √[[/left margin]] St - gost - St - gost. V&G (leading to Moth Flight [[underline]] without [[/underline]] St [[underline]] Agg V after attack [[/underline]] St - gost [[underline]] Agg V after attack [[/underline]] aux V gost. St. gost [[image - vertical oval]] [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] Incidentally, before I forget, I should emphasize that I am almost certain now that there is no such thing as a "[[image - male symbol]] feeding call" or sex moan in this species Leaving 6:22 Monday, November 14, 1955 Chincha, Peru [[?]] 7:15 Have gone back to small "colony", the one in which the birds don't seem to have occupied territories yet,in order to see if I can find anything like a "fish flight". Watching communal area rocks. [[left margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern next to following paragraph]] [[/left margin]] When they fly off rocks, in flocks, in more or less Silent Panic, they still have tendency to [[secret?]] potential nesting area, ([[directed shed?]] mentioned earlier). They only stay a few seconds, (and, of course, my blind is nowhere about today) [[left margin]] * commun. are 7:30 - [[/left margin]] St - gost St St. Agg.V. O&G - gost - O&G. O&G. gost - gost. FS - Aux.V. St - O. St - gost - St gost - St [[underline]] [[image - horizontal oval]]-after attack - [[image - vertical oval]]. H. [[/underline]] gost. St - gost - St - gost - St. V&G - gost - V St. St. [[underline]] St before escape - St after escape [[/underline]] LCN - LCN - LCN. gost - V St - gost. St - gost - St - gost - Aux.V. St - gost - V. LCN - LCN. [[underline]] Agg V after attack [[/underline]] St Agg V. gost - V - gost - V. [[Let margin image, triangle with red vertical line from top, three vertical columns, one hatched column]][[image - female symbol]] soliciting on rocks, (this must be communal area, pure rock, low, couldn't "take" a nest). [[image - male symbol]] mounts, copulates. Post cop. [[image - male symbol]] Agg V - gost - agg V [[image - female symbol]] St - H&R + HB [[image, margin - three vertical lines and hashed column]] Notice that here, where there is plenty of "head-room", that F & Cht is common & long-sustained, when two birds of pair are performing [[neat?]] redir. Cht during dispute with neighbors (This does not mean that [[image - vertical oval]] and [[image - horizontal oval]] are not also common) A "real" F
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, II. posture, although bill not pointed very strongly upward. [[image-part of page missing, but appears to be drawing of bird's head]] This may be significant. An alternation of [[image-vertical oval]] and F is very reminiscent of the Long Call performance of the B.h.g. Might be [[/underline]] strictly [[/underline]] homologous. But here the difficulty is the rhythm,very so-called "high intensity" rhythm, of the call. [[image-3 curvy lines, each with horizontal oval above right end of line; ovals may represent birds' eyes]] Streaks can be either way in ordinary flight. Looks like straight streak in distance [[image-appears to be head of bird with curvy line below eye]] Line of mustache during aerial St. This is also fairly good about the curve & shape of the upper mandible [[image-beak pointing to right]] fairly exact drawing of "G", showing low tips of mandibles are together [[image-necks and head of 2 birds, one above the other with beaks pointing right; beak of top bird points downward; beak of lower bird is level]] Ordinary flight posture 8:00 LCN can be given from this posture, and is frequently [[image-penciled triangle in left margin]] St.[[check mark above]] St. [[check mark above]] [[pencilled vertical oval]].[[check mark above]] F+Cht.[[check mark above]] St.[[check mark above]] Should mention, before I forget, that the day I came here in the afternoon, there weren't even any birds on the communal area rocks. This suggests that they may come to the communal area in the mornings at this stage. Notice that some of the V's in which mates "parade" have an almost unperceptible G Too small to be seen except at very close range and the right angle. The usual sequence of "M.C." displays is, I think, first some V-ing with associated postures - then some mutual [[?]] performance - then subsiding and relaxation; usually passing through a V stage on the way down.
[[circled]] 78 [[/circled]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, III. [[vertical hashed column]] [[image - pencil drawing of front view of bird]] Position of head & angle of mustache in F. [[three vertical lines and one vertical hashed column]] Is the yellow wattle at gape swollen during hostility? It is [[underline]] certainly [[/underline]] much more conspicuous then than when the bird is sitting relaxed in a neck-more-or-less-retracted posture. (Can also confirm the fact that "earrings" are erected during hostility, at least the more aggressive forms, including [[vertical oval drawing]] and [[horizontal oval drawing]]. Just watched a bird standing in quite alert posture, neck mod. long, with "earrings" flat to side of head & neck). 8:35 [[three vertical lines and one vertical hashed column]] Watching these birds has given me the impression that F & Cht is a relatively low-intensity performance. Sometimes given very [[underlined]] briefly [[/underlined]] by a bird when its mate lands beside it - without other Cht patterns, i.e. without [[vertical oval drawing]] and [[horizontal oval drawing]] Also given briefly, by both birds, as brief mutual redirected performance [[three vertical lines and one vertical hashed column]] Also, before I forget, the F & Cht given by "[[Male symbol]]"s presenting fish to "[[Female symbol]]"s is apparently almost inaudible. At least I have never heard it - and I have been pretty close to such "[[Male symbol]]"s. On the other hand, however, the F&Cht done by mates, and that done by solitary birds during disputes with intruders, is certainly audible (at least, in the cases I have been near enough to hear) * comm. area [[two check marks above]] [[image - check mark above each letter or set of letters in following sequence]] 0+G - LCN. O+G O+G-LCN-LCN-O+G. Agg V Agg V St. St. Agg V-St. V+G V-V+G-V-V+G-V [[underline]] St after attack St during retreat [[/underline]] St-Gost-St-Gost+G-St.-Gost-Gost-Gost-Gost-Gost-St-Gost [[underline]] LCN after attack [[/underline]] [[three vertical lines and one vertical hashed column]] Emphasize one point. I have seen [[underline]] very few, (probably no) [[/underline]], redirection attacks on neighbors performed as a result of hostility between mates. Redirection is all the other way round. [[one vertical hashed column]] Not exaggerated! [[image - drawing of side view of bird]] Curved body is almost invariably, or always, present during aerial St
[[circled]] 79 [[/circled]] [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] [[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 14, 1955, IV [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] LCN given by bird before landing. This is perhaps the nearest thing to a Landing Call I have seen 9:00 [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] In all the G and Cht performances, the bill is not noticeably open behind the front part of the wattle. [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Some of these birds are moulting wing feathers [[check marks noted above appear over the letter or sets of letters]] * commun area √√ U.√ LCN√ - LCN√ - LCN√ - O&G√ - LCN√ - O&G√ - U√ O&G√ - LCN√ - O&G√ - LCN√ - O&G√ LCN.√ Agg.√ U [[underlined]] Aux. - V before escape [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] Aux. U. after escape [[/underlined]] [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - ft - Gost - Gost. Aux. U. [[underlined]] U & G before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] LCN after attack [[/underlined]] LCN√ - gost√ - [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Have noticed quite a number of birds flying off in St. ([[underline]] not [[/underline]] Moth Flight during Silent Panics). Does this mean that aerial St. with Moth Flight contains a stronger attack attack element than are St. without Moth Flight??? Must check [[underline]] Confirm 9:45 [[/underline]] Have seen it again & again. [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Have again heard that "smothered" brief Cht by birds flying up in Silent Panic. This must be the nearest thing to an Al.C. But not, apparently, given by birds just flying over head & discovering me. [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Wings are usually more spread than raised during LCN [[image - drawing of front of bird with head facing right and beak open]] [[image - arrow pointing left to drawing]] sort of effect Notice that head is fairly flexible in the LCN complex of patterns. Often turned to face opponent. [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] When the bill is really widely open, as in LCN's and some G's, it is open all the way to the end of the wattle * commun.√√ area [[horizontal oval]]√ - U.√ U&G√ [[horizontal oval]]√ - Gost√ O&G√ - LCN√ - LCN√ - O&G√ - U&G√ - U√ O&G√ -U&G√ - F&Cht√ F&Cht√ [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ - U√ [[underlined]] Gost√ before attack - St√ after attack [[/underlined]] [[horizontal oval]]√ -[[vertical oval]]√ - [[horizontal oval]]√ - [[vertical oval]]√ F&Cht√ - F√ - F&Cht√ - Gost.√ St√ - Gost√ St√ - Gost√ St√ - Gost√ St after escape - Gost√
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, V. [[the number 80 circled in upper right corner]] [[Margin - 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] Some V's look very large-headed, small - thin-bodied., i.e. like the V's of gulls. [[Margin - 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] "Buoyant" flight of two birds. In posture with G come ca. [[image-flying bird with long beak]] Is this significant? Couldn't hear any call. [[Margin - 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] Further notes about "usual" M.C. Gosts are not infrequently associated with the parading in V. Not, I think, when V's are at their most intense. Sts are relatively seldom associated with V-parading (Although a bird will frequently give an extreme St. immediately after landing. But many single birds landing without mate will also St. This St. may be as much reaction to neighbors as anything else). Perhaps the fact that I tend to think of the "usual" MC. as being V complex --> Cht complex --> V complex is due to the fact that so often one mate lands some distance from the other and then approaches on foot When one mate lands beside the other, I am almost certain that the "usual" sequence is Cht complex --> V complex. [[Margin - 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] Aerial LCN of juvenal (complete juvenal plumage) sounds exactly like the usual LCN of adults 10:10 [[Margin - 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern]] Calls during the brief visits to potential colony sites are much the same as when a flock returns to the colony after a Silent Panic. First a general burst of LCN's on landing & after landing. Then much general Cht. [[margin]] * Commun. area √√ Ending 11:00 [[/margin]] [[underline]] √V+G before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √V+G between attacks. [[/underline]] √Agg.V-√√Gort-√Agg. V-√Gost-√St-√√Gost-√Agg. V. [[underline]] √V&G before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St. after attack [[/underline]] -√√Gost √√St.-√√Gost √√St-√√Gost √V&G √√St-√√Gost √V&G-√√Gost [[underline]] √V&G&√HF [[/underline]] √V&G √V&G √O&G √√Gost √√St-√√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √O&G-√√Gost √[[image-horizontal oval]] & √[[image-vertical oval]]. √√Gost √√St-√√St-√√Gost √√Gost. √√St-√√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √F&Cht √F&Cht √St √√St [[underline]] √St after attack [[/underline]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 14, 1955, VI. [[image- number 81 in circle in upper right corner]] Two birds circling near me. Probably reacting to me. Flying in "buoyant" flight part of the time. Several LCN's. Also much flying with G In "hanging" head & neck posture drawn on preceding pages [[image - bird in flight with head pointed downward and bill open]] Some G's with extremely wide open bills Once, one of the birds, in wide open G, suddenly flies several yards [[underline]]with suddenly slower wing-beats [[/underline]],[[underline]]of wide amplitude.[[/underline]] Must have been at least 6 or 7 strokes of this (which might be called the "real" Butterfly Flight). Then resume ordinary flight, circle once more, birds separate, land in different places There is no doubt but that the aerial LCN appears in the same circumstances as the aerial LCN of gulls. Given by stray birds, for instance, once or twice when flying over me. Certainly not common however, relatively less common, in all probability, than the LCN's of most of the species I have studied. Forgot to add that the other day, when I was in blind near a potential colony area when it was visited briefly by a small flock, noted that several birds entered holes very briefly. The Erratic Flights of this species, the ones I have seen at least, contain much less twisting & turning than those of Bonaparte's Gull Well, [[underline]]to sum up about fish flight [[/underline]], [[underline]] there doesn't seem to be any. [[/underline]] I haven't seen a flying bird carrying a fish all morning. [[underline]] I haven't seen any [[female symbol]] fed on the communal rocks. I haven't any trace of High Flight or Gliding Descents either. [[/underline]] This apparent absence is quite remarkable, and undoubtedly of considerable comparative significance. Bird flying in group near me Gives 2 LCN's, in "hanging" posture, with slow wing-beats of great amplitude (possibly a little less exaggerated than the "Butterfly Flight" described above) The whole status of "buoyant" flight is rather a prob
[[image-number 82 in circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, VII [[image-3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern in left margin next to following paragraph and last 3 paragraphs]] [[?]] Little ritualized at best. And probably several types. 1. Possibly shown by birds in a hurry & nothing else. Perhaps unlikely. 2. Rapid buoyant flight combined with Erratic Flight patterns. Particularly with birds that appear to "set off" or "trigger" Silent Panics. 3. Perhaps during simple circling near a potential predator 4. The last type, if it does really exist, is probably just a low-intensity version of Butterfly Flight, in hanging posture, with G and/or LCN. Leaving 11:20. Back to Large colony, where I worked yesterday & the few days before, 1:35. Have to get in blind myself. [[image in left margin-asterisk followed by 2 check marks over the words "terr. defense]] [[images-check marks above each sound in following 2 paragraphs. sound = single letter or set of letters/words]] [[underline]] Agg. V. after attack LCN before attack - O&G after attack [[/underline]] LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN V.V. F&Cht Agg. V. F&Cht. St. Gost-V-Gost-V St. [[underline]] Gost&G after attack [[/underline]] -St. F&G [[underline]] St&G after attack [[/underline]] -V. [[underline]] V after attack. [[/underline]] F&Cht-V. LCN-O&G-V LCN-O&G LCN-O&G O&G O&G V&G LCN-LCN-LCN. LCN. LCN-O&G-Gost. LCN LCN LCN-O&G. This LCN before attack during [[intraspecific?]] fighting is the ordinary LCN, or, at least, only a brief, muffled version of it. It is [[underline]] not [[/underline]] the [[2 images-short horizontal line followed by much longer line rising upward at about 20 degrees]] type of LCN, the "attack LCN," sometimes directed at me. This latter type only occurs, apparently, during [[intra? ultra?]] specific fighting, immediately before certain [[underline]] aerial [[/underline]] attacks. Even then always brief and not very conspicuous Pair trying to take over blind as nesting site!! Entering [[smudge on page; appears that some text may have been obscured]] Usually preceded by much Cht, in F & [[image-horizontal oval]], (there's no room for anything else). The [[image-symbol for female]] enters first. Have seen a number of birds carrying fish, and also a number of "searchers." Latter are really all over the place; but remarkably inconspicuous. Interested in holes as such. Also much interested in ''[[image-symbol for male]]"s with fish. Usually just sidle up to [[image-symbol for male]], in rather weak aux. V. One bird, however, repeatedly Cht at a "[[image-symbol for male]]" each time he
[[83 in circle]] [[underline]] [[inca]] [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, VIII [[margin]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] came back from a circular flight. The behavior of most "males" observed appeared to like that of "[[male symbol]]"s observed previously. [[margin]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] Peculiar incident. [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]] presumably early stage of pairing. Close together. Walk around a little Alternate periods of V parading and Cht. V of [[male symbol]] fairly aggressive. V of [[female symbol]] usually aux. [[underline]] The Cht was [[/underline]] almost purely F, much of the time, trace of [[image - vertical dark oval]] occasionally The interesting thing about this pair was that the [[underline]] [[male symbol]] suddenly attacked [[female symbol]] [[/underline]] three times, at intervals of several minutes. Each time [[male symbol]] attack from Agg.V (very brief, just arrived momentarily after [[image - vertical dark oval]]). [[female symbol]] immediately jumps back a few inches, does either St-AggV&HF-AggV or AggV&HF-Aux.V. [[underline]] Interesting that HF is almost al in Agg. V [[/underline]]) This goes on a long while. Finally [[female symbol]] down in H, develops R, begins HB––[[underline]] and the [[male symbol]] attacks her again [[/underline]] ! 2:05. [[margin]] [[image - 3 vertical bars and 1 crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] The above soliciting [[female symbol]] was approached by a "[[male symbol]]" who flew in with fish. [[male symbol]] stood in usual FO. Got no response from [[female symbol]] who whas preoccupied with her own [[male symbol]] ([[underline]] It is remarkable how these fish-carrying "[[male symbol]]"s are attracted by soliciting [[female symbol]]'s [[/underline]]) [[male symbol]] then goes to a nearby hole, still carrying fish, enters it, Cht in it. Approached by "searcher" or "admirer" in usual way, and the [[male symbol]] attacks the "admirer" in usual way Both fly off. [[margin]] [[large asterisk]] terr. defense [[/margin]] √V+G. [[underline]] √gost after attack [[/underline]] [[underline]] √V between attacks [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √gost after attack √St after attack [[/underline]] - √V+G √V+G -√√gost √O+G - √O+G - √V+G - √auxV -√V+√G-√V [[underline]] HF √after attack [[/underline]]. √F+cht - √[[image - horizontal dark oval]]-√[[image - horizontal dark oval]] [[underline]] √St after attack. √AggV +√G after attack. [[/underline]] √LCN-√LCN-√O+G-√LCN-√O+G. √LCN-√LCN-√O+G. [[underline]] √St after attack [[/underline]]. [[margin]] [[image - 1 crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] [[image-gull, tail raised. Three !'s, each with an arrow pointing at the tail feathers.]] Something I haven't emphasized enough in my drawings of H&R is the height to which the rear end of the body is usually raised.
[[84 encircled]] [[underline]] inca [[ /underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, IX. [[left margin]] * √√terr. defense [[/left margin]] √√St. √√Gost - √Aux V. [[underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]] √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √√Gost - √√Gost [[underline]] √St after attack [[/underline]] - √√St √LCN - √O&G √LCN. √O&G √Aux.V. √√Gost. √√Gost. [[underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]] √√St. √√Gost. √√St. √√Gost. √√Gost-√V-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost-√V-√√Gost. √V&G - [[underline]] √O&G before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St&G after attack [[/underline]] √G - √√Gost - √G - √AuxV [[margin]] [[image - two vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] standing in alternate FO&F, with fish. Attacked by [[female symbol]] who is in H&R, and who HB constantly. [[male symbol]] just looks. [[female symbol]] tries to take fish, [[male symbol]] won't give it up. [[male symbol]] once on circular flight. Back. As before [[female symbol]] finally begins alternating HB with side to side head motions, backing into [[male symbol]], as if [[underline]] immediately [[/underline]] before copulation. [[male symbol]] mounts. Sits They make brief cop. tail movement --no more. Sits. [[underline]] Eats fish [[/underline]] Then involved in fight with neighbors [[margin]] [[image - one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]]Another [[female symbol]] soliciting for fish. In H&R [[male symbol]] lets her have it and immediately flies off [[female symbol]] follows 3:07 [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] One [[male symbol]], with fish, making little circular flights, landing in [[underline]] at least 7 [[/underline]] different places, largely divided between this little colony and another cluster at least 500 yds away. While I watch he gets no response, and then I lose him. [[margin]] [[image - one large darkened oval]] [[/margin]] √V&G - √O&G - √LCN - √V&G. √LCN - √O&G - √LCN - √O&G - √LCN - √O&G. √LCN - √O&G. √LCN (stimuli include booby & eraser dropped out of blind). [[margin]] * √√terr. defense [[/margin]] √Aux.V √√St - √√Gost - √√St. √Aux.V [[underline]] √O&G after attack [[/underline]] - √V. [[underline]] √V&G after attack [[/underline]] √F&Cht. √√St. √V&√HF [[underline]] √AggV after attack [[/underline]] - √√Gost. √V. √√St √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] √√Gost. √√Gost. √V. √√Gost. √F&Cht [[margin]] [[image - two vertical lines, one crosshatched line, one vertical line]] [[/margin]] bill is [[underline]] rarely [[/underline]] wide open in either, usually almost closed. [[image - sketches of four gulls, two with mouths open, two with mouths closed]]. What I have been regarding as typical "V&G" and "O&G" Obviously variations of one homogenous pattern. All are low intensity LCN
[[image-number 85 in circle]] [[underline]] inca, [[underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, X [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Briefly watching several [[male symbol]]'s with fish. Mated, at least a little [[male symbol]]'s stand in FO Tend to present in F, with or without "silent Cht." [[Female symbol]]'s response at [[male symbol]] is varied. Sometimes "begging", H&R&HB. Sometimes F&Cht (either as soon as [[male symbol]] appears, or when he begins "silent" Cht) 3:40 [[margin]] * terr defense √√ [[/margin]] √[[image-vertical oval]] √F&Cht-√√Gost √√Gost √Aux. V [[underline]] √O&G nafter attack [[/underline]] √√St. √√Gost √√Gost. [[image-vertical oval]] F&√Cht F&√Cht √O&G √O&G [[underline]] √St. after attack [[/underline]]-√√Gost √√St. √√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √√Gost √O&G-√V-√O&G [[underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]]-√Agg.V. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] "O&G" intergrades completely with "V"&G on the one hand and "F"&G on the other [[margin]] squiggly vertical line [[/margin]] [[image-drawing of bird with neck, head and beak pointing upward]] intergrate between "O"&G and "F"&G, rather short-necked [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] G in air, in semi-St posture, by bird flying [[underline]] up [[/underline]] to attack an opponent from below. (I suppose some G, in some posture or other, is always the preliminary to attack, in air and probably elsewhere) 4:40 [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] returns, fish. [[female symbol]] HB in H&R [[male symbol]] goes to nest hole. Silent F&Cht into it. [[female symbol]] joins him at entrance to nest hole Does F&Cht also (can't hear it, but probably vocal) [[male symbol]] out of hole, off on circular flight. The whole procedure repeated as before, exactly, except that this time [[female symbol]] goes back to HB in H&R. Then [[female symbol]] off on circular flight Back [[female symbol]] HB in H&R [[male symbol]] stands in FO [[male symbol]] off two more circular flights. In each case, gets the same greeting on his return HB in H&R by [[female symbol]] at first, then F&Cht by [[female symbol]] after he F&Cht into hole ([[female symbol]] stands beside him, behind him, and facing into hole also) [[female symbol]] begins HB in H&R whenever [[male symbol]] backs out of hole [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] in F with fish No [[female symbol]]. [[male symbol]] makes bill movements, slight, and, I think, utters same soft "wah" or "oooah"sound [[female symbol]] makes during
[[circle]] 86 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, XI [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] HB (Word of caution: this "ooah" transcription may make it sound like M call of gulls - and so it is - but each note much shorter). [[margin]] * terr. defense [[/margin]] √F&Cht. √AuxV. - √V&G - √AuxV - √HF - √AuxV. √Agg.V. √Agg.V. [[underline]] √AggV after attack. [[/underline]]. √O+G. [[underline]] √O+G before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St+G after attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √V before - [[/underline]] [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Notice that [[female symbol]], displaying with [[male symbol]] who has fish, while doing much of her Cht in F, is also quite willing to [[image-vertical oval]] and [[image-horizontal oval]] (even though the [[male symbol]] does [[underline]] not [[/underline]] [[image-vertical oval]] and [[image-horizontal oval]]) -- particularly when disputing with neighbors. Hers [[image-vertical oval]]'s and [[image-horizontal oval]]'s, in this last situation, are redirected to the same degree as usual [[margin]] [[image - one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] One [[image-horizontal oval]] posture is exactly like Gort [[image-drawing of 2 birds with their heads facing downward beaks open]] Very short-necked [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] None of the Gorts or [[image-horizontal oval]] has the real bump of the "Beugestellung" of the [[underline]] Sterna [[/underline]] terns. This Gort is apparently unritualized, insofar as it is nothing more than the intention movement of pecking downward, (this explains why it is still exactly like the "Goethestellung") [[margin]] [[image - one vertical line and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Gort [[image-arrow pointing right to the top of bird's head]] [[image-drawing of 2 standing birds with heads pointed downward; bird on left has closed beak; bird on right has open beak]] [[image-arrow pointing left to the back of the bird on the right]] Another [[image-horizontal oval]] posture like Gort (This angle of head & body, & length of neck, is extremely common in real Gort--but much rare in [[image-horizontal oval]], presumably because it is a "low intensity posture"). [[left margin]] * √√terr. defense [[/left margin]] [[underline]] attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St after attack [[/underline]] √√Gort. [[underline]] √AggV after attack. [[/underline]] √√St. √Aux.V. √√Gort. √St-√√Gort-√√St-√√Gort-√√St-√√Gort-√√St-√√Gort-√√Gort-√√Gort [[underline]] √Agg.V before attack √St after attack [[/underline]] [[underline]] √St after escape [[/underline]] √√Gort. √√St. √[[image-vertical oval]]. [[underline]] √St after escape. [[/underline]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, XII [[circle]] 87 [[/circle]] Early pairing behavior much parading in V by both (clearly retreat in aux. V, advance in agg V), then [[image - male symbol]] begins [[image - horizontal oval]] [[underline]] attacks [[image - female symbol]] from [[image - horizontal oval]] [[/underline]]. (Of course, he had to come out of the [[image - horizontal oval]] posture in order to deliver the attack - but this was very rapid, as attack was in progress) Then both Agg. V., (out with trace of G). They mutual [[image - vertical oval]]-[[image - horizontal oval]] performance and temporary relaxation 5:50 * terr. defense [[underline]] Ft after escape. Ft between attacks - Agg V + G between attacks [[/underline]]. Gost. O + G - O + G - O + G - Agg V (followed by Motti Flight with Ft) Gost. Gost. The 2 commonest [[image - horizontal oval]] postures seem to be the long-necked one rather reminiscent of an L [[image - sketch of bird with longer neck and head down]], and the shorter necked one, like Gost with bill all the way to the ground. [[image - sketch of bird with short neck and head down]] I really don't know what the difference between then is - except that in some cases it appears to be a matter of room available. I have [[underline]] never [[/underline]] seen cht with bill wide open. It is always moving rapidly, between half open [[image - bill half open]] or [[image - bill more open]] (at most) and closed or (perhaps more likely) almost- closed. This rapid opening + closing movement is apparently correlated with rhythm of call itself. The faster the call the faster the movement. Leaving 6:17 Tuesday, Nov. 15, 1955 Chincha Peru 7:40 Large colony again, but moved blind birds panicked
[[circle]] 88 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 15, 1955, I. [[left margin]] [[asterisk]] Comm. Area. Begin, 8:15. [[/left margin]] [[check marks appear over each letter or group of letters in the following paragraph]] St. O+G - LCN - LCN. F. AuxV - St. Gost. St. St. V. V. Aux U. [[image - horizontal oval]] - Gost - Gost. St. St. St - Gost - Gost - Gost [[underline]] O + G after attack [[/underline]] St. F+Cht. St. St - Gost - Gost - Gost. V-Gost. Aux V. LCN. St. LCN - LCN - LCN. LCN - LCN St St St - Gost. St. Aux. V. St - Gost. St. O+G - Gost. Gost Gost F + Cht. F&Cht. St. St. St. Gost. St - Gost - V+HF - St - Gost. [[left margin]] [[image - triangle]] [[left margin]] St. St. St. St. V+G [[image - vertical oval]].[[image - vertical oval]]. St. Gost. G. St. St. St. V+G [[image - vertical oval]][[image - vertical oval]] St+G. St. Gost. [[left margin]] [[image - circle]] MC [[/left margin]] [[image - male symbol]] lands then [[image - female symbol]][[image - male symbol]] St - Gost - Aux V - HF [[image - female symbol]] Aux V - HF Then [[image - male symbol]] walks toward [[image - female symbol]], mutual Cht performance, [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]][[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] St. [[image - male symbol]] stands in V. [[image - female symbol]] Agg V + HF [[image - male symbol]] flies off. Have seen several birds land with fish in this communal area, stand in FO, get no response from anybody, and fly off very shortly. There is also quite a bit of strictly sexual behavior going on from time to time. Mostly [[image - female symbol]]'s soliciting. Getting usual [[image - male symbol]] response, mostly Agg V. Very dull in this communal area 8:55. [[left margin]] [[image - circle]] MC [[/left margin]] [[image - female symbol]] joins [[image - male symbol]] does Gost - Gost - Gost - Gost - F+Cht - Agg V [[image - female symbol]] does St - Gost - Aux-V Then all fly off in Silent Panic. Not only are displays by birds on ground toward flying birds relatively rare in this species, but they also only occur when the flying bird is very close to the bird on ground. (This helps to explain why St is predominant in my counts). The only possible exception is provided by some of the LCN screaming on alighting after Silent Panics, and I can't tell what is screaming at what then. Emphasize again. This species has an incredible number of Silent Panics - many more than any gull I have worked on. [[underline]] And yet it is not very shy otherwise [[/underline]]. "[[image - male symbol]]" wandering from place to place in this communal area. Saw him land a three distinct spots. Each timejust stood in FO_F Mayhave done a few brief bouts of "silent F + Cht" toward neighbors
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 15,1955, II. [[circled]] 89 [[/circled]] [[left margin, three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] [[underline]] One of his visits was to a spot right next to a copulating pair,[[/underline]] whom the fish-carrying "[[male symbol]]" faced throughout his visit. 9:25. [[/left margin]] [[left margin]] [[image - open circle]] [[red mark]] M.C. [[three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Pair land M.C. of mutual Agg-[[double check mark]] V&HF- [[double check mark]] Agg.V [[double check mark]] [[underline]] Then face each other in F [[/underline]] [[male symbol]] does brief F & Cht. Up in agg V again walking round. [[female symbol]] begins HB in H&R. [[male symbol]] stands in more or less extreme "aux V", (almost an O - obviously just an int. mov. to fly up) [[underline]] Does two HB movements from this posture. Then walks around in Agg.V again. [[/underline]] [[female symbol]] continues soliciting [[male symbol]] approaches her again. Stands right beside her. Looks as if about to mount at any moment, and then both fly off in Silent Panic. [[/left margin]] [[left margin, three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] Because of the tendency to hold out carpi a trifle, or, rather hold them in such a way that they are visible, as an int mov. of flying, it is usually or often impossible to distinguish between the "Alert Posture" and the Aux.V. Thus the Aux.V. appears to be relatively little ritualized in this species [[left margin, three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] A word about "carpi-raising" in general. It is present in all the hostile & sexual postures of this species - to a greater or lesser extent. Perhaps most frequently conspicuous in Agg.V. But never as conspicuous as in some gulls -- never a "shield effect" comme ca [[sketch of wings wide-spread]] At most, like this: [[sketch of bird with wings held out but close to body]] and this is relatively rare too [[arrow pointing to sketch]] Usually [[sketch of bird with foot up, wings close to body]] Thus, it might be better to say that the carpal joints are held out a little, and lowered a little, (see the drawing I did the other day of the usual side view) [[left margin, three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatch column]] There has been, on the average, [[underline]]about 2 panics every 5 minutes - all morning long.[[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[star]] comm area [[double check mark]] [[/left margin]] V+G[[check mark]]-O+G[[check mark]]-V+G[[check mark]] Gost[[double check mark]]-V[[check mark]]. Gost[[double check mark]]. Aux[[check mark]] V+G-V[[check mark]]-Agg[[check mark]].V-Gost[[double check mark]]-V O+G[[check mark]]-LCN[[check mark]]-LCN[[check mark]]. [[underlined]] Agg[[check mark]] V after attack [[/underlined]] St.[[check mark]] Agg.[[check mark]] V-Gost[[double check mark]] [[vertical oval[[check mark]]-horizontal oval[[check mark]]-vertical oval[[check mark]]-horizontal oval[[check mark]]-vertical oval[[check mark]]]] Gost[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]] [[underlined]] Agg[[check mark]] V before attack. [[/underlined]] Agg[[check mark]] V-Gost[[check mark]] Agg[[check mark]] V. St[[double check mark]]-Gost[[check mark]]-St[[double check mark]] St[[check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]]-St[[check mark]]-Gost[[triple check mark]]-St[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]]-Gost[[double check mark]] St[[check mark]]-Gost[[triple check mark]]-St[[double check mark]]. [[vertical oval[[check mark]]-horizontal oval[[check mark]]-vertical oval[[check mark]]]] [[underline]] before attack. [[/underlined]]
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov 15, 1955, III [[image- 90 in circle]] [[underline]] √√√St after attack[[/underline]]- √√Gost. √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √√Gost [[underline]] √St + G between attacks[[/underline]] - [[underline]]√St after attack [[/underline]]. √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √V+G - √√Gost - √V+G - √√Gost - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] √St-√Gost. √√Gost - √V - √Aux. V. √√Gost. √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √√Gost. [[underline]] √O+G before attack[[/underline]] - [[underline]]O+G after attack [[/underline]].√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-[[image - horizontal oval]] - √St - √√Gost. [[underline]] O+G before attack[[/underline]] - [[underline]]√St after attack [[/underline]]√[[image - horizontal oval]] √√St. √St- √√√Gost - √√Gost . √√St. √[[image - horizontal oval]] [[underline]] after being attacked [[/underline]] √[[image - vertical oval]]. √√Gost. √St - √√√Gost - √V+G - √St - √√F - √√Gost - √V+G - √V+G - √√St - √V+G. [[underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]] - √O+G - √LCN - √O+G. √[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]. √√Gost. √LCN. [[underline]] √St+G after attack [[/underline]] [[margin - three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] One very serious problem has just occurred to me!!! One sees a great many Gosts and Sts that appear to be [[underline]] extremely low intensity. [[/underline]] Just as low as you can get. Then what about the V complex??? I think that relatively few of the V's look as low intensity as many St's and Gost's. Is this because I can't recognize the lowest intensity forms of V??? Equally important, is it possible that many, or even all of the V's contain a sexual element??? All sorts of problems. St, for instance, is often obviously related to V's. Not infrequently incorporated into V-parading. Yet it is "aux V" that seems to be the strongest "pre-escape" pattern. Similarly Gost is obviously related to Agg V., but it is the Agg V that is the strongest "pre-attack" pattern. Granted that some of my Gosts are probably autochthonous preening, etc., reactions, most of them are certainly hostile 10:17 [[margin - three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] St is usually orientated chin [[underline]] toward [[/underline]] the bird for which it is intended. This is particularly true if it is intended for the mate. Still dreadfully dull 10:45 [[margin - √√ * commun. area]] [[underline]] √V before attack [[/underline]]- [[underline]]√V after attack[[/underline]] - [[underline]]√V+G before attack [[/underline]] √St. √√√St. √[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]]-√[[image - horizontal oval]] - √√Gost - √[[image - vertical oval]] -√[[image - horizontal oval]]-√[[image - vertical oval]] F+√Cht V+√G - √O+G - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √V+G √O+G - √LCN - √LCN - √O+G [[underline]] √St between attacks[[/underline]]- [[underline]]√St after attack [[/underline]] F+√Cht - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √V √V+G - √Gost √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √[[image - vertical oval]] - √[[image - horizontal oval]] - √V √[[image - vertical oval]]. [[underline]] √O+G before attack - Gost after attack [[/underline]] - √St √√Gost [[underline]] √[[image - horizontal oval]] after attack [[/underline]] √V + √HF √[[image - vertical oval]] - √Gost √[[image - horizontal oval]] √√Gost - √√Gost √Aux. V. √St. √√Gost - √V. √St. √√St. √√Gost. √St √St-√√Gost. √V - HF - √V. √St - √√√Gost - √V √Aux. V √Agg V - √√Gost - √√Gost - √Gost - √√Gost - √√Gost [[margin - darkened circle]] √LCN - √O+G - √LCN - √O+G √O+G - √LCN - √O+G - √LCN - √O+G - [[underline]] √LCN before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] √St after attack [[/underline]]
[[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 15, 1955, IV [[image-41 in circle]] [[Thick lines and crosshatch down left margin except where different marginalia are noted below.]] Perhaps my theories about pair-formation need a little revision. Just saw another case much like yesterday afternoon "[[male symbol]]", with fish, flying from communal area to communal area, visited 3 of them, the extremes being more than 500 yards apart. At each place spent most of his time just sitting in FO. Several times attacked, probably by a neighboring territory owner. [[underlined]] Also, however, displayed with at least two other birds.[[/underlined]] Usual type of display. "[[male symbol]] in F&cht, apparently silent; "[[female symbol]]" in F&Cht certainly audible in at least one case Fastest form of Cht is just a rattle - strictly impossible to transcribe. Slightly slower, might be transcribed "tikatikatikatika......." at times. Notice several aerial St's with G - by pursuers in Moth Flight. Also more St's & Moth Flight by birds escaping in panic [[*comm. area in left margin]] Leaving 12:15. Back 1:55 [[left margin]] * comm. area [[/underline]] [[image-check mark above each letter or set of letters in following sequence]] ST-F&Cht-Gost St. Gost St-Gost St-Gost St F&Cht F&Cht Agg.V-Agg.V-V LCN-O&G O&G [[underline]] O&G before escape [[/underline]] [[vertical oval]] St. [[underline]] Gost after attack [[/underline]] St. St-Gost. Gost Gost [[underline]] Gost&G between attacks. [[/underline]] St. St. O&G O&G-LCN-LCN [[vertical oval]] Gost-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-Gost-Gost [[underline]] St after attack [[/underline]]-Gost [[left margin]] [[image-black circle]] [[/left margin]] [[image-check mark above each set of letters in following paragraph]] O&G-LCN-LCN-O&G. (These last 2 episodes have been directed toward a Franklin's Gull and a Belcher's Gull, respectively) LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN. Notice one pair in communal area, probably not paired long [[male symbol]] with fish, does "silent" F&Cht toward [[female symbol]] She does audible F&Cht to him. Then [[male symbol]] walks away in V, mostly Agg.V for a few seconds, then mostly aux.V for the next few seconds, etc. Combined with HF (in agg.V) and St. [[underline]] Notice that her St's were definitely with chin away from [[male symbol]] [[/underline]], (this was quite clear and unmistakable). Then [female symbol]] relaxes, starts to preen. [[male symbol]] stands in FO when when she left him. Finally he flies to her, another F&Cht mutual performance, and they disappear into hollow. Can't see them there, until [[male symbol]] mounts [[female symbol]] for a copulation attempt, stands on her back, occasionally waving wings, [[underline]] and swallows fish [[/underline]]. Then real cop. attempt. Post-cop display mutual Agg.V (& slight HF)-Gost-
[[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 15, 1955, V 92 [[image - horizontal oval]] - V Then relax temporarily 2:40. It is noticeable that even in the communal areas a lot of attacks are launched from unritualized postures. No more preparation than fixating the opponent and (possibly) stretching head & neck toward him slightly. Possible beginning of nest-site selection. [[image - male symbol]] lands a foot or 2 ft from [[image - female symbol]] , on rock in border area between colony & colony area [[image - male symbol]] does [[underlined]] St&HF [[/underlined]]-Agg V-walks to [[image - female symbol]] in Agg V -[[image - horizontal oval]] at her-walks on in Agg. V. [[image - female symbol]] did a St just as [[image - female symbol]] landed, but the rest of the time she just looks at the male in a thoroughly disinterested fashion (neither alarmed nor excited in any way. [[image - male symbol]] continues walking in Agg V, goes to one potential site, looks at it (mostly in V, an occasional F int. mov), flies to another site. [[image - female symbol]] flies to him, lands about 6" behind him, does nothing. [[image - male symbol]] flies to 3rd site. Then gets involved in some general disturbance. Both [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] fly off. Just saw another solitary [[image - male symbol]], with fish, in colony area. In FO, goes to next site in F, F&Cht in hole, out, off on circular flight, back, swallows fish, off again disappears 3:06. When a [[image - male symbol]] does transfer a fish to a [[image - female symbol]], it is certainly in F posture. Possibly preceded by single or mutual Cht, primarily in low [[image - vertical oval]] and F, and [[image - female symbol]] soliciting in H&R with HB. Head is most "rounded" when relaxed. [[image - drawing of a birds head]] Sometimes, LCN is given by bird flying up. Presumably aggressive or "high intensity." This brief LCN - it has just struck me - sound remarkably like the brief LCN sometimes given by Bonaparte's or the Greyhooded Gull before flying up. After usual flight, both birds fly away in Moth Right, with a rather peculiar, possibly slightly ritualized posture which might perhaps be [[distinguished?]] (see next page). Is it possible that this posture is always present in Moth Right if St isn't???
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 15, 1955, VI. [[circle]] 93 [[/circle]] [[image - soaring gull]] Not too unlike aerial fish-carrying posture. Probably more aggressive than St, (then birds were fighting tooth & nail - and notice the G) The under-side of wing is silvery, but darker near tips of primaries Have been watching pairing. Much as before, but a few minor points to add. Have seen [[image - symbol for female]], trying to get fish, [[underline]] HB in perfect F. [[/underline]] Have seen fish-carrying [[image - symbol for male]] flying from spot to spot on rocks in communal area, displaying with [[image - symbol for female]] at one place (usual F & Cht runners); [[underline]] then [[image - symbol for female]] flew to nest site, [[/underline]] [[image - symbol for male]] flew to a [[view?]] other spots in communal area and sat in FO, [[underline]] then [[image - symbol for male]] flew to nest-site where [[image - symbol for female]] was and displayed with her there. [[/underline]] Later both flew to communal rocks ([[image - symbol for male]] still carrying fish) and displayed again. Have also seen [[image - symbol for male]], [[underline]] in plain FO without a trace of display [[/underline]], withstand frantic [[image - symbol for female]] attempts to take fish, (the [[image - symbol for female]] alternated her attempts with bouts of F & Cht. Not at all sure of "usual" orientation of St. Stupid of me to have ruined it. Must check. Watching [[image - symbol for male]], with fish in F and FO, repeatedly try to approach a [[image - symbol for female]]. She was in H&R, and HB steadily. But each time the [[image - symbol for male]] came close, she attacked him, (these were obviously not attempts to seize fish). [[underline]] This happened 7 times [[/underline]]!! Usually the [[image - symbol for female]] just came out of her H&R, and stopped HB, momentarily after attack. Twice, however, she did violent F&Cht, loud. Always went back to H&R & HB very quickly. Then all swept away in Silent Panic 4:20 * Comm. area[[underline]] St after attack [[/underline]]. O+G. [[underline]] V after attack [[/underline]] - gost - St after attack [[/underline]] [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - V St - gost - St [[underline]] V&G after escape. St before attack - V after attack - V before attack - St after attack [[/underline]] Gost [[underline]] St before attack - F & Cht between attack [[/underline]] [[image - horizontal oval]] [[image - horizontal oval]] - gost [[underline]] [[image - vertical oval]] before attack [[/underline]] F&Cht F&Cht LCN - O&G - LCN - O&G - LCN - O&G. LCN - O&G - LCN. O&G - LCN - O&G LCN - LCN - O&G - LCN - LCN - LCN O&G - V&G V&G. [[underline]] LCN before attack O&G before attack O&G before attack LCN before attack -[[/underline]]
[[underline]] nica [[/underline]], Nov. 15, 1955, VII [[circled]] 94 [[/circled]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] The most extreme long-necked Aux. U's and O+G's, and U+G's, cannot exaggerate the length of the neck. Incredibly long & thin the birds look. [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] About orientation of ft - this is obviously extremely variable. Many birds landing, in communal area usually, do-ft on alighting , without any reorientation. Most of these are slight; but an appreciable number are of the relatively short-necked, very "s-bent-neck", type. Those fts that appear to be "silent" [[vertical oval]]'s, are overstated much like [[vertical oval]] itself, i.e. usually re-orientated to face partner, i.e. reveal chin & yellow under beak, etc. During some U-parading of mates, some birds with extremely elongate necks, will give fts with back of head toward partner, i.e. hiding most of face. Where birds appear to be somewhat "alarmed", in Aux U before ft, but this interpretation, of course, depends upon exactly what type of "aux. U" they were in, and the interpretation of [[underlined]] that [[/underlined]] Their ft tends to be of the long & straight-necked variety. [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] In the case of one ft (relatively long & straight) before attack, the aggressive bird was facing away from the opponent, i.e. hiding face and revealing black cap, before the attack 5:00 [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] It's after attack tend, I think, to be of the relative short-necked S-bent type. They are certainly orientated like the other fts on landing. [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] Heard [[male symbol]] make regular, but muffled, Cht sound while doing F&Cht with fish!!! [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] [[male symbol]] with fish flies to a [[female symbol]] who is HB in H&R from another [[male symbol]] in F. The new arrival also [[stauls?]] in F, walks cautiously to [[female symbol]], back, forward, etc. [[female symbol]] stops begging. [[female symbol]] & first [[male symbol]] fly off. Second [[male symbol]] stands in FO a moment, then flies off too. Another example of the attractive power of a soliciting [[female symbol]]!!! [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one vertical crosshatched column]] There is a tendency for [[male symbol]]'s in FO with fish, when standing without a [[female symbol]], to give quite a number of general [[shakes?]], (i.e. ruffle all the plumage and then briefly shuffle wings). This is so frequent [[/left margin lines and column]]
[[circle]] 95 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 15, 1955, VIII. [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] that it may well be significant 5:15 [[/left margin line and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] Have noted several [[male symbol]]'s with fish, while more or less displaying with one [[female symbol]], to be approached by "admirers". There latter may even go so far as F + Cht with him; but this is a far as the "flirtation" gets. Mated pairs, incidentally, resenting an intrusion, will also often F + Cht at a [[male symbol]] in F or FO carrying fish. [[/left margin line and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] I think that any "weak" or "relaxed" ft tends, if re-orientated at all, to be turned chin toward the opponent or partner. [[/left margin line and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] Much "nervous" preening after U type MC. and in the intervals of V-parading. [[/left margin line and column]] [[in left margin drawn asterisk symbol comm. area double checks]] [[underlined]] O+G after attack [[/underlined]] LCN Gost-St. St-Gost-St-Gost-St-Gost-St-Gost. St. F&Cht. Gost-Gost-Gost-F-Gost Agg V. Agg. V. F&Cht-Gost. Gost Agg. V. [[vertical oval]]-Gost [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] During V-parading in general, there is a strong tendency to present back of head to partner. Birds often stand in agg. V facing away from another. & all the slight twisting movements, HF, & St [[/left margin line and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatched column]] Must note that this H pattern of [[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]] is more ritualized than that of other birds for several reasons: 1) not only is there an accompanying R; but also 2) the general tilt of the body tail upwards and head low, and 3) the "F-like" protruding "bosom." The only time I have seen anything like H of gulls is momentarily observing the assumption of the extreme H & R 5:45 [[/left margin line and column]] [[left margin one vertical line and one crosshatched column]] Another case of [[female symbol]] who has been sitting beside a [[male symbol]] in FO with fish, flies off in Moth Flight with St. [[/left margin line and column]] Leaving 5:55.
[[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]] [[circled]] 96 [[/circled]] Wednesday, November 16, 1955, Chincha Sur Back to blind,same place as yesterday 7:05 a.m have to get in by myself. * [[check]][[check]] Commun. area. St-[[check V]]St-[[checkV]]-Gost[[check V]]F&Cht[[check]]Gost[[check V]].Gost[[checkV]]-V[[check]]-O+G[[check]].St.[[checkV]]St.[[checkV]]St.[[checkV]][[underlined]]St.[[check]]G after attack[[underlined]]-Gost.[[checkV]] St-[[check V]]Gost[[checkV]]St[[checkV]][[underlined]]V+G before attack[[underlined]]-[[underlined]]St [[checkV]]after attack.[[underlined]]Gost[[checkV]]- St.[[checkV]] St.[[checkV]]Gost[[checkV]]-St.[[checkV]] LCN[[check]]O+G[[check]]-V[[check]]+G-V[[check]] Aux V[[check]]St.[[check]]O+G[[check]]-Gost[[checkV]]O+G[[check]]-LCN[[check]] [[left margin three vertical lines and a crosshatch column]] Should emphasize that the "F"of F&Cht in purely hostile circumstances is anything from a very low [[vertical oval]][[arrow pointing up from left to right]], to an extreme form of L [[arrow arching from left to right ending lower than beginning]], to a "real" extreme F like the B.hg. [[arrow going left to right with a dip in the center]]. The F of F+Cht in remi, sexual circumstances, (,by constrast, is almost always an extreme real F [[/left margin lines and column]] [[vertical line and cross hatch in left margin]] Noticed earlier, ontop of cliff, pair "U-parading", etc., etc., on roof of, and inside, abandoned shed. Could follow this, but both birds then flew off in circular flight with ft. and trace of Moth Flight. This is relatively rare, but it probably actually occurs not infrequently. [[/left margin line and column]] [[drawing of a triangle in left margin]] [[check marks above each following notation]] St_Gort. ft.ft.ft.ft.ft_Gort. O+G ft, ft. ft-Gort-ft-ft&G-ft Quite as dull as yesterday was in this communal area 8:00 Almost as many Silent Panics in the colony. [[drawn asterisk comm. area in left margin]] [[underlined]] Aux U after escape. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Aux during escape [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Aux U before escape [[/underlined]] [[horizontal oval]]-Gort [[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-Gort ft-Gort Gort. [[underlined]] Gort after attack. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]]U&G before attack-ft after attack. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] ft after escape [[/underlined]] -Gort. Gort. O&G-U&G-Gort-U&G-O&G-U&G [[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]]-[[vertical oval]]-[[horizontal oval]] U&G-O&G-U&G F&Cht. F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]-F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]-F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]-F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]-F&Cht-[[vertical oval]]. [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatch column]] Confirm LCN is only note heard during aerial fights - Even then it is brief and relatively infrequent. [[/left margin lines and column]] [[left margin three vertical lines and one crosshatch column]] Notice one "pair" in which the [[female symbol]] was eager and the [[male symbol]] certainly not. [[male symbol]] F&Cht at [[female symbol]] almost constantly, occasional brief, slight [[vertical oval]] [[/left margin lines and column]]
[[circled]] 97 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] inca, [[/underlined]] Nov. 16, 1955, II. [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] The [[image - female symbol]] in content V-parading, in more or less circular form, about 6" to 1 ft from the [[image - male symbol]] Aux. V-Agg-V-HF-Agg-V (& slight bend or tilt)- Aux V- a brief little "escape flight" (no more than 6")-St-Gost-V-etc etc. [[Image - male symbol]] finally attacked [[image - female symbol]], (attack from F & cht), she flew off a few feet, and everything has now died down temporarily. 8:30. [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] This Aux V-very brief "escape flight"-St-Gost-V business appears to be very common during V-parading. [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Have noticed again & again how [[underlined]] unmistakably [[/underlined]] frightened birds during V-parading St with back of head toward partner This hides part of the "threat final pattern"; but much less efficiently than null patterns as Aux. V fanning away from partner or HF. Does this suggest that St with nape toward partner is a [[underlined]] presentation of the black cap? [[/underlined]] And is black relatively intimidating in this species? If no, we have nice case. A "frightened" bird, while expressing its considerable alarm, is simultaneously presenting enough in the way of intimidating stimuli to prevent attack. Later in the cycle, when the bird is no longer so "frightened", it can afford (at least occasionally) to St with chin toward partner. [[underlined]] This latter performance might be appeasement. [[/underlined]] [[margin]] * √√comm. area [[/margin]] √[[image-vertical oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-vertical oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-vertical oval]]-√√Gost. √[[image-vertical oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-vertical oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-vertical oval]]-√√Gost. [[underlined]][[image-horizontal oval]] after attack √Gost after attack [[/underlined]] √LCN √√St-√√Gost. √F&Cht - √[[image-horizontal oval]] [[underlined]] √St after attack [[/underlined]] √√St. √√Gost. √√Gost. √√Gost - [[underlined]] √Agg V before attack-√St&G after attack [[/underlined]] √V&G. [[underlined]] √V&G before attack - √Gost after attack [[/underlined]] - √√St-√√Gost. [[underlined]] √V&G before attack. √O&G&√HF after attack [[/underlined]] √[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-vertical oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√√Gost. √√St&G-√HF-[[underlined]]√St&G before attack-√St after attack. [[/underlined]] √Aux.V-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-[[underlined]] √LCN before attack-√St&G after attack. [[/underlined]] √[[image-horizontal oval]]-√[[image-horizontal oval]]-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost-√√Gost [[underlined]] √V&G between attacks √St&G after escape [[/underlined]] √√Gost. √Agg V&G. [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] V-parading not infrequently accompanied by Gosts. Normally assumed from Agg. V [[underlined]] Usually appear to be int. movs. of [[image-horizontal oval]]. [[/underlined]] [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Correction of something I said a few days ago. I have seen attacks apparently redirected on neighbors and strangers apparently as a result of hostility between mates. During V-parading, often
[[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Nov. 16, 1955, III. [[circled]] 98 [[/circled]] [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] preceded by "Aux V" & G. But relatively rare. And always or almost always difficult to distinguish. This is because these attacks only or usually occur in certain circumstances. The "scapegoat" is usually either a new bird who has landed nearby, or a neighbor who is displaying. I.E. these are not pure "scapegoats", they have given cause for offense. I.E. these redirection attacks are always or usually not pure redirection. 9:10 [[margin]] * √√comm. area ending 9:30 [[/margin]] √Agg.V&G [[underline]] √Aux.V. before escape. √St after attack √Gost after being attacked. [[/underline]] √LCN. √LCN. [[underline]] √O&G before attack. √LCN before attack. √LCN before attack - √LCN after attack [[/underline]] √LCN-√LCN-√LCN √LCN-√LCN-√√Gost&G-√LCN- [[underline]] Gost&G [[/underline]]-√LCN-√LCN-√O&G. √√Gost √St.-√√Gost. √√St. √√St. [[underline]] √St&G after attack-√V&G before attack [[/underline]]. √√St-√√Gost [[underline]] √Gost after attack - √Gost after attack [[/underline]] [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch [[/margin]] Again notice how the juveniles & immatures tried to be relatively more aggressive than adults on the communal area rocks. (Have heard one almost-adult give completely adult LCN pattern. [[margin]] vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]]There almost adults, and there can't have been more than 2 or 3 of them, are the only immatures included in my counts. They all had red bills, yellow wattles, and white mustaches. [[margin]] [[3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch]] [[/margin]] Aerial LCN's given by both birds during an aerial fight. They both seemed to be aggressive, both trying to attack simultaneously. Moth flight & St must be at least as common after aerial attacks as St is after terrestrial attacks. Emphasize.Tongue almost never shows in any of the G postures, wide open or slightly open. And the bills are very rarely widely open during G. When wide open there is almost always some LCN, however faint A fish-carrying bird in FO looks just like an inferior product of the taxidermist's art. Badly stuffed. It's the combination of the anomalous posture & the swollen throat. V-Parade including a burst of LCN's by [[male symbol]]
[[circle]] 99 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 16, 1955, IV * comm. area [[circle]] 10:40 [[/circle]] O+G - LCN - LCN - LCN - O+G. LCN - LCN - LCN - V+G. V+G O+G LCN - LCN - LCN - O+G. LCN - LCN. LCN - LCN - V+G. LCN - LCN - V+G [[underline]] V+G before attack - Ft after attack Gost between attacks - Gost after attack [[/underline]] V+G [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - horizontal oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] - gost - V+HF [[image - vertical oval]] - [[image - vertical oval]] [[image - vertical oval]] [[underline]] ) before attack [[/underline]] Better view [[image - large sketch of bird flying]] of posture often seen with G in air, (and possibly also used in fish-carrying). This may well be totally unritualized; but it is perhaps slightly reminiscent of an aerial O. It is by no means rare, but by no means common. The [[underline]] only [[/underline]] really common + ritualized movements + postures in air, in fact, are the Moth flight and Ft. Can confirm this again, as I have been looking specially for others. It is possible that something like a "hanging" posture, with LCN or G, sometimes occurs over colony; but it is certainly rare and unritualized. And I have seen nothing here today like a "Butterfly Flight". Must emphasize how frequently one or both birds fly away in extreme ft + Moth Flight after aerial fight. The fact that the both do so so frequently suggests that Moth Flight + ft is far from "almost-pure" escape - must contain an appreciable attack element. I think that there is a definite tendency, whenever Moth Flight with ft is prolonged, for the wing-beats to become of smaller + smaller amplitude, while losing some of their speed, and the Moth Flight to develop into glode. This appearance might be deceptive, however, as this glide might just be normal part of turning after having flown down the slope on which the colony is located. * comm. area [[image - vertical oval]].[[image - vertical oval]]. [[underline]] Gost after attack gost before attack - ft after attack [[/underline]] V+G. Ft. LCN - V+G - O+G - V+G. FT. [[underline]] V+G before attacl - gost+G after attack [[/underline]] - gost There has been an almost-adult bird near my blind, (it has red bill + feet, yellow wattle, + white plumes - but brown plumage), in the communal area. For at least 10 minutes it appeared to be defending a territory - a large flat rock. Chased all the birds that
[[circle]] 100 [[/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 16, 1955, V landed on that rock [[underline]] Did this with a lot of LCN's, many before attack. [[/underline]] Did nothing else. No signs of displays toward flying birds. Had an "admirer", in complete juvenal plumage, nearby - who kept flying to different rocks around him, standing in aux.V much of the time, and made several very brief and tentative attempts to approach the aggressive almost-adult. Never dared though. Then the aggressive bird relaxes; flies to adjacent area, preens, flies away. 11:30. I can't help but feel that this sort of thing might be the first approach to the first pairing. (Incidentally, I didn't include the LCN's, or any of the behavior, of this aggressive almost-adult in any counts). [[left margin]] *comm. area. [[/left margin]] St - Gost - [[image - vertical oval]] - Gost. Gost. St - Gost. Gost. [[underline]] St during retreat [[/underline]] Leaving 11:50. Have taken every opportunity, the last 3 days or so, to discover the status of Cht as an aerial call. I know that my notes of the first few days refer to it as an aerial call; but I had begun to doubt this. And my conclusions are as follows. It is really semi-aerial or pseudo-aerial. Sometimes given, in quite typical form, by birds flying up (even during Silent Panics) and landing near others. Still rare in these circumstances. Even rarer, I think, as a pattern by really flying birds; but I have heard a perfectly typical Cht call given by a bird circling near me (perhaps disturbed by me). Much commoner is the "smothered" Cht given by birds flying up in group during Silent Panic. It is almost inevitable then. Some of the smothered versions sound like 3 or 4 normal syllables - but weaker. Others sounds like 3 or 4 normal syllables, ended suddenly with a particularly loud & explosive syllable. A few rare calls contain only 1, 2, or 3 syllables; and some of these are sometimes slightly reminiscent of AlC of gulls. Sometimes, again extremely rarely, just one sharp note. 1:15 p.m. Have just taken a small walk to the small
[[circle]] 101 [/circle]] [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], Nov. 16 1955, VI. colony, and the communal areas nearby. Not a sign of the birds, although boobies, etc., sitting quite undisturbed This makes it seem more likely than ever that this group of birds is in the "colony occupying" stage; and makes it even more remarkable that I didnt see any signs of fish flights the day before yesterday. [[underline]] pipixcan [[underline]] Wednesday, November 16, 1955, Chincha Peru Just a word about the behavior of the juvenal Franklin's gulls, who, with several immatures + one or more adults, are scattered, in ones and twos usually, all around the shores of the islands. Quite inactive - as might be expected. The only thing they do in air is give brief, usually single, "reedy" "broken "juvenal" LCN's. "Kree-ee-e" or "Kee-ee-ar" sort of business - quite brief. Sounds just like the birds in the Lab at Delta. Usually quite silent on ground. Saw one bird land in the midst of an [[underline]] inca [[/underline]] colony, disturbing all the inhabitants, and provoking bursts of LCN's by all the nearby birds. This juvenal answered back with a burst of LCN's in semi-relaxed posture, with slight trace of R [[image - sketch of bird standing with mouth open]]
[[circle]] 102 [[/circle]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] Monday, November 14, 1955 Chincha Peru [[Sur?]] Notes on [[underline]] Larus belcheri [[/underline]]. There have been a number of these birds around from time to time during the last few days, and I have been able to watch them occasionally in the intervals between watching Inca Terns. [[margin]] [[image - one vertical line and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Pairs and single birds seem to have "stations" favorite rocks where the birds can be seen most of the time. These "stations" are very far apart - nothing like a colony - but there is occasional visiting back and forth. I haven't been able to follow this at all; but some of it looks like "pairing", like the Herring Gulls in Virginia. [[margin]] [[image - three spirals within circles]] [[/margin]] Series of MC's [[circle]] 1 [[/circle]] [[image - male symbol]] on ground, does HD-O as [[image - female symbol]] approaches, then √V - √HF - √V - √HF - √V - √HF - √V - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V; [[image - female symbol]] does √V+√HF - √V - √HF - √V - √HF - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V. [[circle]] 2. [[/circle]] [[image - female symbol]] on ground, does HD - O before [[image - male symbol]] lands, then √V + √HF; [[image - male symbol]] does √V + √HF - √HD - √O - √V + √HF - √V - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V. [[circle]] 3. [[circle]] [[image - male symbol]] joins [[image - female symbol]] mutual √V+√HF [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] [[/margin]] Some of these Gosts are quite long-necked [[image - gull standing with head pointed to ground]] [[margin]] [[image - three vertical lines and one crosshatched line]] Some notes on Long Call Note + Long Call. Voice is a particularly piercing high-pitched scream. This "piercingness" is particularly noticeable in the LCN The LC is somewhat more melodious. Voice is clear like Herring Gull - not hoarse like the Ring-bill
[[circle]] 103 [[/circle]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] , Nov. 14, 1955, II. The usual sequence of the Trumpeting means to be as follows: a few notes (usually 2), long-drawn + relatively soft, "Waaaaah Waaaah", are uttered in the HD posture; then a series of harder, shorter notes (possibly beginning somewhat higher in pitch?) are given from O. [[image - series of lines indicating decline in pitch]] <- roughly, considerable variation. These O notes may be continued for a long time if a dispute with intruder is in progress; i.e. a very much longer series of notes may be uttered, each note much like an O note during usual Trumpeting, equally short but all about the same pitch. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The HD notes are very reminiscent of the M notes of other species. I have not, however, heard the M of this form. The O posture itself is particularly reminiscent of the Herrig Gull, (see photos by H.T.) [[Image - gull with neck elongated and mouth open]] sometimes slightly more vertical. This effect from distance. Correction: AlC is [[underline]] entirely [[/underline]] hooded-gull-like; a "Kek" "Kek Kek" or "Kek Kek Kek". Physical description looks black & white, [[underline]] not [[/underline]] brown & grey. Bill looks heavy. [[image - close up sketch of bill, black point toward top of bill, red on the underside, and yellowish to the tip. "corners of mouth apparently same color as most of bill" pointed toward base of bill]]. Main color bright yellow, little real orange Eyes dark. Looks small. Ring around the eye is largely feathered (white); but yellow visible at corners, (and a very thin line of yellow above eye)
[[circle]] 104 [[/circle] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]], Nov. 14, 1955, III. [[image - In far left margin are two dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] This pattern of red & black on bill is extremely variable. May be absolutely different on the two sides of the bill of the same individual. [[image - In far left margin are three dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] This definitely is a two-phase type Trumpeting Call. I have just heard one with 2 or 3 preliminary notes, (like those given from semi-O in Herring Gull), and these were uttered after the head went down in HD Have seen one brief T movement by [[image - male symbol]], and one by [[image - female symbol]. [[image - female symbol]]'s was from H. Found a particularly high-pitched LCN. [[In far left margin is the number 2 with a circle around it and a check mark above it followed by MC]] [[image of female symbol]] joins [[image of male symbol]] Both [[U with a check mark above it & HF with a check mark above it]]. [[image of a male symbol]] then a series of [["gorts" with a five check marks above it]] (at least 5) [[In far left margin are three dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] I think that this "gort" I have been recording in MC's may be something quite different. In [[image of a male symbol]] of above pair, the last (at least) of the "gorts" appeared to be a feeding or (more probably) drinking reaction Dipping bill in the [[tiny?]] pool, swallowing something when head & bill lifted. [[In far left margin is a circle above M.C. above the number 5 then next to it is a vertical squiggly line]] Difficult. I no sooner write the above than I look up to see another MC Don't know who joined who. Both birds [[HD with a check mark above it]]-[[O with a check mark above it]]-[[U with a check mark & HF with a check mark]] When [[image of a male symbol]] walks away, pecks ground once, walks, does real [[Gort with a check mark above it]]. (He appears to be quite relaved during these PAG's & Gorts) [[In far left margin are three dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] Another MC., the details of which I don't catch This followed [[underlined]] by downward Ch. by both[[/underlined]], [[image of a female symbol]] walks away in semi-U, does two [[underlined]] real Gorts, with bill open [[/underlined]], apparently silent Then one ordinary Gort. Is this coincidence? [[In far left margin are three dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] Another M.C., the details of which didn't catch. [[image of a female symbol]] walks away in slight aug-U, peeks around, makes "swallowing" OCB movements after lifting head back to aug. U, [[underlined]] although I could see she didn't [[/underlined]] pick up anything on ground. [[In far left margin are three dark vertical lines and a cross hatch vertical rectangle]] Trumpeting Call is certainly the usual display by one mate on ground toward flying mate.
[[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] [[circle]] 105 [[/circle]] November 15, 1955, Chincha Peru Have seen 7 or 8 MC's since writing last - and the situation is beginning to resolve itself. "Typical" MC's can be described as follows. The bird on ground does HD-D before incoming bird lands, then both V&HF (all this V appears to be either "simple V" or "auv.V" - [[underline]] I have seen nothing like a very extreme agg.V or "aggressive head-set") [[/underline]]. There are two common variants to the process thus far. 1. The sitting bird doesn't bother to HD-O, no display in confined to V&HF 2. The landing bird does HD-D after landing, thus making the HD-O-V&HF mutual. What happens after this is more variable. Sometimes one or both birds will go straight into choking Sometimes one or both birds will perform one or more "simple" gosts The female of the pair I am watching is a "nervous" type. She comes out of gost into Aux V&HF each time, and then stands in aux.U until the next Gost. Sometimes one or both birds may peck at ground, (to be followed by OCB "swallowing" motions after head is lifted), or actually drunk water, or (possibly) pick something up off ground & eat it. All these downward movements of head & bill one too common to be sheer coincidence or purely autochthonous. Particularly in view of the fact that choking is so common in the same situations. (And this choking occurs where there is no "Third bird" present to complicate the situation). Speaking of choking in MC, it is often preceded by what appear to be "preliminary" displays in these circumstances. Sometimes brief M posture. More often, bird in either Gost and/or V, either opens bill (widely) and keeps it open, or opens & closes bill (open widely again) moderately slowly The "preliminaries" to ch sometimes occur without subsequent ch. I haven't managed to hear the sounds, (if any), accompanying Ch, M, and the other "prelims" to Ch. HD-O is the common display given towards "strange" flying birds by birds on the ground (with or without mate present) V, HD, O, and Ch all extremely common during violent dispute on ground. V, HD, and O all common before attack.
[[image - number 106 in circle]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] November 16, 1955, Chincha Peru Have had more opportunities to observe more of the same behavior. V&HF by bird on ground toward flying mate about to land. Was able to watch a copulation attempt in considerable detail. [[image - symbol for female]] FB in H. Sound should really be transcribed as "Klioo", just like other [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] gulls. [[image - male symbol]] walked about [[mostly in V. Once down in M posture. (Couldn't hear call, if any). Then stood in V, giving series of LCN sounds, [[underline]] relatively soft [[/underline]], (bill opening & closing visibly) Interspersed with series of downward movements, mostly gosts, once drinking. Then mounted copulation like that of related species. Apparently a Cop Call - but couldn't hear sound - which means that it must have been [[underline]] very soft [[/underline]] - much softer than either LCN or FB note. [[image - symbol for male]]'s bill semi-closed during Cop. Call [[image - bill]] Part Cop display mutual V&HF The various downward movements, including PAG & "drinking", seem to take the place, in this species, of the Pr. movements of other species. At least in pairing and sexual situations. Relatively low intensity HD's appear to be "rounded" [[image - sketch]] Higher intensity forms are apparently straighter. [[image - sketch]]
[[image-number 107 inside circle]] belcheri, Nov. 16, 1955, II. Have again noticed the relatively great frequency of aerial LCN's. Almost constant when birds are flying near others. The fact that I have seen no aerial Long Call may be significant - in view of the frequency with which the birds utter series of loud, rapid, "close-together", LCN's, which appear to be high intensity reactions. Forgot to mention that, during the copulation cited above, the [[image-symbol for male]] uttered one FB note. This is the nearest thing I have seen to mutual FB There are at least 2 pairs involved in proceedings in front of my blind. One pair is very lightly paired - ie the [[image-symbol for male]] attacked the [[image-symbol for female]] twice after MC.'s Some of the "visiting" I have seen is apparently a case of an "unwanted" [[image-symbol for female]] visiting a [[image-symbol for male]]. Unfortunately, however, things have always been complicated by the fact that the [[image-symbol for male]]'s "own" [[image-symbol for female]] has always arrived very shortly after the visiting [[image-symbol for female]], thus causing general confusion & departing
R [[circled page number 102]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] November 17, 1955, La Puntilla, Peru. 11:00 a.m. Have been watching a dispute between 2 [[image - male symbol]]'s, which has lasted for well over a half hour. All very interesting. General pace is very slow & cautious. Much walking round in V, and semi-V. Some of the V's become quite extreme agg. V's. This species has an "aggressive head-set" like the Ring-bill; but all the cases I have seen have been much less "extreme" in appearance. (This may be largely due to the fact that the head is never so "thin" toward the front part). Much squinting during these V's and agg V's. Certainly significant. One bird had his eyes almost completely closed when his opponent was standing almost breast to breast with him. Constant approaching and retreating; but all [[underline]] very [[/underline]] slow and [[sedat?]] Many HD-O's during this period. Birds usually facing one another or standing more or less parallel. Often [[image-two arrows, one pointing to the right and another below it pointing upward to the right at 30 degree angle]] A great deal of Gosts. Must have been close to a 100. Many, in fact most, of them did not develop into anything further. (See accompanying sketches for the great variety of Gost postures) [[underline]] Some Gosts, however, went smoothly into HD [[/underline]], usually after the bird had been standing in Gost for several seconds, possibly even a minute. These Gosts were alternated with other downward movements. [[underline]] One peck at ground & pulling of dried Ulva!! Several cases of putting bill into water and then shaking it [[/underline]] !! [[underline]] Many brief little bouts of choking [[/underline]] Looked almost exactly like Herring Gull. Apparently accompanied by rhythmic call; but again I couldn't hear it. Some of the apparently low-intensity Ch, given from semi-V semi Ch posture, comme ça, [[image-gull head and shoulders]][[caption: bill opened slightly]] were very reminiscent of regurge, bill opened widely momentarily Some choking given from sitting position; but most of it from standing position with knees bent
[[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]], Nov. 17, 1955, II. There was also a definite Squat pattern. Occurred at lea[[page torn and cannot see end of line]] times. Much like the Squat of the Ring-bill; but bill never pointed downward as strongly, pressed to breast, like it is in my drawing of the Ring-bill Squat. Squat once occurred as a definite response to a charge of the opone[[page torn and cannot see end of line]] Appeared to stop the charge, which stopped dead. One bird gave burst of LCN's from V posture, head inclined slightly downward. Bill opened widely with each note, closed or semi-closed between notes It was remarkable that [[underline]] there wasn't one actual blow delivered [[/underline]] during this dispute. This, plus the remarkably slow tempo, might suggest that the dispute was low-intensity; but the "exaggerated caution" of the birds makes me think, on the contrary, that it was quite high intensity indeed. The slow tempo, of course, is also reminiscent of the Herring Gull Notes on the form of the HD performance. Both phases often quite short necked. Makes them look comparatively little ritualized. I think the "roundest" forms of the HD tend to be the short-necked; and this may be further support for the theory that these are the lowest intensity forms of the pattern. Have seen nothing like the most extreme forms of HD in the Ring-bill, (i.e. head & bill are never far back toward the tail). Again noticed some variability in angle of O. But always comparatively low. Sometimes, particularly when directed toward a flying bird, the angle is first moderately high, [[image-arrow up and to the right at about a 30º angle]], and then gets somewhat lower as call progresses, until like [[image-arrow up and to the right at about a 15º angle]]. One of the [[male]]'s was visited by a [[female]], apparently his mate, during the course of the above fracas. Again HD-O before she came in. Then mutual V+HF-V + all sorts of Gosts as M.C. [[female]] in definite aux. V. [[male]] not too aux., but definitely not very agg. by the standards of other species. Noticed, particularly in the case of the [[female]], how aux. V is very long-necked, [[underline]] and very thin [[/underline]], especially toward upper part of neck. Gives peculiar effect in contrast to short, chunky, body. Sort of like the neck of a Coscoroba attached to a round black blob.
R [[circled page number 104]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]], Nov. 17, 1955, III. This [[female]] was somewhat involved in the dispute between the 2 [[male]]'s, and an interesting case of redirection appeared. Some of the V's of the pair were done facing one another when the other [[male]] approached them. And, more important, the mated [[underline]] [[male]] & [[female]] both performed redirected HD-O and Ch, [[/underline]] facing one another when the other [[male]] approached Quite clear. 3:50 pm. More of the same sort of thing going on. Notice that upward inclination of head during Aux. V is quite very strongly marked [[image-drawing of gull head]] –– at least sometimes Have just seen [[male]] regurge (egg) to feed [[female]]. [[female]] begged first. Whole procedure quite like Herring Gull. Couldn't hear any M. It is obvious, incidentally, that this species doesn't give M as frequently as the Herring Gull. Almost certainy doesn't give it at all in air There is no doubt but that a single [[male]] and a mated pair are maintaining territories here. At least maintaining them from time to time. Spending much of their day away from here; just visiting occasionally The inside of the mouth has been far from brilliant orange in the examples I have seen. Most of it is just about like the outside of the bill, i.e. a rich yellow, just slightly tinged with orange. When the mouth is open, however, the corners are definitely more orange than most of the rest. Have seen several [[underline]] very [[/underline]] short-necked Obliques [[image-gull]] [[image-gull]] [[underline]] Agg.V (looking very low-intensity) before attack on Grey Gull. [[/underline]]
R [[circled page number 105]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]], Nov. 17, 1955, IV. [[underline]] Agg V (looking very low-intensity) before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] then G during flying attack, just before the moment of impact [[/underline]] - when attacking a juv. [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] Yes! These birds are definitely completely territorial. One of the Squats I have seen could be called a Freeze G during attack on Grey Gulls. This appears to be unritualized Leaving 5:40 [[underline]] add note [[/underline]] Nov. 25, 1955 [[underline]] I don't remember ever hearing a Landing Call by a Belcher's Gull. [[/underline]] Friday, Nov. 18, 1955, La Puntilla [[underline]] cirrocephalus [[/underline]] Same place as yesterday when a pair of Grey-headed Gulls land. One is immature, the other is adult (perhaps 2nd year, completely adult, except for a few dark marks on tertials, which may be signs of youth) There was a dispute between these two birds when they first landed; the adult did not care to be approached by the immature I didn't catch the best part of this dispute; but the following parts are certain Adult screamed long LCN notes, "Kaaaaa Kaaaaaa Kaaaaa.....", very buzzy or rasping, no [[image-wavy line]] effect, no twang. From O, which looked about as much like Hartlaub's Gull as anything. [[image-sketch of gull head]] A slight tendency for succeeding LCN's to get deeper in pitch; but there were never more than 3-4-(possibly) 5 of them; no real Long Call effect. This followed by [[underline]] silent [[/underline]] F, very short-necked. [[underline]] This F with R [[/underline]], (but R was possibly due to wind - although I rather doubt it). The immature was silent during this dispute. Flew away. Landed. Later uttered 3 or 4 single LCN's. These were a trifle unexpected, [[underline]] a rather clear [[/underline]] "Kiow" sort of thing; i.e. more like the Laughing Gull LCN's than are the LCN's of the adult. Notice that dark red ring around eye is quite conspicuous in adult Adds to the "staring", hypnotic, effect. The usual Alert Posture is present
R [[image-number 106 in circle]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] Nov. 18, 1955, La Puntilla Have definitely seen HD-O introduced by semi-O & 1 or 2 introductory LCN notes. Have seen this twice; but it is still obviously extremely rare. Sometimes three full (ie. long) notes during the HD. Have also noted that, while the O phase can be much prolonged during disputes, the HD phase apparently is not [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] Nov. 19, 1955, La Puntilla Notice that much of the Ch is given from postures apparently identical with Gost postures. Low one sequence Squat (head as in Agg V) - Ch. Correction - of a sort. I haven't seen any Ch as long-necked as my long-necked drawings of Gosts (which may be too exaggerated anyhow). At high intensities legs become flexed, (but bird doesn't seem to sit during "pure" Ch), and belly feathers become conspicuously more fluffed or ruffled. Have seen Squat & freeze follow Ch. immediately. Choking [[?]] with bill definitely closed, (not too "swollen" an effect around lower jaw). Birds not far away - and little surf - and yet I still didn't hear any sound! One wonders if the reduction in number & variety of vocalizations, apparent in both this species and [[underline]] inca [[/underline]], might be connected with the constant pounding of surf in their breeding environment??? Nov. 19,1955, La Puntilla General note on distribution. The same species here now as when I arrived; i.e. [[underline belcheri [[/underline]], [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], [[underline]] cirrocephalus [[/underline]], [[underline]] pipixcan [[/underline]], and a small tern, probably [[underline]] lorata [[/underline]].
R [[image-number 107 in circle]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] Nov. 20, 1955, Zoo, Lima. There are three juvenal Belcher's Gulls here. Unlike the birds juvenals observed in the wild, they are very active. Mostly disputing among themselves over food. A few disputes with a Grey Gull (see below) They showed the following patterns: The usual alert posture. This seemed to grade into a posture like usual adult V (i.e. not very "aggressive"), [[underline]] except that the carpal joints were not raised or lifted at all [[/underline]] (remained invisible in fact) This appeared to be quite clear, occurring during disputes, but relatively rare, (and, of course, it is far from easy to distinguish between an alert posture and an V, when the latter is not accompanied by a carpi-raising) G during attack, but, [[underline]] more important [[/underline]], definite G by bird during aggressive rush or advance without actual attack. A whole host of LC and LCN patterns. Among the LCN's were a few that sounded like the "usual" juvenal loud LCN's, i.e thin & reedy. [[underline]] The usual LCN's, however, sounded just like the adult AlC's of "typical Larus" gulls [[/underline]], "ha ha ha ha" or " ha ha ha ha ha", quite unlike the Al.C's of adult belcheri heard in the wild. [[underline This is quite definite [[/underline]]; heard it repeatedly in all 3 birds. Given from usual LCN postures, [[image-2 birds with beaks open]] without any raising of carpal joints. Given by some birds during retreat, but [[underline]] more frequently by an aggressive bird advancing to attack. [[/underline]] (This would seem to suggest that the Al.C. of "typical Larus" gulls has been derived from an originally more aggressive pattern of juveniles. It is noticeable, incidentally, that this polysyllabic AlC sometimes appears to be an exaggeration of the "usual" juv. LCN, ie. an accentuation of the "reedy" or "rattling" quality. Suggests also that it is a [[underline]] burst [[/underline]] of Al.C. syllables,
[[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]], Nov. 20, 1955, II [[image-number 108 in circle]] i.e. "ha ha ha ha", etc., that is equivalent to a [[underline]] single [[/underline]] LCN. Doesn't this confirm the conclusions that I reached after studying juveniles at Delta?) These birds also gave [[underline]] complete [[/underline]] Trumpeting Call performances. HD-O. Both postures exactly like those of adults; except for the fact, again, that the carpi were [[underline]] not [[/underline]]raised [[underline]] at all [[/underline]]. The notes themselves were much like those of adults; except that they were "hoarser", i.e. reminiscent of the Ring-bill in quality of tone. This performance was given repeatedly, at long intervals, whenever a particularly bitter dispute arose. These birds also had an H posture - just like that of the Herring Gull. A prelude or low-intensity form of "begging". "Begging" itself relatively common. Certainly food-begging. In H. found the usual "klioo" type; I think it was just the same as that of the adults. Relatively slight HT. [[underline]] Very few Gosts, if any. No sign of choking. [[/underline]] I must add, before I forget, that the primaries of these birds had been clipped Half way or less. I don't think that this is the explanation of the lack of capi-raising - for several reasons. The birds could, and did, fly a few feet in a low awkward flight. And similar clipping did not effect the carpi-raising of the Andean Gull in the same enclosure. November 20, 1955, Zoo, Lima [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] Also watched an adult of this species. In bad condition, but nuptial plumage, and gave several Trumpeting Call performances HD-O; with postures & voice similar or identical to those of the Herring Gull.
[[underline]] inca [[/underline]] [[image-number 109 in circle]] November 20, 1955, Zoo, Lima. Had a cageful of these birds at zoo. Mostly adults, but a few young birds too. Noticed one pair of young, younger than the "almost adult" noted before, i.e. mustache almost pure grey; the [[image -symbol for female]] of which was doing HT in H+R, just like adults, same sound. November 20, 1955, Zoo, Lima. [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]]. One of these birds Probably young, but in almost complete adult plumage, with only a very slight trace of the white nuptial hood. Did a lot of disputing with the Belcher's Gulls, always the aggressor. Did several Long Calls, which I didn't see too awfully well, but did manage to catch a few points. Generally like those observed at Salinas. Began very high, with rapid notes. These might be transcribed as "Tukatukatuka. . . ."., [[underline]] but definitely not a rapid rattle like that of fuliginosus [[/underline]]. Then followed by "real" Long Call notes, descending in pitch, as posture became gradually lower. Sometimes this alone. Sometimes subsided into real L., but this was "weak" looking, as before Certainly much less conspicuous than the L's of the Laughing Gull or Franklin's Gull. [[underline]]Once this was followed by T with T note. [[/underline]] Once saw bird go up into high O, open & shut bill rapidly, as during the "Tukatukatuka. . . . " call; [[underline]] but without uttering [[/underline]] a sound. This was presumably low-intensity Occasional adult LCN from relaxed posture I don't think that I can tell a single T note from a single LCN Once or twice saw T from H. Presumably begging for food. Then a most peculiar& and obviously aggressive performance. Bird would go down into H, or semi-H, F, or semi-F, [[underline]] & definite and [[/underline]]
[[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 20, 1955, II. [[image-number 100 in circle]] [[image-bird with head level and beak closed]] [[image-bird with head level and beak open]] (common just before attack) extreme R, and then rush forward to attack one of the Belcher's Gull. Sometimes this attack accompanied by LCN. [[image-bird with head raised and beak closed]] [[image-bird with head raised and beak open]] This R was thus [[underline]] obviously [[/underline]] hostile [[image-bird with head raised and beak closed]] (It should be noted, incidentally, that the extreme "typical" F postures were relatively rare; the typical H posture common at the beginning of the performance, and the postures with neck stretched diagonally upward or or approximately straight forward were common just before the delivery of the actual blow, (which often took the form, therefore, of an upward jab). Some of these postures with R could almost be considered unritualized pre-attack postures, except for the R; and it is not surprising, therefore that a few unritualized attacks also occurred. November 20, 1955 Zoo, Lima [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]] A single bird of this species. Occasional dispute when another gull came near; but also a lot of threatening toward human spectators who thrust things at him. (This latter fact may possibly have changed the orientation of the birds' displays, but I don't think so. In any case, the form of those displays shown to other birds was the same as that of the same displays shown toward human beings. One brief V performed, after L.C. performance. Appeared to be rather aggressive. Quite a number of what appeared to be single FB or LCN notes. Brief "Kreee"s, accompanied by momentary retraction of head & neck, into a posture reminiscent of H!! Directed toward humans
[[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Nov 20, 1955 II 111[[encircled]] Quite a number of more complete Long Call performances Eventually a typical series of LCN notes "Kreee-hreee-hreee-hreee....," getting successively lower in pitch, accompanied by O --> F. The O was most peculiar indeed. Quite high, long neck, at beginning. Neck rather thick. Trace of "inverted arch" in neck. Carpi way out, lowered. [[underline]] Rear end of body & Tail definitely raised. [[/underline]] (Could this be a "Trace" or "intention movement of Choking) Gradually lowering until F reached. All the F's were very brief, very short-necked; but otherwise, I think, much like F's of the B.b.G. Whole L.C. performance shown toward both birds & men. Once saw [[underline]] F & R [[/underline]] --> O --> F ! [[underline]] Also a lot of Choking [[/underline]] Directed at a newspaper I extended toward it. Choking - attack on newspaper - Choking - attack - Choking - attack - Choking, etc. etc. Obviously high intensity. The Ch. posture itself was very much like that of Bb.G. Tail equally high. No setting down. Call itself sometimes introduced by brief "clucking" noises. The real call was a soft "Kree-hree-hree....." Choking sometimes alternated with PAG's. General notes on the voice of this species. Quite unlike Bonaparte's or Grey-headed; and not much like that of any other of the [[underline]] ridibundus [[/underline]] group I know. [[underline]] "Kreee"s all very high- pitched, very shrill, slightly reedy. [[/underline]] I couldn't detect any difference between the notes of LCN, (FB), L.C. or Ch., except in length & volume, (and even their latter differences were comparatively slight). Thus this species is like the other [[underline]] ridibundus [[/underline]] species in only two respects, as far as voice is concerned: its "Kreee"s can be considered screeches of a sort, and its whole voice is relatively inflexible and monotonous. Before I forget. - The bill was wide open throughout O, [[underline]] and also F [[/underline]]. Opened & closed during Ch., but never opened more than very slightly. A lot of interesting R. Did R when moving off perch to feed.
[[circled]] 112 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] serranus [[/underlined]], Nov. 20, 1955, III Also did most conspicuous R's when moving to attack other gulls. [[underlined]] Would rush forward in H [[/underline]], or H with neck slightly extended forward & slightly upward, (sometimes approximating pre-attack postures of the Grey Gull in the same enclosure). Sometimes R when giving LCN or FB note in semi-H, directed toward me. [[underlined]] All this definitely proves that R is aggressive [[/underlined]]. But R may also be a "pre-flight" or "pre-movement" int. mov. also, (as in Ring-bill observed in Virginia). This is suggested by the R's when going to feed - I couldn't see any overt hostility in these circumstances General notes on appearance of the bird. Very reminiscent of B b G. But much larger - body looks relatively larger, head smaller. Bill shorter, but not too thick. "Mark" same shape as that of the other [[underlined]] ridibundus [[/underlined]] gulls. Black, getting slightly lighter & browner toward bill. Bill & feet dark red; also eye ring. White eyebrows thin, as in Bonaparte's Eye dark brown Inside of mouth brighter red than outside. November 21, 1955, Zoo, Lima, [[underlined]] serranus [[/underlined]] Bird much less active today. Only a few points of interest. Gave single notes, LCN and/or FB, in usual [[larid?]] LCN posture with extreme R, (see drawing). Gave a whole series of LCN, (notes as close together as during L.C. itself), all approximately same pitch , in definite O posture ("inverted arch"), [[underlined]] but with tail not raised. [[/underlined]] Also gave complete L.C. ( also "inverted arch") without tail raised, (but body not very oblique, i.e. breast not raised very much). Also gave at least O part of L C. [[underlined]] in extreme O without "inverted" arch. [[/underlined]] Definite V again, (pretty aggressive), [[underlined]] again [[/underlined]] after the completion of an L.C. performance. Obviously a low-intensity pattern
[[circled]] 113 [[/circled]] [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] November 21, 1955, Zoo, Lima These birds weren't very active either [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] One bird did G (usual land LCN posture) --> HD --> O [[underline]] Also one bird did long bout of choking!! [[/underline]] During dispute with [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] Kelp Gull. Long neck, stretched forward, bill open, head & bill slanted diagonally downward - but slightly (see drawing). Bird sat down, [[underline]] flat [[/underline]] on tarsi, during most of the choking. Made rhythmic head movements like other gulls' Choking; but I couldn't hear any sound!! This choking appeared during dispute with Kelp Gull; when the ˆ[[insertion]] latter began to choke. [[/insertion]] Is the fact that this birds' posture was reminiscent of the M posture of other gulls significant? [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] It is really most peculiar that these young birds show so many displays. Much more than any juveniles I ever studied in the wild. (And the juveniles of this species were particularly dull––I never heard or saw them give a single display, not even an LCN). The greater activity of the captive juveniles is probably due to their "tameness"; they must have lost much of their fear of adults; (and also, of course, these 3 birds are thrown together much more than most juveniles would be in the wild. November 21, 1955 Zoo, Lima [[underline]] inca [[/underline]] These caged birds are behaving in exactly the same way, apparently, as they would in the wild. [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] Only thing of interest I noted was an [[horizontal dark oval]] posture very reminiscent of the Ch posture of gulls, (see drawing). This may well be significant in connection with the hypothetical coalescence of part of an ancestral L.C. performance with choking. (This "Ch" posture of [[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]] was not accompanied by anything like Ch. movements)
[[circled]] 114 [[/circled]] November 21, 1955 Zoo, Lima [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] Didn't pay much attention to this bird, but it was not inactive. Long dispute with juv. Belcher's Gull. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar [[/margin]] Did pronounced M, apparently in purely hostile situation. Sound & posture just like corresponding patterns of Herring Gull. Choking itself was common (in same dispute as M, but I didn't catch the chronological relationships of the 2 patterns). Choking was apparently silent––and I was no more than 10 yds away, and the zoo was fairly silent at the time. Once saw something that might have been related to "grass pulling." Pecked at feather, then picked it up––after choking. November 22, 1955, Zoo, Lima. [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar [[/margin]] I am afraid that some of the stuff I have been writing about this bird was a trifle mistaken. About M This bird spent much of the afternoon doing M, then going to apparent nest-site, sitting down, with rear part of the body raised, legs bent, [[image-sketch of rear legs]] comme ça, moving its feet up and down All this looked much like autochthonous n.b. behavior. This impression accentuated by the fact that the bird also, from time to time, when off nest as well as on, picked up n.m. (down) When picked up away from nest, this n.m. was almost always carried to the nest-site. [[underline]] Departed straight forward [[/underline]] [[underline]] Once departed with movements very much like choking [[/underline]], (identical apparently). There are only 2 things that made me think that there was possibly an "undue" amount of hostility involved. The performance was most intense when there was an "intruder", (e.g. Night Heron or Belcher's Gull) in the doorway of the cave in which the nest-site & the bird
[[circled]] 115 [[/circled]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] [[margin]] [[three vertical solid lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] were located. Also it was quite noticeable that there was [[underline]] no sideways building [[/underline]]. Of course all M must have a hostile component; but I still don't know if the M of the Kelp Gull is particularly similar, in its circumstances & causes, to that of the Herring Gull or not. [[margin]] [[three vertical solid lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] This bird did mutual "begging" with juv. Belcher's Gull. Latter presumably interested in food, the former in sex. The T movement & note appeared to be identical with those of the Herring Gull. November 22, 1955, Zoo, Lima [[underline]] [[inca]] [[/underline]] [[margin]] [[three solid vertical lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] Fish-carrying [[male symbol]], just standing, gave repeated [[underline]] loud [[/underline]] cht's in [[image-horizontal dark oval]]. Nothing came of it. Eventually swallowed fish. November 22, 1955, Zoo, Lima [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]] [[margin]] [[three solid vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] "Typical bird" juv. LCN -> "pseudo Al.C" before attack (All these notes given from "typical" LCN posture, i.e. semi-V, without any raising of the carpi). This suggests that the "AlC"-type sounds are higher intensity and/or more aggressive than "typical LCN" sounds. I rather imagine that they are higher intensity. (some "typical LCN's" certainly given by advancing birds without any sign of nervousness). [[margin]] [[three solid vertical lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] Bird gave complete L.C. [[image-call diagram]] in LCN posture. [[margin]] [[three solid vertical lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] Notes of L.C. might be transcribed as "Keeyah keeyah...". [[margin]] [[three solid vertical lines and one crosshatched bar extend the length of the paragraph]] [[/margin]] Repeated pecks at bananal peel, not very aggressive looking, after HD-O performance
[[encircled]] 116 [[/encircled]] [[underlined]] belcheri [[/underlined]], Nov. 22, 1955, II. [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] The bird who was FB from Kelp Gull, was pecked twice by latter. Each time reacted by going into extreme Aux. V, bill very high as in adult, & HF. HF single movement. (In case I forgot to note it, HF of adults are also, almost always at least, single movements too. November 23; 1955 Zoo, Lima [[underlined]] serranus [[/underlined]] [[margin]] [[image-three vertical lines and one crosshatched bar]] [[/margin]] Sequence; relaxed posture & R --> F --> O --> F. (This F before O has been noted before; probably good evidence that O & F are quite separate patterns Notes on the physical form of Choking displays. [[underlined]] Tail not spread during Choking. [[/underlined]] Wings not held out as far as during as they are during many O&F Belly feather's somewhat fluffed; [[underlined]] but not going in & out rhythmically [[/underlined]]. In at least one case, head moved slightly from side to side [[image-sketch of head with arrows indicating movement]] about this much. No particular foot movements Once FB note & HB, from V with bill pointed up [[image-sketch of head pointing up]] Notes on the physical form of the Oblique & Forward. [[underlined]] Tail is definitely spread [[/underlined]] during most high intensity performances. [[underlined]] Carpal joints are usually held way out [[/underlined]]; so much so that the wing-tips are usually quite widely separated. no sign of any tail raising [[margin]] [[image-one vertical squiggle]] [[/margin]] [[image]] position of tail + wing-tips
[[circled page number 117]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] November 23, 1955, Zoo, Lima It is like that of Herring Gull, i.e. [[image - oval open on left]] effect rather than [[image]] H&T movement & note often escape from pelican Several interesting sequences of displays. O-T-T-T-[[underline]]rush in H+R+LCN [[/underline]] at opponent (i.e. Belcher's Gull) O-T-[[underline]] rush in H&R at opponent [[/underline]]. H+R would certainly appear to be aggressive. Note on the form of the L.C. performance of [[thes?]] birds. Two points to be made: 1. [[underline]] this bird tends to do T after real L.C. [[/underline]] 2. this and other birds [[underline]] don't seem to have much in the way of a real L. [[/underline]] The neck is lowered & shortened during the course of the L.C., beginning as soon as the rapid initial notes are completed; but this seems to be more a "subsiding" of the O than anything else. [[image - gull with open mouth, looking up then leaning forward]] Silent "O" posture, & slight Gape, after attack comme ça [[image - gull with slightly open mouth leaning a little forward]] Diagram of L.C. [[image - diagram of call consisting of long and short lines in succession possibly on a scale like music]] [[captions:]] introductory "Kuh" brief "Kuh"s T [[with an arrow pointed at the last line of the call]]
[[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] [[circle]] 118 [[/circle]] Thursday, November 24, 1955 Autofogarta Bay. Hundreds of [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] along the rocks here. Many with very white heads. Almost all with almost white heads; (these latter may be in complete nuptial plumage for all I know -- there may be considerable variation). The birds are so active that I hardly know where to begin. T. Much T from H or semi-H. Usually, I think, by [[image-symbol for female]]'s FB looks just like that of other gulls. There is also, however, much T-ing from a U posture, (moderate-slightly auv.); often I think by [[image-symbol for male]]'s presumably is a pre-cop pattern, (although I haven't seen any cops yet). This latter is peculiar in form. [[3 images-bird with head and beak horizontal and beak closed/arrow pointing right to next image/ bird with head and beak in vertical position and beak open/bird with head and beak extended backward and beak open]] [[arrow pointing to third image]] occasional i.e. not unlike St of [[underline]]inca [[/underline]], same bend in front Can confirm that the beginning of O is very high--absolutely vertical in most high intensity cases--leaning backward in some cases when an opponent is above & behind the displaying bird. [[2 images-bird with neck, head and beak in vertical position and beak open/bird with neck, head and beak leaning backward and beak open]] [[image-arrow pointing left to the second image]] Note: Nov. 25, This is quite surprisingly common, perhaps even the "usual" form of high intensity O.
[[circle]] 119 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 24, 1955, II. Notice again how frequently later stages of O and L are accompanied by HF. At least when mate is present or the cause of the performance HF away from mate. [[underline]] This is certainly one of the striking features of the L.C. performance [[/underline]] of this species I think my diagram of L.C. in yesterdays notes was wrong - or, at least, it doesn't conform to what these birds are doing. The complete L.C. in these birds appears to be quite standardized. [[image - four short lines followed by long line]] duduh duh duh duuuuuuh [[underline]] high O [[/underline]] [[underline]] relaxation [[/underline]](L.C. proper, without the sometimes succeeding T-note). duhduhduh duh-daaaaaaah might be even better. Speed of call varies tremendously; sometimes very rapid, sometimes quite slow. One thing is obvious. Some of these complete L.C.'s are just given from O, the bird relaxing into semi-alert posture or even completely relaxed posture immediately after last note. [[underline]] These O's are always high, no sign on any lowering during call [[/underline]]. Very similar are complete L.C.'s in high O, followed immed. by [[U or V.?]] There are some L's, i.e. lowering & shortening of neck, during some L.C.'s; but this is by no means inevitable, and I am again impressed by the "unritualized" look of these L's, the way in which they do no look like "full" "separate" patterns. They still appear to be no more than a "subsiding". (Although, of course, it is likely that they are slightly more than that - or else all O's would be expected to decline through L's. Are L's less aggressive. Aren't they relatively frequently accompanied by HF's??? I think so, personally) The fact that this L.C. is bipartite; i.e. a series of rapid notes followed by a single long-drawn one, is very reminiscent of the [[underline]] Ratchet --> Whistle of fuscatus [[/underline]]. LCN's are remarkably frequent. There is a steady clamor in this group given from an "O-LCN" posture, quite definitely diagnonal, not upright like I have seen so many of lately [[image - gull with open mouth]] diag. LCN.
[[image-number 120 in circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] Nov. 24, 1955, III. Some, but by no means all, of the L.C. performances are followed by a T movement & note. Usually, I think, more like T from V than like T from H. The T note itself appears to be much as described earlier, i.e. without the undertone of rattle. This latter, in fact, appears to be true of all the complete L.C. notes. [[underline]] No rattle undertone during either part. [[/underline]] But the rattle tone is certainly present in most of the single LCN's. Can this rattle undertone be considered, in part at least, as a persistently juvenile character? It is really somewhat reminiscent of the "reediness" of the juv. LCN's of so many species There is another "L" posture in addition to the one following O. This is much more extreme than the latter. Just like L&M postures of the Laughing & Franklin's Gulls. Some of these extreme L's are probably M. Others may conceivably be somewhat different. More aggressive; i.e. by the attacking bird before or after attack. Some of these are certainly accompanied by a soft, rather long-drawn "Waaaauh", which may well be homologous with the M notes of other species, i.e. a soft muffled version of the "basic LCN" (as distinguished from the actual LCN shown by these adults - lacks rattle tone). The whole L.C. performance of this species is surprisingly like the L.C. of the [[underline]] atricilla [[/underline]] gulls. [[underline]] It is beginning to look very much as if some form of O-L-T performance was the primitive ancestral form of the L.C. [[/underline]] I have seen a lot of V's; but haven't paid too much attention to them. Still - it is obvious that a rather surprising proportion of the V's seen are rather Aux, or at least no more aggressive than "intermediate". This is perhaps particularly true of the V's provoked or directed toward the mate, (even the V's by the [[image-symbol for male]]'s).
[[image-number 121 in circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] November 25, 1955 [[Antofagasta?]] Bay. Inside of mouth quite bright red now. Conspicuous during both L.C.'s and single LCN's. Watching several cases of [[medium?]] late & sexual behavior. One case of [[image-symbol for female]] approaching a [[image-symbol for male]]. She landed some distance away from him; had to approach him on foot. In V, most of the time; the usual "aux" type V. Did repeated L.C.'s to other birds as she went by. [[underline]] Notice that O was bent over backward each time [[/underline]], & this was certainly not due to the fact that opponents were above & behind her. Then approached [[image-symbol for male]] in "silent M posture", [[image-drawings of 2 birds--left one has neck and beak in horizontal position, one on right has neck and beak in slight downward position]] He stood in V. Then mutual O (without much subsequent L)-V-HF-V-HF-V-HF. A bit of V parading. That is birds walked around, the [[image-symbol for male]] more than the [[image-symbol for female]], in usual "aux" type V, with much HF-ing, occasional pr. & [[gost?]] movements. ([[underline]] not conspicuous - very little ritualized if at all [[/underline]]) Occasional O performances. Quite a bit of running around in "silent M". Then finally stood in V a moment, relaxed. (I am not sure, during the above incident, exactly how many, if any, of the O's were followed by L, and/or immediately followed by a "Long Call" T. Also watched copulation. Pre-cop performance was essentially like that of other gulls; but had its own peculiarities. Mutual T, [[image-symbol for male]] mostly from V, [[image-symbol for female]] mostly from H or semi-H; but both birds did some T from both postures. Much walking around one another. The T's themselves were done when the birds were very close together. [[image-symbol for female]] occasionally seemed to be trying to get under [[image-symbol for male]]; (I have seen this in other species, such as Franklin's). Occasionally [[image-symbol for female]] into silent M, [[image-symbol for male]]also, sometimes accompanied by T also. Sometimes necks almost crossed then. [[image-2 birds with necks crossed]]
[[circle]] 122 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25 1955, II Then the [[image - female symbol]] put her head to ground, in a semi-choke or Gost posture, [[underline]] briefly regurgitated with choking movements. [[/underline]] She quickly swallowed back food. Both birds [[image – bird drawing]] went back to their mutual begging as before. [[image - male symbol]] finally went down into M posture, (I don't know whether with call or without; bill open, of course). Regurge. [[image - female symbol]] tries to eat; but I don't think she succeeded; [[image - male symbol]] probably swallowed food back too quickly. Back to begging as before. Then [[image - male symbol]] mounted. Cop itself much like that of other gulls. [[image - female symbol]] continued T during most of the time [[image - male symbol]] on her back. [[underline]] [[image - male symbol]] bill closed, apparently no Cop. Call. [[/underline]] Cop apparently successful 3 times. Post-cop display, mutual V-HF-HF-V-Gost-V-HF-V. Then back to begging again. One thing I have noticed about the begging, both in the above and other incidents, especially the begging in H: it is accompanied by very conspicuous, "nervous," side to side head-turning. This approach to the partner in conspicuous "silent M" posture is extremely common - almost inevitable. Might appear to be an "appeasement" pattern - almost a form of H. An attempt to approach without provoking hostility. Have seen at least one case of O followed by T in an apparently purely hostile situation. Most flying birds give usual "rattle" LCN in flight. One bird, however, flying over me, gave pure "Kiow" just like typical large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] [[image - male symbol]] stands in rather low-intensity form of V. [[underline]] [[image - female symbol]] rushes off to attack other birds [[/underline]]; makes two actual, vigorous, attacks! One point must be home in mind; when it comes to writing up the general review of Laridae as a whole. The fact that the Gray Gulls have essentially the same hostile behavior as the [[underline]] atricilla [[/underline]] gulls might suggest that they too may have given rise to their own group of "terns". It might not be necessary to point the repeated evolution of white head vs dark body or dark head vs light body. Each one may have only evolved once
[[circled]] 123 [[/circled]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, III. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Case of mutual begging followed by, and alternating with, 3 quite unsuccessful cop attempts. The begging of both [[male symbol]] and [[female symbol]] was characterized by the fact that they [[underline]] both alternated periods of T from H and T from V. [[/underline]] This was particularly conspicuous in the case of the [[male symbol]]. Both also LCN ([[underline]] [[male symbol]] sometimes from semi-V) [[/underline]], and several silent M's. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] One O followed by definite L. My drawing of L is pretty good. The bill was closed by the time the bird got down into extreme L, i.e. L.C. was over; but then the bird [[image-bird with head pointed downward]] gave several LCN's in L. (So it is possible that the second part of LC might be considered to have several notes rather than one. [[margin]] vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Another case of O-T in apparently purely hostile circumstances. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Have seen one bird do repeated LCN (in diag. O posture) [[image-arrow pointing to the right]] extreme high O & L.C. The first part of this performance, with its characteristic raising of the head toward the Vertical, is slightly reminiscent of the Little Gull. [[margin]] [[image--three triangles with a red dash above each]] [[/margin]] Unsuccessful cops. Three cases of mutual V. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Peculiar performance. One bird lands, apparently alone. Immediately [[underline]] goes into extreme M, persistent, extreme & regular side to side head-turning. [[/underline]] M first silent, then a few M notes uttered, then silent again. Head-turning continues all the time. Then another bird lands. Does V-HF-silent M-O-V. First bird continues as before, [[underline]] except that 4 times pecks ground violently [[/underline]], (each peck is really a short burst of pecks), from M. [[image-two birds with heads pointed downward]] Each peck or burst of pecks, [[underline]] followed by extreme swallowing movements. [[/underline]] Then second bird moves on, and first relaxes. Was this purely hostile?? Or, possibly, connected with pairing??? [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Bunch of birds flying over me. A number of AlC's and LCN's. Then one bird gives complete L.C., continuing flight with normal wing-beats, without any trace of ritualized posture or movements. Just stretches neck forward a little, (perhaps slightly upward at same time; but no trace of even a semi-O). Didn't even accelerate flight.
[[circle]] 124 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] Nov. 25, 1955, IV. [[margin]] * comm. area Ending 10:10 [[/margin]] [[circle]] 9:40 [[/circle]] [[underline]] √V - √HF after attack [[/underline]] - √V - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √V. √V - √SS - √V - √LCN - √LCN - √V - √SS - √SS - √SS - √Pr - √V - √SS - √V. √LCN. √LCN. √O - √V&√SS - √V. √LCN. [[underline]] √V&√HF after attack [[/underline]]. √20 LCN's. √LCN. √LCN. √T - √V - √SS. √V. √V. √LCN. √LCN. √Gost - √V - √HF - √V - √LCN - √V - √LCN. √LCN - √gost - √LCN - √V. [[underline]] √V after retreat [[/underline]]. √LCN - √LCN - √LCN. √LCN - √gost. [[margin]][[image - triangle with red mark above]] [[/margin]] Mutual V. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] SS = one side-to-side turning [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Inside of mouth is pink or salmon colored. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] [[image - sketch of bird with mouth open and wings up, flying]]. Usual LCN posture in air, almost no stretching of neck. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Watching a [[male symbol]] making circular flights during pairing. Quite extreme. Several times circled over general area where [[female symbol]] remained; also made huge irregular circles in all directions. [[underline]] Rapid flight [[/underline]], (quite the fastest I have seen), [[underline]] but with normal wing-beats [[/underline]]. An occasional slight trace of erraticism. One shallow but long glide [[image - downward arrow at approx 45 degrees with bird]] [[underline]] Very frequent LCN's [[/underline]]; but from an unritualized posture, only stretching the neck straight forward a little. One definitely chased another flying bird, in an apparent case of redirection, for about 20 yds. Once the [[female symbol]] flew up after him, rejoined him when he landed; but I didn't follow her behavior in flight. [[margin]] vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Didn't count mutual displays on ground between the above flights; but they were of the usual sort. First V&HF&SS, etc. Then walking around in V, with perhaps fewer HF's & SS's. One or two times of M (probably silent) Then [[male symbol]] [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] did O - slight L; [[underline]] with no trace of T [[/underline]]. Then more of "V complex"; (i.e. V&HF&SS) [[margin]] * comm. area. [[/margin]] [[circle]] 10:40 [[/circle]] √V. √V. √V. √V. √LCN - √O - √T - √V. √V. √V. √LCN - √LCN - √LCN. √LCN. [[underline]] √V during retreat - √V before retreat - √V during retreat. √V before attack - √V after attack. √V before attack - √V after attack. [[/underline]] √O. [[underline]] √Silent M during retreat. [[/underline]] √LCN. √V. √V. √LCN [[underline]] √M&G before attack - √V after attack. √V before attack - √V&√HF after attack. √M during attack. √V&√HF after attack √V before attack - √V after attack √V before attack [[/underline]]. √Ch. √Ch.
[[circle]] 125 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, V [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The Ch noted in preceding line, was done by both birds of a pair, half asleep, when a stranger approached them. Probably a very low intensity form of choking. [[Image - profile of a bird]] Birds were already sitting before Ch began. The birds just put their bills to ground, made brief, slight, but unmistakable up-and-down Ch movements. Didn't hear any sound. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Add one pattern to pairing sequence Walking in Gost posture, or just a gost movement when standing still. Occurs during "V complex", with or without accompanying M's [[margin]] * comm area. [[/margin]] √M. [[underline]] √Agg V after attack √V before attack - √V after attack [[/underline]] √V. √V. √Ch (as before), [[underline]] √Agg V & √HF after attack [[/underline]] - √pr. - √V √M (all patterns marked just M are silent M's) √V. √V-√SS-√V. √V-√T. √V, [[underline]] √Agg V before attack - √Gost after attack [[/underline]] - √V&√SS. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Silent M is [[underline]] the usual [[/underline]] way to approach partner or potential partner. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Been watching a copulation. [[underline]] [[male symbol]] silent most of the time including the periods where he was lowering his tail and making actual cloacal contact. But, he opened his bill and I am almost certain uttered a cop call whenever the [[female symbol]] started to struggle or tried to run away. [[/underline]]. Bill opened just slightly, kept open, no OCB. I think sound was a very soft "uh-huh-huh-huh...." [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] running, moderately slowly, with pauses, after [[female symbol]] who is retreating [[male symbol]] does V-M-V-M-V-Gost-V-M-V during his advance. Both [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]] finally do V&HF when [[female symbol]] lets him catch up. Both relax, start to preen. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Can see absolutely no reason why some birds give pure "Keeow" LCN when flying and other birds give LCN with "rattle undertone." Only possibilities - and there seem to be extremely remote - is that "rattle" LCN is a character of young birds, or that the "Keeow" is motivated by relatively stronger escape. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Apparently no Landing Call. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Bird after fight with neighbor, walks toward partner in M, then
[[circle]] 126 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, VI. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] stops some distance away, stands in M, bill to ground, (head is perhaps slightly bent on neck - pointing more strongly downward than neck - thus not "pure" M posture), utters "uh huh huh whoooah ooah uh huh huh..." sort of business. [[underline]] This appeared to be exactly the same as the mixtures of M & Ch notes uttered by such species as Franklin's Gull during low-intensity choking [[/underline]]. I E. the M note in this species too, appears to be a "low intensity form of Ch." (This Ch sound was very similar or even identical with the Cop Call I just heard) [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I wouldn't be at all surprised if the "running in Gost" pattern occurring during pairing were a form of running in M. Gost is often from a semi-M posture, and the two patterns seem to intergrade completely. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The common approach to partner on foot is actually M-V+HF-(V)-preen. The preening looks completely relaxed; but it often follows immediately after the V+HF, and is often followed immediately by other displays (e.g. T) so it is probably not "coincidental" or "purely autochthonous". [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] This species, with its long wings, looks almost as tern-like as [[underline]] inca [[/underline]] in flight. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Have heard one L.C. on ground with an extra syllable in the first part _ _ _ _ _ _______. This is the only case I have heard, however; and the rarity of such variations cannot be too much stressed. [[margin]] * comm. area [[/margin]] √O. √O-√L-√L & √LCN. ("L" stands for L posture part of L.C. performance. Often silent at end - and thus cannot be told from silent M. [[underline]] Must be stressed that [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] extreme L and M posture are literally identical). √V before attack - √V & √HF after attack. [[/underline]] √V - √Agg-V - [[underline]] - √M&M note before attack √V after attack [[/underline]] √M - √O. [[underline]] √Agg V after attack - √M before attack [[/underline]] - √V. √V. √V. √V. √V. [[underline]] √V before attack - √V after attack [[/underline]]. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Another copulation as before; again [[male symbol]] only gave Cop. Call when [[female symbol]] would. But this time [[underline]] some of his Cop. Call notes were given with bill absolutely closed [[/underline]]. [[margin]] [[image--triangle with red dash at top]] [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] M & √M note - √V & √HF - √V [[female symbol]] √V & √HF - √V [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Bird flying by during panic caused by two boys walking through group, gave M note in flight, in usual neck stretched slightly forward posture
[[circle]] 127 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Nov. 25, 1955, VII. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I think that all the most aggressive forms of M, with or without M note, tend to be with head & bill pointed slightly more strongly downward than the neck. [[margin]] * Comm. area [[/margin] [[underline]] √M before attack - √M&G during attack - √V after attack, [[/underline]] √V. √V. √LCN. √LCN. [[underline]] √M during attack - √O after attack [[/underline]] - √V - √SS - √V - √LCN - √V. √Ch - √Ch. √V - √M - √V - √Gost - [[underline]] √V before attack - √V after attack [[/underline]] √V. √V. √V. [[underline]] √V before attack - √V after attack √V after retreat [[/underline]] [[margin]][[image - triangle with red mark above]] [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] does √V - √gost - √V - √gost. [[female symbol]] does √V - √HF - √V [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Many of the "attacks" included in the above counts are no more than fast rushes toward an opponent. This is particularly true, perhaps, of the M's before attack. This species, incidentally, seems to be particularly prone toward such rushes. Leaving 12:20 Back 3:50 [[margin]] * Comm. area [[/margin]] √LCN. √LCN. √V. √LCN - √Gost √V - √LCN - √Gost. √M. √LCN - √LCN - √Gost. [[underline]] √V before escape - √V after escape [[/underline]] - √Gost - √V - √Gost - √V - √SS - √SS - √V - √Gost. √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN. [[underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]]. √V. √V. √V. √O. √V. √V. √Agg. V - √LCN. √V - √LCN - √LCN. √Gost. √Gost. √V - √SS - √V. √V - √SS - √SS - √V. √O - √L - √LCN - √gost - √LCN. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Actually, I seem to be using "SS" for a "bout" of side-to-side turning Not just for one motion to each side [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Aerial LCN with "rattle undertone" might be transcribed as "tarararup." [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The bipartite nature of the L.C. might be significant in connection with the "L.C. homologues" of [[underline]] inca [[/underline]]; except that so far I don't see any correspondence between the various parts in circumstances or presumed motivation [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] A more rapid aerial LCN with "rattle" could be transcribed as "tarrrrup". [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Certainly, many of the birds uttering LCN's with "rattle" appear to be fully adult in external appearance. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Although many of the "plain" V's appear to be slightly on the aux. side; I don't think I have seen anything like a real aux. V, i.e. bill pointed upward. [[margin]] [[image - filled triangle]] [[/margin]] (Toward flying birds. √O - √L. √O - √L. √LCN. √LCN. √O - √L √LCN - √LCN - √LCN - √LCN √LCN - √LCN √LCN. √LCN. √O - √L - √HF. √O - √L.
[[circle]] 128 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, VIII. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] It is becoming fairly obvious that the L.C. performance is relatively much commoner during M.C.'s between mates than during the low intensity disputes I have been counting [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Peculiar orientation of L.C. [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]], apparently mated. Both O. But, at the end of O, the female turned away from the male, to look over her shoulder toward him [[image - two diagrams showing male and female looking directions separated by a horizontal dashed line]]. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Good view of [[male symbol]] feeding [[female symbol]] performance [[female symbol]] T from H repeatedly. [[male symbol]] stands in M; silent M - M note - silent M - PAG - silent M - PAG - silent M - M note - silent M - M note as [[female symbol]] continues. [[male symbol]] suddenly regurges, [[female symbol]] rushes up & eats food. [[male symbol]] immediately V - T - V - T - V. [[female symbol]] just V - HF - V - HF - V. Then [[male symbol]] continues T-ing steadily; but his posture becomes more & more like H. [[female symbol]] continues T-ing too; but she tends to keep in V between T's. [[male symbol]] does one PAG, several violent, rapid, and "nervous" preening movements interspersed with his T's. [[female symbol]] does one preen. Then both begin to preen in normal fashion & relax. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Noticed that back of [[male symbol]]'s head was thrown back right onto his shoulders when T'ing from V. But bill not pointed back very far. Hardly more than vertical - if that. Explains bevel in neck. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] M note can be transcribed as long-drawn, soft "Uhhhhh" or "Waaaooh" [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Now that I mention it, the M note and the second part of the L.C. are very similar; but the latter is louder, more "wailing "___" waahaaaauh" with a tendency to [[image - thick curved line thinning out, then broken into four little lines at the end]] [[margin]] * comm. area End 5:00 Begin 5:30 [[/margin]] √V.√V.√V.√V-√M. √V-√LCN. √O-√LCN in O posture √O-√LCN in O posture. √Gost-√Gost-√Gost. √V-√LCN-√V √V-√SS-√SS-√V-√Gost-√V.√V.√LCN. M & √M note -√Gost-√M & M note - M & √M note -√Gost-√Gost-√Gost-√Gost-. √O. √O-L. √V.√V. √V-√SS. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Peculiar L.C. performance. Plain O as usual; then an extra "woaahaaauh" note as neck was slightly lowered. This lowering was itself peculiar - as the back of the head went down first, rather giving the impression of an
[[circle]] 129 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, IX [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] semi-inverted arch as in F. But the lowering was relatively slight [[image - profile of bird with open beak]] at end of this peculiar lowering. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Have been watching one adult bird, in definitely incomplete nuptial plumage. Twice did normal L.C., O alone, followed immediately by two notes, relatively brief "wah" sounds (quite unlike brief notes of first part of L.C.). First of three "additional" notes in pure O, second in almost pure O - but neck a little shorter, back of head slightly lowered, i.e. perhaps a trace of T. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] In connection with the generally very stereotyped nature of the L.C. call itself, I should add that I have never heard either the first or second part alone. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] That same bird in incomplete nuptial plumage is back. Again has given several L.C.'s with 2 additional notes. Exactly same posture as before. [[underline]] This is definitely an individual peculiarity [[/underline]] Is it connected with incomplete plumage? [[margin]] * Comm. area. [[/margin]] √Gost - √M - √V - √O - √V - √HF - √V - √LCN √V. √V. √O - √L - T - √V - [[underline]] √M before attack - √V & √HF after attack [[/underline]] - √V - [[underline]] √M before attack - √V & √HF after attack [[/underline]] - √LCN. [[underline]] √V before attack - √V after attack. √V after escape.[[/underline]] [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Part of my counts of low-intensity hostility have been made on the sherries, part on an absolutely flat field, base of vegetation, by water. There is at least one great difference in the hostility shown on these 2 sites. Attacks were relatively common in the field, relatively uncommon on the sherries. Is this due to the very rough & uneven surface of sherries? [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] [[female symbol]] FB from H. The T notes can be transcribed as "Wuh" "Wuh" .... [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]]It is my definite impression that the T notes sometimes occurring after L.C.'s are sometimes more like brief versions of second part of L.C. than are other (i.e. begging) notes. But this is probably only occasional. [[margin]] [[image - triangle with red mark above]] [[/margin]] √[[male symbol]] V. [[female symbol]] √V - √gost.
[[circle]] 130 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Nov. 25, 1955, X. Apparently another case of a bird giving complete L.C. in air from an unritualized (really, I suppose, slightly ritualized) neck - stretched - forward posture It is actually not infrequent for a flying bird to give 2-3-4 LCN's before it lands. But the majority of birds are silent. And these notes are not usually given during the actual landing itself. So this still isn't a Landing Call From the accompanying postures, and the decline of the sound toward the end of the L.C., one might assume that the first part of the L.C. is higher intensity than the last part. Is this true?? Or is there just a difference in relative aggressiveness?? Is it safe to assume that O is higher intensity than L? Certainly the O postures during L.C.'s are far more extreme & exaggerated than the L's in the same circumstances - on the average - but could this conceivably be due to the fact that L is on a higher intensity-level and never appears in a high intensity form in such circumstances (like low intensity Ch during communal area and other brief disputes)?? The usual T and M sounds ("uh" or "wuh" and "ooah") are not dissimilar in quality. T note sounds almost like brief M. [[underline]] This means that the T note of this species is relatively more muffled [[/underline]] than the corresponding notes of other species I have studied Leaving 6:50 Time spent watching comm. area on sherries: 9:40-10:10, 3:50-5:00, 5:50-6:50 Time spent watching comm. area on field: 10:40-12:20 Went back at night (after 10:00 pm.) to see if birds were still there. None on field. At least reveal hundreds on sherries (probably others on rocks in distance - could hear occasional calls far off) Thus I don't know if there birds have occupied a colony or not.
[[circle]] 131 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] November 26, 1955, Antofogasta Bay. Arrive 6:10 a.m. [[image - male symbol above rectangle]] On ground end 8:00 V - HF - V - T - T - V - Gost - V - Gost - V - T - V. LCN - LCN - LCN. O - L - U. O - L - HF - V. LCN - M Agg V - V - LCN - V. O - L - HF. V - SS - V - M - Gost. V - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN. O - L - HF - LCN - Gost - LCN T - M. M - V&HF - V. H - T - V&HF - M. O - LCN - LCN - O - HF - T - T - M - V - M note from V - V - M note from V - V - M note from V - V. [[image - rectangle above female symbol]] on ground end 8:00 V - HF - V - T - T - V - T - V - T - V - T - pr - V - T - V - pr - V - T - V. V. M - V - HF - V. V. LCN. M - V - HF - V. O - HF - V - M - V. M - HF - V - HF - V - SS - SS - SS - V - M - V&HF. V - SS - V. T - LCN - LCN - LCN O - L - HF - LCN - T - LCN - Gost. T - T - V - T - V - T - T - V - pr. V. * comm. area sherries end 8:00 O - L LCN - LCN. [[underline]] V after attack [[/underline]] V. V - LCN - LCN - LCN - V - Gost - V. LCN. V. V. V. V. V. LCN. LCN. O - L. O - L. Agg.V - V V - SS - Gost - Gost. V - LCN. LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN. V - HF - [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] O - V gost. Gost. LCN. Copulation much as before, but this time [[image - male symbol]] uttered [[underline]] loud [[/underline]] "Kah kah kah hah...." whenever [[image - female symbol]] moved. (These notes were rapid; but by no means as fast at the Glik or Cop Call of Franklin's Gull, for instance. Probably best considered forms of LCN. Bill wide open during notes themselves; I think tended to close between notes.) [[image - triangle with red mark above]] [[image - male symbol]] does M - V - SS - V. [[image - female symbol]] flies away, in apparent escape. I am not including pre-cop or post-cop displays in my counts of [[image - male symbol]] and [[image - female symbol]] behavior; but I am including those displays associated with regurge Almost no doubt, I think, that many of the LCN's during communal area disputes are "long distance" patterns, while all, or at least most, of the V's are relatively short distance. [[image - triangle]] LCN LCN - M. M - O - L. 20 LCN's. LCN. LCN. I have seen quite a number of birds, just standing and giving repeated LCN's. From the usual postures; i.e. brief diag O, or, less frequently, semi-V LCN posture. Occas. from M. These are sometimes, I think, [[image - male symbol]]'s calling their females. If so, then the LCN is more that a purely hostile pattern. It may still be something of a "general frustration" (i.e. sexual thwarting)
[[circle]] 132 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 26, 1955, II reaction (Must check on this). * comm area sherries [[underline]] V&HF after attack [[/underline]] LCN - LCN - LCN. Ending 8:00 a m. Outside of bill, eye, eye-ring, & feet appear to be perfectly black, even at short distances. White eyebrows still noticeable in even whitest hoods. Either I'm getting more cautious-- or else this species is even more careless about orientating its hostile displays (particularly LCN's - but also L.C. performances & V's) than most gulls. There are an awful lot of them which leave me baffled; having no idea what provoked them or to whom they are addressed. [[image - triangle with red mark]] [[image - male symbol]] does M - LCN - M - LCN - M - LCN - M. [[image - female symbol]] flies off in escape. Watching another bird, adult in incomplete nuptial dress, standing on isolated rock, (no other birds on ground really), giving repeated LCN's from usual posture (one from a semi-M) apparently directed toward flying birds. Gave 21 of these; then eventually flew up, circled, and flew off to land about a 1/4 mile away. Gave constant LCN's in flight Both the LCN's on ground and in air had a "rattle undertone". This couldn't possibly be connected with pairing could it ??? The behavior of this bird looked rather like an "invitation". Noticeable how few attacks there are by males on females - at least at this stage I think they do occasionally occur, however. Head & neck are inclined just slightly downward during some aerial LCNS [[image - gull head and neck]] Bill looks very long. Mouth opened very widely. There may be something like "pointing the bill toward the partner". It has just struck me that I have seen mates turn to look at one another, usually in V, sometimes stretching the neck forward a little so as to move the head slightly nearer the partner, quite frequently. Probably not associated with any particularly intense forms of hostility or sexuality. unsuccessful [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] both V&HF Have just been listening to one male's T notes & M notes. Very reminiscent of Franklin's Gull.
[[circle]] 133 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 26, 1955, III. One Cop Call, at least, noticeably slower in rhythm than choking Have seen [[image - male symbol]] is imcomplete nuptial plumage give repeated M notes from a "V" posture. Becomes rather more curved during the emission of the note itself. [[image - gull head and neck]] Rather long thin neck - as in almost all, or all, the "erect" displays *comm. area, field. [[circle]] 9:55 [[/circle]] G G [[underline]] V during retreat. V after attack [[/underline]] M - T [[underline]] V&HF after attack. [[/underline]] LCN - LCN - [[underline]] LCN before attack - V&SS after attack V&G before attack - V after attack - V&G before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. V. [[underline]] V&G before attack - V after attack V before attack - V after attack - V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V [[underline]] - LCN before attack. [[image - three triangles with red mark above]] [[image - male symbol]] Ch; [[image - female symbol]] V&HF. [[image - male symbol]] T - T - T - T from H; [[image - female symbol]] V. [[image - male symbol]] V&HF; [[image - female symbol]] V. [[image - rectangle with male symbol]] 9:55 T - T - T - T. G - V&HF V - T - M - M&M note. M&M note &SS. M - V&HF - M - V&HF T - T - T - T - H - T - H - T - T - T - T - T - T - H - T - H - T - H - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T [[image - rectangle with female symbol]] 9:55 LCN V - HF - V - T - T - V - T - T - V. V. V. V. M - V&HF - M - V&HF. V&HF - V - SS - V&HF - V - V - V&HF V - V - pr - V - escape - V&HF - escape - V - redirection attacks on neighbors. V. V&HF - M - V&HF - V - pr *comm. area field [[underline]] V after attack V after attack [[/underline]] V&HF [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack V before attack - V after attack V during retreat V before attack - V after attack - Bird in V attacked - V after being attacked [[/underline]] V. V. V. [[underline]] V&SS after attack. [[/underline]] Interesting case of pairing behavior [[image - male symbol]] runs to [[image - female symbol]], in G, after O-L. Then both go through "V complex", mostly just plain V's, then lots of T's intermingled with the V's. Then [[image - male symbol]] down into M&M note. Two interesting things about this. One: [[underline]] [[image - male symbol]] made repeated redirection attacks on nearby birds [[/underline]], after he had joined the [[image - female symbol]], interspersed with his V's & T's. Two: [[image - female symbol]] regurged briefly once while [[image - male symbol]] was off attacking neighbors; swallowed food back immediately.
[[circle]] 135 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 26, 1955, V. Another complete L.C by flying bird. Flying near me; and I may have been the stimulus. Again just with neck stretched forward; (stretched quite a bit in this case [[image - rectangle with male symbol]] M - V&HF. M&HF - O - HF T - H - T - T. M - T - V&HF - T AggV&HF - V - AggV&HF - V. V&SS - V. V Gost - V - Gost - V&HF. T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - redirection attack on neighbor. O - V - pointing bill to [[image - female symbol]] - LCN - V V - SS - pr. [[image - rectangle with female symbol]] M - M&M note - O - M - V&HF V. O - HF - V - SS - V. M V - T - V - T V - HF - V LCN - LCN - M - V&SS - escape - V. V. V. T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T. O - V - escape - V - escape. O - V - SS - SS - V - pr. Have just seen [[image - female symbol]] land some distance from [[image - male symbol]] , give M&M note, at which her mate came running to her in M. [[image - three triangles with red marks above]] [[image - male symbol]] V; [[image - female symbol]] V&HF - V&SS - O - V. [[image - male symbol]] M - T - T; [[image - female symbol]] T - T - T - T. [[image - male symbol]] V&SS; [[image - female symbol]] V&HF. Bird giving aerial L.C. as it comes in - neck very stretched, [[underline]] gliding very fast [[/underline]]. This was a quite conspicuous performance. * Comm. area field. [[underline]] AggV before attack - AggV after attack Agg V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. V. [[underline]] AggV before attack - AggV&HF after attack [[/underline]] V. V. LCN. The notes uttered by flying birds before landing are always "rattle" type. Also the overwhelming proportion of notes by birds just flying around in a more or less calm manner. I think, therefore, that the "pure" notes, without "rattle", must be relatively higher intensity - if nothing else. * Comm. area field V - AggV. [[underline]] AggV&G before attack - V&HF after attack. V - HF after attack [[/underline]]. V. V - M. Agg V. Almost all birds asleep by 10:30 - 11:00 Have seen several cases of attempted rape. Don't know if by mate or not. [[image - two triangles with red marks above]] [[image - male symbol]] V; [[image - female symbol]] V - SS - V [[image - male symbol]] Gost; [[image - female symbol]] V - SS - V - SS - V Have seen a lot of copulations [[underline]] not preceded by [[image - male symbol]] feeding [[image - female symbol]]. Just mutual T; the more highly motivated partner doing the most T's T's from V, H, & M; or any intermediate postures. A strong tendency for the more highly motivated partner to walk round & round the other. The [[image - male symbol]], at least, may utter M notes
[[blue ink]] [[circle]] 136 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 26, 1955, VI without any sign of actual regurgitation. Have again seen [[image - male symbol]]'s mount straight from H; (this may be the usual procedure after all!). Better add another full category to my general classification of calls in gulls as a group. Add "fragmented" to "single note" "low intensity rhythm of repeated notes" and "high intensity rhythm of repeated notesn" "Fragmented" will take care of the Alarm Calls, etc.). [[left margin]] [[one vertical line and vertical crosshatch mark]] [[/left margin]] Heard flying bird give "rattle" LCN; then, without any perceptible break, give a rather long-drawn "Wah" note, rather reminiscent of M note. (May have been calling mate; this bird landed shortly and went straight into M). One copulation included 9 separate contacts of the cloacas!! This was also the first copulation in which I noticed the [[image - male symbol]] pecking down at the [[image - female symbol]] when she became restless. The HF movement is really more complex than a simple sideways peck. Often includes a downward pointing of the beak as the flagging movement occurs [[image - curved line]]. This is very rapid; and the bill has come back to its previous (usually horizontal) position by the time the flagging movement is completed I think that a similar downward swing was also characteristic of the HF of [[underlined]]inca[[/underlined]], (and possibly also of [[underlined]] belcheri [[/underlined]]). May be characteristic of many forms [[left margin]] [[blank]] [[/left margin]] Leaving 1:10 pm. [[pencil]] Back 5:20. Birds all on field; and I can't get there because of high tide [[left margin]] [[image-black triangle]] [[/left margin]] [[image-check mark above each letter or set of letters in paragraph]] LCN.LCN.LCN.LCN LCN. O-L-T O-L. LCN. Have seen one extreme L, after O, in which the bill was inclined slightly upward; Thus producing all approximation of an F. But this is the only case seen so far; and the posture still was much less extreme than the "F" of fuliginosus. [[left margin blank]] Found a way to field 5:50. [[left margin]] * comm. area field [[/left margin]] [[image-check mark above each set of letters/words]] LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN [[underline]] AggV before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] LCN-LCN-LCN. V. [[underline]] Agg V before attack-V after attack V after attack. M before attack-V after attack V during retreat. [[/underline]] V. [[underline]] V before attack-V&SS after attack [[/underline]]
[[circle]] 137 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 26, 1955, VII [[image - rectangular box above male symbol]] 5:25 - 7:25 T - T T. T. V - T. M. LCN - LCN - V - T - pr. V - LCN - LCN - M - [[underline]] redirection attack on neighbors [[/underline]]. M. V V + HF - V - T - V. M - M - T - T. End 7:25. [[image - rectangular box above female symbol]]5:25 - 7:25 Gost. T - T. V. Aux V - SS - SS - [[underline]] escape [[/underline]] - Aux V V - LCN - T T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T. V. M - V + HF - V - T - V. M - V + HF - V - T - V - pr. LCN - O - L - M. End 7:25. [[image - three triangles with red mark above each one]] [[image - male symbol]] V + HF; [[image - female symbol]] V. [[image - male symbol]] V + HF; [[image - female symbol]] V + HF [[image - male symbol]] V + HF, [[image - female symbol]] V + HF - Agg V. Again several examples of [[image - male symbol]] mounting from H, after he had done may T's from M, and run around the [[image - female symbol]] several times in M, with or without T's as he ran. One example of a [[image - male symbol]] giving several T's after mounting; before beginning copulation. Watching preliminaries to copulation in one pair. [[image - female symbol]] stood in semi-V, doing extreme T's, but not very frequently. [[image - male symbol]] running around her in M + H, doing many less extreme T's. Then just passed back + forth behind [[image - female symbol]], just coming up level with her on each side, i.e. [[image - semicircle with arrow]], still in M + H, still T'ing furiously. Sometimes, when he drew up toward the front of the [[image - female symbol]], [[underline]] there would be some brief mutual billing [[/underline]], ie birds would nibble at one another's bills, in semi-V or V posture without T. (This is probably a development of the usual FB of gulls; but it looked rather unlike any I have seen before). A few additional points also noted during this incident. 1. When one partner runs around the other, the running bird is almost always in M or H (and I have seen this in lots of other pairs also), and these M's and H's intergrade constantly - you could not really draw a line between the 2 patterns if they only occurred in such circumstances. 2. Again impressed with the fact that there are two morphological types of T. One from H and M, bill and front part of head being varied only slightly [[image - bird]] a second from V, in which the back of the head is thrown backward on to the shoulders and the bill points toward the vertical [[image - bird with beak pointed up and open]] (This latter is quite extreme, [[underline]] as extreme as the T's of Franklin's + Laughing Gulls - but quite diff-
[[circle]] 138 [[/circle]] modestus, Nov 26, 1955, VIII. [[underline]] physical form [[/underline]] (i.e. the bill is never thrown much past the vertical) There is still a third type of T, in other circumstances, after O during L.C. More like the T from M or H. A relatively slight movement; the bill being thrown upward, and the back of the head going down & [[underline]] forward [[/underline]], not backward. The bill seldom reaches the vertical, and almost never passes beyond it. (The T's from L incidentally are just like the T's from other M postures). Another complete aerial L.C. & glide by bird flying above me. (Is aerial L.C. a reaction toward a "potential predator? I have seen only two patterns that look as if they might be possibly connected with actual pair-formation. One is the solitary birds giving LCN's toward flying birds. The other has only been seen in this field. Occasionally noted bird running rapidly through the group, in M, will go into V and HF with several birds it passes. Have never been able to follow these birds further, however - they usually fly away Nice conclusive case! [[image - male symbol]] standing alone. Does LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-O-1/2L-LCN. (Some of these LCN's may have been slightly "softer" than usual, i.e. transitional to M note). Then flies up, flies 300 yds away, lands in new place. Here does M note in LCN posture - M note in LCN posture - M note in LCN posture. At this stage, his [[image - female symbol]] comes running to him in M; and they both perform mutual V&HF, then begin mutual T-ing. [[underline]] This is good example of LCN, O, and M note in LCN posture apparently due to thwarted sex drive [[/underline]]. Another equally convincing case of the same sort. [[image - male symbol]] lands alone. Does LCN-LCN in M-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN. Flies up and lands in another spot several hundred yards away. Does M+M-note-LCN-LCN-O-L-M. Then his [[image - female symbol]] runs up to him in M. Mutual display, preen, relax. Complete aerial LCN & glide by bird coming into land rather far from me. (There may well be a general tendency for a glide to accompany aerial L.C.; but it probably isn't ritualized. Not only do some aerial L.C's occur without it; but all the cases I have seen have been by birds flying fairly low
[[circle]] 139 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]]. Nov 26, 1955, IX. over the ground, and it may be purely a matter of aerodynamics). All the aerial L C's so far seen have been accompanied by the same slight-moderate forward stretching of the head & neck, horizontal head. Terrific Silent Panic 7:05 Don't know why. [[underlined]] Very few erratic flight patterns in this panic [[/underlined]]. Panic starts to break up a dozen times; birds circle back over field; then off again in another panic even before they start to land. This goes on for at least 15 minutes. Finally, by 7:25, several hundred of them have landed in a flock on water, where they seem to be relaxing, and a few have landed on the rocks and are relaxing too. Hundreds of other birds, however, form flocks in air, circle very high in air, and then start to drift northwestward, with [[many?]] interspersed periods of circling and at least one Silent Panic very high in air. [[underlined]] Then birds are presumably going to a colony [[/underlined]] It was very noticeable that each tune the Silent Panic started to break up there was a terrific burst of LCN's (rattle undertone) by the birds I have also heard the same notes after many other panics One bird, flying rather high, far away from me, gave a complete aerial L.C. during one of the periods of semi-relaxation The usual posture - with beating wings One bird flew up when the others first panicked; but, before joining the others in their escape, flew about thirty yards, very fast, with deep wing-beats, did moderately shallow swoop, with beating wings, [[image - small sketch of bird swooping]], and then soared upward with motionless wings. This bird uttered four or five, rather long-drawn, plaintive, "Wah" or "Waaaaaah" notes, during the accelerated horizontal flight and the subsequent swoop. In other words, [[underlined]] this pattern was just like the swoop & PCC [[image - arrow pointing right]] soar pattern of the Ring-belted gull![[/underlined]]!! Time spent watching comm. area on Sherries: 6:20-8:00 " " " " " " " " " in field: 9:55-1:10; 5:25-7:25.
[[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] [[circle]] 140 [[/circle]] November 27, 1955, Antofogasta Bay Arrive field 6:05 a.m. [[side note - comm. area field]] [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] LCN - o - LCN - V. LCN. Gost. V. [[underline]] M between attacks - M+G before attack - M after attack. V + HF after attack V + SS after escape. [[/underline]] LCN. LCN. [[underline]] V +HF after attack V before attack V + HF after attack V. V before attack - V after attack - LCN before attack - V after attack - LCN before attack [[/underline]] [[Side note - Male symbol, end 8:45 begin 10:45]] V - HF - V - pr - V. T. H+T. M - V - M V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - V - pr - V - pr - V - HF - LCN - V+HF - V - pr - V - pr - V - pr - V+HF - M - V+HF - V - T - V - T - V O - V+SS. O - V - pr. O - HF - V - pr - pr - pr. V. O - LCN - LCN - V - HF - pr. M - V . M - V - HF. V - M - V+HF - V. O - V+HF - V V. [[side note - female symbol, end 8:45 begin 10:45]] V - HF - V. V - [[underline]] escape [[/underline]] - V. M - T - T - T - M - T - M - T - T - T - T. V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - V - pr - V - pr - V - HF - V - HF - V - pr - V - pr - V - Gost - V - pr - V + HF - V +HF - V - T - V - T - V - pr - V - pr - V - pr - V - T - V - T - V. O - HF - V + SS. O - L - Gost. V + HF - V - pr - pr - pr. V + HF. V - pr. V. H - T - T - T - T - T - V +HF - V V - LCN - O - V +HF - V - T - V [[underline]] O - L - T - V [[/underline]] LCN - O. LCN. LCN. LCN. LCN. O - HF. O - L - HF. LCN - LCN. LCN. LCN. Noticeable how often both members of a pair will run along in M together, either side by side or one following the other. In some cases this appears to be a form of semi-escape by [[female symbol]], with the [[male symbol]] following her. In other cases, (probably the majority), both birds appear to be slightly aggressive, often redirecting this aggressiveness toward neighbors. [[image - three triangles in a row, each with a red mark above it]] [[male symbol]] V - HF - T - V; [[Female symbol]] V. Both V. Both V. [[side note - 'comm area field']] [[underline]]V after attack [[/underline]] - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN. [[underline]] V + HF after attack [[/underline]] - pr. [[underline]] V + HF after attack [[/underline]] - V - LCN - [[underline]] V before attack - V between attack - V after attack [[/underline]] O. LCN - O. O - L. [[underline]] V before attack - V + SS after attack Agg V after attack - V before attack - V after attack - V before attack - V after attack - V before attack - V after Have just heard 4-syllable Al C which sounds just like some of the Al C's of the "large Larus" gulls There is a most conspicuous "hump" on the shoulders of birds standing or running in M :
[[circle]] 141 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, II. [[image-drawing of bird facing left with beak in downward position; small arrow pointing to hump on back followed by !!]] This hump may be an "indication" of regurge - as it becomes larger, rounder & more swollen before actual regurge; but it often occurs without any other sign of regurge. I think it is quite independent of regurge. * Comm. area, field [[underline]] attack V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] LCN. LCN. [[underline]] V before attack - T after attack V after attack V after attack [[/underline]] V. V - LCN. [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack V before escape [[/underline]] V. V. V. [[underline]] G before attack - V&HF after attack - V&SS after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V - [[underline]] G before attack - V after attack. V - G before attack - V after attack. [[/underline]] [[image - three triangles with red marks above]] Unsuccessful, both V&HF - V. [[image - male symbol]] M - T; [[image - female symbol]] V. [[image - male symbol]] Agg. V.; [[image - female symbol]] V. There is a fairly definite line marking the end of the white hood in the birds with most complete nuptial plumage. The eye looks quite large in these birds. [[image - drawing of bird's head]] Line is quite definite on lower part of cheeks & chin. Much more diffuse & less conspicuous on nape - the feathers of the upper neck are light grey, and tend to fade into the hood. The shape of the head is variable, but it is always rounded. Bird doing high intensity LC's on ground. Beginning each time in semi-O semi-L, then going up into extreme O, then coming down into semi-O semi-L. The initial Semi-O semi-L was once accompanied by LCN (very little "rattle"). This appeared to be one of the highest-intensity L.C. performances I have seen so far. (Might add that I have seen a similar "rising" in some other L.C.'s - bird beginning in extreme O, then going up even further, and leaning backward, before coming down and forward into a slightly less extreme O, or even L. This [[image - arrow pointed to right rising and then falling]] progression may even be the "usual" form). Heard immature bird (brown on secondaries & tertials; but fairly complete hood) give O&L.C. just like that of adults Almost all the immatures I have seen have been obviously mated. Have seen immature [[image - male symbol]] mated with adult [[image - female symbol]]; and immature [[image - female symbol]] with adult [[image - male symbol]].
[[circle]] 142 [[circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, III. * comm area field end 9:15 [[underline]] G before attack - V after attack G before attack - V after attack G before attack - V after attack V before attack - V&SS after attack [[/underline]] O - L [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack - bird in V attacked - V after being attacked [[/underline]] Think I may finally be on to pair-formation or the very earliest stages of pairing. [[image - symbol for male]] on territory near me, mostly on a little knoll, but includes low ground on side. This [[image - symbol for male]] spends some time relaxed & preening; but most of the time in alert posture, near-V, or V. (Head looks relatively large, body small, neck not as long as in some V's) Looking alertly from side to side. Occasional gost. [[underline]] Does LCN's from V [[/underline]], (i.e. neck becomes slightly curved, head moved forward, with the utterance of each note [[image - drawing of bird's head facing right with beak open]]), [[underline]] at most of the birds flying overhead [[/underline]]. Once did O to flying bird. [[underline]] Did complete L.C. with O -> L about six times toward flying birds[[/underline]]. Occasionally would rush off to attack other birds, quite vigorously (by far the most vicious series of attacks I have seen so far). Always returning, sooner or later to his "station" on the knoll. Occasionally flying off on circular flights. Or attack neighbor or intruder and then go off on circular flight. Many LCN's ("rattle tone" during these circular flights) Always returning to almost same spot to receive LCN's This [[image - symbol for male]] was visited by a [[image - symbol for female]] twice. (I don't know whether same [[image - symbol for female]] or not) I didn't see the first approach. The second approach, at least the last stages of it on foot. One greeting by [[image - symbol for male]] was O-V&HF-V. The second was O-L-M&HF-M-M&SS-M-SS-M-SS-M-T-T-M-T-M-T-M-T-T-M, (all the T's were from semi M, semi H posture). All the [[image - symbol for female]] did was V, plus occas. HF, plus many SS's (not very rapid or vicious-appearing - but then, neither were the [[image - symbol for male]]'s), and one T, from V, when the [[image - symbol for male]] was T-ing. The first visit was evoked by the [[image-symbol for male]] attacking the [[image - symbol for female]]; the second by his making a series of redirection attacks on neighbors). [[image - symbol for female]] flew away each time. The second time the [[image - symbol for female]] flew away, she landed about 200 yds away. Here she just stood, giving occasional LCN notes. Then she was joined by
[[circle]] 143 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, IV. another [image - symbol for male], approaching on foot. She did O-semi-L, then just stood in more or less V, with perhaps an occas. HF or SS (these perhaps are too slow to be real "SS"s) [[image - symbol for male]], however, did O-V-T-V-T-V-T-M-T-T-M-M sort of business, (beginning his T's from V, very extreme, and then going down more or less gradually into M, even, perhaps, semi-H. His M's, like those of the first [[image - symbol for male]], were accompanied by much slow - to moderately fast side-to-side head-turning. Then this [[image - symbol for male]] flew away, leaving the [[image - symbol for female]] on the ground, and didn't return during the period I continued watching the area. (This second [[image - symbol for male]] was in very incomplete nuptial plumage; while the first [[image - symbol for male]] was in complete plumage). Meanwhile, the first [[image - symbol for male]] was continuing his behavior as before; but no more visitors. So he apparently decided to do some visiting himself. Flew down a few feet away, then started to walk and run through the neighboorhood [[sic]], passing quite close to a number of pairs, and coming particularly close to the females of these pairs. This running & walking was done in M. Twice, when he seemed to reach a particularly desirable female (2 different [[image - symbol for female]]'s) he went up into O and gave L.C. (perhaps trace of L) and then HF. No response from the [[image - symbol for female]]'s. The male went on two such "fishing" trips; but each was ended by attacks from annoyed neighbors and/or outraged husbands - so the [[image - symbol for male]] went back to his little knoll. [[image - symbol for male]] gone 9:15 I am going for breakfast. Back 10:45. Can add a few notes about the above incident [[image - symbol for male]] sometimes gave LCN from a semi-M posture rather than the usual one. I think one can deduce the faint outline of a "usual" Greeting Ceremony at its most complete in [[image - symbol for male]] it might be O-(L)-(V+HF)-M + side to side head-turning - T-ing from M (thus the T'ing would seem to appear at an unusually early stage in this species). In the [[image - symbol for female]] it might be O-(L)-(HF)-(V+HF and/or SS). This must be checked if possible. The G's before attack I have seen are not very ritualized - but bill is definitely opened long before the delivery of the actual blow. [[underline]] These G's often look like silent LCN's [[/underline]], often accompanied by pre-attack postures or Agg. V.
[[circle]] 144 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, V. The sound of the "rattle tone" LCN, without the "rattle tone", could be transcribed as "heeyar". The apparently unmated [[image - symbol for male]] I watched earlier this morning was back on his knoll temporarily. Giving LCN's toward flying birds. (Checked on these. They [[underline]] do [[/underline]] seem to be "hostile" patterns definitely directed [[underline]] toward [[/underline]] flying birds - rather than expressions of frustrated sexuality). One bird landed about 2ft away. [[image - symbol for male]] (let us call him A) did O, then V, then attacked newcomer who had just stayed in V. Perhaps A already has an attachment of some sort. He suddenly woke up from a daze. Went into M, ran to a bird about 15ft away, did V&HF, M, M&HF, M, M note, M&HF, M etc. The other bird just looked at him blankly from V. Then A flew off on a circular flight. This didn't look as if he were having too much success * comm. area field 10:45 [[circle]] 10:45 [[circle]] V. [[underline]] V during escape V during escape [[/underline]] V - [[underline]] G before attack - V after attack - bird in V attacked - V after being attacked - V after attack - V after being attacked. V - G before attack Gost after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. [[underline]] V before attack - V&SS after attack [[/underline]] - pr M is very common by one or both birds of pair during short rushes at neighbors which appear to be low-intensity or "muffled" forms of redirected hostility provoked by [[mutual?]] pairing behavior Bird, apparently A, lands beside another some distance from his territory. Does a couple of LCN's before landing, changes to M notes before he lands, then does M + M note immediately upon landing, then M+HF-M-M+HF-M-M+HF-M, etc. Other bird just looks about and runs away. Even though A may be semi-territorial, i.e. defending a territory from time to time, he is also gone from his territory from time to time, and I imagine that he is usually displaying in some other part of the area during these away periods. (I know he is in some cases) The early pairing behavior I have seen so far, is remarkable for its variety Confirms a certain impression of "fluidity" in behavior already conveyed by variations in the L.C. performance. This species appears to have quite a remarkable range of innate patterns upon which it can call in situations which are apparently similar. The species appears to be more "fluid" than other gulls I have studied.
[[circle]] 145 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Nov. 27, 1955, VI. Another complete L.c. by bird gliding near me. Aerial LCN can certainly be given by birds either gliding or beating wings Doesn't appear to affect the method of flight at all Actually, the complete aerial L.C. is not too infrequent. Probably more frequent than in the Herring gull - in comparable circumstances. [[underlined]] O-T [[/underlined]] -V-T-V-pr-V-T-V-pr O-HF-V-HF-V-T-[[gost?]].T-T-T T. O-pointing [[image - male symbol off to the side with black box above]] bill toward partner-V-T-T-T-T-T-T-T-T-V-[[underlined]] O-T [[/underlined]] -HF-T-V. M-T-T-T-T [[image - female symbol with black rectangle and asterisk-like symbol left to it and the words comm. area. field written below]] V.V.V. V-HF-V-pointing bill toward partner - V V. M. O-L-V. V-pr. [[underlined]] Agg V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] Agg V after attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Agg V before attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] [[underlined]] V during retreat. [[/underlined]] O-L-HF V. V. V. V [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] M-O. There are a few birds in completely immature plumage, (i.e. juvenile), in the group; but they are scarce and apparently completely inactive. [[image - male symbol with two triangles with red vertical lines above them further left]] M-T-T-T-T-T-M, [[image - female symbol]] nothing [[image - male symbol]] V-HF-V-T-V; [[image - female symbol]] V-HF-V One bird landed beside another, not its mate, did O-L with huge mass of food in its bill and then ran off & swallowed the food!! [[image - drawing of back view of a bird]] Back view of extreme V Wing-tips not crossed, [[underlined]] literally touching ground [[/underlined]], (this is rare, perhaps very rare). Tail invisible Looked far too symmetrical to be true Leaving 12:40 Everything has been asleep for hours Back 3:15 [[image - female symbol with black rectangle above it]] O-HF-V-[[gost?]]-V-O-HF-V M-HF-V-HF-SS-V-[[gost?]]-V. V-HF-HF-V. M & M note -M-M & M note - V-HF-V-pr. V-[[gost?]]-[[gost?]]. V-HF-O-HF-V-SS-Agg V-V-pr-V M-V-HF-V-T-T-V. Ch. - [[underlined]] Escape [[/underlined]] V-HF-V. [[image - male symbol with two triangles with red vertical lines above them further left]] V-HF-V-T-V, [[image - female symbol]] V. Unsuccessful; [[image - male symbol]] V-HF-V, [[image - female symbol]] V
[[circle]] 146 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Nov. 27, 1955, VII. Might stress one pattern included in an earlier count of [[male symbol]] behavior [[male symbol]] did O, parallel but with partner, [[underlined]] then pointed bill toward partner at end of O [[/underlined]] - just where I would expect HF Note about orientation of the LC performance toward partner. Two main types, face to face, and side by side facing in the same direction, with all sorts of intermediates. HF, of course, only occurs when birds are more or less side by side; but I think that T after O and L can occur with any sort of orientation. About the orientation of other hostile + sexual displays - I think that their orientation is perfectly "conventional", ie like the corresponding patterns of most other gulls, unless noted otherwise above. In spite of any earlier impression, at first glance, that the condition of the U in this species (ie. "unsplit") might be "primitive", i.e. [[very?]] little ritualized; I now believe that it must be thoroughly + highly ritualized. Otherwise one would expect a great many more of the Agg variety. [[image - male symbol]] M - HF - M - Gost O - L - HF O - L - HF - M - HF - U - SS - U - pr - U. O - L - pointing bill toward [[image - female symbol]] - M - T - M - V - HF - HF - U. O - HF - V - pr. O - M - V - pr - LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - M - V. ALC, as might be be expected, is usually given in the air, but occasionally on the ground Can confirm what I said earlier about the actual syllables themselves sounding like large Larus - this is certainly the usual condition Occasionally they sound a little more like Hydrocoloeus; but never so much as the ALC syllables of [[underlined]] belcheri [[/underlined]]. There have been several major Silent Pauses already this afternoon. One, a very long & repeated one, was apparently set off by 2 [[Whimbird?]] flying past very fast. [[image - asterisk-like sketch with words comm. area field written next to it]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] bird in O attacked [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after escape [[/underlined]] LCN. LCN. V. LCN. [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attck [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] bird in LCN attacked [[/underlined]] V-[[underlined]] G before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] V.V.V-LCN. V-[[underlined]] G before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] [[image - filled in triangle]] LCN-LCN-LCN. LCN. LCN. LCN. LCN. O. O. [[image - male symbol]] making repeated M notes during copulation. Bill opened slightly with each note. (This is good supporting evidence for my classification of calls. The M in this species is a muffled low-intensity rhythm sound, the low intensity form of both "Ch Call" & "Cop Call", which are muffled high intensity rhythm sounds
[[circle]] 147 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus[[/underline]] Nov. 27, 1955, VIII. Have seen one case of apparent attempted rape in which the assaulter was definitely the [[image - female symbol]]'s mate * Comm. area, field [[underline]] M before attack - M after attack - M before attack - M after attack O before attack V-G before attack - V after attack - V-HF after attack V-G before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] - pr. M&M note. [[underline]] M during attack - V after attack [[/underline]] - HF - V The more aggressive M's, those connected with actual attack, particularly on strangers, are not as low as the more "sexual" M's. Horizontal rather than bill to ground [[image - side view of gull with head dipped level with its body]] [[image - rectangle with male symbol]] M-T-O-HF-V-HF-T-AggV-V-T-T-T-AggV-V-T-T-T-V-pr-pr-V M-V-HF-M-T-T-T-T-T-M-T-T-T-T M. M-HF-V-T-M-H-V-HF-V-T- V - [[underline]] redirection attack [[/underline]] - M. Extreme T from H [[image of bird with head raised, bill pointing up]] Relatively very rare. One can almost always tell when a copulation attempt is going to take place - long before the event. An attempt almost always takes place when one or both partners gives a really long burst of T's, and this is almost the only circumstance in which such long bursts occur. [[image - male symbol]] V-Gost-V [[image - female symbol]] Aux. V -V-redirected G - [[underline]] redirected attack[[/underline]] !! [[image - female symbol]] displayed to one [[image - male symbol]]. She did O-M business, then V & HF, circled around [[image - male symbol]] in M, etc. [[image - male symbol]] did little beyond V & HF Then another [[image - female symbol]] some distance away did O business, [[image - male symbol]] rushed to her, in M, mutual V-HF, [[image - male symbol]] immediately attempted to copulate, [[image - female symbol]] [[reverted?]], [[image - male symbol]] off, birds stand together in V. [[underline]] This was apparently a case of an unmated [[image - female symbol]] soliciting a mated or slightly mated [[image - male symbol]] [[/underline]]. [[/underline]] [[image right lower corner of gull head and neck in profile]] The V's given by [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] during pairing are rather short-necked Head appears large because the back of the head is slightly "swollen", i.e. feathers must be raised
[[circle]] 148 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, IX. [[image - rectangle with male symbol]] [[underline]] O - L - T - HF - V - attacks [[image - female symbol]]. O - L - T - HF [[/underline]] V - SS - V. V. V. V - HF - V - [[underline]] redirection attack [[/underline]] V - [[underline]] attack [[image - female symbol]] [[/underline]] V gost. V - M&HF - V - gost [[underline]] O - L - T [[/underline]] - V - M - V - HF - V. O V. V. V. [[image - rectangle with female symbol]] O. V - SS - V V. V. V - HF - V V. gost. V. V - HF - V [[underline]] O - L - T [[/underline]] [[image - male symbol]] alone, doing LCN's at flying birds. Then O as [[image - female symbol]] lands beside him. [[image - female symbol]] in M, stands beside [[image - male symbol]] a few seconds, while he does M&HF. Then the [[image - female symbol]] runs to another [[image - male symbol]], who is obviously her mate, and has lengthy display with him! There is no doubt that M has "taken the place" of H, to a very large extent in this species; and it also occurs much more extremely than the H of any gull I know. O is accompanied by a sudden raising of the carpal joints - away from the body. Drop back to their usual display position, (i.e. just visible), as soon as call stops & O drops. This is the only display pattern in which I have seen such raising. [[image - 4 triangles with red vertical line above each]] [[image - male symbol]] V&HF; [[image - female symbol]] V&SS. [[image - male symbol]] V; [[image - female symbol]] V-HF-pr. [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] both V Both V&HF. Notice [[image - male symbol]] in V with [[image - female symbol]], with eye half shut * comm. area, field [[underline]] Ch after being attacked [[/underline]] The bird that did Ch after being attacked, sat down (i.e. squat) to do so. [[image-drawing of bird facing left with beak pointed directly down]] Have noticed several other copulations with M notes, as well as several with Ch notes, or even loud "Wah" notes in Ch rhythm which may have been intermediate between real Ch and LCN's. One adult [[image - male symbol]], incomplete nuptial plumage, displays with a [[image - female symbol]], complete display (including O complex, V complex, and M's). Then another [[image - male symbol]] comes up, V-HF-V toward [[image-female symbol]] Then second [[image - male symbol]] goes about 25 yds away, goes through complete display with another [[image - female symbol]] I.E. the pair bonds are certainly far from strong yet in all cases I think that, although T'ing seems to appear comparatively early in the pairing process in this species, it rarely occurs during these brief "soliciting" or "inviting" encounters between birds that have already formed pair-bonds with others
[[circle]] 149 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 27, 1955, X. Birds on ground do LCN toward me, i.e. a potential predator. Apparent exception to the preceding statement or an actual case of pair-formation [[male symbol]] runs through colony, in M, giving repeated LCN's. Stops and does O-L-HF&T (these last two almost simultaneously) [[underline]] beside two different birds. [[/underline]] In addition, two other birds he passed did O to him - which may well have been imitations for all I know. You know - there is surprisingly little purely hostile display by birds on ground toward birds in air. I wouldn't be surprised if the overwhelming majority of these displays I have counted were "imitations". Major panic 6:30, set off by dogs. Looks as if birds are leaving for the night. Leaving myself. Several long-drawn "waaaah" notes by birds flying over me during a period of relavation in the panic. I think these must have been PCC notes; but they were not accompanied by particular movements or postures - just flight with ordinary wing beats. Time spent watching comm. area in field: 6:05 - 8:45, 10:45 - 12:40, 3:15 - 6:30 November 28, 1955, Antofogasta Bay. [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] Arrive 6:10 a.m., field √M-√V-√HF-√V √M-√O-√L-√HF-√V √M-√O-√L-√HF-√V-√M-√V&√HF-√V-√pr-√pr. √V √M-√V [[margin]] [[male symbol]] [[/margin]] √LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√M-√M&√HF-√M-√M&√HF √LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√M&√HF-√V-√LCN-√V&√HF √LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√LCN-√M-√V-√LCN-√V √M-√V-[[underline]]√pointing bill to partner-√HF [[/underline]] √V-√L-√HF-√M √M-√V-√HF-√V √M-√O-√HF-√V √V-√HF-√V-[[underline]] √escape [[/underline]] √V-√O-√HF-√V √V&√SS √O-√L-√HF-√M- [[margin]] [[female symbol]] [[/margin]] √V.√V. √O-√HF-√V √O-√L-√HF-√V-√M √M-√V&√HF [[margin]] [[image-2 small triangles]] [[/margin]] [[female symbol]] √V; [[male symbol]] √V&√SS [[male symbol]] √U&√HF; [[female symbol]] [[underline]] √redirection attack on neighbor, [[/underline]] √V-√pr [[male symbol]] in incomplete nuptial plumage, does M-O-L-HF-U toward one [[female symbol]], who does U-HF-U back and then retreats precipitately. Then [[male symbol]] runs in M to another [[female symbol]], does V-HF-V-pr-pr, [[underline]] and [[/underline]]this [[female symbol]] then V-O-HF-V. In other words, another probable case of pair formation.
[[circle]] 150 [/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 28, 1555, II Should stress the fact that my counts of [[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] behavior include relatively few patterns shown during very early pairing stage "greetings". There are mostly patterns given by well-mated birds. There have been several minor Silent Panics. Some so minor that they weren't even silent, ie. birds gave LCN's ("rattle") as they went up, and continued them in flight. During one of the these panics, I heard several "Waaahaaaaa...." notes, apparently PCC. I couldn't see any signs of swooping or soaring, so these notes must have been given by a "normally" flying bird. (Incidentally, I wonder if the "LCN's without rattle undertone" I have been hearing from time to time might be intermediates between real LCN and PCC. The real PCC is "clear" too. And I have never heard a "clear" LCN by a bird on ground - except for those apparently transitional to M notes). The fact that these PCC notes occur during panics, in conjunction with other evidence, would suggest that this is a high intensity pattern, relatively aggressive - but not overwhelmingly so. Just like the PCC of Franklin's Gull, in fact. I saw a great deal of redirected aggressiveness by nervous pairing birds yesterday. Usually, [[underline]] but by no means always [[/underline]], by [[image - male symbol]]'s. This obvious aggressiveness makes it easier to believe that the M, LCN, etc. patterns, so common during mutual displays between mates, contain a strong attack component. I have always been aware that birds of many species of gulls tend to give LCN's before flying up. In some cases, these LCN's were obviously aggressive or hostile in some sense, but in others they appeared to be more problematical. All or almost all LCN's before flying up in this species appears to be due to "frustrated sex." [[image - three triangles with red marks above]] Unsuccessful; both H&T. [[image - male symbol]] V&HF; [[image - female symbol]] V. Both V&HF - V. [[image - female symbol]] does M & LCN and then M note as her [[image - male symbol]] comes into land. [[image - female symbol]], [[sensting?]] [[image - male symbol]] cop. attempt after [[image - male symbol]] has mounted, jabs upward as usual. But in this one particularly case, obviously tries to catch [[image - male symbol]]'s bill in hers. Is this a posture of FB?
[[circle]] 151 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 28, 1955. III A is back 6:45. On his knoll Alternating bouts of preening with LCN's at flying birds. Quite clealy well-directed and well-oriented. Then definitely gives LCN's as [[underline]] reply [[/underline]] to LCN's of bird flying overhead. This rather is definitely not his mate, as it lands + joins its own mate far away. There is another bird near A, on same knoll, doing same thing! No reaction between it and A. Then A joined by a [[image - female symbol]]. (As usual, I missed the approach!) A does O - L - HF - V - T+HF (!) - V - T - V - T+HF. [[image - female symbol]] also V, possible trace of HF, then walks away to join his own mate, about 1- feet away, from whome she begs instantly! * comm area field 7:00 [[underline]] V - G before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] M [[underline]] M+M note before attack - M after attack [[/underline]] V - LCN - V - pr - pr - V - ch - V - [[underline]]M during attack - V after attack V during retreat V + HF after attack [[/underline]]. [[image - male symbol]] lands beside another bird, does M + HF + slow side-to-side turning The other bird, presumably [[image - female symbol]], just looks alert, then moves away. [[image - male symbol]] relaxes, then LCN - LCN - LCN, etc. Begins to run through group in M. Runs parallel with a second [[image - female symbol]], who also begins to run in M. Then they separate, [[image - male symbol]] continues running in M [[underline]] (with occasional LCN's) [[/underline]], approaches third [[image - female symbol]], does M + HF + SS to her. The first looks alert. [[image - male symbol]] stands, gives LCN's from normal LCN posture, then approaches fourth bird in M, does HF + SS in M. Then he moves behind rock so I can't follow any more. Case of choking without sitting down. Bill put to ground, but neither tail nor end of body put to ground. (Unfortunately, I only saw this "head-on"). [[image - male symbol]] running through group in M. Stopped beside 2 different [[image - female symbol]]'s, and stood there each time for several seconds in M. No response, so went back to running in M. Occasionally stopped running, and then came out of M to give LCN's from usual LCN posture. Always back into M + running, very shortly Finally came to third [[image - female symbol]]. Stopped beside her, did M + HF, M, T, M. [[image - female symbol]] is very tall V, then O - L - HF - V [[underline]] This was apparently what the [[image - male symbol]] had been waiting for [[/underline]]. He stayed
[[circle]] 152 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]] Nov. 28, 1955, IV. [[left margin]] [[image - three triangles in lead and red pencil]] [[/left margin]] The female did a little running about in V, at least one T. [[image - male symbol]] followed her, usually in M., also did at least one T, several PAG's (apparently regurgitation intention movements. Bill shaken first after it is put to ground) Then both relax. [[image - male symbol]] M - HF - V; [[image - female symbol]] V - HF - V Unsuccessful, [[image - male symbol]] V + SS; [[image - female symbol]] V + SS Both V + HF - V T note is a very soft, plaintive, moderately high-pitched sound. Some, at least, could be transcribed as "Aow". *comm. area field [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack V before attack - V + SS after attack [[/underline]] V. [[underline]] M after attack [[/underline]] V - M - V [[underline]] V before attack - V between attacks - V after attack V before attack - V after attack. [[/underline]] [[left margin]] [[image - two triangles in lead and red pencil]] [[/left margin]] Both V + HF - V. Both V + SS. Can confirm again + again. There is a definite tendency for [[image - male symbol]]'s to T from H more than [[image - female symbol]]'s before copulation. I. E. they may T more, and they are actually in H for more. Does this mean that the sex drive of [[image - male symbol]]'s is relatively stronger than that of [[image - female symbol]]'s at this stage? I think so. Another complete L. C. by bird gliding near me, (this time glide was apparently not connected with landing. Bird flew on up, circled, and then landed) I think it is safe to say that there is a "tendency" for birds to glide during aerial L.C.'s. In other words, the glide is less ritualized than that of Franklin's Gull. [[image - rectangular box - male symbol]] H - T - H - V - HF - V + SS - pr. V. V - Gost - pr - V. Gost - Gost - Gost. [[image - rectangular box - female symbol]] V V. H - T - T - H. V. H - T - T - T - H - T - T - T - H - T - T. Another Glide with aerial L. C. by bird flying near me. Definitely not connected with landing - bird leaving group T from M after looks very much like F of B b G [[image - bird]] The first part of the complete L. C. performance may also be of comparative significance in connection with various "tikatikatika...." calls of [[underline]] Sterna [[/underline]] terns This [[image - female symbol]] often stands in V, does SS movements during copulation. Leaving 8:40; birds already asleep for the most part. Back 5:00.
[[circle]] 153 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 25, 1955, V. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I still think that the "Keeow" aerial LCN (ie without rattle) may be territorial to PCC note, but it is much shorter, sharper, and (?) louder. It still seems to be given only (?) by birds flying near me. [[margin]] * Comm. area, field. [[/margin]] [[underline]] √M before attack - √M after attack [[/underline]] √M. √M. [[underline]] √Agg V before attack - √Agg V after attack - √V before attack - √V + √SS after attack [[/underline]] √M - √Gost. √V. [[underline]] √V before attack - √V + √HF after attack - [[underline]] V.[[/underline]] √Gost after attack [[/underline]] - √V - √HF - √V - √pr √V. √V. √V. √V. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I think that there is considerable evidence that the L. C. performance ^ [[insertion]](as a hostile pattern)[[/insertion]] must be higher intensity than the V complex + M. This is that V complex, T, H, M, etc., occur frequently during all sorts of moderate - low intensity, more or less "friendly", encounters between the members of well-established pairs, and O and L are relatively rare in the same circumstances; while there has been at least one L.C. performance in all the vigorous "pair-formation" encounters I have seen so far, (this does not include all the cases of [[male symbol]]'s running through the colony in M - but then they sometimes get almost no response from the birds they display to). [[underline]] O - L never occur with FB or Cops [[/underline]] ^ [[insertion]](if the birds are close together) [[/insertion]] [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The overwhelming prevalence of V's in this "communal" area is one of the few definite features in which this species resembles the "large Larus" gulls more than the [[underline]] atricilla [[/underline]] gulls. Another in the pairing behavior visiting on foot. [[margin]] vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] There seems to be fewer birds around this afternoon. Does this mean that the colony is becoming more thoroughly occupied. [[margin]] [[image - rectangular box over male symbol]] [[/margin]] √O - √L - √HF - √V. √O - √L - √HF - √V - √T - √V - √pr - √pr - √V - √LCN - √V - √pr √M + √SS. √T - √T - √T. √O - √L - √M + √HF - √M - √SS - √M - √T - √M - √V - [[underline]] √redirection attack - √redirection attack [[/underline]] - √V - √pr - √O - √L - √HF - √V - √T - √V - √SS - √V [[margin]] [[image - rectangular box over female symbol]] [[/margin]] √V √M - √HF - √V - √pr - √pr. √V. √T - √T - √T. √M + √HF - √M - √SS - √M - √T - √M - √V - √pr - √pr - √pr √V - √HF - √V - √SS. √V. √V. √V. √O - √L - √HF - √M - √HF - √M √O - √L - √HF - √V. √V. √V - √HF - √V - √T - √V - √V √V - √HF - √V. √M - √HF - √V [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Should mention about my counts of [[male symbol]] and [[female symbol]] behavior. They don't include the displays associated with "normal" FB + regurge either. In one or two cases, I have included bursts of hostile displays associated with neg hostile FB performances. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Bird gives fragmented aerial LCN's before landing. (When they are this fragmented they cannot be called "rattle" - they are usually polysyllable) Five syllables; and could be transcribed just like the AlC's of "large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]]" "Ha ha ha ha hah" [[image--five horizontal lines denoting rise & fall of syllables]] pitch and length
[[circle]] 154 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 28, 1955, VI. [[margin]] [[image - three triangles with red marks about]] [[/margin]] [[male symbol]] V - HF - V - T - V; [[female symbol]] V - HF - SS - V [[male symbol]] V; [[female symbol]] V - [[underline]] pointing [[/underline]] [[male symbol]] V - SS - pr - pr; [[female symbol]] nothing. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Today is also dull for another reason. There seems to relatively less hostility between partners than on earlier days. What there is almost always develops into FB and/or cop. Also very little sign of pair-formation or early pairing. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Much of the preening I have seen is certainly "ritualized" insofar as its occurrence has been selected for in the course of evolution. It is far too commonly associated with pairing to be coincidence in such circumstances. Sometimes interupts the display, but more often parks the temporary end of a bout (What does this suggest about its causation?). The preening I have been counting is hasty and/or unusually vigorous, (as compared with obviously autochthonous preening), but it is seldom, or never, as "nervous" as the most extreme "nervous preening" I have seen in some other species. Nor is it at all "ceremonial". [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Cannot overstress the conspicuousness of the "running together in M" shown by mates 9 times out of 10 when they become widely separated. Sometimes preceded by L.C. Usually ends, when the birds are side by side, in M + HF - V, and then whatever displays come next. This "running together in M," followed by M + HF, is occurring constantly throughout the colony at all times of the day. [[margin]] [[image - rectangular box over male symbol]] vertical crosshatch line [[/margin]] √V - √SS - √SS - √V. √V. √O - [[underline]] √pointing + √T + √HF (one peculiar [[rotary?]] motion) [[/underline]] !! - √M - √HF - √M - √HF - √M - √HF - √M - √O - √HF - √M - [[underline]] attacks [[female symbol]] [[/underline]] - √V after attacks - √M - √T - √M - √HF - √M - √T - √M - √M - √HF - √V - √HF - √M - √HF - √M - √T - √M. √M - √SS - √SS - √M - √Gost √O - √HF - √V - √T - √M - √V - √pr - √pr. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Included in the above count is an incident, presumably early pairing, in which both [[male symbol]] and [[female symbol]] did two complete LC's. By far the most L.C.'ing, in such a short space of time, that I have seen. Looked almost like hooded gulls. This L.C.'ing, in the case of the [[male symbol]], was alternated with M complex & appeasement gestures in general. But [[male symbol]] attached [[female symbol]] (in a very "guarded" fashion) eventually, and the [[female symbol]] retreated. [[male symbol]] followed her in M, but each time he got to her, she retreated some more. [[male symbol]] eventually gave up and went back to the place they started from, while [[female symbol]] remained at spot she had retreated to (at least 30 ft away). Both birds relax and begin to preen.
[[circle]] 155 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Nov. 28, 1955, VII. * comm. area field [[underline]] V after attack V before escape - V after escape [[/underline]]. V. V. V. V. V + SS. V + SS. [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack - Bird in V attacked [[/underline]] [[image - rectangular box, male symbol]] M - HF - V - HF - V - SS - pointing - V When partners are separated, and calling LCN's to one another, they tend to orientate their LCN's toward partner, even calling over their shoulders in extreme cases. [[image - male symbol]] alone on ground. Giving LCN's, I thought, toward flying birds. Once O - L - M - LCN from M - M - LCN from M - M - LCN from M - then back to LCN's in the usual posture. Then a [[image - female symbol]] lands beside him. [[image - female symbol]] in very extreme V, plus numerous slow and "cautious" HF's and SS's. [[image - male symbol]] just looks at her coldly in semi-alert posture. Then [[image - male symbol]] flies over to another [[image - female symbol]], does brief V + HF toward her, relaxes immediately and starts to preen. This was obviously a case of an "unmated" [[image - female symbol]] landing beside a mated [[image - male symbol]]. [[underline]] Presumably she had been fooled by his "invitation" behavior - just as I was [[/underline]]. (This probably confirms the fact that I am interpreting this pairing behavior fairly correctly - I hope). Is this "cautious" V complex behavior by visiting [[image - female symbol]] typical of a [[image - female symbol]] who isn't sure of her reception? I think so. Presumably, if the [[image - male symbol]] had alone L.C. + HF - M + HF, etc., she would have responded with similar high intensity patterns. And all this would probably have been accompanied by, or followed by, some additional T-ing as well. I must say that I am somewhat surprised by the way in which a mated or uninterested bird, when approached by an unwelcome "visitor", just looks the stranger coldly in the face. I have seen this at least several times. Granted that this is a more or less communal area, one would still expect a much more hostile reception. Certainly B.b.G.'s in the same situation would be very hostile. Another L.C. & Glide by and flying [[underline]] away [[/underline]] from the colony. The bird descended relatively steeply during this glide - looked almost like a low-intensity swoop [[image - downwards sloped arrow]] - then rose a little with beating wings. This is the first time I have seen such a relatively steep descent. Panics 7:00, leaving myself.
[[circle]] 156 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] December 1, 1955, Antofogasta, Chile. Arrive field 6:20 am. A few comments upon sound of some calls. The second part of the ground L. C. is relatively muffled + plaintive. Really quite reminiscent of the PCC notes of other species. It is certainly less "sharp" than the "keeow" note (without rattle) sometimes given by flying birds. Latter isn't very plaintive I am not quite sure how the second part of the ground L.C. differs from the "real" PCC notes I heard once given by a flying bird during a swoop. Is the second part of the ground L.C. "hoarser" and, perhaps, often more "quavering".?? * comm. area field V - [[underline]] G before attack - V + SS after attack - V before attack - V + HF after attack [[/underline]] - SS - V [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. V. [[underline]] Agg V before attack - Agg V after attack - [[/underline]] V. [[underline]] V before attack - V + HF after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. V. V. [[underline]] V + HF after attack [[/underline]] V. [[underline]] V before attack - 3 V's between attacks - V after attack [[/underline]] One extreme case of [[image - female symbol]] doing extreme T, from V, during mutual T with her mate. Quite as extreme a movement as anything I have ever seen in the Laughing Gull or Franklin's Gull. Still must be relatively rare [[Image - gull with neck stretched back on body]] This appeared to be the most extreme angle. [[image - male symbol]] O - L - M + LCN - V - pr. [[image - male symbol]] V - Gost - V - Gost - V - pr. O - L - M - V + HF - V - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - T - V + SS. O - L - V - HF - V - pr - V - pr - V V - SS - V - Gost - M - V - SS - V - redirection attack. M - V - SS - V - T - V - T - V - SS - V - redirection attack [[image - female symbol]] V - pr. V - pr. M - V + HF - V - pr - pr - pr - V - T - V - pr - pr - V - T - pr - pr - V. O - L - V - HF - V - SS - V. V - HF - V - SS - V - SS - V. M - V - SS - H - T - T - T - T - T. Solitary [[image - male symbol]] (almost sure of sex) approached by [[image - male symbol]] (almost sure of sex) apparently mated to neighboring [[image - female symbol]]. Approaching [[image - male symbol]] walks slowly in M. The approached [[image - male symbol]] does V - T - extreme V - attacks the approaching bird. This looked like a case of a [[underline]] [[image - male symbol]] soliciting another [[image - male symbol]]!! [[/underline]] (The apparently purely hostile M's are usually running).
[[circle]] 157 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, II. [[image - three triangles with red marks above them]] [[image - male symbol]] V - HF - V, [[image - female symbol]] V - HF - HF - HF - V [[image - male symbol]] Gost - V; [[image - female symbol]] V Both V + HF There are quite a number of attacks delivered without any preliminary display; but relatively much fewer than in the Inca Tern. The [[image - male symbol]]'s near are having considerable trouble regurgitating food for their females. There is a juv. Kelp Gull who keeps trying to horn in whenever the food starts to appear, (long before it even reaches ground!). [[image - circle with male symbol]] O = advanced sexual ie pre-cop behavior. V - Gost - V - M - M + M note - M - T - V - T - T - H 18T's from 1H, + 1HF. 13 T's from 2 M's + 1 H. 11 T's from H. [[image - circle with female symbol]] V - 12 T's - V + HF - 23 T's - V - 16 T's - V. 18 T's from 3 H's. 4 T's. T - T - T - T- V + HF - T - T - T - T - T - V + HF - T. V - SS - SS - SS - V - T - V - T - SS - SS - SS - V - HF - V - T - T - V - T - V - T - V - T - V - SS - V - redirection attack - V - escape - V - SS - V - T - T - T - V - SS - V - SS - V - T - V Most of these birds are semi-territorial, in the sense that they tend to stay and return to the same sites (over a period of hours at least). But most of them show very little territorial defense. Seem to be content if an approaching bird maintains its individual distance, It is certainly my impression that this species is much less aggressive than some others I have worked with. This may be due to the circumstances; (i e. the fact that this is a semi-communal area), but I wouldn't be at all surprised if it were due to some relative weakness of the attack drive, perhaps even a weakness of the internal factors of the drive. The escape drive seems to be correspondingly weak. (But, I should add that this species does not convey the slow, indifferent, phlegmatic, impression that the Herring Gull or the Kelp Gull do. It is quick and active). The only really aggressive bird I have seen was A. He was defending a "real" territory, and he seemed quite as irritable, and as prone to redirection aggressiveness, as most Franklin's Gulls and Black-headed Gulls. [[image - one triangle with red mark]] [[image - male symbol]] V - HF - V - [[underline]] Ch [[/underline]] - V + SS - Gost - V - pr - V; [[image - female symbol]] V - HF - V - SS - V The above Ch posture was quite the "normal" larine type. Body quite tilted, legs only slighty bent, neck somewhat extended, up + down head movements [[image - gull with head bent]]
[[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, III. [[circle]] 158 [[/circle]] There is thus both a "normal" Ch pattern, and a Ch + Squat. One rather unexpected aspect of the sexual behavior of this species is the way in which the [[image - male symbol]]'s seem to be much "hotter" than the [[image - female symbol]]'s on the average. Time and again I have seen [[image - male symbol]]'s circling [[image - female symbol]]'s; the [[image - male symbol]]'s in H with almost constant T'ing, the [[image - female symbol]]'s usually in V, with occasional T's, many HF's and SS's and little retreats. Such [[image - female symbol]]'s usually start to run away when [[image - male symbol]] tries to mount (These incidents almost confirm Noble + Wissum's theory that the [[image - male symbol]] has to be dominant, i.e. hold his head higher than the [[image - female symbol]], before copulation can take place. But I have also seen many apparently successful copulations in which the [[image - female symbol]] definitely had her head higher than the [[image - male symbol]] immediately before mounting!! Repeat - [[underline]] many [[/underline]] - it is so common as to be perhaps usual. But [[underline]] such females are seldom or never in extreme V with many HF's and SS's)[[/underline]]. More care when [[image - female symbol]] seemed frightened and retreated or flinched when ever the [[image - male symbol]] tried to mount, the [[image - male symbol]] slipped off immediately, and leaned across [[image - female symbol]], in semi-diagonal semi-M posture, [[underline]] giving repeated M notes. [[/underline]] [[image - male and female bird]] comme ca (Later note: saw this again several times, including time when [[image - female symbol]] tried to mount [[image - male symbol]]. Seems to be usual when one birds wants to mount and the other won't permit it, and yet doesn't escape). Many successful copulations are preceded by intense mutual T'ing; but the only times one sees the [[image - female symbol]] T obviously [[underline]] much [[/underline]] more than [[image - male symbol]] is during "FB". Then one sees the [[image - female symbol]] doing many T's, often from H or semi-H, also many pecks at [[image - male symbol]]'s bill + breast, walking rapidly back and forth in front of [[image - male symbol]] or even around him; while the [[image - male symbol]] stands in V, with occasional HF's, gives low intensity indications of escape and/or redirection agressiveness, does occasional Gosts, M's, and M+M notes, and finally does M+M note + regurges.
[[image-number 159 in circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, IV. [[image-3 vertical lines followed by vertical crosshatch pattern in left margin next to all paragraphs except the last; breaks between paragraphs]] There may well the cases in which the [[image-symbol for female]]'s sex drive is relatively stronger than the [[image-symbol for male]]'s, and her hostile drives (most significantly, the escape drive) are relatively weaker. Correction to something I said earlier today which may have given a false impression. I have seen a number of the birds besides A which were noticeably aggressive; but A was the most extreme case. Actually redirection attacks are fairly common during early pairing. Well! Well! Well! Two birds, obviously pair, walking around one another in H, with many T's, (over 60 in each case). Then one [[?]] to mount other. Walked around in H, still T'ing, [[underline]] with belly feathers fluffed [[/underline]]! [[image- standing bird]] come ca [[cedille under c in ca]] Occasionally up into V, making low-intensity mounting movements, leaving neck over partner & uttering M. Then stands in V, raises and waves wings , fluffs out all feathers as during copulation. Utters a few notes of Cop Call. Makes some more attempts to mount. [[underline]] This was definitely the [[/underline]] [[image-symbol for female]]!! The [[image-symbol for male]] just retreated, in H, whenever [[image-symbol for female]] tried to mount, then continues T fromH. [[image-symbol for female]] finally copulated twice on ground!! The [[image-symbol for male]] just stood & looked! Then the [[image-symbol for male]] mounted the [[image-symbol for female]]very rapidly, without any preliminary displays. [[image-symbol for female]] ran away in V before he could begin copulation; and then both birds walk aroundin V&HF&SS. Relax. Start to preen. Pair flying, [[image-symbol for male]] front of [[symbol for female]]. [[symbol for male]] utters definite M note in air. When pair land, [[symbol for male]] goes into M immediately and mutual display occurs. Have just heard several other M notes by flying birds. Three or four birds flying 15 or 20 ft apart. These birds didn't land. [[asterisk in left margin followed by comm. area, field, all in left margin]] [[underline]] M after attack. Gost between attacks - V&HF after attack [[/underline]] V.V. [[underline]] Agg. V before attack - V after attack Agg. V before attack V after attack-bird in V attacked [[/underline]] [[image-circle and symbol for male in left margin]] 76 T's from 5 H's, 2 M's [[image-circle and symbol for female in left margin]] V-T-V-SS-V-T-V-SS-V-T-T-V-SS-V-T
[[circle]] 160 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, V. * Comm. area, field. LCN - LCN - LCN - LCN - [[underline]] Gost during attack - V after attack V during retreat [[/underline]] - V V V V [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] [[image - triangle with red mark]] The pre-cop T's of [[image - male symbol]] and [[image - female symbol]] are often rather well synchronized. [[image - male symbol]] Gost - V - SS - V; [[image - female symbol]] V - SS - V. There are certainly as many birds here this morning as there ever were. The actual colony can't be any more "occupied" than the day I arrived Leaving 10:00 - birds. generally asleep Back 4:40. Another aerial LCN by bird flying near me. With glide again. Then notice a bird, [[image - male symbol]], flying around with fast and deep wing-beats, slightly buoyant flight. Uttering PCC notes. "Ooooo-ow" "Keeeee-ow", long drawn - [[underline]] but not particularly plaintive [[/underline]] - less plaintive than the second part of the ground LC. This bird lands, and it is obvious that he is pairing. Runs around in M. Gives several L.C.'s, O - slight L, then V. Each time he gives L.C. a [[image - female symbol]] runs toward him (same female each time). She runs in M, gives HF from M when she gets near him. [[image - male symbol]] stand in V as she reaches him, then rushes off in M again, gives another L.C. again when he gets 15 ft or so from the [[image - female symbol]] She approaches in M again, etc etc. Repeated at least 3 times. Then [[image - male symbol]] flies off again, swift flight with deep wing beats; a good deal of twisting + turning + circling; but not rapidly enough to make it really "Erratic" (although just about as extreme as the "semi-Erratic" flights I have sometimes noticed in the Silent Panics of this species). Gives repeated PCC notes, clear "Keeow" LCN's, and all sorts of intermediates; all very rapid and all sorts of inter gradations (Clear evidence, I think, that "Keeow" LCN is closely related to the PCC). Flies far away, still circling, twisting + turning. Twice does shallow [[underline]] gliding [[/underline]] swoops and soars. [[image - bird swooping and soaring]] Probably gave PCC notes during these swoops, but he was too far away for me to be sure. I finally lose the [[image - male symbol]] in the distance, and he doesn't seem to return for several minutes Another aerial LCN with glide. Bird far from me
[[circle]] 161 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, VI. There is little doubt now in my mind that "Keeow" aerial LCN is higher intensity than "rattle" aerial LCN, and that the PCC is higher intensity still. Both probably contain both strong attacks & escape, (ie. associated with both swoop and Silent Panic - given by [[image - male symbol]] during early pairing stage) [[image - male symbol with filled in rectangle left of it]] [[underline]] O-T [[/underline]]-V-pr LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-O-HF-V-T-V+HF+SS+T+SS&HF-V-pr-V [[image - female symbol with filled in rectangle left of it]] [[underline]] O-T [[/underline]]-V-pr-V-pr . [[underline]] O-L-T [[/underline]]-V-LCN-M-HF-M V&HF+SS&HF+SS-V-pr - V-pr-V-pf-V]] [[image - male symbol with circle left of it]] 95 T's from 2 M's, 5H's, 3 HF's, 1V. [[image - female symbol with circle left of it]] 104T's, plus 2 H's, 7 V's & HF's. [[underline]] End all counts 6:00 [[/underline]] Another bird, probably [[image - male symbol]] giving PCC notes during little circular flight in course of pairing. Usual, un-emphasized, flight; no ritualized or unusual postures or movements [[underline]] This time the PCC notes were alternated with "rattle" LCN's [[/underline]] Have seen more and more glides with aerial L.C. Most of them given by birds near me. Does this suggest that the aerial L.C. is more or less aggressive that the aerial PCC and related patterns??? More miscellaneous paring behavior. First of all, an apparently single bird, either small [[image - male symbol]] or [[image - female symbol]], going from place to place in the colony. Visited eight places, 2 of them twice, thus 10 visits in all. Made seven of these on foot; either walking or running in usual locomotory posture, or walking or running in M. 3 units flying. Gave constant rattle LCN's when flying, a number of rattle LCN's when walking or running. Sometimes it stopped at a place not very near any other birds; there stood, giving [[underline]] many repeated[[/underline]] LCN's, going into semi-diag posture for each LCN. Noticed that the feathers of the nape and upper neck were slightly ruffled, giving slightly nested or egg-shape effect during LCN's [[image - bird's head and neck]] (These ruffled feathers looked rather like grey velvet). Once gave O between LCN's. (I think the feathers were also raised during this O, and all or most of the O's of other birds that I have seen. This news to contribute to the peculiar gestalt of the O of this species. Looks long-necked for several reasons. Neck is thickened, and nape feathers raised, so that [[underline]] head looks small because not repeated by visible [[/underline]].
[[circle]] 162 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Dec 1, 1955, VII. demarcation from the neck. Same thing true of L & M. Thus the "egg set" is present at least in the usual forms of V, O, & all low obliques during pairing. [it is possible that it is not so conspicuous during the forms of the same patterns, particularly the forms of V, seen during purely hostile encounters between "territory owners" and neighbors or intruders]). Twice went to places where there were other birds, one of which was definitely the [[image - male symbol]] of another pair Did M-HF to this [[image - male symbol]], V-HF to the other bird. The [[image - male symbol]] of the pair just attacked the "inviting" bird, the other bird just looked coldly at the "inviting" bird. The inviting bird finally went to an 11th place, where there was still another bird, possibly [[image - female symbol]], did V-T-HF and relaxed. This appeared to be a case of a semi-mated bird playing the field while ignoring its mate for a while. More pairing. [[image - male symbol]] landed, [[image - female symbol]] landed beside him almost immediately Both birds V-T-V&HF-pr-V-pr-V-pr etc. [[image - male symbol]] flew off, landed, gave LCN's Then [[image - female symbol]] flew to join him, landed some distance away, walked to him on foot. [[image - male symbol]]'s greeting was O-HF-V complex. [[image - female symbol]] just did V complex. [[image - male symbol]] flew off, [[image - female symbol]] followed Must try to organize my thoughts about the pairing displays, even though it will be repetition of a lot of stuff I have written before. There are obviously 3 main elements: a) V complex, b) M complex, and c) LCN-O complex. Now - to take them in reverse order.... 1. LCN is always, or almost always, confused to situations in which the notes are separated or are apparently unmated [[image - male symbol]] is displaying by himself. The violated bird gives repeated LCN's (most frequently and vigorously given by the [[image - male symbol]] even in the case of mated pairs) "calling" a potential mate or the actual mate to its side. O's and O-L's are occasionally interspersed with these LCN's - appear to be a higher intensity form of the LCN's. LCN's never (I think) occur after the mates have rejoined one another or a [[image - female symbol]] has come to scent an unmated [[image - male symbol]]. O's and O-L's do, however. They are their either the initial "greeting ceremony", or follow quickly after a brief V complex or M complex. Very seldom occur during the later stages of elaborate series of greeting displays. The O's and L's that occur
[[circle]] 163 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, VIII. as greeting are almost always combined with HF movements, sometimes combined with T's. 2. and 3. M complex and V complex are much more closely connected. Sometimes appear to be almost interchangeable. Both M and V can be used by a bird moving through the colony in an "invitation" walk or run; but the M is very much commoner than the V. Both M and V are used as "greeting" when [[image - male symbol]] + [[image - female symbol]] come together. The M usually appears first, or, at least, is concentrated toward the first part of a series of greeting displays, (it is often particularly conspicuous, for instance, when [[image - male symbol]] + [[image - female symbol]] run toward one another just before or at the very beginning of "greeting"). The only times M's are usually conspicuous toward the end of a series of greeting displays is when the greeting is followed immediately by pre-cop behavior Greeting M's are usually silent. The "usual" order of succession of M's and V's, in conjunction with other evidence, would suggest that M is higher intensity than V. Both V and M are usually accompanied by HF and SS movements. Such movements are probably, however, common with the V. Both M and V are frequently accompanied by T's (much more frequently that O or O-L); but again I think that such movements are commoner with the V (at least in the case of [[image - female symbol]]'s). The V's are very frequently accompanied by rapid and vigorous preening movements, movements which are certainly "significant", i.e. displacement" The only other movements occurring with M + V that appear to be significant are "pointing" and Gosts; and I really don't know what can be said about these The whole of the non-aerial early pairing behavior of this species is reminiscent of the Laughing Gull as described by N + W. Much of the V complex appears in similar form at similar times in the two species. Some of the V complex of the Grey Gull is comparable to the "pairing charge" of the Laughing Gull. Most important, however, much of M complex is strictly comparable to both the "pairing charge" and the "feeding charge", (and in addition, of course, the M + M note is strictly comparable to "feeding
[[circle]] 164 [[/circle]] charge + sex moan"). Leaving 7:00 p.m. [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 1, 1955, Antofogasta Bay Have been watching a number of Kelp Gulls very casually in the intervals of watching Grey Gulls. There are often quite a number of these birds around (up to 15 or 20). More than a third are juvs. A few are almost adult. The rest are adult in apparently full nuptial plumage. This species looks like large, heavy-bodied Herring Gull. Small head, heavy bill , large and long body, but not very long primaries. Bill is usually bright clear orange yellow Inside of mouth yellowish. Legs vary from greenish yellow to rather bright orange yellow (with slight grey mark as in Ring-bill). underside of wing quite striking [[image - underside of wing]] Strongly black & white Most of the adults are obviously partly mated already; but I have caught a few obscure glimpses of each pairing aerial "writing" like that of Herring Gulls in Virginia. One mate joining the other on ground, and the M.C. Bird on ground does L.C. before mate lands, then mutual V + HF. Now for the various patterns (all adult unless otherwise noted). Voice of this species is noticeably deeper than that of Herring Gull, and, surprisingly enough, "hoarser". This is particularly true of the L.C. and L.C.N. The M and T calls sound much more like those of Herring Gull. In any case, I think that all the sounds I have heard so far can be transcribed in the same way as the compounding notes of the Herring Gull
[[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]], Dec. 1, 1955, II. [[circle]] 165 [[/circle]] Aerial LCN's are quite common, although perhaps less frequent less frequent than those of Belcher's Gull. Deep, about "Keeow" or "Klioo" sounds. Given from the usual unritualized postures. Ground L.C.N. sounds the same. Sometimes given from semi-V or semi-O; but more often accompanied by brief HD movement or intention movement (just like Ring-bill). Complete L.C. only heard on ground. Given from semi-O-HD-O, or, more frequently, from HD-O. Many notes, each one obviously only a slight modification of LCN. One or two introductory notes with semi-O. I don't know how many notes with HD. 6-7-8 notes, getting weaker toward end, and slightly shorter + deeper in pitch, with O. HD posture much like that of Herring or Ring-bill. O much like that of Herring. [[image - two arrows pointing to left of page]] quite low, L.C.'s given toward flying mate. Also toward strangers or intruders who come too near, (particularly on some of the smaller sherries - the only places where there is sometimes a brief indication of "real" territorial defense). Juvenile LCN's, which are occasionally given by flying birds, sound just like those of related species; but again are deeper + hoarser. M notes are quite frequent + loud. Apparently intermediate in frequency between those of the Herring Gull and the Ring-bill. Apparently always directed toward the mate (always by the [[image - male symbol]]?); or, at least, given when the mate is present. Given from M or [[regurge?]] (i.e. head to ground) postures. M notes given by both birds in air + on ground. (I haven't caught the aerial postures accompanying M - perhaps it is only given by birds about to land). M note itself is a plaintive, long-drawn "Keee-ow" or "Ooooo-aaaah" ____---- or ----____ T and FB patterns like Herring Gull. Have seen only one regurge by [[image - male symbol]], and this was silent. The V patterns also seem to be just like Herring. Has some
[[circle]] 166 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]], Dec 1, 1955, III. sort of "aggressive head-set", with bill pointed almost vertically downward, pressed tight against beak. I haven't seen any trace of ritualized aerial postures or movements, or anything like a pursuit flight. [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] December 2, 1955, Antofogasta Bay. Arrive field 6:07 a.m. Pass by a pair of birds who don,t fly up, even though I pass by within 10 ft of them. They both just stand in "alarm posture" and give Al C's. The important thing about this incident was the fact that some of their Al C's were more than tri-syllabic - [[underline]] one, at least, contained five notes [[/underline]]. All notes somewhat softer than the usual AlC. notes by flying birds. [[image - male symbol]] M-HF-HF-HF-V-HF-pr V-HF-pr M-[[underline]]O-T[[/underline]]-V-T-V-T-V+HF-T-V+HF-T-Agg V-V-Agg V-V-M-V+HF-Agg V-redirection attack. M-V+HF-V-M+Gost- [[image - female symbol]] V V-HF-pr M-O-HF-V+HF-V-M-V+HF-M-V+HF-M-V. M-V+HF-V-M-V+HF-M+HF-V+HF-Gost-V-M+HF-V-[[underline]]redirection attack[[/underline]]. 9 T's from H. [[image - asterisk]] comm. area field [[underline]]V before attack - V after attack V before attack- Gost after attack[[/underline]] Gost. [[underline]]V during retreat V before attack- V after attack. [[/underline]] V - [[underline]] G before attack- V after attack[[/underline]]- LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-V+SS [[underline]]V before attack - V+HF after attack[[/underline]] [[image - male symbol]] 48 T's, plus 2 M's, 3 H's, 6 V's 10 HF's, 2 SS's, 3 Gosts, 1 PAG 17 T's from 1 HAT's from V. 1 TT's from 3 H's, 1 HF [[image - female symbol]] 40 T's, plus 1 M, 1 H, 10 V's, 12 HF's, 6 SS's, 2 Gosts. 14 T's, from 5 V's, 7 HF's [[underline]]one redirection attack on neighbors!![[/underline]] 6 T's from V. 12 T's, 1 V, 1 HF. More & more glides with aerial L.C.'s. Pairing + hostile behavior [[image - female symbol]] of pair reaches up to third bird, does M-V+HF-V. Third bird does V+HF-V. [[image - female symbol]]'s mate reaches up to other side of [[image - female symbol]], does M-V+HF-V. [[image - female symbol]] V+HF-V. Then all three birds are standing in V - then [[image - female symbol]] attacks third bird
[[circle]] 167 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Dec. 2, 1955, II. [[image - male symbol with filled in rectangle left of it]] V&HF-M-gost-V&HF-V-LCN-LCN-LCN-[[underlined]]O-L-T[[/underlined]]-M-V+HF-V. V-HF-HF-V-M+M note - [[underlined]] escape from [[/underlined]] [[image - female symbol]] - V. O-L-V&HF-HF-HF-HF-HF. V-T-T-T-V-pr-pr-pr. V-HF. V-HF-V-T-O-L-HF-V. M-V&HF-V-T-T-T-gost [[insert - & 15 T's.]] An apparently aggressive form of V. [[image - bird's head facing left]] That forehead and definite crested appearance. This calling of LCN's by [[image - male symbol]]'s separated from their [[image - female symbol]]'s appears to beq uite effective. The [[image - female symbol]] often responds immediately. Noticed that a bird rushing to attack in V-G had swollen egg-shaped head & back of neck [[image - bird's head, neck and wing]] Rushing forward to attack with wings raised This is one of the few times that I noted a definite egg shape in purely hostile encounters, (although it may be not uncommon), and it suggests that the egg-shape is relatively aggressive [[image - male symbol with two triangles with a red vertical line above each further left]] gort-V&HF; [[image - female symbol]] V. [[image - male symbol]] V-LCN-LCN-LCN-V&HF; [[image - female symbol]] V+HF. [[image - female symbol with filled in rectangle left of it]] V+HF M-V&HF-V. V-HF-V. M-T-T-T-T-T-T-V&HF-V-escape-V-escape-V-gost-V Have again seen "crested head-set" by aggressive bird after attack. Thus, it may be not uncommon; but I don't think that it could be called "usual" [[image - male symbol with a triangle and vertical red line above it further left]] M&HF-V&HF; [[female - symbol]] V+HF [[image - asterisk with comm. area field written right of it]] [[underlined]] LCN before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] LCN before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] O before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V&HF after escape [[/underlined]] -HF. [[underlined]] V&HF after escape [[/underlined]] -V [[underlined]] V+HF after attack [[/underlined]]. V.V.V [[underlined]] V during retreat [[/underlined]]. V.V.V-pr. [[underlined]] V during retreat [[/underlined]] The G's before attack often look like silent LCN's. The "hump" accompanying many or all extreme M's often looks like the hump occurring during regurgitation. But of course it has nothing to do with regurgitation, now at least, in the hostile M's and apparently not in the "greeting" M's. fewer to be a case of "mimicry" Another case of pairing as before [[image - male symbol]] walks through group in M Does
[[circle]] 168 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Dec. 2, 1955, III extreme V&HF to one bird, who quietly runs away (in slight V). Then [[image - male symbol]] stands a minute, giving LCN's from semi-V. Then runs on again to another bird, presumably another [[image - female symbol]], does V-HF again. This bird responds by giving V-HF back. [[image - male symbol]] quickly does T-O-L-HF-V-T etc. The [[image - female symbol]] joins in the L.C. performance and gives various V complex displays. This was obviously a case of a [[image - male symbol]] soliciting one [[image - female symbol]], getting the wrong response, and then going on to solicit another [[image - female symbol]] and getting the right response. What exactly is the right response??? Certainly part of it is V&HF. Do [[image - female symbol]]'s tend to give T also as part of right response??? Perhaps, but I don't think always or ever often. Must check on this!! An L.C. is often part of the right response; [[underlined]] but it isn't the very first part. [[/underlined]] I am becoming convinced, in fact, that the L.C. is almost never the initial reaction of either bird during an early pairing greeting - provided that the real greeting doesn't start until the birds have come close together. Some regurgitations by [[image - male symbol]]'s, although done from M posture, are not accompanied by M notes. Just saw one case particularly clearly. The [[image - male symbol]] showed no signs of redirected attack or escape behavior. Began T'ing immediately after feeding the [[image - female symbol]]. The [[image - female symbol]] then became anxious and retreated precipitately several times All this suggests that the [[image - male symbol]] doesn't give M note unless he has fairly strong hostile motivation; ie M note unproduced by attack and escape drives (relatively stronger than those responsible for producing simple M without call). Leaving 9:00 am. Back 3:25p.m. [[image - male symbol]] in extreme V&SS when [[image - female symbol]] bags from him. [[underlined]] His eyes are almost shut [[/underlined]], presumably shutting out the horrid night. But then he opens them wide when he turns to female and goes into M. [[image - male symbol]] T'ing bends [[image - female symbol]]. From semi-V. Notice that each tune the [[image - male symbol]] comes out of the T, into the semi-V, he is "crested." [[image - female symbol]] does nothing but stand rather aux. V. [[image - male symbol]] then attacks neighbor, stands in extreme V, quite agg. for this species, bill
[[circle]] 169 [[/circle]] [[underline]]modestus[[/underline]], Dec. 2, 1955, IV. [[margin -- three vertical lines followed by one vertical crosshatch line]] down & "crest" raised, after attack. [[image -- sketch of bird head in profile looking page right with note semi-V.[[image --sketch of bird head and neck in profile looking page right and slightly down with note V.]] [[margin -- single vertical crosshatch line]] When giving LCN in flight, the lower bill appears to be greatly lowered, and the upper bill appears to be only slightly raised. This is presumably partly an optical illusion, but in must reflect something real. [[image -- sketch of bird head and neck in profile with open beak, looking page right]] [[margin -- three vertical lines followed by one vertical crosshatch line]]Aerial L.C. also will [[bill?]] wide open, lower mandible prominently lowered, but neck is stretched further, still straight forward Still appears to be little-ritualized [[margin -- asterisk-- [[comm. area field?]] [[Note:the following section includes a series of check marks above the 'V's, 'G's, and 'Agg's, as well as above each letter or number in the following series.]] V--[[underline]]G before attack - V after attack V before attack - V after attack - V after being attacked. V.V.V.V Agg V before attack - Agg V after attack V before attack - V after attack M before attack Gost after attack[[/underline]] - V & HF [[margin -- drawing of short, thick horizontal line followed by male symbol, slightly below this drawing is another similar image with female symbol]] 110 T's, 10 H's, 10-L, 16 HF's, 3 M's, 8 V's, [[underline]] 3 redirection attacks on neighbors [[/underline]], 1 Gost, 4 pr's. M&HF-V&HF-T-T-T-T-V-M&HF-V-HF-M&HF-V-HF-M-HF-V 119 T's, 10 H's, 10-L, 16 HF's, 1M, 8V's, [[underline]] 3 redirection attacks on neighbors, 1 escape [[/underline]], 1 Gost. V-HF-V-escape-V-O-L-HF-V&HF-V-escape-V. O-L-V-HF-pr. Watching pairing behavior between the members of an interesting pair.[[margin -- three vertical lines followed by one vertical crosshatch line]] Greeting as usual, then both birds begin T'ing quite vigorously. I expected a cop. attempt at any moment. Each bird made 3 redirection attacks, with more T'ing in between. The [[male symbol]] made no attempt to mount, but made repeated regurge int. [[suous.?]] and finally actually regurgitated All this conveyed the impression that the [[male symbol]] (and also, probably, the [[female symbol]]) had a strong sex drive, but the remaining hostility was so strong that the [[male symbol]] simply [[underline]] couldn't [[/underline]]bring himself to mount, and thus regurged instead. Regurgitation appears to be a literal "substitute activity". [[margin -- three vertical lines followed by one vertical crosshatch line]] [[Amplification?]] of something I read this morning, in case it should prove to be misleading. O-L performance is often the initial stage of Greeting after birds have run together in M, but I doubt if this is "usual", (ie. if it occurs during an actual majority of such greetings.). [[end page]]
[[circle]] 170 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus[[/underline]] Dec. 2, 1955, V. [[right margin -- image-- sketch with note: Back view of egg [[shap?]]]] There is a characteristic shape to the head & neck during V (also O to some extent. Neck is thin & long (neck is also often long & never really thick from side view too) and the greatest thickness, which almost appears to be a slight swelling is just below the nape. Presumably [[correlated?]] with "egg" shape [[Confirm.?]] Lots of V's are much longer necked even than the [[anxiety?]] or alarm postures I saw at La [[Portella?]] this sort of thing is quite common [[image -- simple sketch of two bird bodies in profile looking page right]] [[Rather???]] like some of the "anx" postures of Ring-bill Aerial LCN plus glide followed by very swift flight, rapidly beating wings, with some twisting and turning, rather like some of the swift flights I have seen with PCC's or low intensity (ie. not so [[?]]) Silent Panic's. The whole performance [[underline]] looked [[/underline]] at least as high intensity as the usual aerial PCC's with out Swoops & Soars I should say that a good 25% of the ritual attacking that takes place in this group (and attacking is actually quite common) is redirection by one or both birds of pair, provoked (more or less completely) by the presence of the partner. All other forms of attacking, ie. actual repulsion of an intruder or real irritation with a neighbor, [[underline]] seem to be very rare[[/underline]] This is a remarkably "un-aggressive," even "un-hostile" species, [[underline]] except during pairing [[/underline]] Explains why I have had difficulty getting any decent counts of un-redirected hostility. And even so I have probably counted redirected hostility by mistake. I think that the displays associated with attacking are are much the same when the attack is redirected as when it is "direct." The only difference I have noted without M's before attack are relatively common when the attack is a redirected one. And even this difference, if it does exist, is probably slight I have seen absolutely nothing, with the possible exception of a few [[end page]]
[[circle]] 171 [[/circle]] [[underline]]modestus[[/underline]], Dec. 2, 1955, VI. V & HF's and M & HF's, which looked like hostility provoked by a neighbor or intruder and redirected upon a mate. When a redirected attack on neighbor takes place, there is a definite tendency for the post-attack HF by the attacker to be directed away from its mate, [[respective?]] of where the attacked bird may be or may have gone to. I have tried to ignore such "redirected' HF's in my counts. The frequency with which HF's are [[superimposed?]] on L's & M's, incidentally, is another resemblance between this species & Franklin's Gull. Such HF's are [[underline]] much [[/underline]] more frequent in this species, however. I think that this species does more HF-ing than any other species I have ever watched. [[male symbol]] [[Note: in the following section there are check marks over the initials, such as 'V', 'HF', 'pr', and 'SS' as well as 'nothing']]V-HF-pr, [[female symbol]] nothing .Both V & SS. Both V-SS-SS-SS-SS. [[/check marks]] There seems to be absolutely no ritualized hostility toward Kelp Gulls, no "potential predator" reaction, in spite of the fact that the young Kelp Gulls frequently try to steal the fish [[male symbol]]'s regurge for [[female symbol]]'s [[check marks over initials]]V-HF-pr. [[/check marks]] Pairs often fly to water to bathe after copulations [[check marks over initials]] [[underline]] V before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]] V&HF after attack [[/underline]] - LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN-LCN--M&M note-[[underline]]V before attack [[/underline]] - [[underline]]V after attack [[/underline]] - V-gost-V. V.V.[[/check marks]] Have watched a number of birds giving "clear" LCN's on ground. Two in particular. Apparently [["inviting?"]]; in one case interspersed with a lot of attacks on neighbors. There seemed to be a tendency for these] LCN's to be given from more extreme V postures (although not always) than there usually associated with "rattle" undertone "LCN's Isn't this good evidence for the theory that the "clear" LCN's are higher intensity than the "rattle" LCN's. These clear LCN's could be transcribed as "Aow" or "Kow." [[underline]] They sounded remarkably like some LCN's of Franklin's Gull [[/underline]]. Further evidence of relationships. I think that it can be definitely said that this species has a relatively weak attack drive, much weaker than that of Franklin's Gull or the [[B.h G.?]] One presumes that this is correlated with the fact that it doesn't stay in its colonies very much. [[end page]]
[[circle]] 172 [[/circle]] [[underline]]modestus[[\underline]], Dec. 2, 1955, VII [[image: side margin has pattern aligned with first paragraph. From left, three thin vertical lines, side by side, thicker cross-hatched vertical rectangular bar]] One thing is noticeable about the aerial L.C. I have only heard it given by birds flying low, either near me or near other birds on the ground. I have never observed it as a form of hostility between flying birds. Of course, I haven't observed these birds flying in flockes the way I did Franklin's Gulls, but I think that this aerial L.C. must still be relatively rare, at least, as an inter-aerial" pattern. Rather enhances the impression conveyed by the apparent observer of pursuit flights (These latter [[underline]]must[[\underline]] be at least relatively rare in this species. I have seen far too many cases of vigorous redirected hostility during pairing - when BbG's and Franklin's Gulls would pursue like mad - for them to be anything else). [[image: side margin has pattern aligned with second paragraph. From left, three thin vertical lines, side by side, thicker cross-hatched vertical rectangular bar]] A bunch of repeated silent [[best guess]]pauses 6:45pm (birds presumably getting to leave. Notice that as the flocks got up, during the first few seconds of the flight, that many birds uttered "Whup" or "Whup Whup" or "Whup Whup Whup" calls [[underline]]Much slower than usual AlC's[[\underline]]. They were probably, however, some modification of the AlC. AlC's slowed down by intense strain of getting up and into rapid flight?? Or modified by intense escape drive? [[centered]]Birds come back 7:00pm, but I leave.[[\centered]] [[centered]]This was certainly an extremely dull day!!![[\centered]] [[at right margin]]December 3, 1955, [[centered]][[underline]]modestus[\underline]][[centered]] [[at right margin]]Antofogasta [sic.] Bay. Arrive field 6:10am. Spend most of morning drawing. Heard a [[underline]]juv.[[\underline]] bird, flying, [[underline]]give complete L.C.[[\underline]]. Essentially just like those of adults. No real "juv" quality to voice. Perhaps a little weaker, less carrying power than the L.C.'s of adults. (Several almost deeper & hoarser than those of adults. Back 5:50., after watching this[[or terns]] earlier in the afternoon
[[circle]] 173 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 3, 1955, II. Have been paying some attention to M notes given by flying birds. Have heard them several times by birds flying over colony, alone and moderately high. These may have been directed toward a mate on ground below; but the mate must have been some distance away, at best. However, these birds were [[underline]] leaving [[/underline]], not approaching the group area. Later heard another solitary flying bird, also flying quite high and away from the colony, give complete L.C. -> M note -> M note. All in all, these M notes seemed to be quite as much an aerial pattern as the aerial L.C.'s of this species. But there is still no doubt but that they are much rarer. It is my impression that these birds, in these circumstances at least, descend more steeply during their glides than do Franklin's Gulls. There is always a definite flying up after the end of the glide - or flying up which I do not remember seeing before in Franklin's Gull I have seen little or nothing like "circling" around a potential predator. The birds just ignore or fly away from human beings & dogs. This is another indication of the relative weakness of the attack drive in this species. Ring-bills would certainly circle even though they were away from the colony site. [[image - circle with male symbol]] 21T's, 1M & M note, 3H's, 81T's, 1H, 1HF. 4T's, 1H. 6T's, 1H. 5T's, 1H, 46T's, 3M's, 6 gosts, 1V, 1HF, 1H. [[image - circle with female symbol]] 24T's, 3H's. 81T's, 1H, 1HF. 4T's, 1H. 9T's, 1H. 5T's, 1H. 46T's, 6V's, 5HF's, 1 pointing. [[image - rectangle with male symbol]] M&HF - [[underline]] O - L - T [[/underline]] - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - V - [[underline]] O - T [[/underline]] - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - M - HF - V&HF - V. [[image - rectangle with female symbol]] M&HF - [[underline]] O - L - T [[/underline]] - V&HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - V - HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - V - HF - V - HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - V - HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - HF - V - LCN - LCN - LCN - V&HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - HF - [[underline]] V during escape [[/underline]] - V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - V - HF - [[underline]] V before escape [[/underline]]
[[circle]] 174 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 3, 1955, III. Just watching some interesting pairing behavior. Essentially the same as the stuff seen before; but more stereotyped. Almost a classical example [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]] run together, do M & HF-O-L-T. Then both in V-HF. [[Female symbol]] runs away about 15 yds, stops in V. [[Male symbol]] runs to be in M, HF when he gets there, then V & HF; [[female symbol]] just does V plus HF. Then [[female symbol]] run away again; stops. [[Male symbol]] runs after her in M, HF when he gets there, then V&HF [[female symbol]] just V&HF. [[Female symbol]] runs away again, and the whole procedure, ie running away followed by V's & HF's by [[female symbol]] and running after the [[female symbol]] in M followed by HF's, V's & HF's by the [[male symbol]], is repeated again & again ([[underline]] 14 times in all [[/underline]]) Then [[female symbol]] flies away. There are a few further points to be noticed about this sequence. [[Male symbol]] once did O-T after [[female symbol]] left him [[female symbol]] once did 3 LCN's after leaving the [[male symbol]], when he was slow to follow her!! [[Female symbol]]'s running away was definitely escape most of the time (probably all of the time, but I couldn't always be sure); preceded by a slightly anx type of V, and the run itself was extremely rapid and not directed toward any other bird. The posture in which she ran, however, was rather peculiar, (probably common enough, but I just haven't paid enough attention to it) V, long neck, thin neck, slightly arched at top of neck, perhaps slight trace of "egg" but very slight, bill pointed strongly downward. [[Illustration]] Neck inclined quite strongly forward. (The whole thing was perhaps slightly reminiscent of the O posture of the Silver Gull). I am afraid that I may just possibly have called some postures like this "Agg V" in some of my hostile counts. In any case it is so similar to the "Agg V" morphologically, that it is obvious that one shouldn't make any distinction between "V" & "Agg V" in anything as crude & rough as these counts. (The actual posture itself is much like the posture through which a bird passes when giving an HF with a strong downward component. [[pencil marks]]). This is certainly one of the few relatively non-aggressive postures I have ever seen in which the bill was pointed strongly downward Presumably the whole aggressive component of the pattern was "expressed" in the bill angle, the rest being "pure" escape.
[[circle]] 175 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 3, 1955, IV. In case I forgot to mention in before, this [[image-symbol for female]] running away from [[image-symbol for male]], to be followed by [[image-symbol for male]] right away or after a few seconds delay, the whole procedure frequently repeated, is not uncommon in the group as a whole. I have seen it in a lot of pairs. It is characteristic of early pairing One bird giving particularly vigorous aerial LC., during very fast glide (but not very steep), had neck & head pointed slightly upward at the end of the L.C. glide [[image-drawing of bird in flight facing to the left with beak open]] This was actually the most extreme aerial semi-O I have seen so far Very long & slender effect. The aerial M notes are given from the same posture most aerial L.C.'s and many aerial LCN's are; i.e. neck stretched forward, but bill, head & neck essentially horizontal Have just heard an aerial L.C. followed immediately by one "clear" LCN. This was very reminiscent of Franklin's Gull. There was certainly no trace of T with this L.C.N Note about orientation of mutual T'ing before copulation. [[image-symbol for male]] faces [[image-symbol for female]]'s face until his [[drive?]] increases and he tries to get behind her. Usually mounts from behind her, facing forward; but by no means always. [[image-symbol for female]] faces [[image-symbol for male]], keeps turning to face him when he tries to get behind her, until she is ready to let him mount, when she stops turning. As I mentioned before, the mutual face-to-face T'ing is sometimes accompanied by a little, very brief, "billing". The [[image-symbol for female]] usually takes the initiative in this; and I think it is probably connected with FB. But I have just seen a [[image-symbol for male]] take the initiative in billing. Have just seen a pair in which [[image-symbol for female]] appeared to be slightly larger than [[image-symbol for male]] (I am pretty sure of my identification. The small [[image-symbol for male]] just fed the [[image-symbol for female]], then mounted her, and an apparently normal copulation took place) This is certainly a surprise! I wonder why I see so little aerial "pair-formation" behavior these days. Is that phase about over? Leaving 7:17.
[[circle]] 176 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] December 4, 1955, [[Antofogasta Bay?]]. Arrive field 6:10a.m. Notice as I walk by that there is a [[male]] sitting on top of a [[female]], presumably early part of cop attempt, and both birds are uttering a series of "clear" LCN's, "Aow Aow Aow Aow...." Both birds in V or semi-V. Then [[male]] starts cop. movements, starts M note, [[female]] stops calling. [[left margin next to following paragraph: *comm area field]] [[underline]] V [[check above]] before attack - V [[check above]] after attack. H [[check above]] after escape. [[/underline]] V[[check above]]-[[underline]] G[[check above]] before attack - V[[check]] after attack [[/underline]] V[[check above]].V[[check above]].V[[check above]]. [[underline]] V[[check above]]+SS[[check above]] after attack. V[[check above]] after escape. [[/underline]] (count this about every 15 min.). I think these birds are "territorial" in one sense at least. There seem to be pairs, in the same stage of pairing, in the same places day after day. Note on sexual behavior. It is very common to see a [[female]] T'ing from H, quite vigorously, obviously "unafraid" or "un-nervous", while [[male]] is in V, obviously "nervous", occasionally making redirection attacks, making occasional M and regurge intention movements, finally regurging, with or without M notes. Then, as soon as the [[female]] has eaten, the roles of the sexes are partly reversed. It is the [[male]] who begins T'ing vigorously from H, obviously more "relaxed", and the [[female]] who goes up into V, becomes visibly "nervous" (if she makes redirection attacks, she usually makes them now). This sequence suggests several things. In the first place, the appearance of "nervousness" is probably produced by an appreciably strong attack drive as well as a strong escape drive. In the second place, the art of regurgitation is not just an expression of a sex drive too weak (relatively or actually) to produce copulation, it appears to release some sort of "emotional block", & thus permits copulation or pre-copulation behavior by the [[image-symbol for male]]. How exactly does this work. Superficially, it looks almost as if regurgitation were "self-stimulating", but I think that it probably produces its effect by reducing the hostile drives or something like that. It is quite remarkable how often mated birds, usually (or perhaps almost always) [[image-symbol for male]]'s, when separated from their mates, will do a brief "invitation" display toward some other nearby bird(s). Usually M&HF, not infrequently V&HF, some-
[[circle]] 177 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 4, 1955, II times even an O-L. This may me taken as further evidence of the primarily hostile nature of these particular patterns. Sudden burst of Silent Panics 7:45 - 7:55. Can't see what starts them off. In general, it can be said that these birds are as prone to panics as any other species I have studied in a colony at a comparable stage of the breeding cycle. [[image - female symbol]] does LCN as her [[image - male symbol]] flies toward her. Then V-HF just before he lands. (This is exactly the same sort of thing commonly used as greeting by other gulls; but I have seen very little of it in this species because the approach is so often on foot). [[image - circle with male symbol]] 10T's, 1 H. [[image - circle with female symbol]] 3T's, 2V's. (count these about 1 hr) Apparently still some unmated birds around. One [[image - male symbol]] lands some distance from another bird, approaches it, M&HF - HF - HF. Other bird just retreats. [[image - male symbol]] then stands in M, giving repeated rattle LCN's. Then relaxes. The "bump" in the neck of the non-regurge [[image - male symbol]]'s during early pairing can be considered an adaptation making this posture a "deceptive" display, in part at least For my counts of pre-cop behavior I am only using those cases in which the [[image - female symbol]] let the [[image - male symbol]] stay mounted for a few seconds at least. The mere act of mounting seems to consume some appreciable sexual motivation. I have watched several [[image - male symbol]] mounting repeatedly, stepping off immediately each time (one case in which the [[image - female symbol]] walked away repeatedly, another case in which the [[image - male symbol]] just seemed to be slipshod). Every time the [[image - male symbol]] stepped off there was a pause of several seconds to a minute before he began T'ing again. This even though there was no sign (i.e. displays) of an increase in his hostile motivation. Presumably just that his sex drive had been temporarily lowered. It is remarkable how often redirection attacks during pairing are delivered from a very ordinary-looking, intermediate, superficially low or moderate intensity, V. The V's of this species would certainly appear to be less ritualized than those of any other species I have worked on.
[[circle]] 178 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]], Dec. 4, 1955, III A case of triple copulation. A [[image - male symbol]] on a [[image - male symbol]] on a [[image - female symbol]]!! Leaving 9:10 Back 3:45. Apparent case of [[image - female symbol]] visiting a mated [[image - male symbol]]. I didn't catch the initial approach. When I first looked, the [[image - male symbol]] was in V, [[image - female symbol]] O. The [[image - male symbol]] attacked her violently before she finished O. Then [[image - female symbol]] ran away a foot or so; both birds HF'd violently, away from one another, in V. Then [[image - female symbol]] walked away. Both birds began LCN-ing. [[image - male symbol]] started to make a few approaches toward [[image - female symbol]]; but then went into M and ran to join another [[image - female symbol]], his own, who was running in M to meet him. Noticed that both [[image - male symbol]] and [[image - female symbol]], in V, before cop attempt, were "crested". Also in the semi-V's they both sometimes assumed during interval of T-ing. Surely this "crested" business can't be "sexual"? Can't be [[image - circle with male symbol]] 12T's, 1H. 24T's, 3H's, 3M's. 4T's, 1H. 40T's, 3M's, 1M&M note, 12V's, 11HF's, 3SS's. 11T's, 1H. 4T's. 3T's. [[image - circle with female symbol]] 6T's, 1 Gost. 24T's, 3V's. 4T's, 1H. 32T's, 1M, 12V's, 11HF's, 3SS's. 11T's, 1H. 4T's. 3T's. Have just heard a flying bird utter most peculiar LCN's. "Ta-what Ta what....." With rattle undertone, and obviously a modification of the "rattle" LCN; but definitely bisyllabic. Rattle weaker, voice "hoarser" than during ordinary rattle LCN. *comm. area, field. [[circle]] 5:00 [[/circle]] [[underline]] V before attack - V&HF after attack - V between attacks - V&HF after attack. V before attack - V after attack - V after being attacked M before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V. V. V. [[underline]] V before attack - V after attack [[/underline]] V. V&HF. [[underline]] V&HF after attack. V before attack - V after attack. V before attack - V after attack. [[/underline]] V. [[underline]] V&HF after being attacked [[/underline]] Must stress the fact the V's with feather-raising, at least the extreme forms of them, are relatively very rare. The extreme "crested" & "egg" forms are no more than 7-10% of total V's, at best; and the low-intensity indications of "crested" and "egg", somewhat commoner, (especially the low intensity forms of "egg" are difficult to separate from ordinary V's). I think "egg" V's are commonest with the V's & HF during mutual greetings between mates.
[[circle]] 179 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] modestus [[/underlined]], Dec 4, 1955, IV. There may be some tendency for birds near me to stand in V and utter "Clow" LCN notes. Could this be the equivalent of the "ground PCC" of Franklin's Gull. Must check! (for reference on earlier day, in which I thought there "Clow"s might be something else). Yes! I think so! Just tried experiment of walking up to the group very slowly. Birds went into V or [[Alana Portice?]], started to retreat slowly. Also gave a definite burst of "rattle" LCN's, "Aow" notes, all sorts of intermediates between "rattle" notes & "Clows", plus a whole burst of Alc's. This "Clow", of course, is just a type of "clear" LCN. My experiment suggests that it may be a relatively high intensity LCN, and relatively non-aggressive, at times at least. It is also not dissimilar in quality to a brief aerial PCC note. All this makes it almost certain that the "Aow" is the homologue of the "Ground PCC." [[asterisk with "comm. area, field" written]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]].V.V. [[underlined]] V during retreat [[/underlined]]. [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V during retreat [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]] M [[underlined]] M after escape [[/underlined]]. [[underlined]] V before attack [[/underlined]] - [[underlined]] V&SS after attack. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] V after attack [[/underlined]]. [[image - frontal wingspan view of bird]] Angle of wings during glide (This seems to be almost invariable). [[asterisk with "comm. area, field" written]] [[underlined]] V&HF after attack [[/underlined]] Can confirm the bit about the "Aow" note. Has occurred again & gain when I approach the birds Leaving 6:50
[[underlined]]dominicanus[[/underlined]] [[circle]] 180 [[/circle]] December, 4, 1955 Autofogarta Bay Have continued watching these birds from time to time ; but under most unfavorable conditions. [[female gender symbol]] T's as FB This looks much like some of [[N.J?]]'s photographs of the Herring Gull Body is somewhat diagonal; breast up and tail down. Have only heard sound at great distance; but it seems to be the usual "[[Klioo?]]" thing Mutual T'ing before copulation attempts. Copulation like that of Herring gull [[male gender symbol]]'s bill is open slightly but I haven't heard the sound. The V posture seems to occur in the usual circumstances; i.e. before and after attack and escape, after copulation, as M.C. I am not sure that the bird has a real "aggressive head-set" with bill pointed strongly downward Most of the attacks I have seen have been delivered from a posture much like [[H.J.'s?]] photographs, i.e. bill horizontal or inclined slightly downward, forward very flat - so that the head looks very narrow in front when viewed from the side, the feathers of the back of the crown appear to be relatively long, and are not flattened, so that the bird sometimes (i.e. when aggressive) appears to be almost crested, (although much less so than Franklin's Gull or even the Grey Gull). Noticed one interesting thing about the attacks delivered from V. They were similar in physical form to the attacks delivered by hooded o Grey Gulls - except for the fact that there was no bill-opening, no-G, even at the very moment of delivering an actual blow. Does this mean that even those G's of other gulls that I haven't been counting as display, under the impression that they were "pure attack," are really somewhat ritualized. There is no doubt but that this is another species in which V's are relatively very common.
[[circle]] 181 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] elegans [[/underlined]] December 4, 1955 Antofogasta Bay There has been a large flock of these birds, in winter plumage, in the bay here every day since I arrived. Usually rest on the sherries. Leave around sunset. The birds are not very active; and are rather shy (very prone to Silent Panics), but I have watched them a little. They show quite a bit of rather low-intensity unritualized hostility from time to time; usually when the sherries are crowded and more birds are trying to wedge themselves in. The usual jabbing & pecking; very well orientated, delivered toward opponent. I have seen one possible case of a low-intensity V with crest raised. The only display that is at all common is what appears to be Glik. The call itself is a "Kaaa-haaa-haaa....." It has a definite "rattle" undertone; a sort of rolling of "R"s underneath. The individual syllables are perhaps slightly longer than the individual Glik notes of Franklin's Gull. I haven't heard any very long bursts of notes; but it is my impression that succeeding notes tried to remain on the same pitch. This is accompanied by repeated up-and-down movements of the head and neck. The neck is usually stretched forward during there movements; but sometimes this stretching is very slight. Sometimes the up and down receive equal emphasis; but sometimes the down-beat is emphasized (ie. more rapid). I think that the up movement usually comes first. The postures at the peak of the up movement and the nadir of the down movement are shown by sketches in the sketch book, (these postures are rather extreme, long-necked, versions). I think that the bill remains open throughout a burst of "Kaaa" notes. The crest is always raised during this Glik. I have seen some Glik with body R; but these cases have been rare and may have been accidental. This Glik appears to be contagious.
[[underline]] elegans [[/underline]], Dec. 4, 1955, II [[circle]] 182 [[/circle]] I noticed some slight, shortnecked, up and down movements, with bill closed and crest not raised, apparently silent, in hostile situations. These were probably int. movs. of Glik. Sometimes a bird on the ground, when a flying bird was about to land too near, would lift its head up, sometimes twisting it around to face the flying bird, open its bill, and raise its crest. This may have been accompanied by Glik notes; but there was no trace of the typical Glik up and down movements Crest-raising is obviously aggressive. I have seen birds raise their crests when delivering otherwise unritualized attack movements. Raising of the carpal joints is obviously a flying int. mov. Done by birds before flying up in panic, and after landing. This was sometimes quite extreme. The carpal joints were usually somewhat raised during Glik; but never more than slightly, just so that the carpi were visible The Silent Panics were full of erratic flying. I am not sure if Glik notes were uttered by flying birds, (I think they were - but usually when trying to land in a crowded section of the group); but another note appears to be characteristic when the birds are milling about in the air after a Silent Panic has begun to calm down "Keeyup" or "Keeyar" notes. Higher pitched than Glik notes; but also have "rattle." Sometimes uttered in quick succession; but never really high intensity rhythm like Glik. Another call uttered by flying birds when a Silent Panic was relaxing was a rapid "Kree kree kree kree kree...." clear, high-pitched notes - very shore-bird-like Gosts were very common during periods of general hostility. Couldn't possibly have been a "coincidence". Have seen only one pattern which might have been connected with pairing Two birds, flying very fast, one behind the other,
[[underline]] elegans [[/underline]], Dec 4, 1955, III [[circle]] 183 [[/circle]] with some zig-zagging. one or both uttered "Krih Krih Krih..." notes, fairly long-drawn, separated by intervals, with just a very slight rattle undertone. This flight ended in a precipitate glide by both birds (which I couldn't follow) I must check all this stuff, particularly the Glik postures, with Walker's photographs in "Natural History" & "The National Geographic". One of the birds was a mutant. Had pastel orange-pink legs (same color as bill) instead of black ones. [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 5, 1955, Antofogasta Bay I am rather puzzled by what these birds are doing here. Several pairs (at least) of the adults seem to be enjoying numerous successful copulations. And there are always lots of adults around throughout the day. Don't they have a colony of their own to go home to. These birds have dark eyes (Or, at least, all the adults I have seen close up have dark eyes). Look dark brown (from distance of less than 10 ft, with glasses). Reddish eye ring inconspicuous. The corners of the mouth are a little more orange than rest of the bill, in some birds (probably just those with relatively slightly orange bills as a whole). Inside of mouth nondescript yellowish. Gosts occur during hostile encounters. Not overwhelmingly frequent, but probably too common to be coincidence. Have seen choking once during a dispute on the field. Usual type, legs slightly bent, but no squat or lowering of breast onto ground. High intensity V, just before or after attack, is sometimes with wings raised and spread a little. Usually momentary, probably not ritualized. [[Image - bird head and wings]] [[Crosshatching doodles along left side of manuscript]]
[[circle]] 184 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] dominicanus [[/underlined]], Dec. 5, 1955 II. The L.C. pattern seems to be quite variable. Sometimes O alone(Can confirm the fact that it usually contains 6-8 syllables, more often the former than the latter I think. Must correct one thing I said previously - all the notes are almost the same pitch, certainly no pronounced lowering or deepening as call progresses - notes are deep to begin with). Have once seen a single phase L.C. in which the posture was intermediate between O & HD, although the notes were typical O notes Looked almost like an L. [[image - left-facing bird's bill to neck with "L" written in neck]] (This "L" was given by an apparently "anx" bird, just before retreating) Have seen a lot of HD-O's. The head is often quite far back during HD; (but I haven't noticed any particularly conspicuous raising of carpal joints during HD). Haven't seen any more 1/2 O-HD-O performances. HD is sometimes, at least, accompanied by 1,2, or 3 very soft notes, usually brief. These have very little carrying power, and I can't transcribe them They may be like HD notes of [[underlined]] [[belcheri?]] [[/underlined]] Considering the size of these birds, (they are extraordinarily variable in size and proportions, incidentally), their voice is comparatively weak Even the O notes have nothing like the carrying power of the comparable notes of the Herring Gull. One juv. gave repeated L.C's (or parts of L.C.'s) from O posture just like adult Sound was most peculiar "Tik tik tik tik...." More or less same number of syllables as in adult O call. (This bird was in approximately 2nd whiter plumage - or so I deduce from Murphy's brief description). Gave this call in observing hostile circumstances Some of the Gosts are probably HD int. [[mous.?]]. They are exactly like the usual brief HD int. [[mous?]]., except that the bill isn't opened and there isn't any brief note
[[circle]] 185 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] dominicanus [[/underlined]], Dec. 5, III One very interesting incident adult bird gave usual HD int. [[?]]., with call; and then, [[underlined]] without the slightest pause [[/underlined]], kept head going down & back and began to preen lower breast feathers in a perfectly normal-appearing manner. Excellent example of" facilitation by similar feed-backs" or whatever you want to call it. December 6, 1955, Autogasta Bay [[underlined]] dominicanus [[/underlined]] Add a few supplementary remarks to yesterday's notes Correction The eyes are not really dark. They are actually grey, just as Murphy says. But this is only noticeable when bright sunlight is shining right into a birds eyes. In the shadow of the eyebrows the eye does look dark; the only effect of the greyness then is to make the eye look smaller. (It is small at the best of times Front view this bird is remarkably flat-headed. [[image - front view of bird's head]] Confirm. The carpal joints are usually (perhaps always in this situation) [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] lifted during O & HD. Sometimes they are hardly visible [[underlined]] T [[/underlined]]-HD after attack!! Bird making long circling flight. (Didn't see what happened before it flew up. Gave repeated LCN's and 2 M notes: "Aow Aow Aow Aowoooooa Aow Aow Aowooooooa.... ". Then back, landed by itself. This incident suggests that M note is not too closely tied to "purely" sexual behavior. (On, of course, that what I have been calling M notes is something like a Pcc). [[image - male symbol]] regurgitates food for [[image - female symbol]], [[underlined]] after [[/underlined]] mutual T'ing, copulation, [[image - female symbol]] T'ing. Can confirm general weakness of voice. Certainly true of T note, M note on ground, & Cop Call
[[circle]] 186 [[/circle]] [[underline]] modestus [[/underline]] December 6, 1955, Antofogasta Bay. General note about these birds. They are certainly "calmed down" since I first arrived. It has been days & days, for instance, since I have seen choking or anything that looked even remotely like pair formation. Mostly lots of late-stage pairing behavior now. (Many of the birds are still staying in Antofogasta at night. Checked this last night). Have heard one "Aow" note by attacker before attack. December 6, 1955, Antofogasta Bay and Tocopillo. The types of birds have remained much the same in Antofogasta ever since my arrival. Lots of Grey Gulls, lots of Elegant Terns, quite a number of Kelp Gulls, and a few (1-4) Franklin's Gulls (all adult). Had brief glimpses a week ago of a smaller tern, possible Arctic Tern (looked very grey - an in non-nuptial plumage). One juvenile Belcher's Gull seen around Nov. 25-26. Assemblage of birds at Tocopilla, seen Nov. 29, was surprisingly different. Lots of Grey Gulls, and quite a lot of Kelp Gulls, just like Antofogasta. But also quite a number of Belcher's Gulls, both adult & young birds; and quite a lot of Inca Terns (breeding in barges!)
[[circle]] 187 [[/circle]] [[underline]] Serranus [[/underline]] Tuesday, December 13, 1955, Laguna de Maule P.8 All patterns performed by adults, in more or less complete nuptial plumage, unless stated otherwise. There are a number of these birds here, (possibly 25 in all). At least 3 birds in complete adult nuptial plumage Several adult birds in incomplete nuptial plumage. Several first-year birds, in very incomplete nuptial plumage. The birds are not active. Have seen no signs of pairing, surprisingly little hostility. Definite ritualized V posture. Have seen one or two cases very definitely agg. (see drawing); several cases in which the posture appeared to be intermediate between mod + agg. [[image - bird's head drawing]] One of these latter was adopted by an escaping bird. Haven't yet seen anything that was morphologically an anx. V. HF definitely present. Same as that of the BhG in form. Definitely produced by a preponderance of escape motivation, occurs before during, and after overt escape. In general, the voices of these birds are like that of the bird in the Lima Zoo. Probably the highest + shrillest of any gulls I know Have heard one complete L.C., in distance. Didn't see the accompanying postures; but the sound itself was just like the L.C.'s in the Lima Zoo. The commonest form of hostility among the birds on the ground here is the LCN. Often comes in great bursts. Each note relatively short -, "Kree" with pronounced rolling undertone of "r"s. Given from semi-O, or, much more frequently a V posture (see drawing). Definitely aggressive; have seen it prelude attack several times. Al.C. notes given by flying birds, swimming birds, + birds on ground. Sharp "kik", or, better "tuck" notes. Either single notes or, higher intensity, double notes. [[underline]] Have yet to hear a trisyllabic Al.C. [[/underline]]. All the Al.C.'s by birds on ground or water have been given from slight Alarm Posture Both short + long LCN's given by flying birds. Short ones occasionally given by bird flying past me Both long and short LCN's given
[[circle]] 188 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 13, 1955, II by birds circling over me. Long LCN's given by pursuer during pursuit flight. Long LCN's given by bird during Swoop. The long + short LCN's are very similar. The short LCN's given by flying birds are just like the ones previously mentioned as occurring during disputes on the ground. The long ones are often very long ________; must also be transcribed as "Kreeeeeeeeee...", but they are purer than the short LCN's, lack the "rattle" or "rolling R" undertone. All sorts of intermediates between them. The long LCN's are presumably the equivalent of, and homologous with, the PCC's of other gulls. This circling, noted above, was just like that of the Ring-bill. No up & down movements. The three cases of Swooping + Soaring observed occurred when several birds (5) were circling around me. All performed by one individual. Redirected in [[vamo?]]. Relatively short; but quite steep [[image - drawing of bird swooping]]. Pronounced dihedral during Soar. The only remarkable thing about the postures of the birds screaming LCN's above use, and the bird Swooping + Soaring, was the peculiar effect conveyed by the position + relative eye of head + neck. The neck was usually stretched forward + downward, the head also pointing downward; and there was a noticeable contrast between the wall black head + the large "puffy" white neck Several birds circling above me, or flying straight toward me, have screamed a long series of LCN's, the long bird, with very little pause, if any, between successive notes These performances were not, however, complete Long Calls. No `----__ effect. I have heard some LCN's by flying first year birds. Usually brief, although some moderately long. Much like those of adults, but buzzier (more "rattle"?), more like the LCN's of Bonaparte's Gull. No sign of "erratic flighting" like that of Bonaparte's Gull In general, the voice of this species, compared with that of the
[[circle]] 189 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 13, 1955, III Grey-hooded Gull, sounds as it it came from a smaller bird. The bodies of these birds here do not always look as relatively large as that of the bird in the Lima Zoo. Still - they never look small-bodied. The only pursuit flight I have seen was obviously connected with food. Some twisting & turning; but no swooping or soaring. [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]] December 14, 1955, Laguna de Maule Notice again that the V & brief LCN's often precedes attacks. In this case, an adult, incomplete nuptial plumage, did it repeatedly before charging a first-year bird. Once did V & LCN ->V-> charge V & brief LCN's also appears to be a reaction to me. When I approach, a bird swims away from the shore a few feet, then swims along, far away from any other bird, in V (swimming type - can't be very well distinguished from alert posture) uttering an almost constant stream of brief LCN's for more than a minute. Some V's look exactly like mod. agg. V's of the B.h.G (i.e. lack the prominence toward rear shown in my drawings Vermilion inside mouth is very conspicuous during LCN's. One bird (adult, incomplete nuptial, ?) does R, in more or less relaxed posture, when another bird passes close by. One first-year bird gives LCN's from relaxed posture when adult approaches. These notes were relatively "pure" and low-pitched, might be transcribed as "Keow"s One first year bird goes into H (possibly semi-F) & R, then immediately attacks Extreme agg V by first year bird V before attack - V&HF after attack V before attack - V & HF after attack
[[circle]] 190 [[/circle]] [[underline]] Serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 14, 1955, II. 3.00pm. A whole new outlook! Found an island in the lake where there is obviously a breeding colony well-established About 25-30 prs probably. The island is small and rocky (not very large boulders, however). The only obvious vegetation is a good deal of the short, tussock-y, grass which is so common around here. This island is about 1/4 of a mile from the nearest bit of mainland. I can see much of what is going on, and even hear some of the calls given by the birds, and some of the birds occasionally fly over to show much aerial hostility over my head; but it is somewhat difficult to determine the exact stage of the breeding cycle represented by the colony as a whole. I haven't noticed any early pairing behavior. Boundary disputes are occasionally conspicuous & prolonged. There is little redirected aerial hostility. I have seen quite a number of copulation attempts Some of the birds may be sitting on eggs; but some pairs obviously can't have nests ([[image - male symbol]] & [[image - female symbol]] sitting side by side on rocks in water). My guess is that most of the birds are just at the immediate pre-egg stage Now to get down to the behavior of the birds. Lots of aerial hostility by the birds which come to fly over me. I think that my analysis of the aerial call notes needs to be revised, or rather extended, somewhat. The aerial LCN's are extremely varied, long and short, "pure" or "rasping" (i.e. with R or rattle undertone). The longer & purer notes seem to be higher intensity than the shorter & more rasping notes. (It must be mentioned, however, that there are occasionally short pure notes and long rasping ones; although there seems to be a definite correlation between length & pureness, ie. the notes tend to get purer higher & shriller, as they get longer). The very high, shrill, pure notes are apparently produced by a preponderance of attack drive, as they are frequently given by the birds flying straight towards me. These
[[circle]] 191 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 14, 1955, III. are not, however, the real equivalent of the PCC. The real PCC notes are long, pure, relatively soft, somewhat lower in pitch, often quavering, sometimes almost trisyllabic "Keeee-a-wah". It is these latter that usually accompany the Swoop (although the beginnings of some Swoops are accompanied by the higher, shriller, long notes), and occasionally continue (in a fading form) into, or even through, the Soar. I have finally heard a number of trisyllabic AlC's; but these are still obviously relatively rare - they only occur at the "highest" intensities (or the strongest relative strengths of escape?? very doubtful, as the birds don't retreat from me any more rapidly, or any further, when they give trisyllabic AlC's than when they give bisyllabic or monosyllabic AlC's) It would appear, in fact, that the trisyllabic AlC's of this species are never produced by such weak motivation as some of the trisyllabic AlC's of other species [[underline]] this is one of the more peculiar features of this species [[/underline]] Some of the birds flying above me have uttered repeated series of LCN's, mod. long, high + shrill, without pause between notes. Again, however, there was no trace of aerial L.C. [[underline]] I am beginning to think that this species may really lack an aerial L.C., as some of the birds flying above me have obviously had very high motivation indeed [[/underline]]. (It is possible, of course, that this escape drive have been relatively too strong to permit an L.C., but then one would expect the L.C. to be given by birds that do a lot of Swooping, etc And it is hardly likely that the LCN's I have heard would all be less aggressive than any L.C. that the species might have). Intermediate notes between LCN's and AlC notes are not infrequent. Almost bisyllablic "Keewup". I saw a lot of Swoops + Soars performed by the birds above me. All redirected; some in [[vamo?]], some upon other nearby birds flying around me Some of them were like the ones previously described, ie short
[[circle]] 192 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 14, 1955 IV and stays. Others were much more extreme, [[underline]] quite as exaggerated as the most extreme Swoops and Soars of Franklin's Gull. [[underline]]. They were not as exaggerated as the most extreme Swoops and Soars I have seen in the B.h.G., but, the fact that they are as extreme as they [[strikethrough]] are now [[/strikethrough]] were, relatively late in the breeding season, and in view of the fact that I have only seen a relatively small number (about 10-12) of them, there is every reason to believe that the Swoop-Soar complex of this species is probably quite as well developed as that of the BhG. I noticed a few apparent peculiarities in the form of the Swoops & Soars of this species. (a) I was struck by the extreme amplitude of the wing strokes during the Swoop [[image]], from about straight up to almost straight down. Also, as previously noted, struck by the extreme lifting, almost vertical portion, of the wings during the Soar (b) It was noticeable that the birds often assumed the same striking posture, head & neck stretched strongly downward, before and during the Swoop that they did in the Soar --> [[image]] (Other species do this too; but I have never seen it so markedly as in this species). (c ) There was sometimes a definite pause before the Swoop, while the bird remained stationary, beating its wings as during the Swoop, and maintaining the extreme downward stretch of the head + neck. This looked very much like a stationary "butterfly flight." Some or all of these peculiarities, it must be noted, may have been due to the fact that the birds were flying in a very strong wind. (They may have shown a tendency to Swoop [[underline]] into [[underline]] the wind) Although I saw a number of pursuit flights without trace of either Swoop or Soar, I also noted several pursuit flights which ended in extreme Soars, and one which incorporated an extreme Swoop as well
[[circle]] 193 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 14, 1955, V. as a terminal Soar Have seen one or two "flying" Soars. Several, at least, of the observed pursuit flights were apparently redirections provoked by intra-specific hostile disputes on the ground in the colony (Those pursuit flights included the ones with Soars, and the one with both Swoop & Soar) Also managed to see a lot of ground hostility in the colony, as well as a little hostility on the water. [[underline]] V is very common [[/underline]] Occurs in just the same circumstances as V's of other species; eg. with HF after copulation, with HF as a low intensity greeting (without other displays), etc. Form much as previously described; appears to vary from extreme agg form to "moderate" form (neck not as thick as in agg. V, bill approximately horizontal) Still haven't noted anything that looked like an extreme anx. V in physical form Noticed at least one V on ground with tail above wings also one V on water with tail above wings, (this latter followed F, and it is probable that the tail is seldom above wings in V's that do not follow F). O and F are much less common than V in the colony at the present time. Much as previously described, but it is now apparent that the peculiar O's with "inverted arch" are always, or almost always, directed toward flying birds. Sometimes quite short-necked in these circumstances. The usual O toward a bird on ground is quite straight necked, much like many O's of the BhG. [[image]] It would appear that the O is really quite variable F also much as previously described One very long-necked F by bird on the water [[image]] O-F is often shown by birds on the ground toward flying birds; and it is probably the usual sequence of displays in such circumstances- as
[[circle]] 194 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[underline/]], Dec 14, 1955 VI. might be expected. I am not yet sure what role O-F plays in "greeting". It is certainly relatively rare at present; but I have seen at least one "greeting" of O-F-V&HF. Choking is very common in the colony. Physical form much as previously described, sometimes as vertical as ch. of BhG., and I have seen one case in which tail was lifted above wings (but not spread). [[underline]] (It is obvious, incidentally, that this is one of the species most apt to lift its tail above wings during threat [[underline/]] Remarkable in view of its size Gives most peculiar effect, especially in V, as tail appears short and "far forward"). Choking actually occurs during both brief & prolonged territorial boundary disputes. Like Ch. of BhG, it is often redirected by mates toward one another during such disputes. I think that Ch. may also play a part in "greetings", e.g. Ch-V-HF; but this is still somewhat dubious. There is a positive intermediate between Ch + V, [[image]] and it is quite common HF is remarkably common with V, almost always present with the posture intermediate between V + Ch, and I have seen it once with pure Ch. Remarkably extreme in this species. At least as ritualized as the HF of the BhG, much more so than that of the Grey Gull, for instance. Almost always a single movement; but have seen one case of "repeated" flagging Have seen a little sexual behavior, at a great distance. [[female symbol]] begging from [[male symbol]]; postures of [[female symbol]], and movements, just like those of begging [[female symbol]] BhG, (except possibly that the actual backward tossing was relatively slight) Each tossing movement accompanied by brief note, which I couldn't hear. [[male symbol]] reciprocated by regurge in some cases. Just put head to ground or went into real M. In other cases, the [[male symbol]] went into V, ran away, or performed redirected ground or aerial hostility In still another case, [[male symbol]] went into V,
[[circle]] 195 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[underline/]], Dec 14, 1955, VII gave 3 or 4 HB movements from V, then made mounting int. mov. The actual copulations I observed, (3 or 4), appeared to be just like those of the BhG. [[male symbol]] gave Cop Call, which sounded like "Ka ka ka ka ka…" from a distance. One general note. The behavior of this species is becoming more and more obviously similar to that of the BhG in all respects. Just one problem about the O-F-L.C. complex. This appears to be relatively rare, in its complete form. And it may be significant that I could provoke choking at will in the captive bird at the Luria Zoo, while having considerable difficulty in provoking O-F. This suggests that the causal differences between O-F and Ch included something else besides mere intensity (and besides the fact that O-F is a long-distance as well as a short distance complex of patterns). It may be that the Ch of this species has "partly taken the place of" the O-F???? December 15, 1955, Laguna de Maule [[underline]] serranus [[underline/]] Came back to the mainland opposite island in morning. Am immediately mobbed by 6 or 7 birds from island. Aerial hostility much as yesterday. But the wing-beats of birds charging rue, and birds swooping, although emphatic, was no more emphatic or extreme than the wing-beats of Franklin's Gull or the BhG. This is presumably due to the fact that there is almost no wind here this morning. One bird flies around me, giving repeated high, shrill, long LCN's. In the head-down posture, although it shows no inclination to swoop for a long time [[image]] <-- these proportions are about correct, except that the tail is a little too long
[[circle]] 196 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec, 5, 1955, II Have finally discovered an aerial Long Call, and it is rather surprising! One bird flies around, Swooping repeatedly. The form of these movements is quite usual; but the call is not a PCC. 2 or 3 three high, shrill, long LCN's during Swoop, then 3 or 4 shorter LCN's during Soar. [[underline]] These LCN's get progressively shorter, and perhaps slightly lower [[/underline]]. The whole series of Swoop-Soar notes might be represented as [[image - sketch demonstrating swoop & soar]]. This seems to be a definite L.C., although the differences in pitch between first and last notes are relatively slight. [[underline]] This behavior appears to be a remarkable specialization [[/underline]] The tail is closed during the Swoop, but spread during the Soar. I have seen another bird do a Swoop-Soar with L.C. When a bird flies around me, screaming high long LCN's, in posture with head & neck stretched downward, it goes out of this posture to a greater or lesser extent, goes into a "normal" flying posture, if it interjects a burst of AlC's in midst of the LCN's. Then goes back into downward stretch posture if it resumes LCN's Much to my surprise, there appears to be a motor boat of the lake With fishermen. They land on island, walk around. One of them goes egg-collecting. Finds at least 3 nests with one or more eggs. One nest certainly had two. So some of the birds are certainly in the incubation phase. Silent Panics by birds as fishermen approach the island. Much as usual. Quite slight. Little erraticism. Birds just fly up, fly over water, circle, and land on water Have also been watching a little behavior on land in the colony. One bird, [[image - male symbol]] of pair, does Ch - O - F - V&HF - V toward a neighbor who lands too close. Good example, presumably, of gradually declining intensity Have seen several more "greetings" of Ch - V&HF, and combined [[circle]] Ch&V [[/circle]] & HF - V. I am fairly certain that the posture intermediate between Ch and V is usually silent.
[[circle]] 197 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 15, 1955, III. Must revise a little that I said yesterday. O with inverted arch does occur during ground disputes. But it is seldom or never the brief initial stage of O. It appears when the transition begins to F. This transition is relatively long in this species. The length of the transition, in fact, is probably the complete explanation of the peculiar appearance of the O of this species. The BhG may well have an O with an inverted arch also, just before it goes into the F, but this is such a fast transition that the inverted-arch O is unnoticeable (At least, that would appear to be plausible!). The posture intermediate between V & Ch is another one in which the body looks particularly large. At least as large as in the inverted-arch O. The wind has come up again 10:30 a.m., and it has calmed down the birds in a quite spectacular fashion Just sitting Aerial fight, brief. Movements just like Swoop - Rise - Hover of Franklin's Gull. Couldn't hear any sound, however. I am almost sure that this species can't have much in the way of [[Glik?]]. I would probably have heard a trace of it by now. In case I forgot to mention it - I have seen the pursuer, during more or less horizontal pursuit flights, attempt to peck the pursued. I have yet to see the pursued do very much twisting and turning during a pursuit flight, although I have seen a little This is presumably due to the brevity of all the pursuit flights I have seen. Some agg V's appear to have bill pointing almost vertically downward. [[image - sketch of bird with bill touching chest]] comme ca In case I forgot to mention it earlier, here or in Lima, the tail is not infrequently above tail in F.
[[circle]] 198 [[/circle]] [[underline]] serranus [[/underline]], Dec. 15, 1955, V. Have again heard a number of first year birds flying above me, screaming LCN's. Voice quite like that of adults. I have not heard first-year birds utter the very highest, shrillest, & longest LCN's; but this is probably because I have never seen a first- year bird as "excited" or "upset" as some of the adults. [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 18, 1955. Zoo, Santiago A lot of these birds in a pen here In fairly good condition; but flesh colors (i.e. bill & legs) a little pale. Some of the birds quite active in "semi-sexual" behavior (i.e. "friendly" choking, M, etc.). M note is a "muffled" plaintive "Waaaaaaah". Just like that of Herring Gull. Possibly a little deeper in pitch. M is often preliminary to choking. Some of the M-Ch between members of pair appears to be "purely" "friendly"; but a lot of it is obviously redirection as a result of hostile encounters with neighbors HD is usually accompanied by 2 notes. These are "clearer" than M notes, and usually shorter, but still they are much more like M notes than are the O notes. [[underline]] This may be significant in connection with the homology of L and HD postures. [[/underline]] Ch usually done standing posture like Herring Gull. Bill is wide open throughout O, but the mandibles do close very slightly between each note [[image - sketch of bill wide open for "note", and slightly less open for "between notes"]] This closing is very inconspicuous. Some Ch. appears to be absolutely silent, [[underline]] even close up [[/underline]]. (Presumably low intensity) Other Ch is accompanied by call exactly like Herring Gull Ch. call
[[circle]] 199 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]], Dec. 18, 1955, II The fact that some Ch appears to start, in a low-intensity form, without preliminary M, and that some M notes appear to be relatively high intensity and frequently repeated, would suggest that the difference between M & Ch is not just one of intensity. The "purely" "friendly" Ch & M can presumably be explained in terms of "general " or "sexual" frustration. On the theory that any form of frustration leads to "anger". Case in which carpal joints were hardly lifted at all during HD, then lifted mod. far out during O!! [[image - sketch of bird with head under body]] Extreme HD. Less extreme form is just pointing head downward. Neck is not thick during O. Both Ch and HD-O are common during some extreme disputes here. V common during lower intensity disputes. M common during disputes when mate is present. Ch sound might be transcribed as "nah nah nah ...." There is every reason to believe that this species lifts its carpi relatively less and relatively less frequently than some related species. Not only is the lifting of the carpal joints extremely variable during the L.C. performance; but I have seen quite high intensity agg. V's without any lifting of carpi. T sound, by [[image - male symbol]] T'ing from V, a very soft muffled "uh....uh....uh...." sort of thing!! Now lots of L.C.'s with very brief HD, only one HD note. [[image - female symbol]] Begging from H, with T. This T note is hoarse and muffled; but rather more like "Keeow" than the T note recorded above. (Bill is kept almost closed, or only opened very slightly during all T's)
[[circle]] 200 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]], Dec. 18, 1955, III. Have now heard quite a lot of T calls. All muffled. The 2 previously recorded versions are the extremes. (It is remarkable how weak this sound is - it is quite inaudible even here at a distance of 20-30 feet, although both the M and Ch sounds are completely audible, even conspicuous, in these circumstances). The T note is obviously just the same, eventually, as that of related specues; but it is deeper, & hoarser, and this, plus the muffling, is what makes it sound so different. Birds tend to give M notes, apparently, when standing by fence to get cherries thrown by spectators. Haven't seen any V's with real "nest" raising, although a few have had faint indications of a nest. In spite of what I just said about carpi-raising, it is remarkable how many agg. V's are accompanied by the raising & spreading of the whole wing. This is particularly conspicuous when a bird stops stock-still, right in front of an opponent, after having rushed forward in an aggressive charge. [[image - sketch of bird with wing open]]. Copulation Call is rather loud. "Ka ha ha ha....." Usual quality of voice. Bill wide open. Have seen [[image - male symbol]], just before mounting, give soft version of Cop Call, bill slightly less wide open, while standing "leaning over" the [[image - female symbol]]. M (sometimes followed by Ch) often given by [[image - male symbol]]'s, after collecting m.m, as they go toward what appears to be potential nest-site. Appears to be a form of "calling" the [[image - female symbol]]. [[image - female symbol]] often follows [[image - male symbol]], often joins him in Ch at nest-site. (I cannot definitely say that the [[image - female symbol]] ever gives M, in any circumstances; but, of course, it is probable that she does.
[[circle]] 201 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 21, 1955 Santiago Zoo The O part of the L.C. is remarkably polysyllabic. When "complete", it includes at least 6-7 notes, often up to 9-10. The L.C. is so closely associated, very often, with the M call, that the relationship between the two is particularly clear. Once heard an HD with "typical" M note instead of usual note. Have also heard HD - O - repeated M notes several times. One bird does definite Gost (unritualized - as usual) when distracted by my approach. Still... hostile Gosts seem to be relatively uncommon in this species (at least, as compared with [[underline]] belcheri [[/underline]]) One bird does rapid preening movements when I approach. Obviously unritualized; but probably not "coincidence". An appreciable change in apparent proportions during V and O displays: head, neck & foreparts (i.e. the white areas) appear relatively larger than during "relaxed" posture. I.E. the bird doesn't look nearly as long and "heavy" winged. A small, immature, bird (brown wings but black back) gives complete L.C. with relatively "pure" high-pitched notes, sounding much more like L.C. of Herring Gull. Same bird, or another in same stages gives T just before HD-O in hostile situation. Have seen other T's by immature in hostile situations ("Keeow" type)
[[circle]] 202 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 24, 1955, Punta Arenas A lot of these birds, adults & immatures of all ages, on the various beaches along the waterfront of the town. Quite active. Have seen some interesting aerial behavior. A group of birds flies up when I approach. Some vague circling around me. One of the birds does slight unritualized swoop and soar (not as extreme as the most exaggerated Ring-bill swoops and soars) "in vacuo". Series of LCN's during swoop (flying); silent during soar (wings set, motionless, in slight dihedral. Walking along street when two birds (possibly pair?) fly high overhead. Both give complete L.C. One or two preliminary notes, then 6-8 notes. Only posture was a not-too-extreme O. Wings continued beating throughout performance. Heard one of a group of birds flying near me give 4 syllable AlC "Ha ha ha ha". Typical large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] quality. (There is no doubt, however, but that the AlC is relatively rare in this species; [[underline]] much rarer than in any other gull I know) [[/underline]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] December 24, 1955, Punta Arenas A smaller number of these birds around in much the same places as the Kelp Gulls. Many LCN's by both flying birds and birds on ground. Very reminiscent of the Andean Gull; but somewhat more like the BhG. High & shrill, but not so much so as the usual LCN's of the Andean Gull. "Rattle" undertone. Slight buzzz effect. "Kreeeee" or, more often perhaps, "Kreeeaar".
[[circle]] 203 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 24, 1955, II Have also seen a number of displays on ground, but not very well or very closely. The birds aren't very active. LCN's usually from relaxed posture by birds on ground; but I have seen one bird give a burst of LCN's from a V or semi-V posture before & during attack. (Very reminiscent of the Andean Gull) Many "alert" postures. Some of which were probably anx. V's; carpi just visible. A few possible low intensity agg.V's; carpi just visible. Definite O's seen several times. Very much like Andean Gull. Perhaps a slight trace of "inverted [[arch?]]". There seems to be an F in this species; but I have only seen the briefest examples at a great distance. Once a brief F int mov [[image-arrow pointing right]] O [[image--arrow pointing right]] F int. mov. Otherwise F alone. Once quite extreme; but rather straight-necked One semi-F semi-H with trace of R In general, this species [[underline]] looks [[/underline]] remarkably like the BhG. Its' closest relative, however, is probably the Andean Gull. Much T'ing and HB'ing by birds feeding near sewer outlet. Both movements apparently accompanied by relatively soft version of LCN. This is presumably the FB cry. Obviously both T and HB contain a hostile element in these circumstances. (Before I forget -- it might be worth stressing the fact that HB, or, at least, frequent HB, appears to be a "diagnostic"characteristic of the [[underline]] ridibundus [[/underline]] group December 25, 1955, Punta Arenas. [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] There are a lot more birds here this morning. About 20 or 30 by the sewer outlet. Quite active
[[underlined]] maculipennis [[/underlined]], Dec. 25, 1955, I. [[circle]] 204 [[/circle]] I think that it might be better to say that the voice of this species is almost exactly intermediate between that of the Andean Gull and Bonaparte's Gull. Has a definite and conspicuous [[trail?]] of the buzz of the latter. Many O's and F's in the crowd this morning. Both are very similar to those of the B.L.G. in form. Many F's by themselves. If O and F occur together, the usual sequence, as expected, is O->F Many O's before Attack. V-HF after attack. There is still a good deal of apparently hostile T'ing from H. ("Joining" is really the wrong phrase here - the backward movement of the head is [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] slight. J.E., the performance is like the low-intensity T'ing of the B.L G.). A couple of F's or semi-F's (very little "inverted arch")before Attack. Form of the aerial LCN's are particularly long & quavering [[image - long and somewhat wavy line]]; but most are short. Almost all the birds here are in complete nuptial plumage; but a few are in complete "winter" plumage, and some have mottled heads. Have heard several mono-and hi-syllable AlC's by flying birds "Kek" or "Kek Kek." Typically [[underlined]] Hydrocoloeus [[/underlined]] in quality. Trying to hear the sounds accompanying the ground display postures. Rather difficult, as voice is not too loud and the situation is not too good (lots of waves, and trucks moving along rood. The numerous brief O's that occur, by themselves alone or followed by brief F's, are often accompanied by [[underlined]] a single [[/underlined]], long drawn, buzzy, not very loud, "Kwaaaarrr" (sic!). Sometimes 2 much notes, [[underlined]] but this is relatively rare. [[/underlined]] (The fact that the "typical" O is "monosyllable" is rather surprising). The numerous brief F's are accompanied by shorter notes, usually one or two, sometimes more, varying from "Kree" to "Kreear" to "Kwarr." Also buzzy.
[[underlined]] maculipennis [[/underlined]], Dec, 23, 1955, II. [[circle]] 205 [[/circle]] I have also heard a number of apparently complete L.C's, i.e. vocal performances including many more notes. [[underlined]] These sounded very much [[/underlined]] like the L.c. of the Audean Gull. Never saw them very well; but in at least 2 cases accompanying extreme O -> extreme F patterns. FB note is sometimes just like F note(and both of these are obviously nothing except brief LCN's). Sometimes, however, it is a higher-pitched, shriller, "Kreee". Less buzzy than many F notes Both F and FB notes are relatively loud; at least as loud as O note I have heard some quavering long-drawn notes, very reminiscent of Pcc or M notes of other gulls. Almost "Kreee-a-waaar" sort of thing. Not sure who was giving them from what posture. May be just a type of O note. There seems to be a landing call. About 4 or 5 descending LCN's [[image - 4 lines each lower and smaller than the previous line]] In general - close up - the notes of this species can be transcribed quite well by [[Kuhman's?]] terminology of "Kwaar"s and (for low intensity brief LCN's) "Kwap"s. The only thing this ignores is some of the shrill high-pitched notes. Apparent M.C. [[image - male symbol]] O->F->V & HF-> walks away in V->(pr->flies off [[image - female symbol]] O->F->V & HF (These O's, F's, and V's are very extreme). V as in B.b.G Moderate to agg. [[image - bird's shaded head and neck facing left with notes written "bill not wide open" with arrow pointing to bill and "Very B.b.G - like" written below and "This is the typical brief O posture" with arrow pointing to back of head]] Extreme O's are probably characterized by the fact that the bill points more strongly upwards. The "inverted auh" effect doesn't appear until the transition to F. Then it is conspicuous, bill vertical or nearly so.
[[underlined]] maculipennis [[/underlined]], Dec. 23, 1955, III. [[circle]] 206 [[/circle]] This O posture is often modified just before or during attack. Just as in B.h.G. Head & bill become horizontal, or even point downward. Just as in my drawing in theirs. There is an attack call as in B.h.G. A somewhat staccato, slightly "broken up" version of LCN. Must repeat and emphasize how obviously aggressive the O is. As in B.h.G. Very, very common before attack. F is just as in B.b.G. Most of them in their circumstances are obviously low-intensity; short-necked, bill horizontal. But I have seen some quite as extreme as any of B.h.G. Carpal joints are held way out during extreme O's, F's, and V's (turtle effect); but this is rare in these circumstances _ Usually, here, the carpal joints are just barely visible - if at all. Some of the semi-F, semi-H, postures are accompanied by slight R; but this is relatively rare. It may be that all F;s are accompanied by slight erection of mantle feathers; but the back usually remains "smooth" if somewhat "swollen". Description notes. Hood appears to be same color artist of the B.h.G Doubly the darker posterior border is less distin ct. (On close look, quite a lot of these birds show a few white feathers near bill - presumably the beginning of the post-nuptial moult). Eyebrows are relatively small. OuTside of bill dark crimson ,(inside of mouth nearer vermilion). Feet & legs crimson; perhaps somewhat lighter and brighter than those of B.h.g, (although this may be due To the fact that the birds are in a late phase of the breeding cycle. General effect of wing-pattern much like that of B.h.G, (see accompanying drawing). Some of the birds still have a rosy bloom on breast & belly. Proportions appear To be much the same as those of B.h.G; but bill is probably shorter & thicker.
[[circle]] 207 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 25, 1955, IV Many of the O's & LCN before attack are not modified; i.e. no trace of "Attack Note" even at the very moment of pecking an opponent. Many birds land in group without a landing call. There is a good deal of "PAG" in hostile situations. Birds peck downward very quickly. As they are standing in water most of the time, and in a good feeding area, these pecks are often transformed into ducking or feed. Also sometimes accompanied by slight head-shaking - then the whole thing looks like "cleaning" the bill. Have seen a good many more O's now. Some high intensity, with or without infrequent F's. Only one peculiar feature. Body is usually, (perhaps always??) horizontal or even slightly tail upward. Very reminiscent of Andean Gull. [[image - sketch of gull with tail in air and head up with mouth open]] Body looks relatively large in this posture, (larger than in other postures; but not as much so as in Andean Gull. Some rather high intensity-looking O's are [[underline]] not [[/underline]] accompanied by raising of the carpi. I have seen no sign of "tail-raising" above the wing-tips I haven't seen any choking either; although the birds often stand in posture that [[underline]] looks [[/underline]] rather "pre-choking" [[image - sketch of bird]]
[[circle]] 208 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 25, 1955, V. Have seen Choking - but unfortunately by bird standing almost belly deep in water. Usual form & movements. But tail not as high as in B.h.g. or Andean. (possibly due to water) [[image - sketch of bird]] Couldn't hear sound, but bill was very slightly open, and the bird may well have been uttering very soft, rhythmic repeated, muffled notes. Have heard a few trisyllabic AlC's. But they are still relatively rare (This is certainly another point of resemblance to Andean Gull) May possibly have heard a 4 syllabled Al.C. The "Attack Call" might be transcribed as "Kakakakak". Very rapid. Obviously a "fragmented" LCN. (Note resemblance to Belcheri's Gull!) This leads to a certain amount of confusion; as it is very difficult, perhaps impossible to distinguish between the Attack Call and a 4 syllabled Al.C. Am again surprised by the [[underline]] obviously [[/underline]] hostile nature of the FB note from H or with HB from semi-V. Even used by birds running to attack. Have seen several F's, and even more H's, or semi F'-semi H's, in hostile circumstances, with R (definite, but not too extreme). The L.C. of this species is certainly somewhat peculiar. Relatively few notes. I have seen many apparently extreme O->F performances with no more than S notes. One or two long-drawn, [[underline]] very buzzy [[/underline]] notes, with moderately open bill, in O; followed by about three shorter notes, [[underline]] buzzy but also very plaintive [[/underline]] notes in F. (The transition between the 2 postures is relatively rapid - and is usually covered by the latter part of the only, or second, O note). Bill barely opened during these plaintive F notes [[underline]] Tail widely spread during these F's. [[/underline]] (Another point of resemblance to the Andean Gull). These plaintive F notes are very different from the notes uttered during briefer, lower-intensity F's (F's by themselves alone, or associated with brief O's) The latter are higher-pitched, shriller, not plaintive. Bill
[[circle]] 209 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 25, 1955, VI is opened widely during the shrill F notes, (and possibly the tail is not fanned - or, at least, fanned less widely). Rhythm of "typical" L.C.'s might be represented as ________ ________ __ __ __ or ___________ __ __ _ (I haven't indicated pitch in these diagrams, because it is difficult to distinguish in such peculiar, un-human-voice-like sounds. I suppose that the F notes might be shown as lower pitched than the O notes; but there is certainly nothing like an [[underline]] evenly [[/underline]] descending series of notes. All O notes same pitch; and all F notes the same pitch). It is possible that some O's, particularly prolonged, may have 3 notes; but this is very rare - if it even does actually occur. The overtly hostile semi-H or H postures, with R, with brief LCN notes ("LCN" in broad sense - including FB notes and shrill F notes - if any of these can be really distinguished from one another) are very reminiscent of the Andean Gull also. [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] December 27, 1955, Bay of Porvenir A little pairing behavior on the beach in the rain. MC's of O -> F - > V&HF, and just V&HF. After this the [[image - male symbol]] flew up, chased another bird in a redirected pursuit flight performance. Rapid horizontal chase by pursuer, giving LCN's, notes intermediate between LCN and Attack Call Notes, then an Attack Call Note. Followed by very short Swoop, and a moderately short Soar (at first flying, then gliding). Attack Call Note continues into the Swoop, LCN's during first part of Soar, silent during last part of Soar. (The simple, silent, nature of this Swoop and Soar probably does
[[circle]] 210 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 27, 1955, II. mean that the Swoop of this species is necessarily relatively little exaggerated. This particular bird was very aggressive; and one might expect expect him to do relatively little in the way of display. This behavior was very close to "pure" attack). Had a good view and hearing of M. By [[image - male symbol]], after MC. Stood in V. On put head to ground (only approximately a typical M posture," if that) On stood in "pre Choking", semi-V, tail up posture. Bill closed or almost closed. M notes might be transcribed as "Waaaaah"; but essentially un-transcrib-able. Rather muffled; but not very plaintive [[underline]] Very strong [[/underline]], rolling, "undertone" of "r-r-r-r....." [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]] a.m. December 29, 1955, Porvenir Bay All behavior by adults in nuptial plumage - unless otherwise noted. Watching a group of these birds along waterfront. Feeding in a crowded mass on beach; then fly to rocks in water to nest a while. Adults in nuptial plumage, almost complete nuptial plumage make up about 1/3 of the birds. Adults in winter plumage, or almost complete winter plumage, make up another 1/3. Juvenals (and/or immatures??) make up the rest. These birds are quite remarkably stolid. Have seen quite a bit of low intensity "pure" fighting or attack behavior, and quite a bit of "pure" retreat & escape; but the birds do [[underline]] remarkably [[/underline]] little in the way of displays The pure attack is quite conventional. Forward & upward pecks usuallyn (Like my drawing of "semi-O in B.h.G thesis). Bill opened widely but briefly during such pecks. Conspicuously crimson on both inside & outside. (On outside, darkest & most brilliant toward tip; pale, almost flesh-colored, toward gape). I don't think that this can be a real ritualized "G" pattern. Usual "Alarm Posture". Usual forms of retreat & escape. Have heard quite a number of Al.C's, but they may all have been
[[circle]] 211 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec. 29, 1955, II. low-intensity. A single harsh note, or, rarely, 2 such notes. By flying adults or adults on ground (in Alert or relaxed posture, I think). Very harsh & hoarse. Sometimes note can be transcribed as "Kek"; but sometimes "Hahk". Well! Have just heard adult, nuptial plumage, on ground, give "Kek kek kek" Al.C. Just like Belcher's Gull Al.C. [[underline]] The commonest hostile pattern here is T! By juvs and also by adults in all plumages [[/underline]]. Quite well-marked. More extreme than most of the hostile T's I have seen in the Patagonian B.h.G's here; but less extreme than the most marked T's of Franklin's Gull. [[image - sketch of bird with beak pointed upwards]]. perhaps the most extreme I have seen so far Accompanied by T note, apparently the same in both adults and juvs, a soft, almost whistled, "Kleeoo". Bill opened very slightly and very briefly during the note. The most interesting thing about this T, however, was its unmistakable hostile nature. (in all cases - no trace of FB), [[underline]] and the frequency with which it was given by the attacker after attack [[/underline]], (in about half the cases seen - perhaps 75-100). No carpi-raising with T. Some of these T's may have been silent. At least the call was very soft and the bill apparently closed throughout. Have heard trisyllabic AlC by flying bird. Now we get to the LCN - L.C. business; which is rather complicated. Aerial LCN is usually hoarse and harsh. "Haah" to hoarse "Keow". Often given by bird flying near me. Then usually single notes or several notes with some pause between them. Have heard a large number of notes given by flying bird chased by a Kelp Gull (food robbing and these followed one another in rapid succession, with almost no pauses between notes. Given from usual posture or lack of posture.
[[circle]] 212 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec. 29, 1955. III. Ground LCN is much the same. Usually single. Same variation. [[underline]] (It seems to me that the LCN's of this species are extremely variable) [[/underline]] Given from "relaxed" posture, or semi-V, or (rarely, I think) from semi-O. Obviously hostile; but not, usually, in immediate association with either overt attack or escape. Juv. LCN is the usual larine "Kee-a-a-a-r", with definite "rattle" or "reedy" quality. Quite frequent on ground, and I have heard it in the air. Given from usual postures. Have seen one definite case, and several probable cases, of juv. LCN before attack - T&T note after attack. Complete L.C.'s are rare; but there have been at least 6 in the group here this morning. Have had good views of 2 by adults in full nuptial plumage. Definitely the large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] type!! HD - O sort of thing. The HD posture itself appears to be rather peculiar (although the cases I saw may have been only low-intensity - but I rather doubt it a little). Reminiscent of HD of great Skua, or even O of Silver & Hartlaub's Gulls. Neck stretched upward & forward, head & bill pointed downward & forward. HD accompanied by two notes "Kreeooo Kreeeooo" or "Kliooo Kliooo [[image-arrow ascending to the left and then descending to the left, ending between K and L in last word]]" Quite "pure" in tone. This is followed, immediately by O (in all the cases I saw hardly more than semi-O). [[image-drawing of bird with head an deck at upward angle and beak open]] This is accompanied by 4-6 rapid, almost "pumping", hoarse, harsh, "Hah hah-hah-hah" notes, getting progressively deeper in pitch. The whole L.C. might be diagrammed as: [[image-drawing of 2 long horizontal lines with HD below and 5 short lines descending to the right and each getting shorter, with O underneath]] Carpal joints are visible throughout the L.C. These L.C.'s were obviously hostile. After real fight in disputes over food and perches. Might add some remarks about adult (both nuptial & non-nuptial) LCN, before I forget. Some LCN's are quite "pure", Herring Gull-like. Others are so short and harsh that I have trouble distinguishing them from
scourbii, Dec. 29, 1955, IV. 213 [[page#, circled in top right corner]] [[image- in left margins of the page are three lines and crosshatching, separated between paragraphs, drawn from the beginning of the entry to the completion of the page. Paragraph 2 has one short, diagonally drawn line to the left of the lines approximately halfway through the paragraph. The final paragraph has a number 4 with one diagonal line below it and three more further below it, again centered to the paragraph.]] the hauh[[?]] Al.C notes. An interesting "L.C." performance by juvenile (probably - possibly an adult in non-nuptial plumage- but I doubt it). During dispute over a mating spot. Juv, sitting down. Goes into HD posture (like that of the adults in nuptial plumage), utters one very "ready" (almost pure rattle) juv, LCN, then gives four T's with T notes. [[underlined]] This is probably merit[[?]] significant in connection with the L.C. of the Blue-billed gull.[[/underlined]] I have seend unusual cases of HF (single movement) after attack. Either unritualized or very low intensity. From relaxed posture (navi[[?]]-u) or low intensity V. Sometimes precedes T in these circumstances. I have seen a number of "V"s either unritualized, or, more probab-ly, low intensity. Some newi[[?]]-agg, (bill like this [[arrow descending from left pointing to right]]), during aggress-ive charges and after attack. Some rather aux, difficult to tell from "alert posture, (bill like this [[arrow ascending from left pointing to right]]), by retreating birds during disputes in no case were the caipi[[?]] more than just visible Must stress the fact that even the T's that occur during feeding are apparently purely hostile. Closely associate with actual fighting. No trace of FB (i.e. no bird facces another and gives repeated T's - almost all these T's are single movements - if not they are unmistaliably[[?]] associated with fighting) pm. Return to the same place. Same amount of birds, doing same thing. More about L.C. performances all around. Saw one bird do L.C. just like this morning, [[underlined]] HD-O, this followed by difinite T movement, extreme, with LCN, not T note.[[/underlined]] This bird was adult in comple nuptial plumage Another bird, adult in almost complete nuptial plumage, gave repeated brief bursts of O notes (about 3 or 4 in series) from neut-O posture, [[underline]] nothing more,[[/underline]] during various disputes during feeding. Bill closed during at least one of the bursts, (and the notes did sound muffled. Same bird, (he was particul-arly aggresive), alsot gave the most elaborate L.C. perfomance I have [[End of page]]
[[upper center]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec. 29, 1955, [[Roman numeral 5]]. seen yet. O-HD-O!! Two notes during the first O, regular O notes in quality but separated by a somewhat longer pause than the notes accompanying 0's after HD's, (which almost run together). HO notes and series of notes with second O, much as described before. Whole call can be diagrammed as follows [[diagram- two smaller/darker lines, two larger/lighter lines, four smaller/darker lines in descending pattern]] All the O posture's during this performance, (as well as all the other O's I have seen today) are remarkably low-intensity in physical appearance; look like semi- O's of other species, head horizontal (more or less), but neck definitely stretched forward. As for the HD posture, I was again struck by its resemblance to the O of the Silver Gull, head [[ampersand]] bill "very close to neck", pointed vertically or almost vertically downward. Carpi definitely [[underline]] lifted out [[/underline]], slightly, during HD. Heard the same call as this last, 3 phases, 3 times more Possibly given by the same bird; but I couldn't catch the postures Before I forget, an incident this morning. When we first stopped the car, one of the birds in the group stood in semi-V, gave repeated LCN's of the purer "Keeow" type, opening [[ampersand]] closing bill with each note. At least 10 in series. Note about AlC notes. Often occur in much the same circumstances as the AlC's of other gulls (i.e. pot. pred. obviously approaching); but also occur in other, possibly different circumstances. Sudden outbursts in group sitting quietly when I haven't moved, and I can't see any dog or man approaching. Burst of AlC notes (single, repeated) by bird flying in to land in group. Would this suggest that the AlC of this species contains a relatively stronger attack drive than that of others?? (Remember that AlC. and LCN of this species seem to intergrade) I wonder if the "complete" L.C. performance of this species is O-HD-O-T? Would be very nice, from a comparative point of view, if it was. Note about the very low-intensity V's I have seen. The "agg" type, after attack, show trace of an "aggressive head-set" Narrow, from top to bottom, in front, and slightly "erected" behind [[image- bird with slightly slanted eyes]] [[left-pointing arrow]] This instead of [[right-pointing arrow]] [[image- bird with rounder eyes]]
[[circle]] 215 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec 29, 1955, VI. General conclusions about comparative significance. The L.C. behavior of this species definitely puts it into the large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] group. Morphological features would suggest that its closest relative is Belcher's Gull. Some aspects of its behavior (i.e. the hostile T patterns) are somewhat reminiscent of the hooded gulls; and it may be that this is the closest thing there is to an "intermediate" species between the two main groups of gulls. General notes about the physical appearance of the species. It looks like a short, small version of the large Larus species. Almost like a large pigeon with a coarse bill. (This bill is thick & short, but much less massive looking than I expected. Less massive-looking than I expected). The bird appears to be somewhat shortnecked. Doesn't convey the impression of short compact body like Belcher's Gull; but doesn't look at all long-necked either. Rather nondescript; in fact; and not very attractive proportions. December 28&29, 1955 [[underline]]dominicanus[[/underline]] Calleta Josefina and Porvenir Bay Notes on some aerial behavior by birds put up by me. Complete aerial L.C's are [[underline]]common[[/underline]] in these circumstances. Haven't been able to see the accompanying postures in most cases; but in one case at least the aerial L.C. was accompanied by [[underline]]both[[/underline]] HD and O postures. The HD posture was less extreme than my drawing of the aerial HD of the Herring Gull - more like my drawing of the areal M of the Herring Gull. [[arrow]] [[underline]]maculipennis[[/underline]] December 29, 1955, Porvenir Bay. Have seen some pairing behaviour!!! [[male symbol]] vented by 2 females in a row. (Second [[female symbol]] approached on foot. I didn't see the approach of the
[[circle]] 216 [[/circle]] [[underlined]]maculipennis[[/underlined]], Dec. 29, 1955, II. first [[female symbol]]). On beach 2 elaborate MC's. Both mutual O [[arrow symbol ->]] F [[arrow symbol ->]]V & HF. The first [[female symbol]] then HB'd repeatedly, from V, before flying off These F's were very extreme. As extreme as any I have ever seen in the [[Bhg?]]. Bill pointed strongly upward, base of neck very low, neck as a whole moderately long, carpal joints held way, way out. The AlC notes of this species are particularly loud, harsh, & sharp. Just about as much so as those of the Dolphin gull. [[underlined]]scoresbii[[/underlined]] December 30, 1955, Porvenir Bay. a.m. Same place, same group of birds. The AlC notes of the species are particularly loud, harsh, & sharp. Sound very much like those of the Patagonian Bhg, but probably somewhat deeper in pitch (on the average). These 2 species certainly have the most emphatic ALC's of any gulls I know. Like so many gulls, birds of this species almost always give an LCN note when flying up from group. Almost always one of the harsher, coarser, type. Have seen two more L.C. performances. Once HD-O like yesterday. (This bird was adult, in full nuptial plumage). One HD-O-HD-O-T-T. There T's with T-notes. (This bird was adult, in half winter plumage). One juvenile flying about, [[underline]] by himself, [[/underline]] in quite an extreme Erratic Flight. Much the most extreme I have ever seen performed by a large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] gull. Not as extreme; however, as the most intense performances of the BhG and Bonaparte's Gull--lacked the spectacular vertical plunges & soars) All the birds fly up when a Skua flies overhead. This was obviously alarming but not too very intense. The whole performance can be classified as a low-intensity Silent Panic. Birds flew up with a few AlC notes, flew together, flew out over water, circled and repeated, landed again.
[[circle]] 217 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [/underline]], Dec. 30, 1955, II. I have seen quite a bit of pursuit flight behavior. One gull chasing another, or a gull chasing a Skua. Usual form, quite uninteresting. A fair amount of twisting & turning. Sometimes accompanied by slight, obviously unritualized, very short & shallow, swoops and "flying" Soars. More about the T performance. I have seen one bird, at least, do several T's [[underline]] immediately before attack [[/underline]]. Most of the T's do not seem to provoke any reaction in the birds toward which they are directed; but [[underline]] some of them appear to be intimidating [[/underline]], inducing the bird toward which they are directed to flinch or retreat slightly. I have seen some more extreme T's. [[image--drawing of bird with neck and head pointed upward]] These are obviously high-intensity; very, but not all, of them doing T's after attack. Most of the T's after O are also high intensity like this. I have come to the conclusion, incidentally, that the "gentle" or "stolid" appearance of these birds is really misleading. [[underline]] Brief attack behavior is really quite common. And T's are very common indeed [[/underline]] (Most of them are slight). There seems to be little doubt but that [[underline]] the hostile T's "take the place of" of the LCN's of other species. {LCN's are relatively very rare in this species--at least where the birds are on the ground [[/underline]]). Most of the T's are given from a very short-necked, "relaxed", (almost H posture). Head isn't usually thrown back more than [[image-arrow to right pointing to bird's neck]] [[image-drawing of bird with head and neck pointed up]] I have, however, seen one case in which a bird gave T from V. This T from V was very reminiscent of HB. Back of head brought down as the bill went up. p.m. Have seen four more L.C. performances; all by birds in complete nuptial plumage, (these are certainly more active than the other birds) first, a bird went into "low-intensity O posture" (see below) gave about 4 muffled O notes, with bill completely closed, then did 1 definite T, with T note, bill still completely closed. There was no trace of HD in this performance, )incidentally, this was definitely [[underline]] not [[/underline]] the same bird that did L.C.'s without HD yesterday); and the fact that O's can occur without HD, and not, apparently, the reverse, would suggest that O's are lower intensity than HD's. The next L.C. was HD-
[[circle]] 218 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec. 30, 1955, III. O-T-T (both T's with T notes). Form just like yesterday. The other 2 L.C's were both HD-O and nothing more. Again noticed raising out of carpal joints during HD, (probably the carpi went in again, a little, during succeeding O's). Bill certainly remains widely open during high-intensity O, no trace of any opening & closing in rhythm with notes. I think that the same is true during HD. It is possibly that the bill closes slightly between HD and O, but I [[underline]] very much [[/underline]] doubt it. I think that the bill closes or almost closes before first T, and it certainly does between T's. All the O's in this series except the first were "high intensity O postures" (see below). One thing about all the HD's and O's I have seen so far is very striking - [[underline]] they all look very short-necked [[/underline]]. This may be due to the fact to the fact that I have only seen low-intensity forms of both patterns; but I doubt it. I think that this appearance is due to the proportions of the birds themselves, this species is very chunky. The low intensity form of O appears to be very diagonal - like the sketch I drew yesterday. It usually occurs when there is no HD, or when the O is short and the accompanying sounds are weak, (although there are exceptions). It is interesting, therefore, that this O appears to be identical with the posture from which these birds usually deliver brief pecks, (although the bill is seldom opened as widely during the low-intensity O's as it is, briefly, during pecks). The high-intensity O posture is like this: [[image - sketch of bird with open mouth]] (Like V with curved neck). This posture may also occur during fights, but only in the relatively rare (in these circumstances), when an actual mutual scuffle develops. It is certainly much like the posture from which actual pecks are delivered during such relatively intense attacking. Note about AlC notes on ground, (and presumably in air also, the bill is quite widely open and shut with each note. As a result of today's observations, I would say that the "usual", "complete" form of the L.C. performance was HF - O - T, (with T not infrequently repeated
[[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec. 30, 1955, IV. [[circle]] 219 [[/circle]] A few more notes about the physical appearance of these birds. Adults in complete nuptial plumage are almost white at base of bill, have white eyebrows which are fairly conspicuous. Red eye-ring quite noticeable. Light eye. Dark hood of adults in winter plumage and juvenals is very conspicuous; but perhaps less extensive (doesn't appear to reach quite so far down neck) than that of Belcher's Gull. These birds also have white eyebrows. (The white eyebrows are fairly thin & small). This is one of the species, like Belcher's Gull, in which the adult has white in front of carpi, forming an "outline" conspicuous against black of wing, and, in part, against black of back. The pearl-grey tinge, incidentally, appears to be darkest at base of back of neck. Color of bill (in the most vividly marked birds I have seen) is as follows: [[image- pencil sketch of gull beak with descriptions of coloration using arrows to provide notes to location on beak]] [[image - arrow pointing left side of image with three arrows sprouting]] bright crimson-vermilion [[image - arrow pointing to top right side of image]] light- (almost orange-flesh color). [[image - arrow pointing to bottom right side of image]] there sometimes appear to be a dusky smudge here, almost like trace of a ring or base. [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] December 30, 1955 Porvenir Bay [[image at left margin - (3)2.5 inch length by 0.25 inch width darkened pencil lines and (1) 2.5inch length by .50 inch width area made up of intersecting diagonal lines intersecting other diagonal lines]] Juvenal bird, apparently first-year, purely brown, with light markings), flies in pursuit of a Skua, then wheels off, flies toward group of gulls on ground, [[underline]] gives complete aerial L.C. [[/underline]], lands. This L.C. was quite like that of adults, except that the notes were somewhat "reedy" in quality. As far as I could tell, the only posture accompanying this L.C. was a neck curved slightly upward and stretched very far forward. This sort of thing [[image - arched arrow pointing left]] Normally distinct HD or O. [[image at left margin - (3)1 inch length by 0.25 inch width darkened pencil lines and (1) 1 inch length by .50 inch width area made up of intersecting diagonal lines intersecting other diagonal lines]] Further evidence that juvenal gulls are quite "capable" of producing elaborate hostile displays like those of adults. It is just that they usually don't in the circumstances in which they usually find themselves
[[underline]] dominicanus, [[\underline]] Dec. 30, 1955, II. [[circle]] 220 [[\circle]] Have seen quite a few more cases of aerial L.C.'s by adults today. Usually birds flying over me; and obviously disturbed. Can definitely state that the wings continue beating throughout most (and probably all) aerial L.C.'s. One interesting case. Adult bird, with food in bill, was pursued by another adult bird. Very rapid, prolonged pursuit. The pursued bird uttered 2 or 3 or 4 complete L.C.'s during the chase; [[underline]] none [[\underline]] of which was accompanied by ritualized postures. A note about pursuit flights. I have seen quite a number of them in the course of the last few days. Much rapid twisting & turning. Possibly a few short, shallow, obviously unritualized, swoops with beating wings. A few short, shallow, obviously unritualized, soars with beating wings and "gliding" soars. All patterns by adults in complete nuptial plumage, unless otherwise noted. December 30, 1955, Porvenir Bay [[underline]] maculipennis [[\underline]] Have seen several more cases of M.C.'s of O -> F -> V & HF Have also seen several cases of O -> F by birds on ground toward flying birds. Just like B.h.G. This species also has a definite ritualized Swoop-Soar complex. Have seen several forms. Once, a bird chased a Skua in air, made repeated, [[underline]] very long, [[\underline]] gently sloping, Swoops (flying) and Soars (both flying and gliding) at the Skua. These were almost as extreme as the most exaggerated Swoops and Soars of the B.h.G. [[image - diagram suggesting swoop]] toward skua Also some interesting behavior toward me. Quite a number of birds, flying by along the shoreline, have stopped to circle me. Have uttered usual aerial LCN's, AlC's, and, also, many particularly long LCN's, slightly quavering, almost "Kee-a-waar" notes. There are probably PCC notes. Sometimes, at least, accompan-
[[circle]] 221 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 30, 1955, II. ied by wing-beats of slightly greater amplitude than usual. Some birds circling around me have also performed short, shallow, flying Swoops and flying or gliding Soars. Some of these are redirected in vamo. Then the Swoop is accompanied by PCC notes, and the soar is accompanied by weaker PCC or LCN notes. Sometimes, however, these Swoops and Soars were directly orientated. [[underline]] Then the Swoops were accompanied by a most peculiar series of notes. [[/underline]]. Several times, at least, different birds did [[underline]] AlC note -> AlC notes -> Attack Call during Swoop. [[/underline]]. This sequence of calls suggests that the AlC notes of this species, like those of the Dolphin Gull (!), may contain a relatively stronger attack element than the AlC notes of most species of gulls. It also, in all probability, supports the suggestion that the "attack call" of the [[underline]] ridibundus [[/underline]] gulls is really a "combination" of AlC & LCN; or, rather, that the attack call is a less fragmented version of the LCN than is the AlC. (I must admit that I have great trouble in distinguishing the attack call of this species from a very rapid series of AlC notes). The Soars following these Swoops were accompanied by PCC or LCN notes. The whole Swoop-Soar performance in these circumstances can be diagrammed as follows: [[image - diagram of swoops]] I am fairly certain that the buzziest or "twangiest" aerial LCN's, those that are most like the LCN's of Bonaparte's Gull, are uttered by adult birds in non-nuptial plumage and/or immatures. I still haven't heard any trace of a complete aerial L.C., although I have heard several birds utter long series of LCN's in very rapid succession. All the notes were more or less uniform in pitch: _ _ _ _ _ _
[[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]] [[circle]] 222 [[/circle]] December 31, 1955, Porvenir Bay. a.m. Same birds, same place. Another L.C. performance. This time by immature, (still with brown on upper wing- coverts, of HD-O-T with T note - T with T note. Exactly the same as that of adults, in posture and [[underline]] voice [[/underline]]. The LCN is [[underline]] remarkably [[/underline]] rare in this species. There are hours, during which hundreds of T's occur, during which there aren't more than one or two LCN's, at most, in the group of birds feeding on ground. The V, and the HF, are also extremely rare, (and the HF is rarer than the V) There may be 20 or more of these, all very low-intensity, for every one LCN in the group of birds feeding on the ground. The only time at all where the LCN occurs with any appreciable frequency is just as the birds fly up. Then it is almost invariable. Probably also more common among birds flying along than in birds on ground. I might add, just to make things clear, that the voice of this species now sounds as if it came from a much larger bird. Rather similar, in fact, to that of the Kelp Gull, (it's the "hoarse" quality of which is particularly reminiscent of the latter). Another L.C. performance, by adult in almost complete nuptial plumage. Simple O, "low-intensity O posture," diagonal Bill open, notes not muffled. Juv. does Juv.LCN -> T with T note after attack. Have seen several cases of T after escape by adults in nuptial plumage Thus the T's in immediate association with either attack or escape can largely be divided into the following categories: a great many after attack, a few before attack, a few after escape. This would suggest that the T pattern is low intensity; with [[underline]] the attack & escape drives about evenly balanced [[/underline]], or, [[underline]] just possibly, escape very slightly stronger than attack [[/underline]]. There is certainly no indication that escape is very much stronger than attack. Thus, this T appears too be roughly comparable to the T of captive Laughing Gulls (and the T of the Ring-bill??); and, to some extent perhaps, the HF of many species
[[circle]] 223 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]], Dec, 31, 1955, II. Another L.C. performance, by adult in complete or almost complete winter plumage. HD (notes harsher than those previously described, more or less "Keeearr Keeearr" [[image-arrow pointing to the right]] O (very brief, only one note) [[image-arrow pointing to the right]] T with T note [[image-arrow pointing to the right]] T with T note. The fact that HD may occur without, or with very little O, might suggest that the difference between HD and O is something more than a pure "intensity" difference. I have seen several very slight R's of mantle feathers after attack. By birds in semi-V or continuing feeding, (adults of all stages and juvenals). Only in the case of one juvenal, however, was this R at all conspicuous. December 31, 1955, Porvenir Bay. [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] A lot of miscellaneous stuff seen today. A flying bird, with food in its bill, chased by Kelp Gull. Much twisting and turning, finally forced to drop food. Then flies away, uttering long-drawn LCN notes "Keeeeaar keeeeeaar." These sounded very high intensity; rather less quavering, however, than the notes I called PCC notes yesterday. (Actually, I doubt if anything like real PCC notes should be distinguished in this species. [[underline]] The notes I have been calling PCC notes, although almost certainly homologous with the PCC notes of other species, are probably nothing more than high-intensity LCN's in this species [[/underline]]). The interesting thing about this performance, however, was that [[underline]] the first 2 long notes were delivered from an extreme aerial O posture [[/underline]]!!! [[image-drawing of bird with beak open and head at upward angle]] Accompanied by beating wings. Merged smoothly into a series of 3 progressively shorter notes, progressively deeper in pitch, as the bird circled and landed (Thus the whole series of notes can hardly be called a complete aerial Long Call - the last half was a Landing Call).
[[circle]] 224 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Dec. 31, 1955, II. Another, somewhat similar, case. Again a bird with food in its bill was chased by a Kelp Gull in long pursuit flight. This time the pursued bird uttered a whole series of these long LCN's, in extreme O posture, with the food still held firmly in its bill! Have seen several more M.C's Both O-F-V&HF and V&HF types. Have seen two different birds, during M.C.'s do O [[image-arrow pointing to the right]] [[underline]] F&HF [[/underline]] [[image-arrow pointing to right]] V&HF. Heard a flying bird utter an aerial LCN [[underline]] just like [[/underline]] "Kwarr" of BhG. The Landing Calls of this species are really remarkably elaborate. Quite as elaborate as ground L.C. ([[underline]] and sound just like some ground L.C.'s[[/underline]]) [[image-7 horizontal lines, each stepping down and each shorter than the previous line]] sort of thing. Speaking of ground L.C.'s, (and this may be a repeat), the usual series of notes is certainly one of increasing brevity and depth of pitch. A very common type might be represented thus: [[image-6 horizontal lines stepping down and each shorter than the preceding line; O under first line, transition O [[arrow to right]] F under second line, F encompassing last 4 lines]] The nearest thing to "sexual" behavior I have seen recently is mutual "FB" Both birds T'ing from H. The [[image-symbol for male]] goes up into V, does one extreme HB, relapses into T'ing from H. Then both birds relax & shut up. Have seen another flying bird make a [[underline]] silent [[/underline]] Swoop (flying) and Soar (gliding) toward a [[Skua?]]. This time, however, the [[Skua?]] was standing on the ground, and the Swoop and Soar, although moderately steep, were relatively short. Not repeated. On general, some of the gulls seem to be as upset by the presence of [[Skuas?]] as are the S. American Terns).
[[circle]] 225 [[/circle]] [[underline]] hirundinacea [[/underline]] December 31, 1955, Porvenir Bay. There are quite a number of these birds here, and they are quite active, both in the air, and on the ground (and even on the water; but I haven't been able to pay much attention to them. They aren't around near the Dolphin Gulls. As far as I can tell their calls, and they certainly have a great variety of them, sound just like the Common Tern. All the birds appear to be incomplete nuptial plumage, except for one or two with a little white on the forehead. They definitely have a Stretch posture. Often used as greeting. Looks just like that of their relatives. Sometimes [[image-drawing of standing bird with head and neck pointing sharply upward]] apparently silent. Often with a call "Ka haa haa haa" I think. Then the bill is slightly open, mandibles opening and closing, I think, in rhythm with the notes. It is my impression that, during M.C.'s, the posture is first assumed with the call, and then, presumably as the intensity of something decreases, the call stops while the posture is still maintained. "Lower intensity" forms of the posture are characterized, by lower, more nearly horizontal, bill. A [[presumed?]] variant of the Stretch, possibly "lower intensity" or possibly due to different relative strengths of the hostile drives, is an Upright [[image-head of bird with beak horizontal]] This tends to follow the V during MC's. Both the St and V are often accompanied by Tilting during MC's. The less vertical forms of the St and the V may [[underline]] also be accompanied by HF. [[/underline]] There is also a Scooping complex. Little bowing movements, very rapid, from St. The posture at the bottom of the bow is reminiscent of the "[[Beugestellung?]]"; but less extreme. [[image-drawing of bird's neck and head, pointed downward]] This Scooping is definitely accompanied by the "Kaa haa haa. . . " or "Ka ha ha ha. . . ." call. [[underline]] The whole performance, with its call and its down & up movements, is very reminiscent of the [[Glik?]] of Franklin's Gull [[/underline]], (and also the pattern I interpreted as [[Glik?]] in the Elegant Tern. The only Scooping I have seen was performed by
[[underlined]]hirundinacea[[/underlined]], Dec. 31, 1955, II.[[circle]] 226 [[/circle]] [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by 1 inch length]] both birds of a presumed pair during a dispute with a neighbor on the mud flats where a whole group of birds was resting. [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by 1 inch length]] The "Ka ka ka ka ..." call is certainly also given by flying birds; but I don't know with what movements and postures, if any. [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1.5 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by 1.5 inch length]] I have seen many terns Swooping at Skuas or on ground. These Swoops are always extreme, [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] steep & long. It is interesting to note that they are all followed by long, steep, [[underlined]]flying[[/underlined]] Soars. [[underlined]] dominicanus [[/underlined]] December 31, 1955, Porvenir Bay [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 2 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by 2 inch length]] Have occasionally watched a large group of birds feeding on mud flat near the outlet of small stream. The only thing that impressed me here was the frequency of M notes in obviously hostile circumstances. Quite often given by birds not near their mates, (I am not even sure that their mates were present in the crowd) All this very reminiscent of the Herring gull. And I am sure I was right in tracing a connection between the M notes and the HD notes [[underlined]]scoresbii[[/underlined]] January 2, 1956, Porvenir Bay [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1.5 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by 1.5 inch length]] [[? red markings overlapping above image]] Have heard 2 more L.C. performances: Unfortunately without seeing the accompanying postures; but they were obviously HD-O-T (with T note) - T (with T note), and HD-O-T (with T note) The most interesting thing about this last performance was the fact that the O part continued at least 6, [[underlined]] probably 7 [[/underlined]], syllables [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by .75 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by .75 inch length]] The usual performance, here, of a bird on the ground toward another bird of the same species flying - low - overhead is a T with T note. [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by .75 inch length adjacent to opposite diagonal lines running perpendicular in an area of .5 inch width by .75 inch length]] Have seen a V & HF not after attack. By an adult in full nuptial plumage when an adult in winter plumage or a juv. approached too closely
[[circle]] 227 [[/circle]] [[underline]]scoresbii[[/underline]], Jan. 2, 1956, II [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 3.5 inch length adjacent to opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by 3.5 inch length]] Well! Well! Well! This species does have a complete aerial L.C. Once heard it given by one of a pair of adults in more or less complete nuptial plumage flying way out in the bay. Once by an adult in group of birds flying over street who came upon me suddenly. Unfortunately in neither case could I see the accompanying postures. (There might have been HD and O postures, but I certainly can't tell). Both performances included "O" calls of many syllables(6 or 7 at least) In the case of bird over bay the wings continued beating through the performance. In the case of bird over street, there was a tendency to glide (don't know exactly when it began); but the bird was gliding in to land on mud flats anyhow [[image-opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by 1 inch length]] There seems to be some retention of pair-bonds in the birds in the group here. At least, I have frequently seen 2 birds stick together, close, for long periods of time, without any sign of hostility. [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1 inch length adjacent to opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by 1 inch length]] I wonder if the fact that the birds almost always give LCN(S) when flying up from group is a sign that the LCN is not purely hostile, is still a sort of generalized thworting reaction??? [[image-set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by 1.5 inch length adjacent to opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by 1.5 inch length]] [[image- red markings on left side margin 23 and small diagonal line [[1?]] ]] I think not. I have just seen about 5 or 6 cases of birds flying up without LCN. And I think that it is obvious that the larger the group is, and the more tightly packed it is, the more likely birds flying up from it are to give the LCN. Must be hostility too. Have just heard another L.C. Obviously HD-O A slight correction to one of my earlier bits of description. This species does have a little white along front part of [[carpi?]] (particularly underneath, toward the rear); but the light area that is particularly conspicuous where the carpi are raised is a streak of grey body plumage between front part of scapulars and the carpi. (I must check this light along carpi [[underline]] in all species [[/underline]], in [[shins?]]) [[image-a vertical, darkened pencil line .25 inch width by .75 inch length adjacent to opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by .75 inch length]] Have just heard another L.C. Obviously HD-O-T (with T note) -- T (with T note). Again a lot of syllables in "O" call. [[image-a set of 3 vertical, darkened pencil lines .25 inch width by .75 inch length adjacent to opposing diagonal lines running perpendicular .5 inch width by .75 inch length]] Have seen several good cases of HF after escape. By [[juvs?]] and adults in both plumages. One quick (not exaggerated) movement.
[[circle]] 228 [[/circle]]. [[underline]] scoresbii [[/underline]],Jan. 2, 1956, III [[image-set of 3 vertical darkened pencil lines 2.5 inch length by .25 width adjacent to .5 inch width by 2.5 inch length of opposing diagonals running perpendicular]] This species probably has a hostile Gort pattern; but it is very difficult to distinguish, as I always see them on potential feeding grounds and the Gort movements I do see could be very easily feeding int. [[suous?]]. Still birds sometimes Gort when "nervous" at my approach, and sometimes when there is overt intraspecific hostile behavior going on in group; and this sometimes appears to be unconnected with feeding. I must say, though, that I don't think that they give hostile Gorts nearly as frequently as the Belcher's Gulls I saw a month and a half ago. January 3, 1956, Near Gente Grande. [[underline]] skua chilensis [[/underline]] Mr. Mach and I visited a large colony of these birds, very briefly, today. Found no eggs; all young apparently hatched The young birds are found varied from a few days old to 1/3 - 1/2 grown. I didn't manage to see much behavior; but a few interesting facts emerged. [[image-set of 3 vertical darkened pencil lines 2 inch length by .25 width adjacent to .5 inch width by 2 inch length of opposing diagonals running perpendicular]] The AlC of the Skua, even at apparently high intensities, is only a monosyllabic or birsyllabic, deep, moderately [[shays?]], hoarse "Huh" or "Huh huh." (It is possible that trisyllabic AlC's occur; but I rather doubt it) [[underline]] The relatively few notes in this AlC would strongly suggest that few-note AlC's are premature [[/underline]] (They have thus far been found in [[?]], all hooded gulls, with one or two possible exceptions, and two large gulls -- [[bender?]] the Skua). The inside of the mouth of a bird with a broken wing was light turquoise, or, rather, bright aquamarine blue. [[image-set of 3 vertical darkened pencil lines 2 inch length by .25 width adjacent to .5 inch width by 2 inch length of opposing diagonals running perpendicular]] The aerial L.C. given by flying birds when we distributed the colony was a 5-7 note affair. Notes deep & hoarse, deeper & hoarser than those of any gull I know; but otherwise similar The whole performance might be represented as: [[image - simple sketch of 5 dashed lines ascending then descending, the uppermost line being the longest]] (I am not sure whether it really went up in pitch in the middle; but it definitely did become strong- [[end page]]
[[circle]] 229 [[/circle]] [[underline]] skua chilensis [[/underline]], Jan. 3, 1956, II. er then). Unfortunately, I couldn't tell which birds were giving the call, (their must have been 50-100 all flying around rapidly usually high in the air), and I don't know what postures & movements, if any, accompanied the call. I saw all sorts of violent aerial hostility in this group of birds. Rapid, [[?]] chases; aerial fights; fast, long, rather shallow swoops; a few gliding soars; a lot of flying soars, etc. etc. We were dive bombed (ie. charged and/or swooped at) repeatedly by the enraged parents, (who rose again each time with a flying soar). The interesting thing about these attacks is that [[underline]] all were silent. The same thing is true of all the intraspecific attacks I saw.[[/underline]] This is most unexpected. We picked up 2 chicks in our hands. One was at least several days old, the other was at least a week old. Both gaped & lunged; but were absolutely silent. Like some old Franklin's Gull chicks, after being held in hand a while. Quite in contrast to a young Kelp Gull (about a week old) which we also picked up today, and which gaped, lunged, & screamed [[jiw.?]] rattle "LCN" at us simultaneously. January 2, 1956, Porvenir Bay. [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] A few notes on stuff I have almost forgotten: A bird flying around in air, uttering LCN's, moderately long, moderately close together; but the bird was definitely giving them from [[underline]] an extreme O [[/underline]] posture. In other words, in this species, the extreme aerial O posture of this species seems to have become definitely associated with a vocalization which is low intensity in other species This, and the fact that I have seen all sorts of apparently high intensity aerial hostile behavior without L.C., is beginning to make me think [[end page]]
[[circle]] 230 [[/circle]] [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]], Jan. 2, 1955 [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] that this species doesn't have an aerial L.C. At the very least, the aerial L.C. must only appear at very much higher intensities than some of the L.C.'s of, for instance, the Andean Gull and the Kelp Gull. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I have seen an extreme agg. Upright just like my drawing of the corresponding posture in the BhG. in my thesis. Same rounded rear of head. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] At last! Choking. Or a reasonable facsimile thereof. Bird in posture like less extreme Ch of BhG. [[image - simple sketch, possibly of a gull in downward flight]] Uttering rather muffled versions of LCN's of the "Kee-a-war" type. This is exactly similar to the "low intensity" Ch. of the BhG. with "[[male symbol]] feeding call"! [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The fact that I have seen so little Ch., and yet so much high intensity O and F, would certainly suggest that the ch of this species cannot appear at such low intensities of motivation as the ch. of the Andean Gull. Must be more like the ch. of the BhG. in this respect. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I have seen several O's, as well as V's, before attack. It seems very likely that the O of this species, like that of the BhG, is often, at least, a relatively very aggressive pattern. January 3, 1956, Near Gente Grande [[underline]]hirundinacea[[/underline]] and [[underline]] inca. [[/underline]] A few notes on the behavior of the S. American Tern, based primarily upon observations made along the coast here, in or near various breeding colonies, with some comparisons with behavior of the Inca Tern. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] I noticed, in Porvenir Bay, that the S. American Tern has a Bengestellung; but I can say anything more about it. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The usual call given by the birds that fly above one's head, when one enters a breeding colony is a succession of not-very-close together, very Common Tern-line, ""Teee-ern" or "Keee-aar" notes. Just like the Common Terns at Scolthead. This is the note which I always though was
[[circle]] 231 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] hirundinacea [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] inca [[/underlined]], Jan. 3, 1956, II. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] the homologue of the LCN of gulls. It is certainly, in the S. American Tern, given from a posture resembling an aerial Oblique. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] The fish-carrying bird during Fish-flights, (and this species certainly has plenty of them), utters a "Kaa haa haa kaa...." call which is very similar, possibly identical , with the call I heard during Scooping on the ground. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Such facts are beginning to make me change my mind about the relationship between the Inca Tern and the [[underline]] Sterna [[/underline]] Terns(rensulato). They may be fairly close after all. I wonder if the "Keee-aar" note is homologous with the Rasp of the Inca Tern?? (Both notes are certainly given as a reaction to a predator or potential predator on the ground. And the "Keee-aar" note of the Common Tern, on the ground, is certainly given from a semi-O, semi-V, posture like that from which the Rasp is given). And I wonder if the "Kaa Kaa haa haa...." forms of Glik is homologous with Cht?? The postures during Scooping are not very different, in fact are very similar, to the [[image-small vertical oval]] and [[image-small horizontal oval]] postures during Cht. The rhythms of the call in both cases is a high intensity rhythm. And it should not be forgotten that the call of the fish-carrying [[male symbol]] Inca Terns on the ground is also Cht of a sort. And I also think that when mates "Scoop" together, in a dispute with a third bird, they sometimes tend to redirect their Scooping toward one another - rather like the redirected Cht of Inca Tern mates). All this is certainly very suggestive. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] One aspect in which the Cht of the Inca Tern differs very decidedly from the "Glik" of the [[underlined]] Sterna [[/underlined]] Terns; however, is in its relationship to the "Alarm Call" (I must add, in case I forgot to earlier, that the "Alarm" nature of the few "smothered" Cht notes uttered by Inca Terns flying up from a potential predator was particularly clear at Tocopillo, where many Inca Tern pairs were nesting scattered in the landing barges). All the [[underlined]] Sterna [[/underlined]] Terns seem to have those "Tik-tik" syllables as Alarm Notes - something which the Inca Terns seemed to lack completely - in that particular form at least.
[[circle]] 232 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]] January 3 & 5, 1956, Gente Grande and Porvenir [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Notes on the aerial L.C. performance, which I have seen repeatedly in the birds flying above the hen house at Gente Grande and the birds flying along the coast near Porvenir. The "HD" phase is usually (always?) short, (and not always accompanied by the HD posture - apparently); while the "O" phase is often very long (6-9 syllables) Can confirm that the aerial O posture is much less extreme than that of the Herring Gull. Postures almost horizontal. Also, sometimes at least, the belly looks particularly plump in the aerial O. [[image - bird profile with open beak]] aerial O [[margin]] vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] This species looks long-winged in the air. This appearance to due to length of the arm - not that of the hand & primaries [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Noticed about 3 juvenile Kelp Gulls feeding with the Dolphin Gulls by the centolla factory. Just feeding, most of the time; but they occasionally gave T note (usual large [[underline]] Larus [[/underline]] "Klioo" type, quite high pitched & "pure" in sound), usually with slight trace of T movement; from feeding posture, or relaxed posture, or even H (more or less). This did [underline]] not [[/underline]] seem to be FB. Not directed toward adult Kelp Gulls. Never repeated as FB T so often is, certainly not accompanied by any FB pecking movements toward bill of bird toward whom the display was directed. These single T notes, in fact, were very reminiscent of the T's of Scoresby's Gulls. I think they must have been hostile reactions; provoked by too close approach of other birds, other Kelp Gulls and Scorseby's Gulls. This is of some comparative interest. [[margin]] vertical line and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Must again stress how polysyllablic is the L.C. performance on the ground. Frequently the O contains up to 10 notes - sometimes more. It is certainly my impression - although nothing more, that this is more polysyllabic more often than the L.C.'s of any other species I have studied. [[margin]] 3 vertical lines and vertical crosshatch pattern [[/margin]] Two M notes (bill opening very widely, and closing again between notes) from extreme, moderately agg.V, in obvious hostile dispute. (This is rather un-
[[circle]] 233 [[/circle]] [[underline]] dominicanus [[/underline]], Jan. 3 & 5, 1956, II [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] the other M's I have seen, which have been given from the "usual" larine M postures). [[text in different color ink]] Must add that I have heard a few 5-syllable Al.C's, by flying birds, but they are still [[underline]] very [[/underline]] much rarer than the 4-syllable kind. [[/text in different color ink]] January 6, 1956, Porvenir Bay [[underline]] scoresbii[[/underline]] [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Both yesterday and today I have heard a call, in the little group by the Centolla factory, that I had not heard, or had not noticed before. A "Tuk" or "Tuck tuck" or "tuck tuck tuck"; a few, only moderately sharp, notes - [[underline]] not [[/underline]] very sharp. Occurs when the birds are running along, in a rather tight, jostling, mass, when a new mass of centolla debris has apparently appeared, rather suddenly, in the "[[disposal?]]" stream from the factory. This call could be either a modified, probably low intensity version of the "Al C", or a low intensity version of the L. C. I am inclined to think the former. Still, it is quite distinct - insofar as the sound goes [[margin]] one vertical line and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] I have seen a bird do a pronounced "G", over its shoulder, during retreat, after being attacked. Although the "G" pattern of this species is probably unritualized, it is usually very conspicuous because of the bright crimson - vermilion color of the bill and the whole inside of the mouth,(lightest, least bright perhaps, at the corners of the gape). [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] This morning I noticed quite an unusual number of unusually extreme V's (unusually extreme in these circumstances - probably only low to moderate intensity in reality) after attack. Carpal joints quite definitely out. Some of these V's were quite "aggressive" in appearance; others approached the "anx" V in angle of bill <------, although the head was never as "flattened", as then in front, as during "real" anx V's. There is one problem involved here. The birds who do V after attack appear to be more highly motivated, i.e. more "strained", than those who T in the same circumstances. Is this really so? If so, what does it imply about the general arrangement of low-intensity, "near distance", (and the T is certainly a
[[underline]]scoresbii[[/underline]], Jan. 6, 1956, II. [[circle]] 234 [[/circle]] near-distance pattern--often at least)? I don't think that I can decide this on my present evidence. A few more descriptive notes. This species has a pronounced speculum when flying, i.e. a relatively [[underline]]very[[/underline]] broad white band along tips of secondaries. Also a white "band" along tips of all but the most distal primaries --(actually a series of white spots on most of these). The species does [[underline]]not[[/underline]], in spite of its relatively small size, appear relatively long winged. It doesn't [[underline]]look[[/underline]] like a particularly aerial form. Heard another complete ground L.C. Obviously HD-D-T. This T'ing of the adult Scoresby's Gulls in hostile situations is remarkably similar to the behavior of juvenile gulls of various species (it is remarkable, as noted above, how the juvenile Kelp Gulls, in the same group, use the T exactly like the Scoresby's Gulls). Does this mean that the frequent hostile T'in of Scoresby's Gull is a primitive or a neoteric character??? Good question. Note about the juv. LCN given by juvs and/or immatures, (there seems to be only one "young" plumage in the group--dark hood, brown on wings, dull legs, bill like young Belcher's Gulls) It is very difficult to tell exactly when & how this occurs, on the ground, as it is very brief, and always occurs when the birds are bunched together and very active feeding. Certainly correlated with little flurries of actual attacks + fighting in the group. Certainly sometimes given by young birds after being attacked (i.e., of course, associated with some actual retreat or flinching) Probably, (almost certainly), by some young birds, at least occasionally, just before attack. In any case, it is quite obviously a hostile pattern and higher intensity than the T patterns. I can confirm the fact that the T pattern is the one given by birds on ground, both young and adults, toward birds flying overhead. (But only birds flying close overhead--they don't react, in these circumstances, to birds flying high). Still not a trace of a Landing Call!!
[[circle]] 235 [[/circle]] [[underline]] scoresbii [[underline]], Jan. 6, 1956, III. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] I have again, several times, heard adults give LCN note (sometimes not even "muffled") with T movement. Once, in fact, I heard an adult (nuptial plumage) give 2 LCN's with one T. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Although some T notes are apparently given without T movements, (when the birds are particularly busy feeding), and some T movements are given without audible sound, both variations are relatively very rare. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Some T's occur without visible opening of bill, others with visible but slight opening & closing. The note sounds the same in both cases. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] The birds, on the whole, seem to be even less active since I returned from Gente Grande than they were before I left. And the group has diminished in There is certainly no sign that birds are drifting in from a breeding colony as the breeding season slowly draws to an end. I think that I must have missed the breeding season completely. January 6, 1956, Porvenir Bay. [[underline]] maculipennis [[/underline]] More aerial stuff [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Have seen several case of short, moderately steep, Swoops with the long LCN's. Flying Swoops followed by silent Soars, either gliding or flying. Usually provoked by we. Sometimes directed at we, but usually "redirected in [[vawo?]]". [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Yesterday I noticed an interesting performance of a bird being divebombed at, repeatedly, by a S. American Tern. Flew back & forth, in a relatively limited area, in an extreme erratic flight, (almost reminiscent of immature Bonaparte's Gulls). This erratic flight incorporated a number of short, steep Swoops (flying) and Soars (flying). The whole performance was silent - except that all the Swoops were accompanied by 1, 2, or 3 of the long LCN's
[[circle]] 236 [[/circle]] [[underlined]] maculipennis [[/underlined]], Jan 6, 1956, II. [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Have seen a bird utter repeated long LCN's, (all or one pitch - definitely not the usual Landing Call), as it came gliding in, wings half-folded, to land near some other birds of the same species. In extreme aerial O posture (All the other extreme aerial O's, and long aerial LCN's, have been accompanied by beating wings. Thus, this incident would suggest that the presence or absence of wing movements is solely dependent upon the aerodynamics involved). [[image - line drawing profile of bird in flight]] [[margin]] three vertical lines and one crosshatched line [[/margin]] Have seen a [[male symbol]], on mudflats, display with one [[female symbol]], walk over to a second [[female symbol]], display with her, then walk back to the first [[female symbol]], and go through another display with her. All these displays comprised mutual O --> F --> U + HF --> U. This was very reminiscent of the early pairing behavior of the B.h.G, as we saw it near Scoulton Mere, before the occupation of the colony area. Must be the famous "autumn recrudescence" in this case. January 8, 1956, Punta Arenas. General note about the larids found in the Magellanic Region. On the mainland, in Punta Arenas harbour, both Kelp Gulls and Patagonian B.h G's have been common all the time. A few skuas around both before I left for the island and after I came back. On the island, from Calleta Josefina to Larita, the Kelp Gulls were equally common and the Patagonian B h G's even commoner than they were on the mainland (although still not as common as the Kelp Gulls in most places). Skuas were somewhat more abundant than on the mainland. There were also 2 other species on the island which I have not seen on the mainland. S. American Terns and Dolphin Gulls. S. American Terns were common everywhere, and had colonies scattered all along the beaches. Dolphin
[[circled]] 237 [[/circled]] Gulls were much rarer (initially by far the rarest of all the birds), but there were little groups (5-30 birds) here and there along the coast, usually near Ceutolla factories), and stray birds or pairs might be seen flying along the coast almost anywhere. The only visible change I have seen in any of the birds during my two weeks + here is a slight increase in the number of Patagonian B h.g's moulting out of nuptial plumage. January 19, 1956 Cartaguia [[?]] A note about the gulls I have seen around the Lago el Pual [[?]] where I have been watching Ruddy Ducks. A number of Frauhlen's [[?]] Gulls have come to the lake from time to time, to bathe, occasionally resting o sleeping on poles in the water for considerable lengths of time: Both immatures + adults. At least 2 adult Patagonian B.h G's have done the same thing, (one in complete nuptial plumage, one in almost complete winter plumage) Large numbers (10 or 12) Kelp Gulls have come to the lake from time to time, just to bathe apparently. All ages. There are even more on the nearby beaches There are also quite a lot of Grey Gulls on the beaches Mostly adults in winter plumage and/or immatures There are always quite a number of terns [[?]] flying + feeding offshore, quite close to land Presumably [[hierunduiacea?]]