Ateles ssp. (monkeys), Barro Colorado Island, Panama, 1958-1961

ID: SIA Acc. 01-096

Creator: Moynihan, M.

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1958-1961

Citation: Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

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The notes document Moynihan's behavioral observations of Ateles ssp. (monkeys), on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, October 2, 1958 - June 6, 1961. Pages are numbered; entries are dated and headed with location and type of bird. Begins with an index organized by several levels by subject and corresponding page numbers. Journal entries cover individual and groups of monkeys with highlighted passages, and phonetic descriptions of their cries. There is a sketch accompanying the text.

Date Range


Start Date

Oct 02, 1958

End Date

Jun 06, 1961

Access Information

Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at


  • Ethology
  • Animal behavior
  • Primates
  • Mammalogy


  • Barro Colorado
  • Panama


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Illustrations

Accession #

SIA Acc. 01-096

Collection name

Martin H. Moynihan Papers, 1952-1996

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 1 Folder 6

[[circled]] i [[circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 1. [[underlined]] General Comment [[/underlined]]. Analysis of all adult signal patterns; 42, 43. Diagrams; 43 Frustration - hostility reactions; 31 Escape behavior. Adults relent; 20. No overt escape by infants; 27. Vocal repertory. Summary adult patterns; 42, 43 Relationship between adult Nll and B patterns; 40, 41. Vocal patterns young animals; 57. Vocal patterns of very young infant; 27. Relationship between Squ, B, and S Nll patterns of both juveniles and adults; 11, 13. Relationship between infant Squ's and B's; 8. Companion of [[underlined]] fusciceps [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] geoppoyi [[/underlined]]; 51 2. [[underlined]] Audible Signals [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Squ [[/underlined]] By infants and juveniles. Description; 2, 7, 9, 12, 13, 34. Earliest form of infant Squ?; 34. General comment; 38. Motivation; 10, 12, 13, 34 By infant, when juvenile companion leaves, 2. By infant, in same circumstances as S - Nll; 7, 12 By juvenile, before B; 6. General comment, relationships between Squ and B in both infants and juveniles; 9. Infant Squ closely related to both B and S Nll; 9. Infant Squ less aggressive than infantile B?; 8. Juvenile Squ closely related to B; 9. Inf. Squ hostile? By adults. Description; 20, 42. Intergrading with [[MJB?]];
[[circled]] ii [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 20. Lower intensity than MJB; 20. [[underlined]] B Complex. [[/underlined]] By juveniles, description; 3 B patterns of juveniles sometimes low intensity; 8. [[underlined]] Infantile B. [[/underlined]] Only by infants. Equivalent to the Ord B of juveniles?; 7 Description. Fart-like; 6, 7. short series; 8. Intergrading with Nll?; 30. "Nondescript" B, as "greeting", with PL, associated with S Nll's; 32. Associated with Squ; 6, 7. More aggressive than Squ?; 8. General comment, relationships to Squ; 8. Part of Mu-Snort-B series; 33. Closely related to Snorts; 33. [[underlined]] Agg. B. [[/underlined]] By juveniles. Description, monosyllabic, deeper, harsher and more grunt-like than other B patters; often with attack movements and/or Jud; 3. Almost certainly aggressive. By adults, with Jud and/or BT; 22, 40. Also aggressive. [[underlined]] Ord B. [[/underlined]] By infants, description; 10, 13. By juveniles. Description, monosyllabic at low intensities, bisyllabic at higher intensities ("Oo-uh"); 3. Sometimes with ratchet-like quality; 4. Sometimes groan-like, 4. Very long series typical; 4. Higher intensity notes with PL; 4. Usually produced when attack and escape drives approximately balanced; 3. Escape strongest in most groan-like notes; 4. By adults. Comparable to Howling; 20, 21. Higher intensity than InfB?; 21. [[underlined]]InfB.[[/underlined]] By adults. General description; 18, 19, 40. Hoarse,
[[circled]] iii [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 rusty notes. Usually only a relatively few notes per series. Intergrading with [[Trill's?]] ?, 19. Intergrading with Squ; 20 Without PL or BT; 44. Frequently closely associated with silent MO; 44, 45. General discussion; 18, 19, 20. As "greeting"; 38. Directed toward me; 45, 56. Directed toward [[underlined]] geoffroyi [[/underlined]]; 45. Partly hostile and partly friendly?; 18. Higher intensity than Squ; 20. [[underlined]] Snorts [[/underlined]]. By infant. Description; 32. Preliminary to "greeting"; 32. Part of Mu-Snort-B series; 33. [[underlined]] O.[[/underlined]] By infants. "Augh" or "Ough". Description; 31. "Greeting"?; 31. Distress Call?; 31 Thwarted infantile mot?; 57 [[underlined]] Mu [[/underlined]] By infants. Description; 31, 32, 33. Part of Mu-Snort-B series; 33. Real contentment?; 33 [[underlined]] M ???[[/underlined]] Adult; 44. [[underlined]] [[Trill?]] Complex. [[/underlined]] General comment; ontogeny [[Trill?]] patterns; 37. [[underlined]] S - [[Trill?]]. [[/underlined]] By infants. Description; 7; 29. As response to recorded Squ's, S - [[Trill?]], and B's; 11. In same circumstances as Squ; 7 General discussion; 7, 10, 12, 27, 28, 57. Possibly hostile; 7, 10, 12, 28, 57 Produced by frustration of infantile motivation? ; 7, 57 "Lost Call" [[Trill?]] by very young infant. Description, 27, 28. High intensity "Lost Call" [[Trill?]] almost like whistle; 29. "Lost Call"
[[circled]] lv [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX. NOV. 22, 1960 All closely related to Mu-Snort-B "greeting" patterns?; 33. By juveniles. Description 13. Directed to me; 47. Hostile; 13 By adults, Description; 20 Hostile; 39, 40. Alarm; 20. S-Nll & PL by sub-adult, directed to me; 56. [[underlined]] L Nll. [[/underlined]] By adults. Obviously hostile. Description; 40. Combined with screams; 40. General comment, relationship between S Nll and L Nll; 40. [[underlined]] Screams. [[/underlined]] By infants. Description; 2, 14. General comment, motivation; 14, 57. Produced by thwarted infantile motivation???; 57 Very high intensity?; 12. By adults. Description; 46. Combined with L - Nll's; 40. [[underlined]] Roar.[[/underlined]] By adults. Description; 38, 39. Without PL or BT; 44. Relatively aggressive; 38. More friendly than Agg B?; 39. Less friendly than [[MfB?]]; 39. Intermediate between Agg B and Ord B?; 39. Produce same effect as Screams; 39 [[underlined]] "chewing". [[/underlined]] By infant, when hungry; 31 3. [[underlined]] Facial Expressions. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] PL [[/underlined]] By infant. Usually silent, sometimes with S Nll; probab
[[circled]] V [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 low intensity "greeting"; 29. Hostile?; 30 By juveniles. Silent; 9. As "greeting"; 35. With higher intensity Ord B Notes; 4. By adults. With MFB; 19. With S - [[Nll's?]], but [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] L [[Nll's?]]; 44. Adults do not do silent "greeting" PL to me; 35. [[underline]] MO. [[/underline]] By adults. Description; 22, 38. "Silent" MFB?; 44. As "greeting"; 38. To me; 45 [[underlined]] To geoffroyi [[/underlined]]; 45 By sub-adult. To me, with [[pli?]]; 56 [[underlined]] BT. [[/underlined]] By adults. Description; 22, 38 Silent; 22. With Agg B and Jnd; 22. 4. [[underlined]] Ritualized Movements [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Lsh. [[/underlined]] By sub-adult. With MO. To me. 56. [[underlined]] Protruding Tongue. [[/underlined]] By juvenile; 14. Hostile. [[underlined]] Sct. [[/underlined]] By adults. Description; 23. By juveniles. Silent, when mildly disturbed; 8, 13. Silent, before B; 5. During Squ and B; 8 With Ord B and (less frequently) Agg B; 5. By infant. Silent, when mildly disturbed; 8, 13. Companion of infant and juvenile Sct with autochthonous [[scratching?]]
[[circled]] vi [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 g; 11. Apparently identical in form. [[underlined]] Jud. [[/underlined]] By adults. With Agg B, description; 22; comment; 22. By juvenile, with Agg. B; 3. [[underlined]] Hdd [[/underlined]] By adults; 23. By juveniles; 1. By infants; 1, 2, 25, 29. Done more frequently by infant than by juvenile; 2. 5. [[underline]] Other Hostile and Partly Hostile Patterns [[/underline]] [[underlined]] "Play" Wrestling. [[/underlined]] By adults. [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]], with MfB (& BT?); 23; [[male symbol]] & [[female symbol]], with MfB and silent MO's; 44. 2 [[female symbol]]'s; 58 General comment; 58 [[underlined]] Redirected attacks. [[/underlined]] By adults. Description; 58. After MO & MfB to me. [[underlined]] SNF [[/underlined]] Initial reaction between strangers (all ages?) Variable in form. Description; 45. [[underlined]] "Greeting" Movements. [[/underlined]] By juveniles. Typically (?) PL & chin-up & eye closing; 35 [[underlined]] Urination and Defeccation [[/underlined]] By infants and juveniles; 9
[[circled]] vii [[/circled]] ATELES FUSCICEPS INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 6. [[underlined]] Miscellaneous [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Use of Hands [[/underlined]] Description; 14. [[underlined]] Comfort Movements [[/underlined]] Face-cleaning. No rubbing along branches; 11. Infant uses tongue; 6 Hand-cleaning: juvenile rubbles fingers (during B); 6, 8 Autochthonous scratching. Usually with hands. By infants and juveniles, description; 11. Once with hind foot; 11. [[underlined]] Social Grooming [[/underlined]] Adults. [[female symbol]] grooms [[male symbol]]; 23, 58 [[underlined]] Feeding [[/underlined]] Infant; 26 [[underlined]] Sleeping [[[/underlined]] Description, adults; 46. [[underlined]] Clasping Reactions Infant. [[/underlined]] Description; 25, 26, 33.
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[[underlined]] A. fusciceps [[/underlined]] As of Nov. 22, 1960 [[Image - diagram with words and abbreviations linked with either solid or dotted lines.]] [[Image words]] Roar, Scream, Agg B, Ord B, L Nll, MfB, S Nll, Squ [[/Image words]]
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[[circled]] i [[circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 1. [[underlined]] General Comment. [[/underlined]] Comparison with [[underlined]] fusciceps [[/underlined]]; 51 General discussion infantile patterns; 56, 57. Analysis of infant displays Squ - [[Nll?]] - Indeterminate Screams = hostile; Squ - WW - Determinate Screams - O = largely or completely due to thwarting of infantile and/or gregarious motivation; 55, 56, 60. List of juvenile display patterns; 51. Comment; 51 List of adult display patterns; 46. 2. [[underlined]] Audible Signals [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Squ [[/underlined]] General comment; 38. By infants. With PL during "greetings". Intergrading with and developing into WW's; 50, 53. Closely associated with Screams; 53. General comment relationships with WW; 50. General comment motivation; 50, 55, 56, 60 Presumably sometimes hostile; sometimes at least partly friendly By juveniles. Description; 25. During greeting, with PL; 49 General comment; 47, 49 More strongly hostile than Snorts, containing strong escape component; 49 General comment; 47, 49 By adults. Description; 20 With OCB and PL; 19. Intergrading with WW; 20 Lower intensity than MFB, and intergrading; 20. Adults Golden Spiders Series of notes, probably containing it
[[circled]] ii [[/circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 long escape component; 16. [[underlined]] WW [[/underlined]] By infants. Description; 50, 53, 54, 55. Associated with Squ and screams (usually or always Determinate); 53, 54, 59. Without PL; 59. "Lost call", produced by thwarting infantile and/or gregarious motivation; 54, 55. Homologous with W & LW of [[puiclu's?]]?; 60. Sometimes hostile? ; 57. Sometimes very high intensity?; 61. When uttered in association with Determinate Screams, induces WW and/or Determinate Screams in return, and also approaches by other infants; 55, 59. By juveniles. Description; 24. Closely related to Squ; 24 Lower intensity and/or less aggressive than Screams?; 24. By adult. Description, 20. [[underlined]] Scream. [[/underlined]] By infants (Unfortunately I did not distinguish between Determinate and Indeterminate screams during my early observations.) Description; 37; 53. Preliminary general comment; 47. Discussion of differences between Determinate Screams ("Lost call") and Indeterminate screams (hostile); 53, 54, 55, 59. When uttered with WW, Determinate screams induce utterance of Determinate screams and WW, and approaches, by other infants; 55, 59. Determinate screams partly hostile?; 61 Indeterminate screams intergrade with [[Nll's?]]; 59. Fade or decline into silent MO; 57. Without PL; 59. During fighting; 58. Induce silent Hdd by other infant; 55. By juveniles. Description; 24. General comment; 47. Closely
[[circled]] iii [[/circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 related to WW; 24. [[underlined]] B Complex. [[/underlined]] General Comment. Eventually adult; 37 Ontogeny; 37, 48. [[underlined]] Infantile B [[/underlined]] Nondescript. Description; 50. Development; 51 [[underlined]] Agg. B. [[/underlined]] By juveniles. Description; 24, 48. [[underlined]] Ord B. [[/underlined]] By juveniles, obviously hostile; 61. By adults. Description; 20, 21. Comparison with Ord B [[underlined]] fusciceps [[/underlined]]. [[underlined]] MfB. [[/underlined]] By juveniles. Description; 37, 48. Intergrading with Snorts. Associated with "play" wrestling, with MO; 37 With Lsh's; 48 With MO or BT; 48. Without PL; 48. Comment; 49, 51 By Adults. Description; 18. Intergrading with Squ's; 20. With PL and OCB; 19. By [[male symbol]], with Lsh's, greeting or sexual; 45. Directed toward [[underlined]] fusciceps [[/underlined]]; 45. Probably at least partly hostile; 19. Moderate Intensity; 19. [[underlined]] Snorts [[/underlined]] By juveniles Description; 48. Comment; 49 [[underline]] "Greeting" [[/underline]] By infants. PL, chin-up, eye-closing, silent; 35 PL with Snorts, occasional Squ or WW & OCB; 50. By Juveniles Snorts & PL (& chin-up and eye-closing?) & SNF. also occasional MfB. MfB's usually with MO or BT, sometimes with Lsh. Also occasional Squ & PL also occasional "chewing". 48, 49. By adult PL & chin-up & eye-closing & OCB. Usually silent. Occasionally with Squ, S [[Nll?]], and/or MfB. 19, 36.
[[circled]] iv [[/circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov.22, 1960 [[underlined]] O [[/underlined]] By infants. A few urgent "Ord B type" notes, after WW's and Screams ("Lost Call"?); 54, 55. Higher intensity than WW's or Determinate Screams?; 60. Partly hostile; 61. [[underline]] Mu [[/underline]] By juvenile. Description; 25. [[underline]] Nll Complex [[/underline]]. General comment. Complete intergradation of "S Nll"s and "L Nll"s; 40. Probable ontogeny; 47. By infants Description; 53, 56. With PL; 36, 37, 47. Comment; 47, 57. Hostile; 53, 56, 57. By juveniles Description; 24. Extremely variable in tone, sometimes wooden; 24. With PL; 47. Comment; 47 Hostile?; 24. Due to frustrated gregariousness?; 24, 62. By adult. With OCB and PL; 19 [[underlined]] "chewing" [[/underlined]] By juveniles, during greetings; 48, 49. 3. [[underlined]] Facial Expressions. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] PL. [[in red pencil]] (also see "Greeting") [[/in red pencil]] Best description; 50. [[underlined]] Always [[/underlined]] accompanied by chin-up and eye-closing. By infants. As greeting; 35. Hostile?; 53. With S Nll's; 36, 47. By Juveniles, with S Nll; 47.
[[circled]] v [[/circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 By adults. Greeting, with OCB, silent, or with Squ's, S Nll, and/or MfB; 19, 36. [[underlined]] OCB [[/underlined]]. By adults With PL, chin-up, eye-closing. Sometimes silent. Sometimes with S Nll, Squ, and/or MfB. Greeting . 19, 36 [[underlined]] MO. [[/underlined]] By infants. Silent Scream, hostile; 57 With Lsh (partly friendly and partly hostile?); 36. By juveniles, with MfB during greetings?; 49. By adult [[male symbol]], sexual or greeting; 45. To Fusciceps; 45. [[underlined]] BT. [[/underlined]] Absent in infants?; 51. By juveniles. Like Fusciceps; 23. With MfB, during greetings?; 49. 4. [[underlined]] Ritualized Movements. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Lsh. [[/underlined]] By infants. With MO; 36. By juveniles, with MfB during greetings; 49. By adults, with Mfb; 45. [[underlined]] Set. [[/underlined]] Absent in infants?; 51. By juveniles; 23. By adults, like [[underlined]] Fusciceps [[/underlined]]; 23. [[underlined]] Hdd. [[/underlined]] By juveniles; 23. By adult Golden Spider Monkeys; 16
[[circled]] vi [[/circled]] ATELES GEOFFROYI INDEX - Nov. 22, 1960 5. [[underlined]] Fighting. [[/underlined]] By infants and juveniles, with Screams, [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] B; 37 By infants, Striking with hands, with indeterminate Screams; 58 6. [[underlined]] Sexual Behavior [[/underlined]] Adult [[Male symbol]] does MfB & Lsh, also silent MO, with erection; when first approached by half-grown [[female symbol]]; 45 7. [[underlined]] Gregariousness. [[/underlined]] Slight; 61. 8. [[underlined]] SNF [[/underlined]] [[red pencil]] Also see "Greeting" [[/red pencil]] All ages; 45. By juveniles; 48. 9. [[underlined]] Miscellaneous [[/underlined]] [[underline]] Use of Tail. [[/underline]] To pick up sticks; 52. [[underline]] Sleeping [[/underline]] Description; 52 [[underline]] Clasping Behavior Infants [[/underline]] Description; 35
ATELES ssp. I.
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[[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]] [[image - small hashed section]] = Black Panama Spider Monkeys October 2, 1958 Barro Colorado I borrowed 2 young Spider Monkeys, apparently this species, from the Gorgas Institute, for a few days. Got them yesterday, put them in a big pen (with the capuchin) this morning. One is perhaps 1/3 grown I think this is [[image - female symbol]]. The other is much smaller, and I think is [[image - male symbol]]. I shall call the small one S, the large one L. [[Image - a wavy line in left margin]] Their behavior since I got them has been rather peculiar in a way, (or, at least, unexpected by me). [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular hashed section in pencil down the page in the left margin]] They have spent almost all their time "huddled". Apparently an alarm reaction. A single animal huddling by itself just sits on its haunches; with back humped; knees bent and pulled up tight against chest; arms clasped over knees, and wrapped around body; and tail also wrapped about body. Forming a tight little ovoid. The head is usually bent down too; continuing the line of the back. As the animal becomes a little less alarmed it may raise its head and look around; but it puts its head down again immediately if a disturbing stimulus (i.e. usually me) approaches. In extreme cases, the eyes are also closed or half closed. A huddled animal is apparently always silent. I shall call this Hdd It may be related to the LD of the [[Puiche's?]]. (And the eye-closing is probably the same as the eye-closing of the young [[Puiche?]] ; H, which I am keeping now).
[[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]], Oct. 2, 1958, II [[Image left margin - three vertical lines and a rectangular hashed section in pencil ]] Actually I have seen relatively little Hdd by an isolated animal because the two are almost always Hdd-ing together. Then they clasp one another very tightly (Cl) and wrap their arms around one another very tightly. S usually tries, and succeeds, in getting its head under some part of L. In general S has been much more prone to Hdd and Cl than L. This would suggest that the whole complex is essentially infantile. Sometimes, if L starts to move away, S will continue Cl and be carried on L's back for a short period. (L usually has to break away from S by "main force" anyway.) I wonder how this Hdd-Cl complex is used in the wild when an infant has a mother present??? If L moves away from S, S usually follows it, very slowly, and usually utters high pitches squeals. Usually single, sometimes repeated; sometimes, perhaps, organised into little series of 2 or 3. Doesn't really seem to get any response. In general, both animals seem to move remarkably slowly, particularly when alarmed. Absolutely the quintessence of cautiousness in appearance. (The only time I have seen either move with any speed at all is when L gets annoyed and starts Barking - see below). If S is picked up in the hand, it usually utters one or more single, long drawn, shrill, uniform, rather whining shrieks. Obviously analogous, and probably homologous with the screams of Night Monkeys, and probably also the K of the Puiche's.
[[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]] Oct. 2, 1958, III [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular hash mark in pencil in the left margin of page]] This afternoon L seemed to get over his shyness, and then, whenever I approached, would start Barking. This performance quite as described by Carpenter. A more or less long series of Barking Notes. I shall call this performance B. Sounded quite like some of the barking notes uttered by Howler Monkeys before uttering the full long-drawn howling roar. Considerable variations Some of the barks more plaintive than others. The plaintive ones sounded quite like some of the notes of Red-throated Guans! The variations in the sound of the B notes obviously correlated with different actual & relative strengths of the attack & escape drives. Some quite aggressive. Deeper, harsher, & more grunt-like than the other B notes. Call this Agg B. Often accompanied by little lunges toward me, also jumping up & down, on branches above me, just like capuchins preparing to break off branches to drop. The agg B performances were relatively rare. The attack & escape drives seemed to be nearly balanced in much of the B. The Agg B notes were apparently always monosyllablic, and so were some of the other, ordinary B notes (Ord B), especially the low intensity notes at the start of a long series of B. But the obviously higher intensity B notes tended to break up. (These were obviously high intensity because the animal ran around the cage in a relatively rapid and unmistakably excited manner.) Essentially disyllabic. Might
[[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 2, 1958, IV. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] possibly be transcribed by something like "Ooh-uh". At the highest intensities, there seemed to be an additional quaver which developed (to give [[image - line drawing with curves to indicate changes in vocalisation; sound waves]] instead of [[image - line drawing flat to indicate constant vocalisation; sound waves]]); or, even, in some cases at least, a sort of "Ratchet" undertone under the last half of the bisyllablic note. I might mention, in this connection, that the preliminary grunts or barks of at least some Howling Monkeys before dawn are actually pure "Ratchet", without any real "throaty" roar or howl at all.) I think that perhaps the most "Guan-like" notes contained the relatively strongest escape component. In general, L usually uttered its B notes in very long series. Once uttered continuously for 25 minutes, with only one interruption, of not more than a minute. Another case in which a relatively small amount of motivation seems to produce an enormous effect - as L certainly wasn't wildly excited continuously all this time. In such long series, L would vary the different types of B notes, usually gradually, apparently according to circumstances. Low intensity B notes were uttered with the mouth closed. Higher intensity notes with the mouth open, and rather "pursed", jaws probably moving, at least a little, in rhythm with the notes. This B must, as carpenter noticed, be homologous with the "barking roars" of Howler Monkeys. Possibly also homologous with MG's of Capuchins.
[[circled]] 5 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 2, 1958, IV. [[Image left margin - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil]] B was usually (always?) accompanied by scratching (Sct.). Using one hand to scratch the other arm, or head, or back, or leg, or tail. Very conspicuous and regular. Not every note was accompanied by Sct; but when Sct. did occur it was closely synchronised with B notes, i.e. one note accompanied by one Sct. movement, one note accompanied by one Sct, etc., etc., etc. In general, I think that L always began Sct. whenever he wasn't running or swinging about the cage during B. Sct. could apparently occur at all levels of B motivation. In one case, at least, it even started just before the B began; but it continued right up to the highest intensity B notes as well. Probably least frequent with Agg B, if only because the animal tends to be jumping up and down then. Most peculiar. Obviously "displacement" - in the classical sense - whatever that may mean. The frequency of Sct in hostile situations is the more remarkable in view of the fact that the animals don't seem to do much normal ["autochthonous"?] scratching in other circumstances. All the scratching of any kind performed by S and L I saw today was with the arms & hands. None with legs & feet, or tail. But I did see one of the older Spider Monkeys at the Gorgas scratch its back once with the tip of the tail. Probably quite autochthonous. I have seen absolutely no attempts to clean the face by rubbing it along the ground or branches. The only face-clean-
[[circled]] 6 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 2, 1958, VI. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] ing I have seen as been with the tongue (by S). L apparently cleaned his fingers by rubbing at them in the middle of a B performance. One vocalization by S was rather puzzling. A few single (occasionally repeated once or twice, after brief intervals) rather fart-like grunts or barks. Not obviously correlated with any particular social circumstances. Might possibly have been a low intensity, or aberrant, or extremely infantile form of B. But some of the time, these fart-like notes were more or less associated with squeaks when S was following L, so they may conceivably have been produced by somewhat similar motivation. Neither of the Spider Monkeys has shown any positive reaction to the capuchin in the same cage; in spite of the fact that the capuchin has made numerous attempts to "join up" with them. [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]], I October 3, 1958, Barro Colorado The 2 monkeys seem perhaps a little less shy today. A little less in the way of Hdd. I didn't notice much in the way of anything new; but I did observe a few of the things I noted yesterday a little bit better. L several times gave a series of squeaks, high pitched & thin single notes, before beginning B. I shall call these notes Q (although they may not be strictly homologous with the Q
[[circled]] 7 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 3, 1958, II. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] Notes of the Marmosets) Much less emphatic than the Q of the Marmosets. Sounded very much as if they might be "low intensity" versions of the regular B. These Q notes are probably among the notes I heard given by S the first night (see Oct. 2, p. 2), but they were probably accompanied by others then S certainly gave a number of Q Notes quite like those of L today - apparently when he was hostile to me. But he also gave other notes which I probably confused with Q the first night. There are weak Till notes, quite similar to Q in quality; but with a definite rattle undertone, of perhaps 3 or 4 "semi-syllables". It is possible that these Till's are purely hostile; and they may, in face, be intermediate between typical Q note and the farting notes (see below). S certainly gave some Till's in much the same circumstances as Q, i.e. when he seemed to be irritated or frightened by my presence, i.e. when coming out of Hdd, and fixating me, or starting to move away from me. But he also tended to give a burst of Till notes when L moved away from him after they had both been Hdd-ing and Cl-ing. Seemed to be a protest against L's departure; probably an attempt to call L back. Perhaps thwarted gregariousness; or the call an infant gives when its mother leaves it under natural conditions. Usually, of course, Till's by S were followed by S attempting to follow L; but then S always attempts to follow L anyhow.) S also did more of the "farting" Barks today. Apparently when disturbed by me. Sometimes associated with Q. I am now fairly certain that there are very closely related to the ordinary B
[[circled]] 8 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 3, 1958, III. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] of L. Perhaps just the first infantile form of B. I should mention, however, that S has never given more than two or three or four "farting" Barks at a time. Never any trace of the long series of B notes given by L when she is annoyed. The fact that S never gives long series of these notes may have implications. It is possible that the difference between Q and B (if the "farting" notes are really B) is more than one of intensity. It is possible that they are produced by different relative strengths of the attack & escape drives. If so, then Q must contain a relatively weaker attack component than B. S never gets as aggressive as L. (S only tries to bite, and then not very hard, when I actually clutch him or pick him up.) S has done very few of the "farting" notes in comparison with Q. There was also lots of Sct today. I noticed that L did quite a bit of Sct when she was quite silent, apparently just a little disturbed by my presence; as well as during Q and all intensities of B. Does this suggest that Sct alone is the Correct intensity indication of hostility (aside from some Hdd's); or does it suggest that the motivation of Sct is qualitatively slightly different from the vocal patterns of the Q - B complex. S also did quite a lot of silent scratching when I approached, and I think that thes may have been more than "coincidence". I saw L clean his hand once more, with lips and/or teeth, instead of Sct, during B. The fact that some B may be quite low intensity may
[[circled]] 9 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 3, 1958, IV. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] be indicated by the fact that L once took food from my hand and ate it without interrupting a long series of B notes. Of course, these monkeys urinate & defecate when they are hostile; and the tendancy to do this seems to increase the more disturbed they get. probably as their escape drive increases, if only one of the hostile drives is involved as a causal factor. It is perhaps remarkable that, with the possible exception of Trill's by S, neither of these monkeys has directed any display to each other (or to the capuchin in the same cage). All or almost all provoked and directed toward human beings. [[underline]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underline]] I October 4, 1958 Barro Colorado One new pattern by L, which I noted yesterday, but forgot to write down, and now again several times today. When I approach her, she is quite apt to evert her lips a little, particularly the lower lip, so that her teeth are bared (the upper & lower teeth are, however, kept firmly together during this). I shall call this TB. Probably hostile. Obviously very low-intensity. Not usually followed by higher intensity patterns such as Q and B. Both L and S have done a lot of Q this afternoon. In the case of L, I am now quite sure that it is very closely related to B, probably only a lower intensity preliminary form of B. In the case of S, however, the situation may be a little more complicated. He seems to give Q Notes as preliminaries to both B [[underline]] and [[/underline]] Trill !!
[[circled]] 10 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 4, 1958, II. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] This may confirm the interpretation of Q as hostile - if the [[Trill?]] is hostile - see below. On the other hand, especially if the [[Trill?]] is not hostile, it might suggest that Q is merely a more or less low intensity generalized Distress Call, which might be provoked by a variety of frustrations. S has given several little bursts of "pure" B notes today. Sounded quite like the lowest intensity B's given by L. Still sounded enough like the "farting" B notes, however, to suggest that there latter were nothing more than somewhat [["st?"]], low intensity or particularly alarmed, B notes. S gave these little bursts of B when he was obviously hostile to me. Interestingly enough, S has not given any "farting" B notes while I was around today. I am still rather baffled by the [[Trill?]] notes. S has given quite a lot of them today (and L has still given none!). Most of S's [[Trill?]]'s were given in what I think of the "usual" situation, i.e. when L moves away from him after they have been Hdd-ing. together. But I also picked up S in my hands today; and he there gave about 4 bursts of [[Trill?]] notes, associated with different types of reactions. Twice just as he tried to bite me in a most aggressive manner. Twice when he wasn't trying to bite me, and was looking away from me, toward L, in a most "longing" manner. It is possible that all these [["Trill's"?]] in my hand were the result of some frustrated gregariousness or infantile reaction to being separated from the parent(S); but some of them certainly seemed to be hostile It is barely possible, therefore; that the [[Trill?]] may be a generalized frustration reaction or distress call, or in process of transition from a
[[circled]] 11 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Oct. 4, 1958, III. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] general frustration to a more restricted hostile reaction. It is also possible that the Q, [[Trill?]], and B are merely different intensities of the same motivation, CQ being low, the [[Trill?]] medium, and B high) - either general frustration or hostility. But I rather doubt it. Both S and L did a lot of quite silent scratching today when they didn't seem to be hostile. I am fairly certain that some (at least) of this must have been purely "autochthonous". In any case physically indistinguishable from obviously hostile Sct. Both animals continue to do all or almost all their scratching with the hands. I did, however, see S do one little burst of scratching with his hind foot, scratching the side of his neck and his head; but only when he was lying flat on the ground more or less on his side. [[image - pencil hatch mark down page on left margin]] This species [[underlined]] certainly [[/underlined]] doees not clean the face by rubbing it along the surface of branches or anything else And neither animal has shown any indication of an attempt to groom the other. [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]], I October 6, 1958 Barro Colorado We recorded a number of calls of both S and L today; and this led to, or revealed, some behavior of interest. [[image - three vertical lines and a hatch mark in pencil going down page in left margin]] We managed to record a few [[Trill's?]], some Q, and a lot of B by S; and their played it back to listen to it. S was greatly excited when he heard it; seemed to think there was another Spider
[[circled]] 12 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underline]], Oct. 6, 1958, I. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] Monkey nearby. He made a lot of movements as if he were trying to go to the recorder, and he also gave lots & lots of calls. The great majority of his calls were [[Till's?]], sometimes very high intensity and loud. He gave [[Till's?]] even when the loudspeaker was giving [[Q?]] or B. This use of the [[Till?]] was, of course, very reminiscent of the [[Q?]]DC of the marmoset H in somewhat similar circumstances. We tried very hard to record the shrieks which S gave when picked up in the hand when we first got him. I caught & beat, & slapped & pulled both S and L. unmercifully - without success. They simply could not be induced to shriek. This would suggest that the shrieks only occur in a paroxysm of terror; and the animals aren't that disturbed now. After letting them go, however, it was quite obvious that L had been greatly alarmed by the process of catching & beating and recording. She ran around the cage, around me, occasionally approaching me very briefly, in much the same way that she used to do when she was giving long bursts of B toward me. But she approached me less often and less closely than she used to do; and she did relatively little B. She gave Q notes and [[underlined]] a lot of Tills instead [[/underlined]] !!! This incident would certainly suggest that both the Q and Till are, or can be, hostile; and that the Till, at least, can be produced when the escape drive is stronger than attack. (It is always possible, I suppose, that the Q and Till are both still "general frustration" reactions; but the Till must be less aggressive than B. The relationship between the three vocal patterns still puzzles me; but I am quite prepared to believe that they
[[circled]] 13 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles Fusciceps [[/underline]], Oct. 6, 1958, II [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] are all three closely related. Certainly, the Till's of S during this incident occurred just when one would expect B Notes during slightly different circumstances. And I am quite convinced now that the "Farting" B Notes which S used to give were nothing more than low intensity intermediates between B and Till. S seems to have stopped giving these "Farting" notes now. His B's sound quite like those of L, except that he only gives short series of them.) [[underline]] Ateles Fusciceps [[/underline]], I [[line]] October 9, 1958 Barro Colorado I went to watch the Spider Monkeys for a brief period this afternoon, just to see how they were getting along. Not much new. [[Image - a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] Lots of Sct even before they begin to vocalize. I am sure that some of this is not purely autochthonous in such circumstances. That is, some of the "displacement" scratching occurs at comparatively low levels of motivation. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] L is still doing a lot of Q and Till notes toward me, and relatively little B; in circumstances where he used to do a lot of B and a little Q. None of these Till's seem to be the result of frustrated gregariousness, as L almost never even looks toward S in such circumstances. Either all these notes are hostile, or all are the result of general frustration. I rather think they are all hostile. If so the Q is probably both lower intensity and less aggressive than B, and the Till is probably lower intensity and less aggressive than B but higher intensity than Q. (All this is rather tent-
[[circled]] 14 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]], Oct. 9, 1958, II [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] ative; but I am at least fairly certain that the [[Till?]] is less aggressive than B, if nothing else.) I guess S hasn't lost the scream pattern yet. This afternoon I teased him by touching him constantly, alternatively on stomach and back. He tended to give a short scream each time I touched him. The tone of these screams was very variable Some high pitched and thin; some lower pitched and rather hoarse. Somehow these notes just sounded like the highest intensities of the Q-B complex. The high notes seemed to be less aggressive than the lower pitched notes. Some of the lower-pitched notes, surprisingly enough, were obviously very aggressive. Accompanied by fierce lunging & biting movements, in attempts to bite my hand. [[underlined]] Ateles furciceps [[/underlined]], I October 15, 1958 Barro Colorado I took S and L back to the Gorgas today. I seem to have forgotten one pattern which L performed quite frequently When hostile toward me, but apparently only slightly so (ie. quite silent), she would often have the tip of her whitish tongue protruding through her closed lips. Quite long-sustained; often lasting at least a couple of minutes. [[underlined]] Ateles furciceps [[/underlined]], I January 19, 1959 Barro Colorado I took a brief look at a lot of young Black Spiders in a
[[circled]] 15 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles fusciceps [[/underlined]], Jan. 19, 1959, I. [[Image - three vertical lines and a rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] small cage, and noticed that they were grasping the wire of their cage with fingers divided 1 - 3. This would seem to be proof that they are descended from ancestors in which the fingers were divided 2 - 3.
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[[circled]] 16 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles rellerosus [[/underlined]] [[image - small red hashed section]] = Red Central American Spider Monkeys October 21, 1958 Washington Zoo There are two of these Golden Spider Monkeys here, in a cage with a single Woolly Monkey, and one Panama Black Spider Monkey ([[underlined]] fusciceps. [[/underlined]]) [[Image - three red vertical lines and a red rectangular shaped hashed section in left margin of page]] They Hdd just like the [[underlined]] fusciceps [[/underlined]]. Also pucker their lips in the same way. Both obviously hostile responses to me. When I first approach their cage, however, they give another reaction. Usually Hdd-ing, or sleeping (?) before I approach, then lift head as I get nearer, and utter a distinctive call. Poly syllable or multi-note. Usually comme ca : [[image - three short horizontal lines, a fourth, longer line lifting slightly]] or [[image - two short lines with a third longer line lifting slightly]] Quality of each note high & thin. Rather like the Squ or [[Till?] of the Capuchin at BCI or the Black Spider, [[underlined]] fusciceps. [[/underlined]]. This is obviously homologous with part of the Squ-[[Till?]]-B complex of the Black Spiders, but I don't know which yet. Probably the [[Till?]] ??? Most reminiscent of the [[Till's?]] of the S Black Spider I had at BCI. Obviously contains a strong escape component, as the Golden Spiders immediately go back into the Hdd after giving their call.
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[[circled]] 17 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp. I December 26, 1958, Peru [[Image - green hash mark]] I have seen a number of Spider Monkeys of various kinds during this trip. The public zoo at Iquitos had a lot of Spider Monkeys in a small cage. Apparently 2 species: [[underlined]] b. belyebath [[/underlined]] (black and white) and [[underlined]] paniscus chamek [[/underlined]] (all black) according to Kellogg & Goldman's review & map. Some individuals of both species seemed to be adult, while others ranged from about 1/3 grown to adult. [[Image - three green vertical lines and a green rectangular shaped hashed section in pencil in the margin of page]] All individuals of both species did a lot of Trill-ing?. Moderately loud, including both shrill whistle-like and wooden-sounding types. Quite like those of [[underlined]] lagothrix [[/underlined]] in general effect. Some individuals of both species (at least the younger ones) gave a few single notes which seemed to be Squ notes. Some individuals of both species (at least the adults) gave deeper single notes which may have been single B notes. The Trill's? were most common when the animals were swinging very actively around their cage, expecting to be fed shortly. Thus the Till's? of this species also would seem to include a non-hostile component. One of the 1/2 grown [[underlined]] paniscus [[/underlined]] did a definite but quite silent V when I came close to him. This looked hostile. Today I watched 2 adult [[underlined]] paniscus [[/underlined]] in the Lima zoo and one of them also did a silent V to me !
[[circled]] 18 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp I Jan 24, 1959 Barro Colorado [[image - black and red wavy vertical lines down left margin]] Several days ago I got 4 Spider Monkeys from the Gorgas Institute. One red [[male symbol]] fairly small (like a half grown Black), but possibly adult or sub-adult (testes hanging) One Black [[male symbol]]. Quite large but almost certainly not fully adult (testes not hanging very much). Two Black [[female symbol]]'s. One, "Large Black Female" is just slightly small than the Black [[male symbol]]. The other, "Small Black Female" is considerably smaller - perhaps 1/2 grown? None of the animals is particularly tame, but they aren't particularly shy either. The Red [[male symbol]] is perhaps the tamest. I think that the two forms may show a tendency to segregate themselves. At least for the first couple of days, I frequently saw the 3 Blacks sleeping or resting together while the Red [[male symbol]] rested some distance apart. (Of course, I do not know the previous history of these animals at the Gorgas.) Their behavior, in general, is slightly different from that of the young Blacks I had before. And the behavior of the Red [[male symbol]] is certainly rather different from that of the Blacks - possibly just because he is tamer. [[/end wavy lines]] [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark in left margin to bottom of page]] The most common of the the more elaborate calls of all the animals is what I shall term "Muffled Barking" (MFB). Apparently uttered in almost exactly the same form by all the animals. A very rapid series of short rather hoarse and rusty-sounding B-like notes. Apparently of extremely variable length including very different numbers of notes. When apparently complete, it is usually quite long - but it is definitely organized as a whole into a discrete call - never continued indefinitely for minutes on end.
[[circled]] 19 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Jun 24, 1959, II. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark down the page in left margin.]] The MFB is presumably hostile - at least in part. The animals usually give it whenever I appear. It may also contain a "friendly" component". The animals are used to getting food from human beings. It is apparently never accompanied by such overt hostile acts as actual escape or Jud. And the Black [[male symbol]] and/or the the small Black [[female symbol]] uttered MFB's when they were wrestling together (see below). The mouth is apparently opened and closed during MFB's, but only slightly. The Blacks usually don't combine the MFB's with any ritualized facial movement except PL. I am not sure exactly what proportion of their MFB's are actually accompanied by PL. It is obvious, however, that some are and some aren't. The Red [[male symbol]] usually does PL during his MFB's, and sometimes (but relatively rarely) both PL and OCB (see below). It is my impression that the MFB's of all the animals are reactions of relatively moderate intensity. The animals do not seem to be greatly excited in any way when they utter MFB's. Brief MFB's sound rather like short, not very distinct, hoarse or rusty Trills (although they are much less distinctly trilling than the Trills of the young Red [[female symbol]] - see below). They may well be related to Trills - or even, perhaps, the only Trill-like pattern these 4 monkeys have - but I find the whole subject of Trill-like notes in these 4 animals rather difficult to analyze (see below). [[Image - three vertical red lines and a vertical red hash mark continue to the end of the page]] The Red [[male symbol]] has a most distinctive OCB pattern. While the lips are puckered in a more or less extreme PL pattern, the lips are also opened & closed very rapidly. This is quite conspicuous. The lips are really opened quite far during OCB - without, I think, very much in the way of opening and closing of the mouth in many cases. Many OCB's and PL are quite silent. Others are accompanied by one or two (possibly three or four) brief and rather
[[circled]] 20 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Jan. 24, 1959, III [[image - three vertical red lines, one red hash mark on left margin of page]] soft Squ notes (often uttered in quite regular tempo); or brief Trills (if this animal has a Trill pattern distinct from MFB's or brief MFB's. [[image - three vertical black lines, one black hash mark on left margin of page]] I have not seen any of the Blacks perform definite OCB's. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark on left margin of page]] The MFB's of both the Blacks and the Red [[male symbol]] obviously intergrade with Squ's. Some notes are quite like brief MFB's in rhythm, but like single Squ's in quality. Sometimes just a couple of Squ notes uttered rapidly one after the other. The actual single Squ notes sound quite like those of the young Blacks I had before. (It is possible that some of the most Trill-like notes I have heard these 4 animals utter are really intermediate between typical MFB's and typical Squ notes.) It is obvious, in any case, that the Squ's I have heard are probably also produced by the same types of motivation as the MFB's. All the Squ notes uttered by the Blacks have been quite short; but some of the Squ's uttered by the Red [[male symbol]] have been quite long. They then [[underlined]] sound [[/underlined]] quite remarkably like the W notes of the Puiche's! [[image - three black vertical lines and vertical black hash mark on left margin of page]] I thought I heard one or more of the Blacks utter a definite Trill, more or less like the S Trills of other species, when the whole group was panicked (running in obvious escape) when there was a sudden outburst of roaring by Howlers in the immediate neighborhood. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark on left margin of page]] Aside from this one incident, all the apparently high intensity overt escape behavior of these 4 animals has been quite silent. Nothing at all like the Q patterns of the [[underlined]] Cebus - Saimiri [[/underlined]] - Marmoset group. The Black [[male symbol]] and the Red [[male symbol]] have performed a B pattern which appears to be analogous, and possibly partly homologous, with the full throated howling or roaring of Howlers. The Black [[male symbol]] did it both this morning and this evening; and the Red [[male symbol]] did it this evening, at the same time as the Black [[male symbol]]. A very long series of B Notes, uttered
[[circled]] 21 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Jan. 24, 1959, IV. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line and red hash mark down the page in left margin]] quite rapidly (although much less rapidly than the notes of an MFB performance). Some of these series may be very [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] long, lasting 10 to 15 minutes (at least) without an interruption. And long series after long series may be uttered one right after the other. This pattern is obviously the thing I called "Ord B" in my earlier notes (see Oct. 2, 1958, pp. 3 & 4) . The two [[male symbol]]'s gave Ord B almost continually for at least three quarters of an hour this evening; and the Black [[male symbol]] gave Ord B almost continuously for almost as long a period this morning ; but neither animal gave any trace of it any other time today. Most peculiar. Again, as in October, I could not locate any external stimulus which might be releasing the bouts of Ord B, (but the Black [[male symbol]], at least, was looking fixedly in one direction outside the cage during part of the time he was giving Ord B both this morning and this evening.) The Large Black [[female symbol]] joined in with a little Ord B this evening, and I presume that she was just responding to the performance of the males. The sound of Ord B Notes is rather variable. When the performance is apparently low-intensity (relatively low intensity - all the Ord B may well be of higher intensity than any of the MFB.) the notes are relatively low-pitched and essentially monosyllabic. Such notes are repeated slightly less rapidly than apparently higher intensity notes (see below) and tend to occur during relatively short Ord B performances. Apparently higher intensity notes, more rapidly repeated during the longest performances, are definitely higher pitched (almost "clear", like Squ Notes) and [[underlined]] definitely trisyllabic [[/underlined]]! The apparently highest and apparently lowest intensity Ord B Notes intergrade completely (& gradually) by a perfect series of intermediate notes. As far as I could tell the Ord B performances of the Blacks and the Red [[male symbol]] were essentially identical in all respects (although it is just barely pos-
[[circled]] 22 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Jun. 24, 1959, V. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark down the page in the left margin]] sible that the voice of the Red [[male symbol]] is just slightly shriller than that of the Blacks). All the animals open & close their mouths during Ord B. The mouth is opened wider, I think, than during MFB performances; and the Ord B is apparently not accompanied by PL. These Ord B performances are presumably strictly homologous with the RBB of the adult Woolly I watched in the Lima Zoo. [[image - three vertical black lines and a vertical black hash mark down the page in the left margin]] The Black [[male symbol]] has also performed quite a lot of what I called "Agg B" in my earlier notes. Single notes or short series of notes. The individual notes are deeper in pitch than any MFB or Ord B notes. The number of notes in a single series seems to be quite variable. Seldom more than six or so. Never uttered as rapidly as the Ord B notes. Frequently accompanied by Jud and/or BT. Frequently uttered as the animal advances, running or walking toward me. Obviously aggressive, probably varying from moderate to moderately high intensity. The Black [[male symbol]] has also frequently performed silent BT, without Agg B, with or without Jud, toward me. Frequently associated or alternated with Agg B patterns. Probably produced when attack is as predominant as it is during the Agg B patterns; but both the attack and any counteracting motivation are both weaker than they are during the AggB. The BT pattern of this species is fairly distinct morphologically. The corners of the mouth are drawn back, but not as far as in the BT of the White face. The upper teeth are not displayed by the BT; but the lower teeth are usually or always quite conspicuous. The mouth is always or usually kept moderately open throughout silent BT. Perhaps kept moderately open throughout BT with Agg B, perhaps showing a tendency to close partly between notes. (It is possible that I will eventually have to distinguish between 2 separate patterns, "pure" BT and "MO" - mouth
[[circled]] 23 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Jan 24, 1959, VI. [[image - three vertical black lines and one black hash mark going down the page in the left margin.]] th open.) [[image - three vertical red lines and one red hash mark going down the page in the left margin.]] Surprisingly enough, the Red [[male symbol]] hasn't yet performed anything like Agg B, BT (or MO). [[image - three vertical black lines and one black hash mark going down the page in the left margin.]] There was one interesting incident involving the Black [[male symbol]] and the Small Black [[female symbol]]. Prolonged wrestling. Presumably play; but I noticed that the male frequently snatched at the female's clitoris. Accompanied by lots of MFB by the male or by both animals. With mouth open, probably BT. Sometime after this, the Black male lay down on a branch to rest. Whereupon the Small Black Female came up to him and started to groom him. Not very efficient scratching movements at his back, arms, & back of head. She also "nibbled" at some of his hair (on his arm) with her teeth. I wonder if this was an indication of some sort of potential pairing or sexual relationship between the male and the female? [[image - one black hash mark, one black vertical line, one red vertical line, one red hash mark going down the page in the left margin.]] All these 4 animals perform Sct like the young Blacks I had earlier. All 4 animals also did Hdd (with "Cl") when they were being shipped out to the island in their cage. [[image - one vertical red wavy line going down the page in the left margin]] Yesterday I also got a young Red [[female]] symbol. Much smaller than the other 4 arrivals. Probably less than 1/2 grown. Possibly no larger than the L Black I had last year. She is certainly not tame, but she isn't as scared of me as some monkeys of other species I have had. I have not put her in the same cage as the 4 other Spiders. Either in a small inside cage by herself or, now, in a small outside cage with the Y Howler and the youngest White Face. [[image - three vertical red lines and one red hash mark going down the page in the left margin]] The Red female has performed overt escape reactions, Hdd, Sct, and BT reactions quite like those of all the other Spiders; but otherwise her behavior has been surprisingly different.
[[circled]] 24 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Jun 24, 1959, VII [[image - 3 vertical red lines with a red hash mark going down the page in the left margin]] When I pick her up in my hand, she utters two difficult kinds of notes very frequently. One is a short, loud, hoarse scream, beginning and ending quite abruptly. Sometimes these screams are repeated, but they never, "run together", and they are never organized into elaborate call performances of many notes. Where screams are probably quite aggressive, probably strictly homologous with the (probably low to moderate intensity) Screams of other species. The other common call she gives is a note which is similar to the Scream in length, and abrupt starting & ending, but is really a shrill loud whistle. I shall call this WW. It is often associated or alternated with typical Screams (and several WW's may be uttered in the same sorts of series as typical Screams). In many ways, the WW would appear to be a sort of "segregated variant" of the Scream. Either lower intensity and/or less aggressive. The only other call the Red [[female symbol]] gives frequently is a Trill call. This sometimes sounds like a S Trill of other species. More often it is rather more like the Scream in tonal quality. Quite hoarse. Often rather low pitched But never hollow - or wooden - sounding. This [[female symbol]] utters quite a lot of these trill's when I just pick her up in my hand; but they seem to be much less common in such circumstances than either the Screams or the WW's. When I pick the [[female symbol]] up and take her toward the cage of the other 4 Spider where she can see them plainly, she always utters Trill after Trill, one right after the other, with very few or no Screams or WW's. This would suggest that her Trill's may be produced by some sort of frustrated gregarious or filial motivation, with relatively little (or possibly nothing?) in the way of hostility. Several times I have heard the Red [[female symbol]] utter 1 or 2 obvious B Notes when I held her in my hand. Rather deep & sonorous. Probably
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[[circled]] 51 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[underlined]] ssp., Oct. 30, 1960, V [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] It is possible that some (but not all) of what I recorded as "silent PL" performances by young Spiders in my earlier notes were really PL & Snorting As a result of my observations of young Reds during the last 2 days, it is possible to make a list of the display patterns performed by animals ⅓ to ½ grown: 1. MO 2. BT 3. PL 4. Lsh 5. Sct 6. Squ - "WW" 7. S [[Till?]] 8. B (probably not well differentiated into Agg. and "Ord"). 9. Snorting 10. MFB 11. Screams ? 12. "Chewing". Young infant Reds probably perform all these patterns [[underlined]] except MFB [[underlined]] , as soon as they begin to move around independently a little (although I don't think I have ever seen a really young infant perform BT or Sct which I was sure was really ritualized). The B performances of young infants are probably always shorter, even less differentiated than those of older young [[image - black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark vertical down page in left margin]] I have not seen enough of the behavior of both Blacks and Reds to be absolutely sure that there is no difference between them. It seems likely however, that they are either identical or very similar. Possibly the Blacks lack Lsh's. Possibly young Reds do less B than young Blacks. But I rather think that these differences will disappear upon further study.
[[circled]] 52 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Oct. 30, 1960, VI [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] Today I twice saw Julia pick up a stick with her tail. The first time I have ever seen a Spider do anything of this sort. Quite unlike [[underline]] Cebus [[/underline]]. Julia just held these sticks for a while, and then dropped them. [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, I October 31, 1960 Barro Colorado [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] This morning I started to watch the Reds at dawn. All sleeping all together. One of the 1/4 grown young was sleeping pressed against the adult ♂ Then the adult ♂ woke up and moved away Leaving the young isolated. The young immediately began to vocalize, S Trills and Screams, all mixed up in random order. Good evidence that S Trills are still primarily Lost Calls at this stage. [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp I November 1, 1960 Barro Colorado [[Image - red vertical wavy line down page in left margin]] Tonight I did a little experimenting with my 2 smallest Reds. (These are both probably somewhat older than Abdomeno, although smaller. They are probably both smaller because they have been ill recently, and have always eaten less than Abdomeno.) The larger of these 2 small Reds is the "clutchy" ♂ mentioned above, p. 35. I shall call him "C". The other is ♀. I shall call her "D". They have both been in cages by themselves quite a lot, because of their illnesses. They have been kept together in a small cage in the animal house for over two days now. C clutching D pretty steadily. [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] When I picked them both up this evening, separated them, and then manhandled them a little, they uttered the usual calls of young Reds in such wic
[[circled]] 53 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 1, 1960 II. [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] A few Squ notes and lots of screams. These Squ notes were all (or almost all) short and simple. Apparently low intensity indicators or intention movements of the screams. The screams themselves were quite variable. No determinate length. The higher-pitched, shriller, screams were apparently higher intensity, in some sense; uttered when an animal was handled particularly roughly. Both C and D also uttered [[Tills?]] or [[Till?]]-like notes when handled roughly. These were relatively rare, and not very distinct. They [[underlined]] did [[/underlined]] appear to be little or nothing more than "intermediates" between the brief Squ's and the more prolonged screams (see comments p. 47). Very little [[image - horizontal line with vertical waves]] quality. All these patterns, the brief Squ's, indistinct [[Tills?]], and "indeterminate" screams [[underlined]] appeared [[/underlined]] to be very strongly hostile. During short intervals between being handled, both C and D did some silent PL to me. This was definitely silent. Also appeared to be purely hostile. Then I separated C and D, put them on the floor in different rooms, and left them alone. They immediately began to behave in a most unexpected way. Each animal sat on the floor, without moving very much at first, looking rather "puzzled". Then each began to utter Squ's, or, much more frequently, WW's of one type or another. Some of the WW's were quite simple [[image - straight line indicating vocalisation]]; but more of them were definitely [[underlined]] fluctuating. [[/underlined]]. The fluctuating WW's might be transcribed by something like "Whee hee hee." Sometimes were more "syllables." Even the most extremely quavering or fluctuating WW's, however, did not have anything like the rapid rate lung quality of [[Till?]] patterns. Very slightly after beginning the Squ and WW patterns, both animals began to utter single screams. These Screams
[[circled]] 54 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 1, 1760, III. [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark column continuing down the page in the left margin]] were of determinate length. Moderately long, ending abruptly (more abruptly than many screams uttered when handled). At the time the Screams began, or shortly afterwards, the animals stopped uttering Squ's (as usual, these Squ's seemed to be essentially low intensity and preliminary, probably intention movements of both WW's and screams in these circumstances), and uttered WW's, of both types, and screams in a more or less random jumble. Each note separated by a definite interval. Comme ça [[image - flat line indicating constant sound]] WW [[image - oval shape indicating sound]] scream [[image - slightly larger oval shape indicating sound]] scream [[image - flat line indicating constant sound]] WW [[image - line with two waves indicating change of pitch]] WW [[image - oval shape indicating sound]] scream [[image - line with two waves indicating change of pitch]] WW As the apparent intensity of the performance increased, the intervals between notes became shorter, and more screams (and fewer WW's) were uttered. Then, after the animals had been separated for some time, C suddenly uttered a new call, which I have not heard uttered by this species before. A brief series of hollow, wooden-sounding, urgent-sounding, bark like notes. "Unh unh unh." Usually only 2 or 3 notes in a series. Never more than 4. Each series followed immediately after a scream, or, very rarely, a simple WW [[image - oval shape followed by three descending straight lines indicating sound]] These bark-like notes may well be closely related to the "Ord B" of adults, but [[underlined]] they sounded incredibly like some of the O notes of Callicebus! [[/underlined]] (If the notes of [[underlined]] Callicebus [[/underlined]] are strictly homologous with the screams of Spiders - as they probably are - then this performance by the C Red was most like some of the O performances of the first [[Titi?]], I had, the A animal). In any case, I shall call these notes of Spiders "O" too. C gave quite a number of these scream - O calls, interspersed, with a few simple screams, for several minutes, and then retired to a chair (all this was taking place in the dining room), and seemed to relax. Fell silent
[[circled]] 55 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Aletes [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 1, 1960 IV [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] Later on, D also uttered scream - O calls when violated. (By this time, I was carrying C, and it was quite quiet). These WW, "determinate" scream, and O calls would certainly appear to have been caused by some sort of frustrated gregariousness. They appeared to be essentially "lost calls". The reactions of these animals when they heard the various calls uttered during the experiments tonight were interesting. When one of the animals heard the other utter the apparently hostile "indeterminate" screams, it usually retreated to a far corner and Hdd'd silently But the 2 animals tended to answer one another when they uttered WW's and/or "determinate" screams. One animal would utter 1 note, then the other animal would utter 1 note, then the first animal would utter 1 note again, then the second animal would utter 1 note again, etc. etc. etc. The type of notes uttered were not strictly correlated, however. Sometimes an animal would answer a scream by a WW, and sometimes the reverse. The animals also showed a definite tendency to try to approach one another during their WW - "determinate" scream performances. Once one of them managed to crawl half way under the wall separating them. The other immediately rushed over to try to join it. Both animals had been uttering "determinate" screams when they were far apart, but switched to pure Squ and WW's, without screams, when they got closer together. I.E. the WW's are lower intensity than the screams. (I might add that I am sure that I have heard other young Reds utter fluctuating WW's before, but I overlooked them because I did not realize that they were really distinct patterns.) I am sure that the dichotomy between apparently hostile squ - [[indutenit?]] [[Till?]] - "indeterminate" scream performances and "lost call" squ - WW - "determinate" scream performances is characteristic of all young
[[circled]] 56 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov 1, 1960, V. 56 [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] Reds. It helps to explain quite a lot of behavior I did not understand before. I was most surprised not to hear any really distinct, typical, calls during these experiments tonight. Later on, however, I gave D a bath. Gave hostile screams, etc., during the actual bathing. Then, as I was drying her in a towel, she suddenly uttered [[Till?]] after [[Till?]], all very distinct and "typical", with very clear [[image - wavy line]] quality. Rather low pitched. Not associated with any other calls or notes. Were these hostile? Or were they the result of some frustrated "infantile" motivation? (It is possible that D is somewhat fixated on towels.) Are the typical [[Tills?]] the result of frustrated infantile clutching, while the WW - "determinate" scream - O performances are the result of frustrated gregariousness. Or what???? [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, I. November 2, 1960 Barro, Colorado [[image - three vertical lines and a hash mark in pencil continuing down the page in the left margin]] I was outside watching the spiders, when I noticed that Bucktooth was hanging on to the side of cage nearest me, uttering lots of perfectly distinct and typical S [[Tills?]], with PL. Obviously wanting to join me. Then, when I came closer to the cage, she began to utter typical MFB's (quite soft - rather like the MFB of young Reds). Then I repeatedly tapped the wire, right in front of her face. Each time she responded by stopping MFB and doing [[underlined]] silent MO & Lsh! [[/underlined]] Quite like the MO and Lsh of Reds. How does the motivation of the silent MO and Lsh differ from that of the MFB??? [[image - three green vertical lines and a green hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] I think that the so-called "V" I saw performed by adult [[underlined]] pavi [[/underlined]]
[[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 2, 1960, II. [[circled]] 57 [[/circled]] [[image - three green vertical lines and a green hash mark continuing down the page for 2 lines in the left margin]] [[underlined]]scus[[/underlined]] in the [[Lenia?]] Zoo (see notes of December 26, 1958, p.17) must have been a form of Lsh. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark continuing down the page for 5 lines in the left margin]] After some reflection, I think I can say the following. 1. Many or all Trills of young Spiders are certainly or probably hostile including typical Trills with pronounced [[image - wavy line]] 2. Any Trills which are not hostile are produced by thwarted infantile motivation. 3. WW's (at least the fluctuating type), "determinate" Screams (at least some of them), and O's are produced by thwarted gregariousness. [[image - three red vertical lines and a red hash mark continuing down the page from here to the next to last line in the left margin]] This afternoon I carried one of the older young [[male symbol]] Reds (it looked a little weak the day before yesterday, and so we have had it in the animal house). It reacted by Screams (indeterminate) at first, but then just kept its mouth open, in extreme MO, with tongue slightly protruding, without uttering a sound So some MO's can occur without Lsh. This MO was certainly hostile. Which reminds me..... Some bouts of indeterminate screaming decline in a rather peculiar way. The animal continues to open its mouth, widely, and close it, as if it were still uttering ordinary screams. But the sounds become fainter and fainter, and hoarser and hoarser, until (sometimes) I can't hear any sound at all. (I don't why these bouts don't decline through Squ's.) So some of the "MO"s I have been describing may have been eventually silent screams. When I let the older young [[image-gender symbol denoting male]] Red (mentioned above) loose near the rest of the group, it was obviously strongly attracted to the group and yet afraid (at least of the adult [[male image]]). Uttered a lot of typical Trills with [[wavy image]] quality, quite loud, interspersed with lots of WW (of the [[underline]] non [[/underline]]-fluctuating type). So some of the WW's may be purely hostile after all. [[image - vertical black hash mark, black line, red line, red hash mark continuing down the page in the left margin]] If the fluctuating WW's and O's are the result of thwarted gregar
[[circled]] 58 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 2, 1960, III. [[Image - black hashmark column, black line, red line, red hashmark column in left margin]] couriers, why haven't I heard them uttered by all the other young Spider (Buck tooth, and lots of Reds) I have kept by themselves in cages in the animal house? Or have I? I don't think so. Perhaps none of the other young Spiders I have kept in the animal house was really fixated on a companion beforehand. [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., I November 3, 1960 Barro Colorado [[Image - Three red vertical lines and a red hashmark column in left margin]] Watching a dispute between 2 of the medium-sized young Reds this morning. One of them ended up by striking its opponent repeatedly. With its hands. Obviously aggressive. Each strike was accompanied by an indeterminate Scream. Definite proof that such Screams can be aggressive [[Image - Three vertical red lines and a hashmark column in pencil in left margin]] I think I have forgotten to mention one very common and conspicuous pattern of the Blacks. Redirection attacks. They occur most frequently immediately after one of the adult Blacks has done MFB or MO to me. The animal which has performed this MFB or MO is then likely to turn away and jump on one of its companions. Sometimes does MFB or MO to the companion. These redirection attacks often lead to wrestling. The male is more apt to perform redirection attacks than the female. This redirection is quite reminiscent of Bully and the other Howlers. The Blacks almost always perform a lot of "playful" wrestling in late afternoon. Usually involving the male and one of the females. But sometimes the 2 adult females wrestle one another, ignoring the male. Just before going to sleep at night, the Blacks usually groom one another at length. The grooming animals use both hands and teeth. I have frequently seen the females symbol groom the male, but I don't think I have ever seen the reverse.
[[circled]] 59 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., I. November 19, 1960 Barro Colorado [[line]] [[image - 3 straight vertical red lines and one vertical red hatched line in the margin]] We have kept C and D (see notes of Nov. 1) together in the same small cage in the animal house for more than 2 weeks now. Then today I tried separating them. When I first approached their cage, D uttered indeterminate Screams and notes intermediate between indeterminate Screams and [[Trills?]]. Then both uttered lots of indeterminate Screams when we picked them up to separate them. We put D back in the cage and let C run around loose. D sat in the cage, uttering quite distinct and extreme [[Trills?]], really L [[Trills?]], plus PL, apparently directed toward (and presumably provoked by) me. Apparently hostile. C began to walk and run around the floor of the animal house, with occasional pauses while it sat and looked "puzzled". During all this time it uttered determinate Screams and WW's. Just as on November 1. The Screams and WW's were jumbled together, but [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] randomly. C tended to utter Screams when it was uttering notes very frequently, and WW's when it was uttering notes less frequently. They certainly sound as if they were lower intensity than the Screams. Many of the WW's sound like Screams which have suddenly "gone thin". It is possible, however, (see below) that the difference between WW's and determinate Screams is qualitative [[underline]] as well [[/underline]] as quantitative C uttered its screams and WW's without a trace of PL. D did not seem to react to it's sudden isolation, or to the Screams and WW's uttered by C, in any very remarkable fashion. At first, it tended to utter a single [[Trill?]] whenever C uttered a single determinate Scream
[[circled]] 60 [[circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., Nov. 19, 1960, II. [[image - 3 straight vertical red lines and one red hatched vertical red line in the margin]] or WW. Uttering the [[Trill?]] first after C had uttered the Scream or WW. These [[Trills?]] were still probably partly hostile responses to me. Later on, D tended to answer C's determinate Screams and WW's by uttering brief WW's as ever briefer notes, intermediate between WW's and Squ's. The use of whittle-lelee notes as a "last call" by this species is quite reminiscent of Puiche's. After a while, D stopped answering C's notes. Then we switched the animals around, putting C in the cage and letting D run around loose. C continued Screams and WW's as before; D started to climb around the howler cage, uttering Trills, plus PL. Then we put D in a separate cage by itself. It first uttered a few more [[Trills?]]; and then went to sleep and/or into Hdd. By this time, C was also giving up. Spent most of the time resting with its head on its arms. Just every once in a while, it would lift its head and utter a single WW. The whole behavior of both animals today would suggest that they were much less upset by being separated today than when they were separated on November 1st. Perhaps they have both become somewhat more used to human beings in the neighborhood. C is still the "clutchy" one; and it was the one which did most of the interesting calling today I presume that neither animal uttered O today mainly because they were not greatly upset by being separated. O is presumably an even higher intensity pattern than determinate Screams. All the behavior of both C and D today could be explained very easily if the determinate Screams and WW's are simply the result of frustrated gregariousness, and the indeterminate Screams and [[Trills?]] are the result of hostility. This interpretation must be largely correct, I think. The indeterminate Screams and [[Trills?]] probably are completely hostile. And the determ
[[circled]] 61 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 19, 1960, III. [[image - 3 straight vertical red lines and one hatched red column in the margin in 3 separate blocks]] ate Screams and WW's must be at least largely the result of frustrated gregariousness. It is possible, however, that the determinate Screams, at least, also contain a more or less slight hostile component. This is suggested by the following facts. Once, when C was on the floor uttering WW notes, I moved toward it and it immediately began to utter determinate Screams instead of WW. Every once in a while, when C was on the floor, it would utter quite a lot of WW Notes in fairly rapid succession, without Screams. The WW's seemed to be at least moderately high intensity. If the determinate Screams (and O) are partly hostile, it would help to explain why they are so similar to indeterminate Screams and obviously hostile B in sound. (Some of the indeterminate Screams and the determinate Screams may actually be identical). One of the larger male Reds outside apparently got in a fight with one of the Blacks, and got all the skin scraped off the distal half of its tail. We brought it inside, to give it medicine. of course, it uttered lots of indeterminate Screams while being handled. Then when we held it firmly, it uttered quite a long series, at least 6 - 8 notes, of what I called "Ord" B. Obviously hostile. For a long time, we have had 8 young Reds running free outside. They divided quite nicely into 2 groups of 4 each. Each of these groups was also divided into 2 sub. groups of 2 each. Another indication that this species is not very gregarious. We finally put C and D out with the others this afternoon.
[[circled]] 62 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, I November 22, 1960 Barro Colorado [[Image - 3 straight red vertical lines and one hatched red column in the margin in 2 blocks]] I watched the little Reds very briefly today while they were being fed. C & D have remained clutching one another almost steadily since they were put outside 3 days ago. But they do separate to feed. This afternoon D apparently satisfied its hunger long before any of the other young Reds. It then approached C and several of the other young Reds, one right after the other, and attempted to "clump" with them. C and all the other Reds immediately moved away from D, as they wanted to continue eating. Each time one of the other Reds moved away, D uttered several loud, pure, [[Trills?]] (with little or no PL). These Trills certainly looked like either frustrated gregariousness and/or frustrated "infantility" [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., I August 21, 1961 Barro Colorado One of the juvenile [[female symbol]] Reds of Band I came down to the ground and approached me today (while I was sitting near a cage, watching other animals). Did S NLL & PL toward me. "Greeting." Chin-up slightly but no eye-closing.
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[[circled]] 25 [[/circled] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Jun. 24, 1959, VIII [[image - short section of three vertical lines & a red hashmark in left margin]] a form of Agg B. The fact that only 1 or 2 of these notes are uttered may be a juvenile characteristic - see my earlier notes on the S Black. [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, I. June 28, 1959, Barro Colorado [[image - three red vertical lines & red hashmark continuing down page in left margin to mid page]] I have been carrying around the Red [[female symbol]] with me today, in an effort to get her tame. Possibly successful. Most of the time she continued to behave as before; but eventually she settled down quite peacefully in my lap and took little cat-naps. Then when I stroked her, she repeatedly uttered what is obviously a form of MU!! Quite like the Mu of [[underline]] Alouatta [[/underline]], but softer & less "purring" (it is possible that I have not yet heard this Spider [[image - female]] utter complete or high intensity Mu). Occasionally interspersed with brief high pitched notes which were either brief [[Wrtl?]]! and/or Squ's (if there is any difference between these last two patterns). [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., I November 14, 1959 Barro Colorado [[image - short black squiggly line vertically in left margin]] I got a small [[female symbol]] Panama Black Spider Monkey a couple of days ago. [[underlined]] By far [[/underlined]] the smallest baby Spider Monkey I have ever had. [[image - three black vertical lines & black hashmark continuing down page in left margin to end of page]] Her general "grasping - parental" behavior is peculiar. She is either so young that she tries to grasp and hold on to any large animal which might conceivably be her mother, or she has been fixated on human beings already. In any case, she tries to climb on to any human being who comes close to her. (She is also probably frightened of human beings. At least, when she is prevented from climbing on me she goes into a full well-dev
[[circled]] 26 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Nov. 14, 1959, II, [[image - three black vertical lines & black hashmark continuing down page in left margin down page, breaks in lines equal with breaks in paragraphs]] eloped Hdd. She also tends to go into Hdd when she is touched on the back - i.e. touched in such a way that she can hardly try to climb onto the touching hand.) When she is prevented from climbing on to a human being, she [[underline]] always [[/underline]] (except when eating - see below) keeps her arms crossed over her chest, each hand clutching the shoulders or upper arms of the opposite side!! In other words, she "has" to feel that something is being clutched in her hands! At the same time, her feet are frequently more often grasping each other; and her tail is [[underline]] always [[/underline]] tightly wound around her body/or limbs. In other words [[underline]] all [[/underline]] her grasping "surfaces" have" to be in contact with something firm(probably something moderately hairy as well) before she can be even moderately content. But she certainly prefers to be grasping me rather than herself and come to me if I come close to her. I tried some experiments putting her in a tree yesterday. When I picked her up, by the back, she immediately went into a little ball, as usual, grasping herself in all directions. Then it was very difficult to get her to grasp a branch of a tree. She wanted to continue to grasp herself, and fell off the branches several times simply because she made absolutely no effort to hold on. Finally, after repeated experiments, she started to grasp branches with her hind feet, but it was only much later still, after many more experiments, that she started to use her hands and tail a little!! Unlike other Spider Monkeys I have had, this little animal doesn't use its hands at all to grasp or paw through food. If it has been grasping itself before starting to feed, it will uncurl sufficiently to put its hands on
[[circled]] 27 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., Nov. 14, 1959, III. [[image - three black vertical lines and one black hashed column in left margin of page]] the floor as props, but it will always pick up the food with its mouth and lips. Unlike most baby monkeys, this little animal seems to have absolutely no escape reaction of any sort Absolutely no tendency to climb up and away from any frightening or disturbing stimulus. Never anything but Hdd. She doesn't seem to be at all upset at being thrown about or dropped or swung from hand to hand (unless she falls and experiences actual pain.) Quite silent throughout. Only every once in a while, if I actually stand her on her head on my hand, will she utter a not very intense "Distress Call Trill" (see below). She always remains curled up in a tight little ball, grasping herself, no matter how hard I throw her around. Absolutely no attempt to put her hands or feet out to brace herself for landing with a thump. I am fairly certain that most of this curling up, grasping herself, behavior cannot be due to fear or alarm in any way. Her vocalizations seem quite limited in scope and variety, and quite difficult to analyze. The main vocalization is a Trill. This is probably a partly generalized Distress Call, as a whole; but it mostly appears as a "Lost Call." In other words, at least 90% of the Trills she utters now occur when she is separated from me or any other human being and cannot climb back on. (This brings up an interest point about the stimuli releasing the Lot Call Trill. She utters Trills when she has been clinging to my hand and I try to take her off. She also utters Trill's for the first few seconds after being taken off. She also utters Trill's when she has been off me for some time, and I present my hand near her and she starts to crawl toward it. She does [[underline]] not [[/underline]] continue to utter Trill's if I present my hand to her on the ground and then gradually withdraw it as she crawls [[End Page]]
[[circled]] 28 [[/circled]] [underline]]Ateles[[underline]] ssp, Nov. 14,1959, IV forward. What she does then is follow the hand hand for a while, continuing to utter yells while she does so,and then stops following and shut up at the same time. Similarly, she will continue [[Trills]] for a few seconds or minutes after being taken off me, but will shut up if the Trill's don't result in her being taken up again. In other words, she continues [Trill's] as long as she thinks there is any chance of being allowed to grasp the parent or parent substitute, but she doesn't continue them indefinitely, no matter now unhappy she may be at being still left alone. Content with the "Lost call" vocalizations of baby Howlers. Could evidence that the Lost call Trill's of the baby spiders are definitely social signals. [[?]] evidence that they are very rapidly "exhausted" or negatively conditioned", temporarily, when they don't produce the appropriate result.) (Another interesting aspect of the stimuli producing the Lost Call Trill is the way in which new stimuli can release them again after they have temporarily subsided. Thus, for instance, if I take the little animal off my hand and put her on the table close by me, she will utter a lot of Trill's for a few seconds but then subside if I don't allow her to climb back on me. Then, however, if I get up and go out of the room, she will utter a whole new burst of Trill's from the moment I start to leave until a minute or so after I have disappeared. Usually without attempting to follow me. Incidentally, this sort of behavior may be good evidence that the stimuli releasing infantile behavior and distress calling can be purely visual.) (Also in connection with stimuli, it should be mentioned that this little animal, like all other baby monkeys of other species I have kept, definitely prefers to grasp and/or sit on a turkish towel rather than the flat surface of the table or the floor.) The only other circumstances I have ever heard Trill's uttered in were once or twice when I ran cold water over the little animal; and once
[[circled]] 29 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 14, 1959, V. [[image - 3 straight lines and one hatched vertical column in margin in 5 blocks matching paragraph heights]] or twice when the animal was very startled, and obviously flinched, when someone suddenly appeared very close to her unexpectedly. These are really the only incidents which indicate that the [[Trill?]], at the present time, is really a semi-generalized Distress call rather than a pure and simple Lost Call. (It is not, however, produced in all situations of high intensity Distress If one repeatedly hits the little animal, for instance, she Hdd's, grooming herself, sometimes simultaneously flattening herself on the ground, but she does [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] utter [[Trill's?]].) The actual sound of the [[Trill's?]] uttered by this little animal are much the same as those of other young Black Spiders I have had. Quite loud and usually quite hoarse in quality. As loud as the L [[Trill's?]] of young Woollies but not at all wooden-sounding. Usually fairly short, 3 or, more often, about 5 "syllables." Sometimes appreciably longer, however. Usually I think, given with open mouth. The highest intensity [[Trill's?]], given when I am moving away from the animal and have got a considerable distance away, are loud, long and shrill. Often rapidly repeated and very urgent-sounding. They are not only shrill, but they are much less "rattling" than ordinary [[Trill's?]]. In some cases, the "syllables" are so little apparent that each [[Trill?]] sounds about like a single long Wail or Level Note of a [[Jeti?]]!!! This may be of the highest intensity comparative interest! Another common pattern performed by this little animal is a PL. Usually or characteristically silent; but if often follows immediately after a burst of [[Trills?]], and then the last few Trills may be altered after the animal has already begun PL (but the PL is then usually continued after the [[Trills?]] have stopped) This PL is quite similar in form to the PL's of other animals & species; but its circumstances are often a trifle peculiar and enigmatic. It is most commonly performed in the following situations: after I have taken the animal off me
[[circle]] 30 [[/circle] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., Nov. 14, 1959, VI. [[image - 3 vertical black lines and one hatched vertical column in the margin in 3 blocks corresponding to paragraphs]] she sits on the ground and utters [[Trill's?]]. The, after a while, she may suddenly tilt her head backward, so that the chin and mouth point diagonally upward, and do silent PL toward me, looking "down her nose" straight into my face, [[underline]] just before going down into Hdd! [[/underline]] This can be provoked again & again if I keep moving my hand toward her. Each time she follows for a few seconds, uttering Trills as she does so, then stops dead, looks at me for a second with her head tilted upward and PL, either silent or with continuing [[Trill's?]], and then goes down into Hdd. Such reactions would suggest that the PL is either lower intensity or more hostile than the [[Trill?]]. I think it is more hostile because of the following incidents. If I let the little animal grasp me, she settles down quite peacefully and quite silently for a while; but then she seems to become cramped & uncomfortable, and starts to readjust herself & move around. She shows a definite tendency to move upward at such times: She also usually utters a few [[Trill's?]] and does a lot of silent PL's, as usual looking straight up into the face of the person holding her when she does the PL's. This afternoon she behaved in this way when grasping Arleen; and this time she uttered a call which was definitely reminiscent, and obviously related to, the B of older animals as she looked up into Arleen's face with PL!!! This B-type call was very interesting. Quite like the B of older animals, but softer & hoarser. A lot of notes uttered very rapidly one right after the other, almost running together. The individual notes were not much more separated than the "syllables" of a single [[Trill?]]. The whole call, the whole series of "B" Notes, in fact, sounded very much like a [[Trill?]] in which the "syllables" had become more clearly separated and more emphatic!! All this would suggest that the Trill and B patterns have barely begun to be segregated in this little animal!!!
[[circled]] 31 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp, Nov. 14, 1959, VII [[image - three vertical lines and one vertical hash mark in pencil in the left margin down the page.]] All this would suggest that frustration without isolation induces hostility sounds quite plausible on general grounds. One other sound uttered by this little animal may be a "real" low intensity distress call. Sometimes, but by no means always, she utters a brief hoarse [[?]] "Augh" or "Ough" note right at the end of a series of [[Trills?]]. I shall call this note "O". It sounds very much like a brief [[Trill?]] without any "syllables" (or a brief Waa of a young Howler without any plaintive quality). This little animal uttered quite a lot of O's yesterday in much the same circumstances as many PL's. When I put her on the ground and then gradually withdrew my hand before her she alternated periods of following with [[Trill's?]] and sitting in Hdd. She frequently uttered O's just as she stopped following with [[Trill's?]], just before she went down into Hdd. Unfortunately, I didn't determine the relationships between O's and PL's in these circumstances. I [[underlined]] think [[/underlined]] that the animal tended to utter O's when she didn't perform PL !! It is possible that this animal also has the first trace of an Mu pattern. After I feed her, and she is lying on her back in my hand (not being able to grasp me) she often utters a series of [[underlined]] very [[/underlined]] soft, little "breath-y" or whispering grunt-like or snort-like noises. These "snorts" are often repeated quite rapidly. Some of the individual "snorts" sometimes seem to have a slight buzzy or trilling quality, without becoming any louder than the usual "snorts", and these are just slightly reminiscent of Mu Notes in actual sound. I will be interested to see how these develop. When hungry, this little animal performs "chewing" movements and utters "chewing" sounds just like young Howlers. I think I shall call this animal "Buster".
[[circled]] 32 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., I November 15, 1959 Barro Colorado [[image - three vertical lines and one vertical hash mark column in pencil in the left margin down the page]] This afternoon, when I picked up Buster, she gave a real complete, but [[underlined]] very soft [[/underlined]], Mu Note repeated about twice. This did not intergrade with "snorts", although it was similar to them in softness, and not too dissimilar in quality. Minor correction or addition to yesterday's notes. Low intensity [[Trills?]] (and all [[Trill's?]] with PL) are uttered with the mouth closed or almost closed, but high intensity [[Trill's?]] are uttered with the mouth quite widely open. When sitting peacefully on my hand now, Buster was uttering a lot of soft "snorts" like yesterday, without a trace of Mu. So I think that the "snort"s and Mu must be qualitatively different in origin. It may be significant that immediately after this period of uttering "snorts" , she started to utter [[Trill's?]], perform PL, and climb up my arm, uttering a few B notes when she got close to my face. Then when I pulled her off, she uttered a lot of [[Trill's?]], and then climbed into Hdd, grasping herself, and started to utter more "snort"s. I am beginning to think that the "snort"s may be low intensity versions of the [[Trill?]] complex. (I wonder why Buster didn't utter any O at this time ?) Again, I let her sit on my hand and then climb up my arm. She behaved just as before, [[Trill's?]] and PL, changing to B's (still with PL, I think), just as she got up to my face. In neither case, did Buster make the slightest attempt to bite me when she got up on my shoulder and neck. When she did get up, she obviously found it difficult to get settled, and wandered around, uttering more or less regularly alternating
[[circled]] 33 [[/circled]] [[underline] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Nov. 15, 1959, II. [[image - left margin - 3 vertical black lines and one vertical hash mark down the page]] bursts of B and Trill's. Again with no attempt to bite. This behavior would suggest that some, at least, of the B's uttered by Buster now are [[underline]] not [[/underline]] hostile. Perhaps generalized distress - higher intensity than the Trill's? Finally, Buster manages to find a comfortable place on my shoulder, and she then subsides half-asleep. While she ? sits fairly quietly, she resumes uttering a lot of "snorts". ( I think I shall call these "snorts" "SN") Then gradually, apparently as she calms down even further, she starts to utter a lot of typical Mu Notes. This behaviour would suggest that all four vocalizations, B, Trill, SN, and Mu,are all produced by essentially the same causation at different intensity levels. B is presumably highest intensity, then Trill, then SN, then Mu at the lowest intensity. Buster is now sitting on my shoulder apparently absolutely peacefully, and Mu-ing madly -- and really quite loudly. As soon as I move a little, she shuts up, without resuming other calls. This behavior might suggest that the Mu is a [[underline]] real [[/underline]] contentment note after all !!! [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, I November 18, 1959 Barro Colorado I have returned from a short field trip to Cerro Bruja to find Buster's behavior unchanged except for two possibly significant details. FIrst of all, she is perhaps becoming a little less absolutely dependent. Arleen says that she saw Buster climbing quite independently on a branch in her cage yesterday. And sometimes, if I drop Buster rapidly toward the floor, (still holding on to her hind legs), she
[[circled]] 34 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Nov. 18, 1959 will spread her arms and hands, in order to receive the shock of landing which she expects. (This still doesn't occur always, however). It is also noticeable now that her Trill's sometimes "fade off" into little Squ-like sounds. These little Squ-like sounds are not, however, distinct enough yet to be considered a really separate pattern yet. (It is possible that Buster uttered a few Squ-like sounds also when I first got her; but they were definitely rarer and even less well segregated then. [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]]ssp.,I October 29, 1960 Barro Colorado [[image left margin vertical black and red wavy lines]] Unfortunately, Buster died some time not too long after the notes recorded above. Before its behavior changed much, or at least, before I paid any attention to its changing behavior. Since then I have acquired a lot more Spider Monkeys. Lots of Reds, which have been let loose- see separate notes. Also 1 more [male symbol] Black. This new [male symbol] Black ("Buck tooth") is now half grown or a little more. The other 3 Blacks seem to be quite full grown now. I have not been paying much attention to the behavior of either Reds or Blacks, until late today; but I have observed them a lot, without taking notes, and I now find myself with all sorts of miscellaneous data to record (some of it not very precise), and I hardly know where to begin. Perhaps it would be best to start with the behavior of infants. I have not had any infant Reds as small as Buster; but I have one, [["Abdomeno,"]] which I got early last summer, and which was not much larger than Buster at first. A [[female symbol]] But definitely much more independent than Buster from the very beginning; very tame (I
[[circled]] 35 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Oct. 29, 1960, II. [[image left margin 3 vertical lines and one vertical hash mark.]] tried, succesfully, to keep him from getting any tamer) and very active, moving about its cage very frequently of its own free will. When we first got him, Abdomeno's most frequent reaction to my appearance was silent PL. Done with mouth closed Head tilted with chin raised a little. Eyes just slightly closed. This pattern is obviously partly hostile and partly friendly. At this stage, Abdomeno was almost as likely to come toward me as move away from me. Sometimes even climbed up on me of his own free will. Abdomeno still does silent PL toward me quite frequently when I am a few feet waway from him, although he always moves away from me now when I come down. Two other infant Reds, smaller than Abdomeno is now, although probably larger than he was when we first got him, behave in the same way; directing silent PL toward me when I am some distance away, and then retreating when I come closer. (One of the two infants is [[male symbol]], the other is [[female symbol]]. The [[female symbol]] is still somewhat "clutchy," tending to grasp her companions whenever possible.) Another young Red, a juvenile [[male symbol]] perhaps 1/3 grown (or just slightly more) also reacts to me in exactly the same way. The relevant PL patterns of all three animals are identical in form, accompanied by the slight chin lifting and eye-closing. The adult Red and Blacks, and the other juvenile Reds, do not do this silent PL to me, or, at least, do it very infrequently. Probably because they are not tame enough. Buck tooth, the youngest of the Blacks, has always silent PL to me. Did it when she first came, when she was no more than 1/4 grown, and still does it. She is by far the tamest of the Blacks. When she first came, her PL usually revealed her upper incisors quite conspicuously. (this is how she got her name); but now most of her PL performan
[[circled]] 36 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Oct. 29, 1960, III. [[image left margin: 3 vertical lines and one vertical hash line]] [[from previous page: performan]]ances are done with the lips meeting and the teeth hidden. [[image left margin: one penciled vertical hash line, one penciled vertical line, one vertical red line, and one vertical red hash line]] I am certain, incidentally, that the PL & OCB of the adult ♂ Red described above on Jun. 24, 1959, p.17, was accompanied by slight chin-raising and eye-closing, just like the PL's of the young Reds. None of the Reds or Blacks I have now have done any OCB like that of the adult Red described above. [[image left margin: 3 redvertical lines, and 1 vertical red hash line]] Another pattern or group of patterns which Abdomeno performed quite frequently when we first got him was MO & Lsh. Again as a response to my approach. Mouth opened very widely (with little or no trace of BT), and the head shaken from side to side, usually approximately 2,3,or 4 times, while the mouth remained open. This shaking was only moderately rapid, [[underline]] much [[/underline]] slower than the V of young Woollie's. During some MO & Lsh performances, I think the head was tilted in just the opposite way from during silent PL's, Comme ça. [[image: sketch of monkey's head and torso in profile, mouth open, head tilted down; arrow points from "Comme ça" to head.]] This MO and Lsh performance also appeared to be both friendly and hostile. The friendly components probably stronger than in the silent PL. Abdomeno, the friendliest of the young reds, is the only one who has ever direct MO & Lsh at me. It is possible that the hostile components are also stronger in MO & Lsh than in the silent PL - Although I rather doubt it (See also notes on MO & Lsh of adult ♂ Red below). [[written in red pencil]] See also note p. 38 [[/written in red pencil]] All the young Reds have been remarkably silent on the whole. [[undecipherable, in red pencil]] The silence of the juveniles may be partly due to the fact that they are not tame, but Abdomeno was also very silent, even when we first got him. Abdomeno and some of the other young Reds have uttered Trills occasionally. Relatively brief, soft, thin and "pure" in tonal quality. Usually or always with PL just like the silent PL; and also usually or always
[[Circled]] 37 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Aletes [[/underline]] ssp, Oct 29, 1960., IV. [[image - left margin three vertical red lines and one vertical hash mark red column down the page]] directed toward me. But Abdomeno never uttered many Trills, even at his tamest. This would appear to be very significant. Abdomeno probably didn't utter many Trills because he was independent by the time we got him. [[image - left margin three vertical lines and one vertical hash mark column in pencil down the page]] In the case of the Blacks, it is fairly evident that the Trills begin as a frustration pattern, probably largely or completely a lost call, in young infants, and then became [[underlined]] largely or completely [[/underlined]] hostile in adults (see notes below). [[image - left margin three vertical red lines and one vertical hash mark red column down the page]] The development of Trills is probably the same in Reds. If so, Abdomeno's behavior would indicate that once an infant becomes more or less independent, it stops giving Trills frequently. All the young Reds utter screams when picked up. Sometimes very harsh, sometimes higher and thinner. I think that the higher and thinner types contain a stronger escape component. The infants and young juvenile Reds have not uttered any B Notes Even when they fight among themselves, they utter screams rather than B. The B patterns must be considered essentially adult. It is possible, however, that young Reds are capable of uttering some B, like the S young Black described above. It is possible that my young Reds have not uttered B because the circumstances have not been right. B may be suppressed by fear, and all my very young Reds except Abdomeno have been shy. And I never teased or irritated Abdomeno in a way which might be expected to provoke B. There are indicators that B patterns first appear, or first begin to become "regular" when the animals are about 1/2 grown, (when they are "older juveniles" in my terminology). See notes on captive [[female symbol]] Red on June 24, 1959, p. 24, above. And today my 2 oldest juvenile Reds, both [[female symbol]]'s, are a little less than 1/2 grown and the other a little more, engaged in "playful" wrestling, just like that of adult Blacks (see below). With MO, and MfB by one or (more probably) both animals. Their MfB's were quite like those of adults in sound, but definitely much weaker.
[[circled]] 38 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Oct 29, 1960, V. [[image - left margin one pencil hashed column, one pencil vertical line, one red vertical line and one red hashed column mark down the page]] Some of my young Reds have uttered one or a few Squ-type notes from time to time. I am becoming convinced, as a result of my observations of both young and adult Reds and Blacks, that all or most of the Squ's are nothing more than low intensity indications of other notes. Probably indications of different types of other notes in different circumstances. [[image - left margin three red vertical lines, one red hashed column mark down the page]] (After writing the above accounts, I went back to look at the young Reds, and saw one young juvenile direct MO & Lsh toward another.) [[image - left margin pencil wavy line]] The behavior of the adult Blacks has not changed very greatly since June of last year. The principal difference is that they are a little less strongly aggressive toward human beings now. [[image - left margin three pencil vertical lines, one pencil hashed column mark down the page]] The decline in their aggressiveness is shown by the fact that none of them has done Agg B toward me recently, or performed more than very slight Jud. They usually respond to my appearance as follows. The [[male symbol]] usually rushes over to me with lots of MfB, occasional silent MO. The [[female symbol]]'s usually rush over with lots of silent MO, but little or no MfB. Rather surprisingly, none of them has performed any extreme BT, with corners of mouth drawn way back, recently. I am even beginning to doubt that this species has a really distinct BT pattern apart from MO. Probably it has; but, if no, it must be largely or completely confined to very high intensity aggressive reactions. The Black [[male symbol]] still becomes very agressive toward me from time to time. In such circumstances, he does not utter Agg. B as before, but another pattern which I probably over looked during earlier observations. I shall call this pattern "the Roar". When the [[male symbol]] is particularly aggressive, when he rushes over particularly rapidly, tries to bite me (through the wire of the cage) particularly vigorously, he usually utters one or more very low-pitched, "throaty" sounds which sound almost like the roars of
[[underlined]] Ateles [[/underlined]] ssp., Oct. 29, 1960, VI. [[circled]] 39 [[/circle]] [[image - in margin, three pencil vertical lines and one pencil hashed line]] large felines. Very variable in length sometimes long and continuously sustained. More often broken up into separate notes; but the separate notes are always or about always longer than any B Notes. [[image - in margin, one vertical hashed line and one vertical pencil line, and one vertical line in red and a hashed line in red]] These Roars also sound very much like low-pitched versions of Screams (although they occur in very different circumstances -- see also below); and their signal effect is at least sometimes similar in some ways. The adult ♂ Red spends most of his time sitting on top of the cage of the Blacks. He usually does not respond when the Blacks NYB or MO at me. But when the ♂ Black Roars, the ♂ Red usually rushes over toward me, apparently preparing to attack. Just as the other adult ♂ Red I had (the one who is over by [[Tuertes?]] House) attacked me when I picked up a young one and it screamed. [[image - in margin, three vertical pencil lines and one hashed line]] Since the Black ♂ Roars at me now, when he no longer utters Agg B, the Roar must be either lower intensity than Agg B or contain a friendly component absent in Agg. B. Quite possibly the latter. The deep throaty quality of the Roar is not unlike the quality of the undoubtedly partly friendly NYB (see below). It is probably relatively less friendly, however, than the NYB, as it is apparently never uttered during friendly wrestling between the ♂ and ♀'s (see below). (In any case, friendly or not, the Roar is [[underline]] undoubtedly [[/underline]] very aggressive.) The deep pitch of the Roar is quite similar to the pitch of the Agg B. It has occurred to me that the Agg B may be intermediate, in some sense, between Roars and "Ord B." [[image - in margin, three vertical pencil lines in red and a hashed line in red]] I do not think that I have heard the adult ♂ Red utter any Roars. Certainly none of the young Reds have. [[image - in margin, three vertical pencil lines and a hashed line]] All the Blacks utter Trills now; but they have been very rare until yesterday; when we let all the little Reds loose and there was a good deal of excitement in the whole group. Some of the new young Reds tried to
[[underlined]] Ateles[[/underlined]] ssp., Oct. 29, 1960, VII. [[circled]] 40 [[/circle]] [[image - in margin, three pencil vertical lines and one pencil hashed line]] climb on top of the cage of the Blacks. This always infuriates the adult Blacks, especially the ♂. Every time a new young Red tried to climb on top of the cage, especially when the oldest new Red (the one that is slightly more than 1/2 grown) tried to do so, the adult ♂ Black would rush over toward it, uttering lots of B's (probably both Agg B's and NYB's), [[underline]] and lots and lots of Trills [[/underline]]. Also trying to strike at the Red, and bite it, and performing Jud. The Red(s) always ran away Screaming. It was noticeable during such encounters that the ♂ Black tended to utter most of its B's when first rushing toward the Red, and then mostly Trill's as the Red fled. Continued lots of Trills, without B, after the Red had left the cage and taken refuge in a nearby tree. Also uttered lots of Trills without B, from time to time, in sudden bursts, when a Red didn't even come to the cage, but just started to move about conspicuously in nearby trees. [[IMAGE: in margin, pencil hashed line, pencil vertical line, red vertical line, red hashed line]] The Blacks (and probably the Reds) seem to have S Trill and L Trill extremes, but they are connected by intermediates. S Trills are the usual type uttered by the Bucktooth Black and most of the young Reds toward me. This is the type I refer to in most of my early descriptions of Trills Thin, high-pitched and fairly soft. The L Trills are [[underline]] much [[/underline]] louder, wooden- and hollow-sounding. Most of the Trills uttered by the Black ♂ during the disputes with young Reds were L Trills. Intermingled with a few S Trills and intermediates between typical S Trills and L Trills. [[IMAGE: in margin, 3 vertical pencil lines and one vertical pencil hashed line]] Many L Trills ended with a particularly harsh "Eeyah" sound. [[image: representation of sound]] Sometimes this "Eeyah" developed into a definite but brief scream. What are the causal differences between the Trill patterns (plus Scream, if this is definitely a regular part of the Trill complex) and the
[[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]]ssp, Oct. 29, 1960, VIII [[circled]] 41 [[/circled]] [[image - left margin, three pencil vertical lines and one pencil vertical hashed line]] and the Agg B, "Ord B", MfB and Roar patterns, as they occur in the repertories of adults ???? (1) All or most of the MfB and Roar patterns seem to contain a friendly component. As friendly patterns, the Roar is obviously more aggressive than the MfB - possibly also higher intensity on the average. If the MfB and Roar are ever purely hostile, then the Roar must be as aggressive as any Agg B, but lower intensity than Agg B on the average, while the MfB must be less aggressive than the most aggressive Agg B, and also probably lower intensity on the average. (2) The Agg B is probably actually high intensity, and certainly relatively aggressive. Apparently never contains a friendly component. (3) The "Ord B" is perhaps the most puzzling of the lot, as an adult pattern. None of the adults have uttered "Ord B" recently. "Ord B" is obviously very high intensity, probably even higher intensity than Agg. B on the average. Perhaps less aggressive than all or most Agg B on the average. Apparently (?) hostile. Perhaps a purely long distance pattern as an adult pattern. (4). The Trill (with Scream ?) would seem to be less aggressive than any of the the B + Roar patterns, on the average (with the possible exception of some or all "Ord B". Independent screams are certainly high intensity fear patterns (see notes above and below). And even L Trills do not seem to be accompanied by the extreme Jud and attack nit. mous. of many Agg B's and Roars and some MfB's. It is surprising, therefore, that the adult Black ♂ uttered L Trills so frequently when the little Reds were moving away from him or in trees some distance away. Perhaps the Trills of adults are partly long-distance patterns. Perhaps the Trills of adults are still partly "lost calls", attempts to summon another animal, like all or most of the Trills of young infants. The L Trills would appear to be higher intensity than S Trills (if the S Trill is really an adult pattern).
[[circled] 42 [[/circled]] [[Underline]] Ateles [[/underline]]ssp., Oct. 29, 1960 IX. [[image left margin three vertical lines and one vertical hashed line going down the page]] The adult Black [[male symbol]] uttered one burst of 3 or 4 Squ or Squ-like notes today, after an outburst of all sorts of other calls. As noted above (p.38), these might be low intensity indications of almost anything. I do not think that the Squ's of adults should be considered a separate distinct pattern. (These Squ's of the Black male were quite like those of young animals in actual sound but louder and harder. ) It might be convenient, at this stage, to list all the displays known to be performed by adult Blacks, including some patterns which might not be very distinct or typically adult. 1. Jud 2. MO [[image blue check mark]] 3. BY 4. PL [[image blue question mark ]] 5. Sct 6. Squ 7. STrill 8. LTrill 9. AggB 10. "OrdB" 11. MFB [[image blue checkmark]] 12. Roar [[image blue check mark]] 13. Scream Patterns known to be frequently or always partly friendly, are marked [[image blue check mark]] Patterns probably sometimes friendly, as adult patterns, marked [[image blue question mark]] This list is almost certainly not complete. It does not, for instance, include some of the patterns known to be performed by adult Reds, i.e. OCB and LSH (see below); although I rather imagine that the repertories of the Blacks and the Reds will eventually be found to be qualitatively identical. The motivation of these patterns may be represented by the following
[[circled]] 43 [[/circled]] [[Image - tree shaped diagram marked with different types of Spider monkey calls]] [[Vertical arrow pointing upwards]] intensity [[/arrow]] [[horizontal arrow pointing left]] escape [[/arrow]] [[horizontal arrow pointing right]] attack [[/arrow]] [[red arrow pointing to tree shaped image]] Purely hostile displays of adult Black Spiders [[/arrow]] [[line across page]] [[Image - tree shaped diagram marked with different types of Spider monkey calls]] [[Vertical arrow pointing upwards]] intensity [[/arrow]] [[horizontal arrow pointing left]] friendliness [[/arrow]] [[horizontal arrow pointing right]] hostility [[/arrow]] [[red arrow pointing to tree shaped image]] Partly friendly displays of adult Black Spiders [[/arrow]]
[[underscore]]Ateles[[/underscore]] ssp, Oct. 29, 1960, XI. [[circled]]44[[/circled]] [[IMAGE: in margin, 3 vertical pencil lines and one vertical, penciled hashed line]] At one time, just after letting all the little Reds go, I thought I heard one of the Blacks utter M's or M-like Notes. But unfortunately I can't be sure of this. If there is an M in the repertoir of this species, it is presumably friendly or partly friendly. I paid particular attention to the mouth and lip movements accompanying the various calls of the adult Blacks during the [[exatement ?]] today S Trills are usually or always uttered with the mouth closed, with at least a trace of PL. High intensity L Trills are accompanied by slight but definite opening and closing of the mouth, with each complete Trill Note, but [[underlined]] no PL [[/underlined]]. The mouth is moderately open, more or less, throughout both series of MfB's and series of Roars. Tending to close a little between successive notes, but never closed completely. [[underlined]] No PL or BT [[/underlined]]. The adult ♂ Black and one of the adult ♀'s performed some interesting behavior this afternoon, quite apart from any reaction to the Reds. Lots and lots of wrestling. Obviously partly hostile. Also obviously partly friendly and/or sexual. Went on almost steadily for almost 2 hours. Mostly on the ground, sometimes on branchs. ♂ usually, but not always, the "aggressor" Whichever animal was initiating a bout of wrestling would approach the other, and throw its arms around the other, or pull its tail or some other part of its anatomy (not the sex organs). This would lead to all-in wrestling. Lots of floppy embracing and rolling around. Lots of biting and biting [[int. mous. ?]]; none of them apparently serious. All this was accompanied by nearly constant MfB's and silent MO's by both animals. The ♂, as usual, did more MfB's than MO's, while the ♀ did more MO's than MfB's. Not a trace of any other call besides MfB. This, plus the absence of any actual fighting; would seem to be conclusive proof that this wrestling was not purely hostile. There are 2 reasons for supposing that the non-hostile component during this performance may have been
[[underscore]]Ateles[[/underscore]] ssp, Oct. 27, 1960, XII. [[circled]]45[[/circled]] sexual rather than just friendly. 1. The [[male symbol]] spent almost all the time wrestling with the same [[female symbol]]. He ignored the other adult [[female symbol]] completely, and wrestled with the young [[female symbol]] (Bucktooth) only once, very briefly. 2. Comparison with the behavior of the adult [[male symbol]] Red. When we first let the young Reds loose, the adult [[male symbol]] Red came over to investigate. The oldest [[female symbol]] Red, slightly more than 1/2 grown came over to him as soon as he approached. Immediately threw her arms about his neck, and brought her face close to his. Probably a form of SNF. Perhaps also an int. mov. of grooming. The [[male symbol]] responded by uttering MLB's [[underline]] and performing repeated Lsh's [[/underline]]. The [[female symbol]] immed. retreated, but came back again very soon, and the two arrivals began to wrestle in a rather desultory fashion. For quite a long time. The [[male symbol]] continued to do quite a lot of MLB's and Lsh's during the first part of this wrestling: Then became more silent as the wrestling continued, uttering only a few bursts of MLB from time to time. The [[female symbol]] also did silent MO at various times during this wrestling (probably without Lsh's?. Finally, the 2 animals separated--and I saw that [[underline]] the [[male symbol]]'s penis was erect! [[/underline]] This is the nearest thing I have seen to sex so far. I might add that SNF seems to be quite a common reaction whenever two strange spider monkeys, either Black or Red, meet one another. Usually silent. Apparently unritualized. Quite variable in form. One animal may try to SNF face to face with the other, or SNF almost any other part of the other's body. Face to face is most common, but other forms are by no means rare. I have never, however, seen anything like stereotyped nose to anus SNF I forgot to mention; above, that the adult [[male symbol]] Red and the adult [[male symbol]] Black sometimes MLB at one another, face to face, through the wire netting of the Black cage. Sometimes accompanied by silent MO by one or both
[[underscore]]Ateles[[/underscore]] ssp, October 29, 1960, XIII. [[circled]]46[[/circled]] arrivals. As the Blacks also NYB and MO to me, it seems obvious that these two patterns are the usual "greeting" patterns of the species. This evening, around 5:00 p.m., I watched the Blacks going to sleep. All sprawled out, close together. One of the adult [[female symbol]]'s spent some time grooming or currying the adult [[male symbol]], using her hands for this process. Quite silent throughout. For comparison with the list of the displays of adult Blacks shown on p.42, it may be useful to list the displays definitely known to be performed by adult Reds: [[left column]]1. Jud 2. Mo 3. BT 4. PL 5. OCB 6. Lsh 7. Set 8. Squ 9. S Trill 10. "Ord B" 11. MLB [[/left column]] [[right column]]Apparently produced by same motivation as corresponding patterns of adult Blacks (I have not yet heard adults of this species utter L Trills, Agg. B, Roars, or Screams Probably because I have not seen them engaged in high intensity disputes.)[[/right column]] I forgot to add, in my notes above, that early today I heard one of the adult [[female symbol]] Blacks scream briefly, without L Trill, when the [[male symbol]] careened into her and knocked her down. So independent screams do seem to be an adult pattern of the Blacks at least
[[circled]]47[[/circled]] [[underline]]Ateles[[/underline] ssp. I October 30, 1960 Barro Colorado Today, I spent most of my time watching the young Reds. I think that my account yesterday may not be very clear in one respect. All the semi-tame young Reds, including the ones that are at least 1/3 grown, and the Black Bucktooth, still direct S Trill's, with PL, to me from time to time. None of the young Reds, however, has done much in the way of S Trilling: Presumably because the circumstances haven't been right. S Trill's have been so rare, in fact, (and most of them have been so brief) that one would suppose that the S Trill's of the youngest Reds are nothing more than intermediates between Squ and Screams. This impression is obviously misleading. The rarity of S Trill's by young Reds now is probably due to two factors. 1. They are all more or less independent 2. They are none of them very tame. Almost all the behavior of most of the young Reds now is largely or completely hostile The Squ and Screams are by far the most common of the purely or largely hostile vocalizations of young Reds; and often intergrade with one another during hostile encounters. Some of the notes intermediate between typical Squ and typical Screams during some hostile encounters seem to be S Trill's in sound. They probably are S Trills in fact - the "first" of the purely or largely hostile Trill patterns. In other words, the Trill patterns of the young 1/4 to 1/2 grown Reds I am watching now are in process of transition. Some of them are becoming hostile, like the Trills of adults. It is possible that these young Reds are still capable of uttering non-hostile Trills as a "lost call", like the Trills of young infants (presumably young infant Reds as well as young infant Blacks). Some of the S Frills which these young Reds direct tow
[[underline]]Ateles[[/underline]] ssp., Oct 30, 1960, II. [[circled]]48[[/circled] ard me now may actually be attempts to "summon" me. But these young Reds do not have any real use for a "lost call" now, at least most of the time. This morning I heard one young Red, about 1/3 grown, utter definite series of B Notes, 3 or 4 times. Apparently hostile. Possibly directed toward other young Reds or the adult Blacks some distance away. These B's were quite loud and very distinct. Low-pitched and sharp. __ __ __ ___ I should imagine that these cries were "incipient" Agg B. (It is possible that the peculiar "Ord B" of adults is derived from high intensity Agg B. Or, more probably, both the Agg B and "Ord B" of adults are derived from the same "undifferentiated" B of young. The B patterns of one of the first young Blacks I had, L, would seem to be particularly significant to this connection.) This afternoon the oldest of the young Red [[female symbol]]'s I have had for a long time (I shall call this animal "Julia" from now on) approached me while I was sitting on the ground, and went through the complete "greeting" patterns of animals of her age (slightly less than 1/2 grown) She came right up to me, uttering lots and [[underline]]lots of "Snorts"[[/underline]] quite like those of the Buster Black, described above on November 14 + 15, 1959, pp. 31 and 32. All these Snorts were accompanied by PL, and the PL was maintained between successive Snorts. The mouth was kept quite closed during most Snorts. Only occasionally opened a very little but as a Snort was uttered, and then closed again immediately. Continuing PL + Snorts, Julia then started to climb all over me. Occasionally nibbling at parts of me, and also licking me from time to time. Then came right up and SNF'd at my face, and then nibbled at my moustache! She also "chewed" by herself, from time to time, in exactly the same way as various infant Spiders and Howlers I have had.
[[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp, Oct. 30, 1960, III. [[circled]] 49 [[/circled]] [[image - three vertical red lines and one vertical red hash mark column in left margin of page]] Every once in a while, during this exploration, Julia's Snorting would develop into brief MFB. The transitions Snorting ------> MFB and MFB ----> Snorting were usually smooth and gradual. [[underline]] Her Snorts and MFB's appeared to be little more than two extremes of a single pattern [[/underline]]! It seems quite likely, therefore, that the MFB's develop from Snorting (possibly by "contamination" from B patterns) in the course of ontogeny Both typical snorts and typical MFB's have the same "faltering" rhythm. The most extreme MFB's uttered by Julia today were quite like those I heard yesterday (some of which were also uttered by Julia) described above on p. 37 Like the MFB of adults, but softer. Some of Julia's MFB today was accompanied by Lsh's. Most of her MFB's were accompanied by moderate opening and closing of the mouth; but during a few of them; both with and without Lsh's, the mouth was held wide open, in what appeared to be MO or, more probably, BT. None of her MFB's were accompanied by PL. Sometimes Julia uttered MFB's "on her own". I could not tell what provoked these. But most of the MFB's occurred when I touched her, or grabbed her tail. This would indicate that her MfB's were more hostile than her Snorts. Probably fairly aggressive (as she did not retreat during MFB's, and some MFB's seemed to be accompanied by BT). Julia also uttered little bursts of rather plaintive Squ's from time to time during this exploration. These Squ's were combined with PL, like the Snorts. But they did not intergrade with Snorts. Most of her Squ's were uttered when she made little incipient retreats (she made a lot of these retreats during her exploration). This would indicate that the Squ's are also more hostile than the Snorts. Probably produced when escape is predominant. After exploring me for about 5 minutes, Julia gave up and left
[[circled]]50 [[/cicled]] [[underline]] Ateles [[/underline]] ssp., Oct. 30, 1960, IV 50 us, without further display. A few minutes later I happened to approach Abdomeno, and noted that he was behaving in somewhat the same way as Julia. He was hanging on the [[uds??]] of a cage, about 4-5 ft away from me, regarding me intently and uttering lots of Snorts, with PL, just like Julia. He continued to do this off and on for at least 10 minutes, moving about considerably, but never coming very close to me. He occasionally uttered Squ notes instead of Snorts. Some of these Sgu's were much longer than others. There seemed to be real WW, but they were obviously nothing more than high intensity Squ's and/or intermediate between Squ's and Screams (see below). These Squ's and "WW"s were also accompanied by PL; and, usually, some slight opening and closing of the mouth with each note. Some of Abdomeno's Squ's and "WW"s were accompanied by retreat movements; but not most of them. So the Squ's and WW's are not extreme alarm. Every once in a while, one of Abdomeno's "WW"s would develop into a real Scream. These were always accompanied by retreat. Mouth opened quite widely, but no real MO or BT. No PL. (It was primarily Abdomeno's behavior this evening which convinced me that all or most of the Squ's and "WW"'s of young Reds are incipient Screams. Abdomeno also uttered a few single B notes - quite indistinctive in sound - during this performance. I couldn't really see what provoked these notes , but I presume they were also a hostile reaction to me. After watching many of the Reds do PL today, I realize that the lips are not usually really puckered during PL. Just protruded. Only Abdomeno really puckered today. But [[underline]] all [[underline]] PLK performances, both silent and vocal,are accompanied by the slight chin-lifting and eye-closuing
[[circled]] 1 [[/circled]] [[underline]] Release of Red Spider Monkeys on BCI [[/underline]] December 14, 1959. 1 Sub-adult or young adult male. December 19, 1959. 1 adult male, 1 sub-adult female, 1 very young male. In mid-February, 1960, the adult male, the sub-adult female, and the very young male were taken over to Frijoles inlet. They have not been seen since. April 1, 1960 1 very young female. May 10, 1960 1 sub-adult female (very dark) The very young female has stayed near the clearing , associating with the sub-adult or young adult male. The sub-adult female just fled away into the forest when released and hasn't been seen since. So now, [[underline]] May 11, 1960 [[/underline]] we have the following situation: [[underline]] Band I. [[/underline]] Clearing. 1 sub-adult male and 1 very young female [[underline]] Band II. [[/underline]] Fuertes Inlet. 1 adult male, 1 sub-adult female, 1 very young male (presumably).
[[circled]] 2 [[/circled]] [[underline]] "Loose" [[/underline]] 1 sub-adult female TOTAL = 3 males and 4 females. [[image line across page]] [[underline]] August 14, 1960 [[/underline]] There have been a number of additions since May 11. [[Underline]] Band I [[/underline]] Increased by the addition of another young female. This female is even smaller than the other young female (who has now begun to grow appreciably). It has been gradually inserted into the band over a month or so, and now seems to be quite well established. [[underline]] Band I [[/underline]] now includes 1 adult male, and 2 young juvenile females. [[underline]] Band II [[/underline]] has not been increased. None of the animals in this band has been seen since release. [[underline]] Loose [[/underline]] During the week of August 1, 1 adult male, 1 adult female, and 1 half grown male, were released around the clearing, and have gradually drifted off, separately. This loose group now includes 1 adult male, 2 adult females, and 1 half grown male. TOTAL = 5 males and 5 females. (Adults or sub-adults = 3 males, and 3 females.)
[[circled]] 3 [[/circled]] [[underline]] September 29, 1960 [[/underline]] [[underline]] Band II [[/underline]] and the [[underline]] "Loose" [[/underline]] individuals have not been seen at all Presumably unchanged. [[underline]] Band I [[/underline]] has been greatly increased. About a month ago, I added another young juvenile [[female symbol]] (an animal with one bad eye) to this band. It has stayed around, and seems to be flourishing; but it is a trifle psychotic, and has never become very closely associated with the other members of the band. Then today I let loose 6 more animals. 2 [[female symbol]]'s and 4 [[male symbol]]'s. One of the new [[female symbol]]'s is perhaps nearly half grown - a little older and larger than the largest of the juvenile [[female symbol]]'s who has been with this band for a long time The remaining new animals range from appr. 1/3 grown to older infants. All the new animals stayed around with the band all afternoon and evening. So this band now consists of 1 adult [[male symbol]], 5 young [[female symbol]]'s, and 4 young [[male symbol]]'s. TOTAL (no. of animals on island now)= 9 [[male symbol]]'s, 8 [[female symbol]]'s. (No of adults or sub-adults unchanged).
[[circled]] 4 [[/circled]] [[underlined]] June 6, 1961 [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Band I [[/underlined]] (Clearing). All the young [[male symbol]]'s of this band have died or disappeared since the last notes written above. This band now includes 1 adult [[male symbol]] & 5 juvenile [[female symbol]]'s. [[underlined]] Band II [[/underlined]] (Fuertes House). This band is unchanged. It should include 1 adult [[male symbol]], 1 adult [[female symbol]], and 1 juvenile [[male symbol]]. Two of these animals were seen in late April, 1961 (Zimmermann). [[underlined]] "Loose" [[/underlined]] Known to be loose are 1 adult [[male symbol]], 2 adult [[female symbol]]'s, and 1 juvenile [[male symbol]] TOTAL= 5 [[male symbol]]'s (3 adult) 8 [[female symbol]]'s (3 adult) [[underlined]] January 14, 1966 [[/underlined]] There has been very little obvious change in these animals -- until recently. None of the Band II or "Loose" individuals has been seen since 1961. The "psychotic" [[female symbol]] in Band I was removed, in late 1961 or early 1962, and let loose on the far side of the island. She has not been seen since. The four remaining [[female symbol]]'s with Band I have been
[[circled]] 5 [[/circled]] adult for (at least) a year now. At least three, and possibly four, of these females because obviously pregnant in late 1965. [[underlined]] One of these [[female symbol]]'s has given birth! [[/underlined]] Baby first seen on January 2, 1966. Still being carried and cared for by mother. (Baby clinging to breast.) Another [[female symbol]] [[underlined]] may [[/underlined]] have lost a baby a few weeks ago. A third [[female symbol]] still looks very pregnant. The single [[male symbol]] is still associating with the [[female symbol]]'s in this band. He looks very battered (missing a lot of teeth, and with one bad eye), but [[underlined]] must [[/underlined]] be healthy in most important respect. On January 6, 1966, I let loose three new animals. 2 sub-adult [[female symbol]]'s and 1 young (slightly less than half grown) [[male symbol]]. Let loose together on Barbour point. I shall call this [[underlined]] "Band III" [[/underlined]].
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