Field notebook, 1888, notes from New York

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Paleontological and geological field notes of Ira Sayles taken on the Hamilton Formation in New York from 18 September to 15 October 1888. Sayles describes the stratigraphy of locations visited and fossils collected there. A wide range of fossils are noted; some examples include brachiopoda and crinoids. Each location is numbered and location numbers in this book range from 1200-1212. Some locations include Onondaga Creek and Tully Valley in Onondaga County, Cuylerville, and Cortland County. Diagrams of stratigraphy are included. This book contains 70 pages of notes.

Date Range


Start Date

Sep 18, 1888

End Date

Oct 15, 1888

Access Information

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  • Cuylerville
  • New York
  • United States
  • Cortland
  • Onondaga Creek
  • Tully Valley


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007264

Collection name

Collected notebooks, manuscripts, drawings, photographs, and correspondence on vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, United States National Museum, circa 1850-1940 and undated

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 2 Folder 8

[[underlined]] Ira Sayles. [[/underlined]] Field note Book. 1888. loc no.[[superscript]] s [[/superscript]] 1200 ^ [[insertion]] [[Tully?]] [[/insertion]] Onondaga Co. NY 1201 Lafayette - 1202 Otisco 1203 Preble 1204 Vesper 1205 Fabius 1206 Pichetts 1207 Tinkers Falls. 1208 Truxton 1209 Cuyler 1210 De Ruyter 1211 Nelson 1212 Georgetown. [[preprinted]] NOTE BOOK [[/preprinted]] A
[[Label]] Andrus & Church Booksellers, Stationers, Printers & Binders, No. 41 E. State Street, ITHACA, N. Y. [[/label]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Tully, Onandaga Co. N. Y., - Saturday, August 18, 1888. I have, today, verifed the presence of Tully Limestone about a mile up the small stream that runs the gristmill at Tully; but I do not yet find it on that line [[underlined]] in situ [[/underlined]]. In several places, I find large blocks of it, which have been undermined by the water, and let down some feet. West of the ville, about half a mile, on the land of George W. Gardiner, I find, [[underlined]] in situ [[/underlined]], at the head of a small spring branch, 50 rods north of Mr Payne's barn. Here the exposure is in three sections. From the bottom of the first to the bottom of the second is 5ft + 5in. From [[end page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 2 bottom of the second to the bottom of the third is 6 feet and five inches; and from the bottom of the third to its top is [[strikethrough]] 4 [[/stikethrough]] 8 feet and 2 inches, making in the agregate [[strikethrough]] 16 1/4 [[/strikethrough]] 20 feet 0 Dip [[strikethrough]] 0 [[/strikethrough]] 1 1/2 - exact average [[S?]] - The fi^[[insertion]] r [[/insertion]]st section, 5° + 5', is a dark colored shale at the bottom, slightly calciferous, but becoming gradually more and more calciferous, until, at the top it has all the characteristics of the Tully Limestone. The second section, 6° + 5', though infinite a compact stratum, has, in weathering, an appearance of being thin - bedded. It seems scarcely fissile along planes of stratification. Some blocks along the mill = branch, indicate planes of
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 3 stratification. The third section, 8° + 7', is broken [[strikethrough]] and shaly. [[/strikethrough]] It is [[strikethrough]] somewhat [[/strikethrough]] more calciferous than section No - 1 -. The main Limestone, on a fresh surface, is a drab-grey. On a weathered surface, it is very light blue and smooth. The upper stratum has some portions that weather into a dark [[argillacious?]] soily mass, with somtimes a solid caliciferous centre. Further N, this Cal. [[Inartrgiton?]] The breakage of all the calciferous portion is [[clumpy?]]. Local- Through all parts are seams highly fossiliferous. [[Choretes?]] are abundant through all parts. Atrypas, spirifers, some lannellibrands, crinoiods, zaphratids and lingulae.
About fifty yards down the branch, is an exposure of the upper Hamilton Shales, full of fossils. I have nowhere yet seen the Genessic Shales above. Since writing the above; I find them abundant just west of this exposure. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]] D/200 [[/underlined]] 4 About fifty yards down the branch, is an exposure of the upper Hamilton Shales, full of fossils. Color ash gray. I have nowhere yet seen the Genessic Shales above the Limestone. They are here 1200 A loose are manifistly from the upper part of the middle section 1200 A1 are from section No 1, at or within the lowest 18 inches. 1200 A2 are from the top of section No 2. 1200 A3 are from the middle of section [[strikethrough]] 3 [[/strikethrough]] No 3.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 5 Tully, [[Chranderga?]] Co. N. Y. Monday, August 20, 1888. A3 from 17 to 20 feet above base. A - 1 About 25° below A1, and 50 yards down the little spring - branch. This is the Upper Hamilton Shales. Section of Tully Limestone in the Gardiner Glen Exposure. [[image - pencil sketch of cross section of ground showing various strata and labelled as follows]] Hill above 8° + 2' Broken 6° + 5' Solid Limestone 3° + 5' Base Hamilton Shales [[image - pencil sketch of birds eye view of ground labelled as follows]] High Banks Spring Branch High Banks
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[image - pencil sketch of cross section of ground showing various strata and labelled as follows]] Section at Straile's Glen Genesic Shales Spring Branch 20° + 1' ^ Trilobite 4° + 2' Limestone 1° Shale 3° + 2' Base of Limestone Shaly, about a foot. 5° + 8' Hamilton Shales Hamilton Shales Spring Branch [[image - arrow]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 6 Tully, Onandaga Co; N. Y. Tuesday, August 21d, 1888. 12.00 B1 Above 2 miles north of Tully Station, on the very top of the ridge which begins at or very near the Clayton Hotel, is a sharp comb of the ridge. This comb is the Tully Limestone. Still there is almost no exposure here. A short distance off the northern end of this, is one very large mass of the rock nearly [[underlined]] in situ [[/underlined]], a little tilted. It belongs to the middle section of the rock, at A., and contains on its upper surface several zaphreites. In other places, I have seen zaphrentes in this rock.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 7 August 21, 1888 This Limestone forms the bedrock for over a mile on the top of ridge. The road [[strikethrough]] crosses [[/strikethrough]] reaches the Limestone on the line between the [[insertion]] Wm [[/insertion]] Scheels and Ira Millard farms. This morning, I have seen thousands of zaphren-toids, and two favosites. Broken Crinoid Stems frequently constitute the main mass of this Limestone. Afternoon. I continue tracing this stone north to the south line of [[underlined]] Wm [[/underlined]] Jones' farm, where the road descends from the top of the limestone fully forty feet, to the Hamilton Shales, about 30 rods south of Mr Jones' house.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 8 August 21, 1888. I find the topmost stratum of this rock to be a calciferous Quartzite, about 24 to 30 inches thick. The under side almost pure Limestone, the uppermost scale is the black Genessic Shale. It is quite fossiliferous, containing Zapneutoids, and Atripae, etc, etc. The Lime lixiviates, when under soil, and the Quartzite grains have so little cohesion, the rock is easily broken down. Its primary color is sky blue. Its first change is to [[strikethrough]] a yello [[/strikethrough]] orange, resulting from iron. It ultimately becomes amber brown.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[[start page]] 9 August 21, 1888. My discoveries today modify, very decidedly, the views held by Geologists, relative to this Group of rocks. First, it shows very vividly, by its [[flexises?]], the unevenness of the sea bottom, on which it was formed. Variations of fifty feet are within sight of the Chase graves. The Genessic Shale has been cut into many low knobs, the limestone, of course, lying under them, nearly to the top of some. Second, the fossils are peculiar. Zaphrentoids, Favositoids, Grinoids, and the like, are most prominent.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 10 Tully, Anondaga Co., N. Y. Thursday, Aug. 23 [[superscript]] d [[/superscript]], 1888. [[underlined]] 1200 B1 [[/underlined]] On the ridge south of Cardiff, on John Caughey^[[insertion]] 's land [[/insertion]]. Genessic Shales on the highest knobs, and Tully Limestone underlying. Variation in altitudes not less than 100 feet. In the lot east of Wm Jones' house are Tully Limestones [[underlined]] in situ [[/underlined]] In the lot east of Samuel Caughey's house, is a large rock, Tully Limestone on one side, and Calciferous sandstone on the another. I have seen several such but this is the largest.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 11. In the [[process?]], I gathered specimens from the falls in a spring branch, east of Tully Center. The thickness here is about 28 1/2 feet. Dip & .1 3/8 s. 1°S 70°W. 1200 C1 is the very base of Tully Limestone, as exposed here. 1200 C-1 is the very top of Hamilton Shales. C1 & C-1 are in juxterposition, or within a few inches - thus C1 Tully lime [[line]] C-1 Hamilton S
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 12 Tully, Anondaga Co., N. Y. Friday, August 24, 1888. Gathered fossils at the spring branch fall, east of Tully Centre. 1200 C2, about 6 feet above the base of Tully Limestone. 1200 C3 about 20 to 25 feet above the base. This layer is rich in Trilobites and Atrypae Cuboides. I found an Orthoceras. Diamatre of [[?]] chamber of habitation about 1 1/4 in. in diamatre [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] and [[/insertion]] the entire animal, about 8 inches long. Trilobites were in piles. This rock is exceedingly variable in character. Fish scales (?)
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 Tully, Onondage Co., N. Y. , - Saturday, August 25, 1888. I found the head of a large Trilobite [[strikethrough]] on [[/strikethrough]] in the south ^ [insertion] bank [/insertion] about 60 feet up the stream, above the fall, and about 23° above the base of the limestone. In the afternoon, I examined [[strikethrough]] two [[/strikethrough]] ^ three outcrops, 1 1/2 & 2 miles north of P.O. The first, on the west side of the [[Thoughnioga?]] at the crossing of the road towards La Fayette, near the house of Mrs Gola. This is not a fair exposure. Above or west of the road, the middle section stretches off under a marshy meadow, of about 1/2 an acre. I observed the ordinary fossils of the bottom of
[[image - pencil drawing of map showing landmarks and type of soil]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 the middle section, and some of the 3[[superscript]] d [[/superscript]] section, in the broken rocks below. The second exposure, 1/2 mile east northeast of Mr Dowd's house, on the east side of Tioughnioga, is considerably higher than the same rock directly opposite on the west side of the stream - not less than 25° higher, thus showing a decided flexure from east to west. I could not get the Dip at any of these places - Inequalities, in level, can be accounted for on no other supposition than inequalities of the ocean bed.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 15 Tully, Onondaga Co, N.Y., - Monday, August 27, 1888 - Examined John Onsby's Glen, outcrop 1200 D. Dip o. Over 25 feet thick, as per Level. Rock is exposed in petty falls, towards north. Towards top, shaly, black, Calciferous Argillite. In the p.m., I determine the outcrop on Meeker Hill, about or near the north line of Lot 20, and terminates about 100 rods north of the town line, on Lot 90 of Lafayette. I find here clear proofs of a terminal moraine, filled with northern drift together with Tully Limestone just scraped from its bed, directly under the moraine. 1200 E from Meeker Hill outcrop Lot 10 Tully-
[blank page] [start page] 16 Tully Onondaga Co, N.Y. Tuesday, August 28, 1888 I go to Cardiff, and do not find Tully Limestone in Situ, but abundant floating in the hill east. [[underline, blue pencil. 1201 is overwritten in blue pencil]] 1201 A. Tully Valley, [[/underline]] Lot 88, [[underline in blue pencil. La Fayette is overwritten in black ink]] La Fayette [[/underline]], on the farm [[insertion]] of [[/insertion]] Clark Estry, a coarse Arenaceous Limestone, in the midst of Upper Hamilton Shales. 1201 B. Lot 89, Gaylord's farm southwest corner, about one mile east of Clark Estey's house. Tully Limestone does not appear in force on this hill, which faces south; but Tully Limestone appears on the surface, and no other. 40 feet below the position of the proceeding note, among the thick
[Blank page] [Start page] 17 1201B. Here, a few feet further down the hill, we find the Tully Limestone in force, a full 100 feet below the top of the ridge, on the north bank of Gaylord's Gulf. In one of the upper rocks, we find many Trilobites. 1201C. About 150 feet lower, is a fall in Gaylord's Gulf stream, about 50 feet. This rock resembles, very strikingly, the Lower Section of Tully Limestone. Calciferous Arenaceous Shale. The entire aspect of the rocks, in situ, 25 feet above the upper rock in the falls, is that of the Lower Section of Tully Limestone; but it is fully 150 feet lower than the Tully, found above.
[Blank Page] [Start Page] 18 Note. It remains to be noticed, that the Tully Limestone, found on the southwest corner of Lot 89, La Fayette, is about 150 feet lower than the out-crop on Meeker Ridge, near Samuel Caughey's house, about one mile southeast of this. At several exposures of the Hamilton Shales, as also at the above=named falls, the rocks are all horizontal. The line of the Tully Limestone, from Tully northward is quite strongly undulating - thus somewhat like this. [[Image: Pencil drawing with numbers in red ink] Note 2. Onondaga Creek runs in a much lower valley than the Tioughnioga runs in, probably 250 or 300 feet lower. Across its southern end is a moraine of about 300 feet high. The little lake, which now runs into Onondaga Creek,
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 is caused by this moraine dam across what was its original channel, before the Glacial Epoch. Its present channel through the moraine was cut by man. 3- Just north of this moraine a well is now being sunk. At the depth 250 feet they are now in quick-sand, showing that, before the Glacial period here was a small lake, or an arm of Onondaga Lake. 4- On the east side of the valley, at the foot of the moraine, is a [[small?]] spring of cool water, which has formed a very heavy bed of Calcareous Tuffa, and is still forming it. This Tuffa is many feet thick.
The hole, mentioned on the preceding page, was driven down 365 feet, when the resistance of the sand became too great to be overcome, and the drillers moved their apparatus. The top of the moraine is 900 feet above Syracuse. From the top down to the top of the hole is about three hundred feet: so the bottom of the hole is still 235 feet above Syracuse. [[end page]] [[start page]] 20 Tully, Onondaga, Co., N.Y. - Wednesday, August 29, 1888 - I examined the upper Hamilton Shales, on the east side of Christian, or Tully Valley, in the hills. Dip o- Near the top of the hill, and close under the Tully Limestone, was a crevice 8 [[superscript]] in [[/superscript]] wide and very deep, of unknown length. It extended east and west. This very clearly shows the fracturing of a Geanticlinal movement. At about this same level, there have occurred, at various periods, explosions of gas, threw out the dirt, in one case over two hundred cubic feet of dirt, at a time! Say 10 times. There are a number of these holes.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 21. This is on the east part of Lot 88, on the farm of Mr Sanches. Here, some thirty feet up the hill, is exhibited the same Coarse, calciferous sandstone ^ [[insertion]] or arenaceous limestone [[/insertion]] mentioned yesterday. 1201 D. Interesting specimens. This afternoon I go up the Gaylord Gulf to the falls. The same arenaceous Limestone forms the floor of the Gaylord Gulf, for over forty feet. It is here about 15 inches thick. In the wall of Hamilton Shales forming the fall, the shale presents usual appearance, until near the top. The upper layer simulates the lower member of Tully Limestone. In fact the 150 feet of Hamilton Shales
[[Blank Page]] [[End Page]] [[Start Page]] 22 presents all the appearances of the lowest part of Tully Limestone. This gorge is cut back about half a mile, and has been done since the Glacial epoch. 1201E. are from the bottom of this gorge, about half way from the mouth. [[End Page]]
[Blank Page] [Start Page] 23- Saturday, Sept. 1, 1888- Mizzly nearly all forenoon. In p.m., I gathered fossils from Straile's Glen, just east of Tully Centre. 1200C1, 1200C2,- 1200C3- Many Trilobites. About 25 feet above the base is the rock, in situ, in the south bank. Trilobites mostly large. [End page]
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 24 - Tully - Monday, Sept. 3, 1888 - Gathered fossils, all day. 1200 C3. Large Trilobites Tully - Tuesday, Sept. 4, 1888 - Gathered fossils. 1200 C3 - a.m. 1200 A2-} 1200 A2+} p.m. 1200 A3+} A3+ is from the bottom of the upper Shaly portion. These do not appear [[here?]], in situ; as I have seen the same near Onsbys. I recognise them. They are in a well just above the exposure.
[[Blank Page]] [[End Page]] [Start Page] 25 Tully- Wednesday, Sept. 5, 1888. 1200 E 1 1/2 miles N. of P.O., loose below the fall at the roadside. [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] [[Following script in blue pencil]] 1200G fall in Lot (29), S.E. Thickness 45 feet. 1200G Loose in stream below. 1200G is the best exposition I have seen for studying the Lithology of this rock. It is completely exposed, even to the very top. The uppermost stratum is a calcareous Argillite, very firm - little Lime - [[End page]]
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 26. Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., Thursday, September 6, 1888. I visit Bear Mountain, just east of Maple Grove Church. A long exposure on the ridge. Dip 1° 1/2 S. Here is another sudden and remarkable depression of this Limestone. Along the east side of the ridge - Bear Mountain top, is the eastern edge of the escarpment. Proceeding northerly, it drops at least 40 feet, and proceeds about 100 rods to the end. On the west side this depression is not noticeable. In striking the level east, this exposure is exactly as high as the crest of Pompey Hill, and more than 100 feet higher than ^ [[insertion]] the [[/insertion]] exposure,east of Cardiff West of Maple Grove Church, on the ridge running north from Otisco P.O., is another long tongue of Tully Limestone. 1202 B - This is on the same level as Bear Mountain.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 27. On Lot 86, south of the road alongside of the stream - a deep and impassable gorge - is an exposure in the north face of the hill south of Bear Mountain. 1202 C. This escarpment runs along round the east face of the ridge, looking down into Tully Valley - Christian Hollow.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 28 Tully, Onondago Co., N.Y., Friday, September 7, 1888. I visit an exposure of Tully Limestone, near the head of Emerson Gulf Creek, Otisco, on Lot 5 near the house of John [[Kehrer?]]. An exposure of the upper hard rock, about 20 to 25 feet above base. 1203D. 1/2 mile southeast of Vesper, Lot 26, Tully, is 1204 A. This is the most extensive exposure of Tully Limestone I have anywhere found. The escarpment is long; and, in some places, the rock is bared for rods. This has been washed by running water, though it is now
[Blank Page] [Start page] 29 [fifty?] feet above the valley- 75000 years ago, it was the valley bottom. This is the least length of time I can make for the removal of 50 feet from this valley. It is, probably, much longer even: for the rock, here in the valley bottom, like the rock in the lower parts of all valleys, is covered deep beneath alluvial gravel and drift; so that, for many milleniums, erosion has ceased. Not a particle of deepening has taken place in this valley, since the Glacial Epoch-50000 years ago. All the valley deepening took place before. [End Page]
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 30 - Add 50000 to 75000, and the sum, 120000 years, more nearly approximates the time that must have elapsed, since this rock was a river-bed. As I stand on these hills, and look off into the valley of the Tioughnioga, about 2 1/2 miles wide, and at least 300 feet deep, and then take the insignificant stream now flowing along the valley bed, and note that it is only three [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] or four miles to its head; and therefore must always have been comparatively small, my mind leaps back into the millions, since the water began to run along this channel towards the Carboniferous sea! Then these Portage Sandstones and Genesee Shales were were swept away to form Carboniferous Sandstone and Shales.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [start Page]] 31 - At the same time, on the west side a stream was running north, and cutting a deeper and much narrower channel for the Onondaga River. That this stream has always run northerly, since the great uplift, is manifest from the fall, now covered with drift, to the depth of 600 or more feet, looking north down that valley. Water running north only could have cut Onondaga River Valley. Since the Tioughnioga heads here in several small streams, running south, it must have always run south, since the uplift. Here, therefore, has always been the water divide, since it was first made dryland.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 32 - Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y.,- Saturday, September 8, 1888. It rains all the forenoon. In the afternoon, I ride along the west side of this Valley, and determine where the Tully Limestone dips beneath the surface of the Valley. It is in the town of Preble, Cortland Co., about one mile from the county line. Directly across the Valley, on the east side, Tully Limestone is fully 75 feet higher than the surface of Big Lake. This shows a southwestern dip, strong. Mr [[Blank space]] Cummings' spring comes out on the top of section No 2, at Gardiner's Glen. The top of the rock is more twenty feet above, 62 feet above the road - which is 20 feet above lake.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., - Monday, September 10, 1888. I visit Otisco Valley, today. At D.C. Gambell's mill, Hamilton Shales Dip 1/2° S. After leaving Vesper, I nowhere saw Tully Limestone, until I recrossed it, a short ^ [[insertion]] distance [[/insertion]] south of Onondaga County south line, in Cortland Co., where it is about 30 feet above Big Lake. On the west side of ridge, where the road enters the gorge, to pass east, the Tully Limestone is below the road, and the gorge is cut entirely Genessee Shales and Portage Shales. This corresponds with the fact, that it sinks below Tioughnioga Valley on the west side, a short distance below Big Lake; while, on the east side it
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 34 sinks to the Valley surface a little north of Homer. It does not come to the surface along the road from Vesper to Amber, on account of the heavy Drift. It is in all the lateral gorges from about a mile south of the head of Otisco Lake, until the first gorge north of the road that passes the ridge to Tioughnioga Valley, where it lies below the Drift. In crossing here, from Otisco Valley to Tioughnioga Valley, I find it fairly exposed, on the side of the ridge, west side of Tioughnioga Valley, fully thirty (30) feet above the Lakes.
This shows a dip S.W. [[end page]] [[start page]] 35 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., Tuesday, September 11, 1888 - Today, I gather specimens in the road east of John Onsby's, till noon. 1200 D In the afternoon, I trace the outcropping south from Onsby's to Weingartner's, where it is still fully forty feet above the Valley. It is more or less exposed at every gorge. At Weingartner's is one of the best I have seen. On the east side, this rock seems peculiarly hard.- At Weingartner's, the top of the exposure is 41 1/3 feet above the [[strikethrough]] Mo [[/strikethrough]] Valley Road.
Section of the falls in the woods east of Chase Sawmill 1- 62 feet fall from the foot of the falls proper to the creek at the Mill. 2- 15 1/3 feet from the base of the Limestone to the foot of the Falls. 3- 63 from base of the Limestone to its top in Genesee Shale. About 6 feet, at top, of Argillaceous Limestone. A thin stratum of Argillaceous Limestone, Shaly, at about 51 [[overwritten]] 0 [[/overwritten] feet. Several of the Strata have [[strikethrough]] been [[/strikethrough]] a thin seam of Argillite between them. [[end page]] [[start page]] There are several partial falls through the Limestone, from 3 inches to six feet The above results were obtained by leveling from my eye, when standing erect, 5° + 2' ; and, as the channel is very tortuous, may, possibly, vary a little from the exactness of a level with a graduated rod, and rod-man: but it is very nearly correct.
[[Inside cover blank]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 36 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., Wednesday, September 12, 1888 Today, I trace the outcroppings of this Limestone, on the eastside of Tioughnioga Valley as far south as School House No 4, Preble, a mile south of Preble Station. The rock is there in place at the side of the road, fully 20 feet above the river. The rock exhibited is about 10 feet below the upper face of the Tully Group. This is Field Label 1205 A At C.C. Van Hoesen's, Field Label, 1205 B, there is a partial exposure; but these partial exposure's are seen every little way along the {lower part of the east hill. {Just south C.C. Van { Hoesen's house, the [[In the space to the left of curly bracket are inscribed vertically]] 3088 [[underline]] L-44 [[underline]] 10 [[/vertically
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 Genesee Shale comes down flush to the road, no Tully Limestone appearing. Then the Limestone rises and, though unseen, runs along the base of the hill as far as I have seen. All this appearance, on the east side and not on the west side of the Tioughnioga Valley, shows a southwesterly dip. At Weingartner's, Field Label 1205. C., I made a fair collection, this afternoon. The best for collecting is from the hillside, facing the valley highway. C.C. Van Hoesen's farm is part of Lot 88, Prebel, Cortland Co., N.Y. Weingartner's farm is part of Lot 69, Preble, Cortland Co., N.Y.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 38 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y.,- [[strikethrough]] Friday, [[/strikethrough]] Thursday, September 13, 1888 - Packed specimens in a.m. Afternoon, I visited again the falls, in the Chase Woods. I determine the following: 1- From Tioughnioga to the foot of the falls- 62 ft 2- Fall in Hamilton Shale. 15 3- Tully Limestone 57 4- Calciferous Argillite 6 This Calciferous ^ [[inserted]] Argillite [[/inserted]] is entirely different from the Genessee Shale - Argillite. It maintains its form and size after the lixiviation of the Calcareous element and it splits in slabs 1 to 2 inches in thickness - very firm. Genessee Argillite splits into flakes very small and light. The Calciferous Argillite has a very dark blue color: Genessee
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 Argillite is black - no blue shade at all. Sometimes a little rusty. I have not the least hesitancy in retaining the former among the Tully Group. The truth is, the Calcareous matter began to fail, towards the last of the Tully Epoch, while the Argillaceous element continued in full force. In several thin seams, it was in excess, during the solilidification, or rather precipitation of the Calcareous element. The introduction of the Calcareous [[strikethrough]] epock [[/strikethrough]] epoch above the Hamilton was comparatively sudden. Not more than six inches of Argillaceous Limestone
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 40 was made at the bottom of the rock - top of Hamilton Shales; and, as appears from my specimens, Hamilton Fossils continued flush up to the introduction of the Calcareous Matter. This is as it should be. When the water became so strongly impregnated with this matter, the former fauna would not find it healthy - must die. The source of this Lime is a mystery.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 41 [[strikethrough]] Fri [[/strikethrough]] Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., - Friday, a.m. Sept. 14, 1888, I revisit Weingartner's for specimens. Got a good lot of specimens. In the p.m. I visited a fall, east of Weingartner's, on the assurance of Horace King Esq'r, that it was made in Tully Limestone. Before reaching it, I found the Genessee shale in force; and, on reaching the fall, I found just what I anticipated, a fall over Portage Sandstones! Mr King has very thoroughly read [[Dmna?]]; but reading cannot inform a man how to distinguish a rock by its appearance. Observation through the eye alone can do this. Cummings's farms are in Lot [[strikethrough]] 60 [[/strikethrough]] 59, Preble, Cortland Co., N.Y.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 42. List of outcrops of Tully Limestone, in Tully Township. Beginning at Vesper - thence all along the west side of the Valley to Cortland County. Just east of Tully Centre, in Lot 39. At Gardiner's, in Lot 39. On the ridge north, in Lots 9 & 10. On Lots 19 & 20. both W & E. 29 & 30 & 50 On the west side, the lots are 26, 27, 37 & 47 [[27,37 & 47 are overwritten in red ink over original pencil entries 26, 44 & 46]] In Otisco, the Lots are 55, on Bear Mount & Kingley's Ridge 86, 5 & 6. And along Otisco Valley in all the ravines south of the Reservoir to the gulf road across into Preble, Tioughnioga Valley. In La Fayette, in Lots 58, 89, 91, 92. In Preble, in Lots 59, 69, 88, & 97, [[7 is overwritten in blue pencil over original entry 8]] on the east side: on the west, 57 & 67.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 43 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., Saturday, September 15, 1888 - Today, I have examined the hill east from Onsby's - Thence north to Summit Station. From Onsby's northward, the Valley rises as fast as the Tully Limestone; so that it - the Limestone - does not appear; in the ridges west of the Valley, it exists all along. In the ridge north of Apulia, it does not exist. Taking a level from Mr James [[strikethrough]] Mile's [[/strikethrough]] M. Miles's Lot, I find the level to indicate its existance; but it does not. This coincides with the theory of a Southwest Dip, at this meridian.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 44 Monday, September 17, 1888 - I gather specimens, until the rain drives me in, at 1204 A, Lot 26, Tully. [[line across page]] Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., - Tuesday, September 18, 1888 - Rains during all the a.m., and until 1 1/2 p.m. At 2 p.m., I go down to Weingartner's to gather fossils. 1205 C. I also determine the elevation of this rock above the Tioughnioga Valley, at the County Line, on the west side. It is fully forty feet [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] above the Valley road, and more than 50 feet above surface of the lake, just east of the road. Below this outcrop, it is so masked by Drift that its position indeterminate; but
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 taking the exceedingly gradual depression of the rock for the last 2 1/2 miles north, on this side, as the proper term of comparison, I do not think it can reach the level of the Valley, in the next four miles south, or down the Valley. [[line across page]] On page 50, I have given a careful examination and measurement of the Tully Group at this place, which see - [[Sentence ends at this point-rest of page blank]] [End page]
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 46 - Tully Onondaga Co., N.Y., - Wednesday, September 19, 1888 - Gather fossils, today, from the ledge west of Tioughnioga. 1204 A, Lot 26, Tully. I take the height of that ledge, above the road bed - about 96 feet. I find, at the top of Section A, a Calciferous sandy Shale, 16 inches thick. Some parts of this are very full of Fossils. The top of this ledge is about 500 feet above Onondaga Creek, below the moraine; and a level east southeast, across Tioughnioga Valley, shows exactly the same height as the exposure at Onsby's.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 47 Tully, Onondaga Co., N. Y, - Thursday, September 20, 1888 - I inspect the outcropping of Tully Limestone along the east face of Mecker Hill; and find outcrops in Lots 30, ^ [[insertion]] 20, [[/insertion]] and 10, - Tully, and Lot [[strikethrough]] 100 [[/strikethrough]] [[blue pencil insertion]] 90 [[/insertion]] Lafayette, Onondaga Co., N.Y. Collected fossils from 1206 A, Lot [[strikethrough]] 20 [[/strikethrough]] [[overwritten blue pencil]] 30 [[/overwritten]], Tully, and from 1206 B, Lot [[strikethrough]] 100 [[/strikethrough]] [[blue pencil insertion]] 90 [[/insertion]], Lafayette. There are several outcrops along this face of the Hill, and the Limestone terminates on the north face of the ridge, Lot [[strikethrough]] 100 [[/strikethrough]] [[blue pencil insertion]] 90 [[/insertion]] Lafayette. There is much Drift here, and a good deal of foreign Limestone: but Tully Limestone can easily be distinguished from all others.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 48 - A level, due east, passes high over the next ridge - the one north of Apulia, but it strikes the top of the ridge east of Fabins. I shall, therefore, look for its outcropping there. [[line across page]] N.B. I found this outcrop, Thursday, Sept. 27, inst. See page 54 -
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 49 - Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y., - Friday, September 21, 1888. I examined Tioughnioga Valley on both sides, today, to determine where the Tully Limestone dips beneath the surface of the valley. On the west side, it comes down to the valley, at about the line between the 67 & 77 Lots. On the east side, it comes to [[strikethrough]] to [[/strikethrough]] the valley about half a mile below Talman's Sawmill -, in Lot [[strikethrough]] 98 [[/strikethrough]] [[blue pencil insertion]] 97 [[/insertion]], over two miles farther south than it does on the west side. This shows, conclusively, that the Dip is southwest.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 50- I find, on careful examination of the exposure near the county line, between Lot 47, Tully, and Lot 57, Preble, the most complete exhibition of the rock, I have yet anywhere seen: and, by careful leveling, I find 59 feet of rock, from its base, at the side of the little creek, at the spring below the bridge, to the top of the Calciferous Argillite, in the second lot upstream. I made it 63 feet, at the fall east of the old Chase Saw Mill, Lot 29, Tully, 3 1/2 miles northeast. My measurements exceed any others, heretofore published, but I know they are correct.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 51- Nowhere else have I found so perfect an exposure of the junction between the Tully Calciferous Argillite and the Genessee Shale, as is here presented. The junction between the Tully Limestone base and the Hamilton Shales is well presented at the fall above named, and in two places along the Barrett's Ledge exposure. Now I have the connexions all complete - no missing links in the chain.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 52 Tully, Onondaga Co., N.Y.- Saturday, September 22, 1888. [[insertion in blue pencil]] 1207 [[/insertion]] today, I visit [[underscore in blue pencil]] Tinker's Falls, [[/underscore]] in the township of Truxton, Cortland Co., N.Y., 1/2 mile south of the north line of the township and the county, and 5 1/2 miles from this place, east by south. This noted fall is in a small stream, just east of the outlet of Labrador Lake or Pond. From the bridge in the road across this stream, to a rust=colored stratum near the base of limestone, the altitude is 146 feet, the entire thickness of the Tully Group lying above. I discovered also another exposure west of the pond. [[End page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Tully. 52 Monday, September 24, 1888. Today, I revisit Tinker's Falls, for further examination and the collection of Fossils. I find the thickness of the Tully Group to be as follows: feet. 1- A doubtful shale at base 5 2- Limestones proper. 56 3- Blue Calciferous Argillite 5 ---- Total 66 This is station [[circled in black ink]] 1207 [[/circle]] [[insertion below this number, in black ink]] 1208 [[/insertion]] A, Lot [[strikethrough in blue pencil]] 42 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion in blue pencil]] 53 [[/insertion]], Truxton, Cortland Co. Fossils are very abundant. Atrippa Cuboides more so than in any other place I have yet visited. This Limestone, remember, contains beds of intercallated shales - Calciferous Argillite. These are generally fossiliferous.
[[Start page]] 1207-A In the doubtful shale just below the Limestone. 1207A+ A few feet above the table over which the water falls; in a shaly stratum under a hard shelf. [[end page]] [[start page]] 53 - Tully, Onondoga Co, N.Y., - Wednesday, September 26, 1888 - I examine and determine the locus of the Tully Limestone, in the hill west of Labrador Pond. At the north end of the range, it rises but little above the Drift hills, heaped against it, but, so soon as the Drift is left at the north, in proceeding southward, it out-crops, about 200 feet above the Pond, and it gets but little lower for the two miles along which I took note of its line At the first small run, I made a collection, at station 1207B, Lot 42, Fabius. I made a still further collection from Tinker's Falls, 1207A, Lot 53, Truxton. [[End page]]
1208 A. [[image-pencil sketch showing tiered levels of ground with A. written next to top tier and A-1 next to lowest tier]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 54 - Tully, Onondaga, Co., N.Y., - Thursday, September 27, 1888 - I visit an outcrop of Tully Limestone, Lot 54, Truxton, Cortland, Co., N.Y., Station 1208 A, 1 1/2 miles east of Tinker's Falls, on Lot 53, Truxton. At 1208 A, the Limestone is exposed in the bed of a small creek, for a long distance. I had some very fine specimens, the best I have yet obtained. I drove from 54, Truxton, through 44, Fabius. In this Lot, the road passes over the Limestone at a spring - watering = trough, and, on the east side of the road is a fall. There is also a fall, 40 rods southeast of the house and spring, in a gorge. The Limestone comes to the north end of the ridges, south of Fabius, about 60 feet above the Drift.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] T [[/strikethrough]] 55 Tully, [[strikethrough]] Cortland [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Onondaga [[/insertion]] Co, N.Y., - Saturday, September 29, 1888 - I collect specimens again at Tinker's Falls, Lot 53, Truxton, Cortland Co, N.Y., - Station 1207 A. I find some hitherto unseen specimens, e.g., a Litnites. This load fills my sixth box.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 56 [[insertion, in black ink, underlined]] 1210 [[/insertion]] DeRuyter, Madison Co, N.Y. Friday, October 5, 1888 - This forenoon, I have found the Tully Group, on Lots 52 and [[strikethrough]] 62 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion, in blue pencil]] 56 [[/insertion]], Township of Tromp, DeRuyter, on both sides of the Valley of East Branch, Tioughnioga River. On the north side is the southern edge of a table, the northern edge of which comes to the surface, some miles north of this. That on the south side, is the northern edge of a table that, dipping under the southern hills, disappears to reappear no more, unless among some of the Pennsylvania Folds - a possibility which seems
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 57 - nowhere realized, or at least, not recognized. This same fact is reported to me as existing at Truxton: if so, then we have here the southern limit well defined, by this valley. I shall determine this point, right away. This afternoon, I have located this rock, on the face of the hill northeast of the Depot. It forms here, as in many other places, a table along the face of the hills. Along this table, I have, this afternoon, gathered my first bagful of specimens - station 1209A. The extreme thickness of the exposures, on Lots 52 & [[strikethrough]] 62 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion in blue pencil]] 56 [[/insertion]], [[overwritten]] are [[/overwritten]] is about 40 feet. The base and
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 58 - top are not well defined, in either case. The Limestone seems more impure than I have hitherto found it. Station [[strikethrough]] 1209 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] 1210 [[/insertion]] is on Lot 38.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 59 - DeRuyter, Madison Co., N.Y. Monday, October 8, 1888 - This forenoon, I have identified the Tully Group in a gorge on Lot [[strikethrough]] 20 [[/strikethrough]] 35 DeRuyter, Madison Co. It forms the top of a series of Cascades, the bottom being, as usual, in the Hamilton Shales. From my observations on this hill, I am convinced that the Tully also cuts the next hill north. Station [[strikethrough]] 1216 [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion, in black ink]] 1211 [[/insertion]]
[[Blank page]] [[Start page]] 60 [[centered]] DeRuyter, Madison Co., N.Y.,- Wednesday, October 10, 1888- I go to Cuyler, this a.m. I find Tully group on Lot 69 + 59, Cuyler. [[strikethrough]]1210[[/strikethrough]].1212 This is very shaly, more so than I have before anywhere seen. It is a good place for collecting Fossils. Its line of outcrops is all along on the north side of the valley; on the the[[sic]] southside , the line is well enough marked; but it is entirely masked by the vast amount of Drift. None of the small [[end page]]
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 61 spring rivulets run below the Drift. 3/4 of a mile W.N.W. of the village of Cuyler is [[insertion]] Spicer's [[/insertion]] Cottage Glen. Here is a fall over the Tully S.E. Group, very similar to Tinker's Falls. It is a somewhat larger stream than that of Tinker's Falls. This is a good place for collecting. Station 1212. [[insertion in blue pencil]] Lot 86. [[/insertion]] I obtained a fine slab from the lowest shale, showing Hamilton Fossils.
[[Blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 62 DeRuyter, Madison Co., N.Y., Thursday, October 11, 1888 - I revisit Spicer's Glen, and make fine collection. I take the height of the fall [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] from the corner of the main roads - equal to 100 [[insertion]] ft [[/insertion]] + 8' : to the bottom of Limestone, just fifty feet, leaving just fifty - 50 [[insertion]] ft [[/insertion]] + 8' of the Limestone without the doubtful Shale at the bottom or any of the Calciferous Argillite above, which is not exhibited. I have a growing wonder that other Geologists have found so little thickness in this group. I know I am correct.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 63 De Ruyter, Madison Co., N.Y - Saturday, October 13, 1888 - Today, though the weather threatened, I have visited along the line of outcrops on the west side of the valley north of DeRuyter. I found a good exposure, in a gorge on the east face of the hill, Lot 60, Cuyler, Cortland Co. The wall here rises vertically for many feet. Station 1213 A. I here found an Atrypa Cuboides, in the face of the wall, about midway. The exposure here is only partial. Next is a gorge on Lot 50, [[strikethrough]] Cuyler. [[/strikethrough]] Fabius, Onondaga Co. I did ^ [[insertion, in blue pencil]] not [[/insertion]] go to this, but it is there. The next is on lot 40, Fabius, Onondaga Co., N.Y. This I visited. It is decidedly the [[haviest ?]] exposure I have anywhere seen. I had not
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 64 time to take the thickness, but I estimate it, at least, 70 feet. Station 1214. The Calciferous Argillite is not here exposed; but I found loose pieces of it in the stream above the Falls. This limestone, the upper 10 feet,[[strikethough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] was quarried for building the Reservoir Dam. Above Pickett's house, at the south, on Lot 20, Fabius, is another good exposure. This is a gorge on the north end of the long ridge which faces the valley north of DeRuyter, from Lot 69, Cuyler, to Lot 20, Fabius, a distance of six miles. The road up the hill, at the west of Pickett's house crosses the line of outcrops about one mile south west of
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 65 - Pickett's house. The exposures are slight here. We immediately find ourselves ascending the hill on the fine Genessee Shales. From the Pickett Hill exposure, on Lot 20, Fabius, to Lot 42, Fabius, called Labrador Hill, south of Summit Station, on the Binghampton and Syracuse R.R., there is a series of hills, all terminating at the north, looking down into a transverse valley, between them & the Pompey Hills. Every one of these hills, between 42 & 20, has a line of outcrops across its north end. On some of them, the Limestone forms tables. Then, between every two of these ridges, are two lines of outcrop running south.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 66. Thus, at Labrador Pond, a line runs on both the west and the east sides. In the valley running north from DeRuyter the two lines are as they should be; but the east line turns northeast along the upper part of the [[strikethrough]] l [[/strikethrough]] north branch of Tioughnioga; but the hill that runs parallel with DeRuyter Reservoir, is too low. It is wholly in Hamilton Shales. So much I have today determined. The Stratigraphy is very simple; and it seems to me ^ [[insertion]] a [[/insertion]] little strange that Geologists have failed to discover what is so exceedingly plain.
[[IMAGE: 2 maps drawn on folded, lined sheet of paper. Map elements are drawn mostly in blue pencil. Element names and distances are written in black ink.]]
[[folded, lined paper]] Section Tully Limestone [[IMAGE: lines drawn in blue pencil, indicating 4 strata, and named as follows]] Calciferous Argillite. Argillaceous Limestone. solid Limestone with thin seams of Argillite - = Thin seam of Argillaceous Limestone - There are several fossiliferous Strata of these Limestones but, to make them available, they need a long exposure to the influences of varying temperature and moisture. Some of the Argillites easily yield fossils. Hence, from this Limestone in situ it is almost impossible to obtain a single fossil. From loose fragments, any amount may be obtained. In order to determine the horizon of a fossil, it is necessary to study closely the Lithology of the rocks in situ, and then compare the loose fragments.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 67 - DeRuyter, Madison Co., N.Y. Monday, October 15, 1888 - This morning, I have discovered that Tully Group lies from 5 to 8 feet beneat the surface in all the north part of the village [[insertion, in blue pencil]] of [[/insertion]] Truxton [[insertion, in black ink]] #1208 [[/insertion]] Cortland Co. This is at the mouth of Labrador Creek. Here, therefore, the two lines of exposure, one on each side of this stream, join so as to complete the southern loop. [[insertion, written in black ink]] Station 1215 all along up the north side of the valley to Cuylerville [[/insertion]] As I returned towards Cuyler, it rises higher and higher, till I reach Spicer's Glen. At this place, I find the exposure of the entire upper part of the Calciferous Argillite, which gives 63 feet of thickness, without the 5 feet of doubtful shale at the bottom, adding that I get 68 feet, the thickest I have
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 68 - yet [[strikethrough]] found [[/strikethrough]] measured. I think the exposure on Lot 30, Fabius, west of the Reservoir Dam, is heavier than this. These two are a little ove 7 miles apart, and Tinker's Falls is 7 miles northwest of Spicer's Glen. At the stream, near the south east corner of Lot 85, Cuyler, I discovered a table of this Limestone, which exhibits, most beautifully, the Life of its day. It is too large to manage, but it is a splendidly instructive lesson, in the Hieroglyphs of the ancient seas. I could study it a month, without exhaustion - Fucoids of numerous species, Shells, and Tracks. This is well up in the Group. [[End page]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 69 - [[Written in black ink, circled]] 1209 [[/circled]] At Cuylerville, I find the Group outcropping, on the south side of Tioughnioga Valle, south and southwest of the village, nearly or quite 100 feet above the river=bed. This gives me the 'missing link', on the south side of the valley, from Burdick's Glen, above DeRuyter, southeast, to Cuylerville. I have not, before, been able to find the line, though I knew it must be there. The Drift is very heavy, and no stream, from Burdick's to that at Cuylerville, is heavy enough to cut down to the bed=rock.
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] In the stream, at Cuylerville, I found the Hamilton Shale, upper part, and I instantly knew that the Tully Group must be exposed. I took the first latteral branch from the west, and, in a few rods, I found it, southwest of the Depot, about 80 rods - bottom of the Group. [[insertion in blue pencil]] 1216 Station [[/insertion]] I then took a level from that position, southeast, up the main run; and I found that it reaches the stream, half a mile away, in that direction. There it disappars beneath the Southern hills. Here I close this book and open Book B. [[end page]]
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