Mexico, April 4 - August 10, 1893

ID: SIA RU007364

Creator: Goldman, Edward Alphonso, 1873-1946

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1893

Citation: Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection, circa 1873-1946 and undated

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This field book documents the field work and travel of Goldman in Mexico between 4 April and 10 August 1893. Goldman's narrative notes record taxon and common names of plants, birds, and mammals observed and collected. Some common specimens include pines, sparrows, juncos, shrews, voles, and rats. Locations include but are not limited to Chalchicomula (Ciudad Serdán), Huamantla, Mount Orizaba (currently Citlaltépetl), Tehuacán, Perote, Las Vigas, Jico (Xico), Tochimilco. Goldman's notes also record altitudes, weather conditions (occasionally), how common a species is in a particular area, and descriptions of the route he traveled. An index included in the back listing place, date, and page number.

Date Range


Start Date

Apr 04, 1893

End Date

Aug 10, 1893

Access Information

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  • Animals
  • Birds
  • Mammalogy
  • Plants
  • Ornithology
  • Botany


  • Tehuacán
  • Las Vigas
  • Huamantla
  • Xico
  • Ciudad Serdán
  • Citlaltépetl, Volcán
  • Mexico
  • Perote
  • Tochimilco


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA RU007364

Collection name

Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection, circa 1873-1946 and undated

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 26 Folder 4

[[start page]] Lists & Notes on Mammals and Birds of Mex. E. A. Goldman Alila. Tulane Co. California, Estados Unidos. Book 2nd Apr 4th To Aug 10 1893. [[end page]] [[start page]] (7) Apizaco, Tlaxcala, Apr 4-6 1893 I spent two days here while Mr. Nelson went to see the gov. in Puebla. The alt. must be over 8000 ft. I found no signs of jumping rats here. The seems to be an interval in which no jumping rats are found between Irolo where I caught 5-toed jumpers & Huamantla where I caught 4 toed ones. I saw no signs of gophers. A stream flows by the town which has a few bushes & an occasional tree along here mostly I saw & shot birds. Mams. taken at Apizaco. Sitomys: Got a rather large species of Sitomys same as taken at Irolo & a white [[end page]]
(2) Apizaco. one same as taken at Amecameca. Both species lived among the rocks and along banks near the stream & the smaller kind was common in grain fields everywhere. Reithrodontomys: Caught a couple of them near the creek in a grass patch. List of Bird of Apizaco. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Pipilo fuscus. Carpodaeus mex. fron.[[?]] Melospiza fasciata - [[?]]Mex. Ammodramus. [[Otocon's?]] Titlark. Melospiza lincolni. Dendroica aestiva. [[end page]] [[start page]] Chalchicomula. (3) [[Mel was struck through. Include?]] Spizella socialis. Chalchicomula Puebla Apr. 8-19 & Apr. 27 to May 2. Mams: Silomys. 2 same species of Silo. as taken at Apizaco. Dipodomys. A species of this genus is common. They are found more or less everywhere on the plain but especially along a bank & in land not cultivated lately. They usually have 2 holes through very often they have more all of which are used. Their range as far as I know it is in the shape of a triangle the extremes being Huamantha[[?]]. Thayeala[[?]]. Esperanza.
[[start page]] (4) Chalchicomula Puebla. & Perote, Vera Cruz. Reithrodontomys: Tolerably common along the hills in the grass at their bases. Arvicola: We were somewhat surprised when I caught arvicolas in grassy places at the altitude of the town (8200 ft.) This makes the lowest altitude at which we have yet found them in Mex. They were rather dark colored. Liomys: Tolerably common. Lepus: Three species of the genus are found (1) the white sided jack. (2) a very large reddish wooly cottontail. & (3) a small gray one. Mephitis: I picked up a skull. [[end page]] [[start page]] Chalchicomula (5) Neotorna Pico de Orizaba, Alt Birds of Chalchicomula. Otocoris: Common in the fields on the plain near town. Pipilo maculatus? A pipilo perhaps this one was common in the bushy places along roadsides & even in the midst of town wherever there was cover. Carpod. mex. fron: -Common. Melospiza lincolni: Com. Pipilo fuscus: Com. Harpor. curv. Very common on the hills along the edge of the plain where plenty of wild magueyes, cactus, & brush grows. [[end page]]
[[start page]] (6) Chalchicomula Icterus wagleri. com. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Com. in the fields. Hubia melanocephala. Com Coccothraustes vespertinus: One was shot near town by Mr. Nelson. Guiraca caerulea: Com. Aimophila superciliosa: Com. along roadsides etc. Falco: One species, com. Spinus psaltria mex. com. Scardafella inca. com. Harpor. ocellatus. We saw this bird here for the first time They were about as common as Harpor. curv. & were found in same locality. Colaptes cafer. Com. I found [[end page]] [[start page]] Chalchicomula (7) ones nest in a tree, the aperture only about 2 ft. from ground & nest slightly above the level of ground. Aphelocoma sumichrasti: Com. up to edge of firs on the mt. (Orizaba). Ammodramus: com. Spizella pallida: Rather com. Lanius: com. Spizella atrigularis. com. Bubo virginianus subarcticus: One was brought in by native hunter. Hemiprocne: I saw two of the white-collared species flying. Geothlypis speciosa. I shot one bird on the top of a hill [[end page]]
[[start page]] (8) Mt. Orizaba. Tim. line, near town. Tachycineta thallasina. Buteo. Saw several birds. [[strikethrough]]Caracara[[/strikethrough]] Polyborus cheriway. a few were seen but are not very com. * Mt. Orizaba near timber line. Apr 19-21. Mams. Arvicola:- Common among saccatone [[sacaton grass=Sporobolus spp.]] grass in cañons. not common elsewhere owing to unfavorable conditions. Sitomys:- White bellied species com. Sorex:- I caught one specimen in an Arvicola runway on a bank. *For birds omitted here see page 17 [[end page]] [[start page]] (9) Mt. Oriz. Tim Line, Oryzomys:- Rather com along with arvicolas. Neotoma:- Not com. owing to lack of cliffs. one was trapped by Mr N. in the cave in which we camped. Lepus:- We saw signs of a small rabbit near & above timber line but not in such great quantities as near & above timber line on Mt. Ixtaccihuatl. There is plenty of cover for them here about the edges of lava beds but their signs were not numerous. Possibly a small specimen procured at a rancho lower down (alt about 9500 ft.) was the same as this one here. [[end page]]
[[start page]] (10) Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. Canis latrans. Tracks probably belonging to this animal were seen. Birds. Aimophila superciliosa: Com. Colaptes cafer: Com. Dendroica audoboni: [[strikethrough]]Com.[[/strikethrough]]Found far up above timber line. Dryobates stricklandi:com near timber line. Merula mig.-com. Sitta pygmaea: com. Sialia mex. com. Snow bird. com. Mt. Orizaba. Rancho, Alt. 9500 Apr. 21 -27. Mams. Arvicola. Very common whereever there was cover of any [[end page]] [[start page]] Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. 10 kind. Lepus: Two kinds are found (1) a large one of which we procured no specimens here but I saw one. It was perhaps the same as the large one found at the foot of the Mt. at Chalchicomula & (2) a small gray one of which we got one specimen. Oryzomys: Not common. I caught 2 in a cañon on the south side of a hill south of the Rancho. Reithrodontomys: A few were caught mostly in Arvicola runways. Sitomys. White-bellied species same as taken at Chal- [[end page]]
[[start page]] (12) Mt. Orizaba. Rancho.. chicomula was com. Sorex: Two kinds were taken (1) a large shrew & a small brown one with pretty long tail. Sciurus: One was brought in by native hunter, they are not very com. Thomomys: A small smoky colored species was common especially in some potato fields. The soil here is of a blue volcanic ash color, & gopers were exactly the same color excepting 3 I cought but of some 15 or 18 specimens which were reddish like those taken a Salazar, Mex, & on the Sierra de Pachuca in Hidalgo. [[end page]] [[start page]] Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. (13) Birds. Anthrostomus macromystaxi: I shot two specimens & saw one other on the north side of a cliff south of the Rancho. One of them had a nest but I failed to find it. Aphelocoma couchi?: A species resembling this one was common from lower edge of firs up to about 11.000 ft. or more. Aimophila superciliosa. Com. Buteo. A species of this genus was seen on several occasions but no specimens procured. They were nesting somewhere in the neighborhood. Columba fasciata?: Birds probably this species came in 2s or 3s [[end page]]
[[start page]] (14) Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. to a hedge of gooseberries on several occasions. I failed to get a specimen. They seemed to feed on the green berries. Cyanocitta. Birds of this genus were seen but none procured. Colaptes cafer. com. Dendroica audoboni. com. Dryobates stricklandi: Very com. Empidonax: I killed 2 species of this genus near Rancho. Ergaticus ruber. com. Falco: A species of this genus were com. Geococcyx alfinis: I saw none on the Mt. but people describe them. Habia melanocephala: Com. [[end page]] [[start page]] Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. (15) Harporhynchus ocellatus: Rather com. as high up as Rancho. Parus meridionalis: Com. Pipilo: Two species we found here (1) something like the one at Chalchicomula very common. & unusually bold. & (2) a species having a rufous crown not previously seen, was not so com. Loxia mex.: A bird was killed by Mr N. Junco cinereus: com. Troglodytes brunneicollis. Rather com. Vireo huttoni com. Certhia familiaris mex: [[strikethrough]]I[[/strikethrough]] one shot by Mr Nelson. [[end page]]
[[start page]] (16) [[strikethrough]]Sitta[[/strikethrough]] Mt. Orizaba Rancho. Sitta pyamaea: Com. Sialia mex.: Very com. Snow bird: Com. Merula mig. Com. Spizella soc.: Very common on a hill which had been cleared near Rancho. They had very little black on forehead. Setophaga picta [[=Myioborus pictus]]: Com. Spinus pinus: Rather com. at Rancho. Sayornis pertinax: Not very common. I shot one bird. Tachycineta thalassina: Very com. on a hill near rancho where they would fly about in great numbers & occasionally alight on the trees. [[end page]] [[start page]] Chalchicomula (17) Sitta carolinensis: Rather com. from fir belt upward. Chalchicomula Birds omitted in the proper place. Tachycineta thalassina: Com. Thryothorus bewickii bairdi:[[insert]]very[[/insert]] Com. Passerina ciris: Not common. I shot one bird on a brushy hill near town. Empidonax griseus: Rather com. Psaltriparus melanotis: Com. Salpinctes obsoletus: Not very com. Those I saw were along a canon in the hills near town. Zenaidura macrura [[should be macroura]]: Not very Com. Basilinna leucotis: Com. Eugenes fulgens: Com. [[end page]]
[[start page]] (18) Tehuacan. Trochilus platycereus: com. Sylvania pusilla: com. Buteo: A species was rather com. but none were obtained. Falco: A species was com. Tehuacan Puebla. Alt. 5300 ft. May 2-9 Mammals Lepus: Two species especially the larger one were common. The larger one was not exactly like that found at Chalchicomula but did not differ much apparently. The small gray one we got no specimens of but I saw a hunter with one he would not sell it looked very much like the small one found at Chalchicomula. [[end page]] [[start page]] (19) Tehuacan. Nyctinomops: Mr. N. bought some of boys who said they got them from houses. Vespertilio: He also got a couple of large bats of this species from same place. Mus. musculus. I caught two of them in a brush fence far from any buildings. Heteromys: Caught one near a large rock among some brush. Neotoma: A large red-backed rat was very common in the cliffs east of town & under rocks. They usually had holes under rocks or other cover & made trails from them in all directions & had their reg- [[end page]]
[[start page]] (20) Tehuacan. ular dumping places sometimes 10 yds. from hole. Not a single dung could be found about their nests or anywhere except at this pile where there would be 1/2 qt. or more of it. Their habits were very much like Neotoma nelsoni we got near Manzanilla in Colima. Mephitis: I caught a specimen having a white stripe in middle of face & long tail it was in such a poor state of fur however it was hard to tell what color he was. Birds: Amphispiza mysticalis: Very [[end page]] [[start page]] (21) Tehuacan. (21) common along roadsides & brush fences. Hemiprocne: (white collared) I saw some 20 or 25 of them on 2 occasions circling & flying about very high in the air east of town near a very large spring in a limestone cliff. Pipilo fuscus: com. Pipilo: another bird was com. something like fuscus but with more white on chest & two brown patches on sides of throat. Melospiza lincolni: I shot one specimen the only one seen. Phainopepla nitens: Very com. Aphelocoma sumichrasti: [[end page]]
[[start page]] (22) Tehuacan not very common. I shot one bird & saw several others. Harporhynchus curv.. Very com. Lanius: Com. Mimus polyglottos. com. Scardafella inca. Com. Geothlypis speciosa: Not com Zenaidura macrura Com. Melopilia leucoptera. Com. Quiscalus major: Very common in the midst of the town & in newly plowed & other fields near it. Pyrocephalus rubineus mex. Com. Catherpes mex. Not very common. I saw several along canoñs which come out of the hills east of town. [[end page]] [[start page]] Tehuacan. 23 Campylorhynchus: A species of this genus was very common on the brushy hills east of town. Sylvania pusilla. com. Empidonax: at least one species was com. Micrathene whitneyi: I shot one specimen from a tree to which it flew when startled from a cliff by my approaching. Spinus psaltria mex.Com. Ampelis cedrorum. com. Passerina ciris. Not com. D. scalaris: Tolerably com. Melanerpes hypopolius. Com. about the candelabra cacti east of town especially. [[end page]]
[[start page]] (24) Huamantla Guiraca caerulea com. Molothrus: a species of this genus was com. Icterus wagleri com. Trochilus lucifer com. Myiarchus: Not very com. Huamantla. Tlaxcala. Mexico May 9th to 17th 1893 Note - Huamantla is very much the same country as Chalchicomula Puebla, and I neglected to make any lists of the Birds and mammals but they are much the same. From Huamantla I made a trip up on the Sierra Malinche found very little there stopped 2 nights and trapped high up near timber line. [[end page]] [[start page]] Perote [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] (25) Got only two shrews/arvicola and 4 Neotomas. No signs of Geomys were seen on the Mt. or in the neighborhood of Huamantla. We worked the immediate neighborhood of Huamantla getting white-bellied Sitomys, Reithrodontomys and Arvicolas. also Spermophilus mex. Perote, Puebla, Mexico May 17th to about June 10th, 1893. Alt. about 8280 ft. Note. I made a trip from this place over into a lava bed about N.W. from town & in company with Mr. Nelson made a trip to the top of the [[?]] which rises [[end page]]
[[start page]] (26) [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] Perote to a height of about 13000 ft. a few miles south of town. Work was done near Perote for several miles in all directions. Two camps were made on the Mt. one at the Casa del Nuevo and another at a small hut where there was water just below fir belt. General Notes. Perote is situated near the [[insert]]base of the[[/insert]] Cofre de Perote and very near the eastern edge of the mexican highlands. To the north east and west extend a sandy plain for 8 or 10 miles. About 5 or 6 miles east the highland suddenly breaks down and from the crest one can look down on the low country of Vera Cruz. At the time when we [[end page]] [[start page]] 27 Perote [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] were staying at Perote it was quite cold although about the warmest time of the year. Clouds float up from the warm country of Vera Cruz on strong winds in the afternoon. It is much colder all along this part of the edge of the mexican highland than farther inland for instance at San Marcos. Vegetation. As on all the other high mts. we have visited in Mexico the distinct timber belts occur here on the Cofre de Perote. (1) A belt of Pine extending up to about 8500 ft. alt. (2) A belt of firs extending until another belt, (3) of pines is [[end page]]
[[start page]] (28) [[strikethrough]] Huamantla [[/strikethrough]] Perote. reached the latter extending to timber line. The two pine belts are never of the same species. In the "Malpais" or lava bed the following where characteristic Yucca. Pinon (3 leaved), a kind of juniper, one oak, 1 pine, a wild [[underlined]] agave. The native grass called alfillerilla grew sparingly and at least three species of [[underlined]]Opuntia. The latter were all low bushy growing species which rendered whole acres of ground a hopeless mass of thorns, also a wild cherry. The principal crops are corn, wheat, barley, garbanso, albejon, & potatoes. [[end page]] [[start page]] 29 Perote. [[strikethrough]] Huamantla [[/strikethrough]] Mammals Arvicola. Probably two species of this genus were common (1) one was common along grassy banks and around maguey plants near Perote and (2) one was very common in little meadows that occur near timber on the "Cofre" at an altitude of probably 11000 ft. The second species was always found in open ground and usually where the grass was very short due to the cattle and goats which range over them. In such places their holes were very common and runways leading from one hole to another very distinct. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 30 [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] Perote. Canis latrans. A few are found on the Mt. plain about Perote and in the lava bed they are more common and said to be very destructive to the sheep and goats which are pastured there. Dipodomys philipsi Common From the lower edge of pines on the "Cofre" down all over the plain and east to the edge of the plateau. Deer. Rather uncommon on the "Cofre" and in the lava bed north of town. Geomys. Very common on parts of the plain and in the lava bed. [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 Perote [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] Lepus. (1) A few jack rabbits are found on the plain it is the large white sided species. I believe no specimen was secured. (2) A large cotton tail rabbit was quite common in parts of the lava bed where they lived among the thick Opuntias mentioned in section on vegetation, and fed on the fresh young grass which grew thereabout. (3) a small species was [[strikethrough]]not[[/strikethrough]] also common along with second species. Lynchus. Said by natives to occur in the lava bed and among the cliffs high up on the "Cofre". [[end page]]
[[start page]] 32 [[strikethrough^Huamantla^]] Perote. Reithrodontomys.Common in the saccaton grass [[strikethrough ^between^]] along the base of the Mt. Sitomys. Two species of the genus occurred (1) the common white-bellied species found all over this part of the plateau & (2) a large eared rather long-tailed species was scarce in the lava bed. Oryzomys. Not very common a few were taken under bunches of saccaton grass along the base of the Mt. Spermophilus. A small species of this genus something like mex. was common on the [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 Perote. [[strikethrough ^Huamantla^]] plain. Mephitis. Two specimens were trapped near town. Neotoma. Quite common among the thick cacti in the lava bed where they make runways and have holes which usually enter the ground at the base of a large cactus. Sciurus. A species of this genus is found rather sparingly on the "Cofre". Birds Zenaidura macroura. A few were seen. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 34 [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] Perote. Polyborus cheriway. Only 2 or 3 birds were seen on the plain. Colaptes cafer. Rather common down among the pines near Perote and up to timber line. Swift. Several black ones were seen just above fir belt. Trochilus platycercus. Rather common in the lava bed where the [[were working?]] about flowers. I did not find out whether for honey or insects. [[P?]]tocoris. Common on the plain. Empidonax. Found the nest of a very dark colored species on a [[end page]] [[start page]] 35 Perote. [[strikethrough]]Huamantla[[/strikethrough]] shelf in a cave about a mile above town. The shelf was about 10 ft. from the ground. The nest was constructed of moss and fine grass and contained three white eggs with some blotches of brown about the size of pin heads on larger end. Corvus. A species of this genus was rather common. Aphelocoma sumichrasti. Common along base of Mt. at Perote and among the pines & piñons in the lava bed. Agelaius phoeniceus.Only one or two specimens were seen on the plain. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 36 Perote Icterus. A lemon colored species was seen in lava bed. Sturnella m. mex. Common on the plain near Perote. Found the nest of one under a small bunch of grass the nest was of grass and contained 3 young birds. June 5th Loxia. A few were seen on the "Cofre" and one specimen secured Spizella soc. Common about the fields at Perote. Carpodacus from mex. com. Pipilo fuscus. com [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 Perote. Aimophila superciliosa. Com. from the base of the Mt. at Perote to timber line. Spinus p. mex. Com. at Perote. Juneo cinereus. Com from Perote to timber line. Guiraca caerulea eurhyncha. com at Perote. Tachycineta thallasina. Com. from Perote upward on the Mt. Chelidon erythrogaster. Com. at Perote. Lanius. Com. at Perote. Sylvania pusilla. I saw one or two the first day during our stay at Perote this was the [[end page]]
[[start page]] 38 Perote. last I saw of them for the spring. Harporhynchus curv. Com. at Perote. Salpinetes obsoletus. I saw one or two in dry washes near the base of the Mt. Thryothorus b. bairdii. com. among the magueys & cactus on the plain Certhia fam. mex. Rather com. on the lower slopes of the Mt. Parus meridionalis. com. along with preceding. Setophaga. A species of this genus was com. on the Mt. Phainopepla nitens. I saw two on three in the lava bed. Sitta pygmaea. Common from Base of Mt. up to timber line. [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 Las Vegas Sialia mexicana. Rather com. near timber line on the "Cofre" Las Vegas. Vera Cruz. Mex. From about June 10th to [[strikethrough]] 24[[/strikethrough]] 19 1893. Itinerary. Most of my trapping at this place was done within 3 miles of the town. A trip was made to the Cerro de Volcancillo about 3 miles above Las Vegas on the slope of the "Cofre". From the cerro de volcancillo probably all the lava came which forms the bed lying from the slope down to Jalapa. When we visited the peak we saw no signs of a crater there but the peak itself is a mass of [[end page]]
[[start page]] 40 Las Vegas lava. The alt. at Las Vegas is probably 8300 ft. General Notes. Las Vegas lies on the East slope of the Cofre de Perote among the pine woods. Just north of town is a deep barranca at the bottom of which is a small stream. This barranca heads only a short distance above Las Vegas at which formed. [[insert]] ^It breaks down from^ the plain of the plataeu and is probably a 1000 ft. in depth. From Las Vegas one can look down on the warm country of Vera Cruz. The descent from the town is very steep. A short distance from Las Vegas is a hill known in the neighborhood as El Cerro de los Pajeros where at distance [[end page]] [[start page]] Las Vegas 41 of probably 75 miles in a straight line from the sea thousands of seabirds become confused in the fog while flying along the front of the range and attracted by large fires which are built on the hill are killed by thousands by the natives with clubs. The birds are said to be of many species. Faunal Notes On this slope of Perote are found three species of Scuirus. I afterward found [[insert]]^at Jico^ that the plain gray species is confined to the pine woods above the oak belt which occurs on the E. slope of the Cofre. Two species the small one and the one with red rump & neck are [[end page]]
[[start page]] 42 Las Vegas. found lower down in the oaks. Las Vegas is situated in the zone occupied by the upper or gray squirrel. The two lower ones are found in the canon lying just north of Las Vegas. Owing to its depth and the [[insert]] ^considerable^ difference in climate [[strikethrough]] met with [[/strikethrough]] between the canon and plain just above The two lower squirrels are thus brought within a very short distance of the town. Vegetation. At least two species of pines were found at this place one was very conspiculus on account of its long silky leaves. At least two species of oak, an Alder, elder and the grass Alfillerilla. [[end page]] [[start page]] 43 Las Vegas. Mammals. Arvicola. Rather common along wet banks and under saccaton grass. Oryzomys. Not so common under the bunches of saccaton. Sitomys. white-bellied species was common. Lepus. Three species of this genus at least were found. (1) A large cottontail was very abundant (2) a smaller one was common & (3) a few white-sided jack-rabbits were living on the plain near the station but they were very shy and although I hunted for them on several occasions & Mr Nelsons offered 75 cts. a head for them the indians [[end page]]
[[start page]] 44 Las Vegas. could not get any. Sciurus. Three species were rather common. (1) the plain gray one of the pine woods & (2) & (3) the two of the oak belt were rather common in the barranca. Mephitis. I caught a single specimen a its hole under a large rock. Geomys. Rather common on the plain near town. Birds. Otocoris. Common on the plain north of town. Sialia mex. com. Aimophila superciliosa abundant. Dryobates scalaris. com. [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 Las Vegas. Ergaticus ruber. Not uncommon in the pine woods just above town. Setophaga miniata. Common along with preceding Tachycineta thallasina. Com. Parus meridionalis. common in the pine woods above town. Junco cinereus. Abundant Corvus. com. [[strikethrough ^Sylvania pusilla 2 or 3 were seen the last time for the spring.^]] Cyanocitta coronata. com. Sitta pygmaea. com. Geothlypis. A species of this genus was common. Troglodytes brunneicollis. A few were seen in the pine woods. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 46 Jico. Guiraca caerulea. Common. Merula migratoria. Com. Aegialius phoeniceus. Saw two or three about ponds of water on the plain near town. Jico. Vera Cruz Mex. June 21st to about July 18th, 1893. Itinerary Work was extended for 4 or 5 miles in all directions & a side trip made to the oak forest up on the slope of the Cofre about 8 miles from Jico. The alt. is about 8000 ft. Jico lies on the sloping base of the "cofre de Perote". General Notes. Jico lies as just noticed on the [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 47 extreme lower slope of the Cofre although a gentle slope extends from here to the coast. There are two ways by which Jico may be reached from the plateau. (1) by the Terro Carril Interoceanico from Perote or Las Vegas to Jalapa and from there it is necessary to go on horseback by way of Coatepec. (2) From Perote the shortest route is to pass to the south of the peak by way of Rancho Ojo de Agua. The slope of the country toward the sea causes small streams flowing from the "Cofre" to cut down deep in the volcanic soil and form small barrancas which run parallel to each [[end page]]
[[start page]] 48 Jico. other all along the base of the Mt. Jico lies on the divide between two of them. The inhabitants are mostly of mixed races. The principal occupations are coffee planting and fruit growing. Jico lies in one of the best coffee districts of Vera Cruz. The coffee grows from a short distance of Jico down. Near J. is an old volcanic cone with steep sides which is entirely covered by coffee. Very little stock is raised. The climate is very damp & it rained heavily almost every day during our stay. Sometimes a shower would come [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 49 up suddenly and it would rain so hard that the streets of the town would be running streams from one sidewalk to the other. There streets are made passable at some of the corners by setting large rectangular blocks of stone on end and stepping on the ends. Leather and anything that will absorb water becomes covered with mold in a very short time unless dryed by a fire while it is hardwork to prevent guns etc. from rusting. Vegetation. The vegetation of J. is very luxurient of endless species. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 50 Jico. Just above Jico a heavy oak forest occurs. The lower part of this has now been cleared of several species of oaks and many native trees are included in it. One species of oak grows to be especially large and straight many of the trees measure 8 ft. in diameter and are very tall near the large abuttments run out in all directions firmly bracing the great trunks and furnishing shelter between them for many wild animals. All about the country grew hundreds of flowering plants. The principal crop raised is coffee. many tropical fruits are raised such as the orange, [[end page]] [[start page]] 51 Jico. agaucate, mango, banana. A little corn, chili peper and a few peaches are also raised. Mammals. Peccary. Very common in parts of the oak forest. Cariacus. Not common in the oak woods and up to timber line. Ternesato. This little deer so-called by the people is quite common in the oak forest. Guahtusa. This animal also is said to be common among the oaks. Lepus. Two species may be given at least as occuring here one the large cottontail taken at [[end page]]
[[start page]] 52 Jico Las Vegas is not uncommon along the lower edge of the oak forest. (2) a smaller species is common about Jico but generally hard to get an account of the vegetation. Geomys. One species is rather common about Jico & up to lower edge of the oak forest through the cleared belt. Sciurus. Three species are found same as those taken at Las Vegas. (1) The gray species of the pine woods above the oak forest is I believe never found lower down. (2) & (3) The small squirrel called by the people "moto" & the large squirrel with rusty rump neck and belly are [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 53 both common and even may be said to be abundant in the oak forest. The small one (moto) was especially common and fearless. One day while out trapping I startled one from a thick clump of bushes only a few feet away where it was probably searching for acorns. It sprang up to a dead limb only about 10 ft. away and stopping scolded away at me for several minutes with its tail curved over its back. It made a loud chattering noise and as it did jerked its head and body up and down. Finally it left the tree and springing to the ground ran off 20 yds and [[end page]]
[[start page]] 54 Jico pausing on a fallen log scolded me again for a minute. Reithrodontomys. Rather common from J. up to lower edge of oak woods. Sitomys. Two species were taken (1) white-bellied Sitomys in the upper part of oak woods and upward to timber line. (2) A species was common in the oak forest. Oryzomys. Not common. two or three species I trapped near lower edge of oak forest. Arvicola. Common along banks of ditches and canons near Jico. Martucha. This porcupine called martucha by the natives is not very common in the oak woods. [[end page]] [[start page]] 55 Jico. Procyon. Tracks were seen in the canons and coffee plantations near Jico. Nasua. Probably not uncommon two or three specimens from the oak woods were bought of the natives. Lynx. A few are said to live high up on the "Cofre". Urocyon [[strikethrough ^Probably a^]] A few are found below the oak forest. Canis latrans. Found at least high up on the cofre. Putorius. I trapped two one near Jico in a coffee field and one just at the lower edge of the oak woods. Mephitus. Black & white flecked skunks of this genus were [[end page]]
[[start page]] 56 Jico bought of the indians. Sorex. Two species are found. (1) a small species is rather rare at Jico those taken were living in damp situations along the canons. (2) a black-tailed large species is rather common in the oak woods where they make well beaten roads sometimes three inches broad usually under fallen logs. One or two were also taken at Jico but always in damp well shaded situations. A shrew looking exactly like these was taken on Mt. Orizaba at an altitude of about 9000 ft. Blarina. This species was common along ditch banks [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 57 and under logs and rocks in fields at Jico and up to the lower edge of fir woods. This species lived always in more open situations than the second Sorex just given and I believe are never found in the present oak forest although they are very common up to its extreme edge through the cleared belt. Vespertilio. A single specimen of this [[strikethrough ^ sp^]] genus was brought me by an indian who had caught it in his house near lower edge of the oak woods. Bat. Long-eared. Taken precisely as preceding. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 58 Jico Tatusia novemcincta. Said to be common. I saw tracks of the animal at Jico. Mt. Lion. Said to be common in oak forest. Birds Dendrortyx macrourus [[should be macroura]]. Abundant in the oak forest. While hunting one day with Mateo Ramirez the owner of the Rancho ojo de agua in the oak forest we ran across a female with several young. The young birds scampered off in the undergrowth but the [[strikethrough]] young [[/strikethrough]] old bird instead of following began to circle around Ramirez and I at the same time uttering a clicking noise. I was anxious [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 59 to make a specimen of her and as she kept too close to shoot with an ordinary charge I opened my gun & after putting in my auxiliry shot her with that. Then the you [[young?]] ones finding their mother did not follow began to come back at the same time uttering a queer little peeping noise. Although We kept very quiet they would not come in sight so that I could use my auxiliary and Ramirez & I finally chased them and after about 1/2 chasing Ramirez finally fished one out from under a log. They were only a few days old, dark buff in [[end page]]
[[start page]] 60 Jico color and looked very much like young chickens. Colinus pectoralis. Not common. I shot a female in a hedge near Jico. Ortalis vetula macalli. Penelope Penelopina Columba fasciata. Not uncommon in the oak woods. Columbigallina passerina. Scardafella inca. Not very com. a few were seen at Jico in the coffee fields. Cathartes aura. com. Catharista atrata. com. Rupornis grisicauda. Crotophaga sulcirostris. [[end page]] [[start page]] 61 Jico. Piaya cayanus mehleri. Common in the canons at Jico. Trogon mexicanus. Not very common I shot one bird near lower edge of oak woods. Ceryle cabanisi. Rather common along the canons at Jico. Colaptes cafer. Common along the lower edge of the oak woods. Melanerpes formicivorus. Abundant along lower edge of oaks. Dryobates scalaris. Rather common at Jico. Cypseloides niger. Chaetura brunneitorques. I shot a single specmen and saw many others flying [[end page]]
[[start page]] 62 Jico. at the Rancho Ojo de Agua & up as high as timber line. Lamprolaema rhami. Amazalia beryllina. Common in the fields about Jico. Cyanomia cyanocephala. Myiodynastes luteiventris. Abundant along hedges and canons in wherever trees were growing near Jico. Myiozetetes texensis. Common along with priceding. Pachyramphus mejor. Platypsaris aglaie. Myiarchus lawrenineci. Sayornis nigricans. Common along streams. Empidonax albigularis. Com in the fields. [[end page]] [[start page]] 63. Jico. Empidonax fulvipectus. Common along with preceding. Pyrocephalus r. mexicanus Common along streams and damp meadows. Psilorhinus cyanogenys. Cyanocitta s. diadernata. Common in the oak woods. Aphelocoma unicolor. Common along with preceding. Callothrus robustus.Common in the coffee fields. Icterus audoboni. Common along canons and wherever trees are to be found. Carpodacus fron. mex. Com. in the town and among the coffee fields. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 64 Jico Spinus p. mexicana.Common in the fields at Jico. Spinus notata Spizella socialis arizonae. Common in the fields. Junco cinereus. I was surprised to find this species ranging down almost as low as Jico and up to timber line but not in the gloamyng parts of the oak forest. Aimophila rufescens. Quite common on brushy hills near town. Habia melanocepala. Common along with preceding. Guiraca caerulea eurhyncha Common along hedges. The male [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 65 birds are found of singing from the top of the tree. Their song is rather fine. Tanagra abbas. Sporophila moreletti. Abundent in the fields where there are bushes. Sporophila corvina. Common along with preceding species. They have a habit of settling on a branch and leaving it as though to catch insects. Usually they fly upward about two feet then again alighting repeat this every few seconds meanwhile uttering a harsh little note while in the air. They are very restless little birds and fly frequently from place to place often going 100 yds. at [[end page]]
[[start page]] 66 Jico a time. Euetheia olivacea pusilla. Volatinia splendens. Euphonia hirundinacea. Piranga hepatica. Common along cañons and hedges wherever there were trees. Progne chalybea. Stelgidopteryx semipennis Vireolanius melitophrys. Not common I shot a single bird near lower edge of oak woods. Diglossa baritula. Not very common. I shot one near lower edge of oaks and saw two or three others. Geothlypis cucullatus. Common below the oak forest in fields [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 67 and on bushy hills. Setophaga miniata. Common in upper part of oak woods and up into the pine woods. Basileuterus rufifrons. Basileuterus belli. Harporhynchus longirostris. Probably not common one was brought in by a boy. Sclerurus mexicana. Heleodytes pallescens. Heleodytes zonatus. Catherpes mexicanus. Not uncommon along the canons at Jico. Cistothrus polyglottos. Thryothorus maculipectus. Hemicorhina prostheleuca. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 68 Jico Atlapetes pileatus. Dendrornis erythropygia. Myadestes obscurus. Merula grayi. Merula migratoria propinqua. Common [[strikethrough]]in the oak[[/strikethrough]] Along lower edge of the oak forest. Melanotis caerulescens. Catharus melpomene. Very Common in the coffee fields and wherever there was plenty of cover. They are shy skulking birds and seldom seen in the open. They may often be heard or seen scratching on the ground among the leaves in thickets after the fashion of some of the Pipilos. I found a nest near Jico in a [[end page]] [[start page]] Jico 69 fork of a coffee bush about four feet from the ground the nest was of coarse grass lined with finer grass. The nest contained two rather small light blue eggs covered uniformly with small brown specks. Sialia azurea. I was surprised to find this species down nearly to Jico along with Junco cinereus. Buarremon brunneinucha Buarremon albinucha. Cyclarhis flaviventris. Chlorospingus ophthalmicus. Anthrostomus [[Antrostomus]] macromyrtux. I heard them at night while staying at Rancho Ojo de Agua. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 70 Atlixco Atlixco. Puebla. Mex. July 20th to Aug 10th 1893 Itinerary. Atlixco lies at the southern base of Popocatepetl a few hours ride from Puebla on a branch of the Interoceanic R.R. The altitude is about 6000 ft. Work was done for 5 or 6 miles in all directions. General Notes. Atlixco lies on a sandy plain a few miles from the southern base of Popocatepetl. It is surrounded except toward the south by low hills some of which are covered by a growth of brush. The drainage is toward the south. [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 71 The climate is rather dry during our stay in the middle of the rainy season not much rain fell. There is enough water to grow such crop as wheat, corn, etc. but such crops as sugarcane require irrigation. The population of Atlixco is about 14000. The principal occupations are sugar planting agriculture in general and stock raising. Vegetation. Schinus molle is one of the most characteristic trees with casahuate the tree which bears large white flowers of the warm country. Immense quantities of alfafa are raised and stock [[end page]]
[[start page]] 72 Atlixco is brought long distances to be fed on it while considerable quantities are shipped to the City of Mexico. Coffee is raised near town but in very small quantities. Prin. crops. corn, wheat, chili, sugar. Prin. fruits, Cherimoya, orange, sweet limes, pears, apples, peaches, cherries, quinces, and two species of aguacate. also a fruit call the juiniquile by the people. Large quantities of sugar cane are raised just below town. Mammals. Heteromys. Rather common along the edges of the grain fields wherever there is shelter and sometimes along small gulches where they [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 73 live along the walls. Procyon. Tracks were seen. Bassoris. Very common along arroyos and around fields. Canis latrans. Said to be tolerably common a young one was brought in by a hunter. Mus. muscalus. Common along arroyos and around fields. Sitomys. A species looking very much like one taken at Pachuca was not uncommon in hedges along roadsides etc., where they were eating the ripe seeds of Schinus molle. Mus ratus. Caught one in a trap set for Spermophilus along the wall of a barranca. Saw no signs made by them. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 74 Atlixco Lepus. This genus was represented by two species (1) A Jack rabbit is common on the hills and in alfafa fields and (2) A cottontail is common also in alfafa fields and in the sugar cane where it is almost impossible to get at them. Geomys. A large species is common in the sandy country across the stream coming from the base of the volcano and passing to the south of Atlixco and about two or three miles away. This sandy country all seems to lie on the farther side of the stream and [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 75 extends up to the base of the Mt. Description. Size large, general color rather dark buff. Belly slightly lighter. Hair of back slightly tipped with blackish. Tail covered by a very scattered growth of fine short hairs. I saw no signs of them on the Atlixco side of the stream. A [[female symbol]] had the following formula P 1/1. A 2/2. Spermophilus. Two species of this genus are found (1) The large common squirrel Spermophilus macrourus and (2) a small spotted one very bright in color and tail very long. Neither species [[end page]]
[[start page]] 76 Atlixco were very common. The large one was confined to the rocky walls of small barrancas and the smaller one [[strikethrough]]to[[/strikethrough]] generally has holes running at an angle into the banks of ditches etc. One one species was taken of the small one and I believe none at all of the larger one. Didelphys. Common judging from number of tracks seen I caught two specimens in traps. They are of the gray species. A young one was struggling in the trap when I came up but as soon as it saw me it dropped its [[end page]] 77 Atlixco [[start page]] head and became motionless keeping the same attitude it chanced to be in when it first saw me. Its body was stiff as though dead. When I took hold of it it tucked its ears back as a horse does when angry but showed no other signs of life and made no offer to bite when I placed my finger in its mouth. Birds. Colinus pectoralis. Very common but hard to flush on account of the abundance of cover furnished by alfafa, corn, and cane fields. Their calls could be heard at almost [[end page]]
[[start page]] 78 Atlixco any time of day by going out a short distance south or east of town. Cathartes aura. common. Catharista atrata. Common. Polyborus cheriway. Rather common. Circus hudsonius. Several were seen foraging over the damp marshes and fields below town. Chaetura brunneitorques? Mr. Nelson and I saw a number of swifs flying several miles from Atlixco toward the Mt. that he identified as this species. Sayornis nigricans. Common along small streams. Pyrocephalus r. mexicanus. Rather common along [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 79 streams and the wet fields below town. Otocoris. Common in the grain fields about Atlixco. Corvus. Common. Molothrus robustus. Common. Agelaius phoeniceus. Very common a short distance below town where some of the land is swampy and drainage ditches are common. They are generally found in scattering flocks although solitary birds and 2s and 3s are sometimes met with. Sturnella m. mexicana. Quite common in same country as preceding species. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 80 Atlixco Quiscalus macrourus. common. They forage about in fields like Q. major and blackbirds in general. I saw them several times fly in from foraging trip in the fields and alight on the trees and castor plants near a large pond. They would gather very closely together and hop about as though searching for food on the plants. Spinus p. mexicana. Common about the fields. Carpodacus fron. mex. Common. Habia melanocephala. Common among bushes around the fields where they may often be seen hopping along the branches and from one [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 81 to another probably searching for insects. Guiraca c. eurhyncha. Common Ammodramus. Quite common among the damp fields below town. This species is white below. Pipilo fuscus. Common. Amphispiza mysticalis. Common mostly on the hills. Spizella soc. Common. Peucaea. Very common nest on ground or low bush according to two observations made here. Both nests were the same material grass roots with straws on the outside. Eggs pure white [[end page]]
[[start page]] 82 Atlixco one end slightly smaller than the other and were three in number in each case. Sporophila corvina. Very common. I observed the same habit as at Jico of flying from its seat straight up into the air and while rising giving vent to its dry little note then turning and diving down to its seat. Sporophila moreletti. Quite common. Petrochelidon melanogaster. Common they were nesting under the eaves and on window panes of a church. Chelidon erythrogaster. Common this species generally flies nearer the ground I believe [[end page]] [[start page]] Atlixco 83 than Petrochelidon melanogaster. I often saw them foraging over alfafa fields close to the ground and P. melanogaster flying above them. Lanius excubitorides. Common. Harporhynchus curvirostris. Not very common specimens seen were among the brush on hills. Catherpes mexicanus? A white throated wren was common along the barrancas perhaps this species. Thryothorus b. bairdi. Not uncommon on hills. The following birds were omitted in their proper places. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 84 Atlixco Melopelia leucoptera. Common among the brush on hills and around fields. Zenaidura macroura. Common along with preceding species. Scardafella inca. Common in the fields. Crotophaga sulcirostris. Not uncommon around the fields below town. Uranomitra. A species of this genus was common even in the plaza in the middle of the town. Trochilus pulcher. Common. Trochilus platycercus. Common. [[end page]] [[start page]] Tochimilco 85 Tochimilco, Puebla, Mex. Several days were spent at this Between July 20 & Aug 10th the dates given for Atlixco. Itinerary. Tochimilco is a small town on the lower slope of Popocatepetl. Its altitude is about [[strikethrough]]8200[[/strikethrough]] 6500 ft. Work was done for 4 or 5 miles in every direction. General Notes. The town lies among the low hills bordering the plain on the extreme southern base of Popocatepetl. It is situated in a break in the hills formed by two deep barrancas which come out onto the plain here. Tochimilco [[end page]]
[[start page]] 86 Tochimilco lies between them. The climate here is somewhat cooler than at Atlixco owing to its greater altitude. Vegetation. Pines are found on the hills all around the town but several hundred feet higher. This is a small-coned 3-leaved species. Two oaks grow on the hills in scattered bunches and a few madrono. The casahuate comes up from the plain as high as Tochimilco. The chirimoya 2 species of aguacates. The mango and a little coffee is raised. Corn & wheat are the principal crops that are grown on the flat-topped hills near [[end page]] [[start page]] Tochimilco 87 town. Apples and peaches are also raised in considerable quantities but as usual of very inferior quality. A few magueys are raised for pulque and a wild agave grows also an acacia. Mammals. Procyon. Common. Sitomys. The same species as that taken at Atlixco is found here among the oaks but was very difficult to get as they refused bait. Sciurus. Rather common above here on the Mt. Lepus. Two species are found. (1) The Jack - same as found at Atlixco is not uncommon [[end page]]
[[start page]] 88 Tochimilco along the base of the hills. (2) A large cotton-tail is found among the hills and gets up some distance among the pines. Birds. Columbigallina passerina? A dove having rufous under wing coverts perhaps this species was found [[strikethrough]] along[[/strikethrough]] on the thick brushy hillsides but not very common. Scardafella inca. Common in the orchards and immediate neighborhood of the town. Cathartes aura. Common. Catharista atrata. Common Falco sparverius. Common. Glaucidium gnoma. I heard them in the evening on several [[end page]] [[start page]] Tochimilco 89 occasions. Colaptes cafer. Tolerably among the oaks on the hills. Chaetura brunneitorques. I saw swifs presumably this species flying over the hills. Uranomitra. Tolerably on hillsides wherever flowers were blooming. Amazalia beryllina. Quite common I often saw them searching probably for insects on the mistletoe. Basilinna leucotis. Common. This species is in the habit of quietly on a dead branch usually on the extreme top of a tree for five minutes or more at a time and uttering a kind of [[end page]]
[[start page]] 90 Tochimilco chirping noise and all the time moving the tail up and down slightly and turning the head constantly from one side to the other and peering in all directions. Empidonax. Saw several of a species of this genus but could not identify it. Aphelocoma sumachristi. Common among the oaks and lower pines. Corvus corax sinuatus. Common Cardinalis. Saw a single specimen of a species of this genus. Spinus pinus. Not uncommon in the lower part of the pines. [[end page]] [[start page]] Tochimilco 91 Spinus psaltria mexicana. Common about town and on the plain below. Carpodacus fron. mex. Common in the town and out on the plain. Habia melancocephala, Com. Guiraca caerulea euryncha. Com. Pipilo fuscus. Common. Pipilo (Mt. Species) Common Junco cinereus. Common on the hills and upward. Peucaea. A species identified as being different from the Atlixco species by T.S. Palmer in the Provisional list of E.W. Nelson was common. Sporophila moreletti. Common along the streams near Tochimilco. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 92 Tochimilco Petrochelidon melanogaster Com. Chelidon erythrogaster. Common Ptiliogonys cinereus. Quite common. They usally go in flocks of 15 to 40. Fly from tree to tree usually keeping well up towards the tops. I sometimes saw them hunting among the oaks & madronos something after the manner of flycatchers. A flock seems to frequent the same grounds often day after day. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. Common from the plain up to lower edge of pines. Basileuterus. A species of this genus was common on open hillsides usually. [[end page]] [[start page]] Tochimilco 93 Catherpes mex. conspersus. Not uncommon on the house in the town and along the barrancas. Thryothorus b. bairdii. Common from the plain up to pines. Parus meridionalis. Common down to lower edge of pines. Psaltriparus melanotis. Common down into the oaks. Catherus. A species of this genus was seen on several occasions among the oaks. Sialia mexicana. Common down to lower edge of pines in openings. The following were omitted in their proper places. (over) [[end page]]
[[start page]] 94. Tochimilco: Setophaga miniata. Common down to lower edge of pines. Ergaticus ruber. Not uncommon along with preceding species. [[end page]] [[start page]] Index Apizaco. Tlaxcala. Apr 4-6 Pages 1-2. Chalchicomula. Puebla. Apr 8-19. pp.3-7. Mt. Orizaba. Trim Line. Apr 19-21 pp.8-9 Mt. Orizaba. Rancho. Apr. 21-27 pp.10-16. Chalchicomula Birds Netted. pp.17-18. Tehuacan. Puebla. May 2-9. pp.18-23. Huamantla. Tlaxcala. May 9-17 pp. 24-25. Perote. Puebla. May 17 to about June 10. pp.25-38. Las Vegas. Vera Cruz. June 10-19. pp.39-45. [[end page]]
Jico. Vera Cruz. June 21 to July 18. pp.46-69 ---------------------------------- Atlixco. Puebla. July 20 to Aug 10. * pp. 70-84. ---------------------------------- Tochimilco. Puebla. Some days between July 20 & Aug 10. pp. 85-94. ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------- *Part of this time was spent at Tochimilco.