Notes on forest growth in Washington Territory, circa 1860

ID: SIA RU007209

Creator: Gibbs, George, 1815-1873

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1855-1865

Citation: George Gibbs papers, circa 1850-1853, 1857-1862

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These field notes provide a descriptive account of the tree population in areas of the Washington Territory, which during this time included Washington State, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Nebraska. The notes were taken in approximately 1860. They are dated from 6 August of an unknown year to 13 October of the next year. Gibbs notes the existence and abundance of several plant species as he travels through the Territory. Most specimen listed include pine and spruce varieties (family: Pinaceae ). Notes are narrative and diary like, describing tree density, locations, environment, and binomials found. Specific locations include Kootenay River, Spokane River, and the Rocky Mountains (within Washington Territory).

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  • Spruce
  • Pine


  • Rocky Mountains
  • United States
  • Washington Territory
  • Kootenay
  • Spokane River


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007209

Collection name

George Gibbs papers, circa 1850-1853, 1857-1862

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 1 Folder 3

1 Notes on the forest growth of Washington Territory. Geo. Gibbs [[margin]] [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] is found in areas & rivers of the other islands & on Harriscut Lake the outlet of which is a tributary of Harris River. A grove of pines I believe of P. ponderosa is found on the Nisqually plains, but the pines generally are of rare occurance [[strikethrough]] through [[/strikethrough]] west of the range [[/margin]] [[margin pencil]] ([[strikethrough]] [[Harris?]] [[abngtion?]] [[stry?]] Thuja? et [[/strikethrough]]) [[/margin pencil]] With the exception of some small & scattered prairies such as those around [[strikethrough]] Van [[/strikethrough]] Fort Vancouver on the Columbia, between the Cowlitz river & Olympia, between Nisqually & Steilacoom & other isolated spots of like character, the whole of Washington Territory west of the dividing ridge of the Cascade range [[strikethrough]] may [[/strikethrough]] is covered with forest, [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] for the most part consisting of coniferous trees. Conspicuous among them are [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Abies Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]] or "Yellow fir" as it is commonly termed, & [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Thuja gigantea [[/underlined]] or "Oregon Cedar". [[strikethrough]] These in fact [[/strikethrough]] The former constitutes certainly one half and I think two thirds of the whole. With them are associated [[underlined]] Abies Menzesii [[/underlined]], or "Spruce"; the "White Fir" [[underlined]] Abies [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] grandis [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] Grandis [[underlined]] Abba [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] and the "Hemlock," [[underlined]] Abies [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] Canadensis [[/underlined]]. These may be considered component parts of the general forest, though the last three are more local in their distribution than the others. Of the other evergreens, the "yew", occurs chiefly in the river bottoms [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]] or along the banks of the Sound, seldom in the heart of the forest, & [[strikethrough]] almost always [[/strikethrough]] is never abundant. The white pine ([[underlined]] Pinus monticola [[/underlined]]) [[strikethrough]] occurs [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] is found [[/insertion]] though in no great numbers, [[strikethrough]] over [[/strikethrough]] in the mountains of the Coast range [[strikethrough]] upon [[/strikethrough]] back of Hoods Canal & the Straits of Fuca. The Juniper is rarely seen, and the nootka Cyprus I have never met with. [[insertion]] [See page 3] [[/insertion]] Of deciduous trees, the ^[[insertion]] "white [[/insertion]] maple" "[[underlined]] Acer macrophyllum [[/underlined]] attains a large size on the benches lining some of the rivers; the alder, [[strikethrough]] only [[insertion]] growing [[/insertion]] occurring in the neighborhood of fresh water allows either rivers or springs [[/strikethrough]] forms groves or thickets, and attains a height of 60 feet or more & a diameter of 20 inches. The cottonwood is abundant - in fact the prevalent tree, on the overgrown grounds of the rivers, & attains a great size & height
Of the willows there is a considerable variety [[strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/strikethrough]] most of them being of small size. Ash is abundant in the swampy lands, & is I believe confined entirely to the region between the coast & Cascades Ranges. I have certainly never seen it east of the latter. The birch makes its first appearance about the latitude of the Straits of Fuca ^[[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[Abui?]] or Quercus [[/strikethrough]] ([[underlined]] Quercus Garryana) [[/underlined]] is almost the only [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] The [[/strikethrough]] Oak[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] ^ in [[/strikethrough]] found on the prairies back of Steilacoom, and in the neighborhood of Victoria, but of course is entirely local. Of the smaller growth, the Vine maple, ([[underlined]] A[[insertion]] cer [[/insertion]] circinatum [[/underlined]]) the ^ [[insertion]] Dogswood [[/insertion]] ([[underlined]] Cormus Nuttalli [[/insertion]]): the Strawberry tree ([[underlined]] Arbatus Menziesii [[/underlined]]) Among the shrubs, ^[insertion]] Several species of [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] Spiraea [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] occur [[/insertion]] every where; the [[underlined]] Rhododendron [[/underlined]] occasionally, especially in the woods around Port Townsend; the Manzanita ^[[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Arctostaphylos tomentosa [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]] occurs there also, the only place in which I have noticed it east of the Cascade range. In 1853 I saw it on the Cathlapootl river [[strikethrough]] not [[/strikethrough]] near the foot of Mt. St. Helens. [[strikethrough]] Crab [[/strikethrough]] Thorn apple ^ [[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Pyrus rivularis [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]] forming dense thickets in the ash swamps, Service berry [[insertion from below]] ([[underlined]] Amelanchier canadensis [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion from below]] ^[[insertion]] the mountain ash ([[strikethrough]] ([[underlined]] Pyrus Americana [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]]) [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] Gualtheria Shallon [[/underlined]] or Sallal - Salmon Berry ([[underlined]] Rubus Nutkanus [[/underlined]]); ^ [[insertion]] several species of [[/insertion]] Ribes; _ two of [[underlined]] Berberis [[/underlined]; Elder ([[underline]] Sambucus [[/underlined]]) The bark of the fir tree contains layers of a corky texture intermixed & with woody fibre - Didn't see Arbutus Menzesii east of Cascades -
2 At Chiloweyuck lake in the Cascade Mts, [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] west [[circled]] the parallel [[/circled]] [[insertion]] ? [[/insertion]] the limit of the growth of underbrush in the forest, appears to be about 3000 feet above the sea level, though this may be accidental - on the streams, it certainly ascends higher. The actual line of [[underlined]] vegetation [[/underlined]], like that of rivers is too irreguler & dependent upon local circumstence - as to be defined. Grass & flowering plants were noticed as high as 8000 feet. The limit of [[underlined]] forest growth [[/underlined]] was here under 6000 feet, at which [[strikethrough]] height [[/strikethrough]] elevation the trees were stunted down to low bushes. The [[strikethrough]] fs grown abries grandis [[/strikethrough]] The balsam firs & pines reached the greatest altitude, [[underlined]] Abies Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Thuja ^[[insertion]] gigantea [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] giving out some distance below. [[underlined]] A[[strikethrough]] bies [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion strikethrough]] [[?]] [[/insertion strikethrough]] Menziesii [[/underlined]] was found at the lake, (2800 feet) Mr Custer, one of the [[strikethrough]] surveyors of the party [[/strikethrough]] topographers of the party, whose expeditions gave him an excellent opportunity for judging, came to the conclusion that the line where the timber ceases is unusually uniform through the whole range & that the disappearance is very rapid, the trees maintaining quite a large size, though not so great an altitude, to within a short distance of the point where they dwindle down to mere shrubs. This was confirmed by my own observations. The [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] is the first to disappear, then the yellow fir ([[underlined]] Abies Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]]) The Hemlock reaches about the same or a somewhat greater altitude than this last. The Balsam fir attains the greater elevation. Underbrush extended to only [[strikethrough]] one [[/strikethrough]] 100 or 200 feet above the lake, although the same shrubs, in spots exposed to the sun, reach an altitude equal to that of the forest. [[underlined]] Pinus Monticola [[/underlined]] first seen at the Lake - a very large one. [[margin]] Aug. 4. [[/margin]] [[strikethrough]] Just [[/strikethrough]] At camp Chuchchekum, [[strikethrough]] f [[/strikethrough]] (say 4000 to 4500 feet) first noticed [[underlined]] Picea Amabilis [[/underlined]], its cones having now attained [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] full size. Thence on to the summit this & [[underlined]] Picea grandis [[/underlined]], with the hemlock, most abundant. The cottonwood also atains a fair size. A straggling alder at this altitude, procumbunt, abounded - This here called "black
3 alder", and is a common nuisance on the mountain sides, its branches, extending downward, greatly impeding the climber. The timber on the summit was accidentally burned off before my arrival. Descending to our first camp below it (alt. ft.) The timber in the bottom was very thick, but not of great diameter. [[strikethrough]] The lar [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Picea Amabilis [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] P. grandis [[/underlined]] were common, with [[strikethrough]] another [[/strikethrough]] what I supposed to be a variety of the latter, the leaves are double on the stem. Also the Hemlock, & [[underlined]] Abies [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] menzesii. [[/underlined]] There also first saw [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Cupressus [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] nutkatensis [[/underlined]], of which the men said a large number grew on the burnt summit. [[insertion]] [See p. 1 line 24 [[/insertion]] In this valley the trees 150 to 175 feet in height. The wood of [[underline]] Picia Amabilis [[/underline]] ^ [[insertion]] is [[/insertion]] yellowish white & apparently of good quality. The bark of [[strikethrough]] a [[/strikethrough]] trees 2 feet in diameter average 3/4 inch thick, with longer & larger scales than in [[underlined]] A. menzesii [[/underlined]], & very little striated. The [[strikethrough]] supposed [[/strikethrough]] Cyprus ([[underline]] Cupressus [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] Thuja [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Nutka^[[insertion]] t [[/insertion]]ensis? [[/underline]]) had the wood of fine grain, the heart of a dark color, & with a very disagreeable odor. The bark thin, [[strikethrough]] peeling [[/strikethrough]] exfoliating extensivly in thin woody strips like the hickory, since bark white & peeling readily in strips. The [[bark?]] similar to those of the common Thuja. Specimens of the fruit were forwarded to Dr [[Forvey?]]. The bark of the Hemlock seemed much more deeply striated than on the other side of the Mtns; [[insertion]] [? mountains] [[/insertion]] but it is difficult to give general descriptions of these trees as individuals differ much with the locality. [[underlined]] Pinus monticola [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] [[sparsins?]] [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] A. Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]] did not occur so high on the east side of the range, it appeared to set in at about feet. A shrub [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]], now common & in flower. [[margin]] aug. 8. [[/margin]] From here ascended to summit of the range to the south of the pass. The change of character very striking. It was covered with open glades separated by groves of balsam fir, and blooming with flowering plains
* The "chickenberry" here alluded to is doubtless Gaultheria Myrsinites, which is peculiar in the Pacific States & not G. procumbens, which has not been found west of the R. Mountains.
4 Besides these more particularly Alpine, [[strikethrough]] most [[/strikethrough]] many of those which at an earlier season were found in the river country, some now here in blossom. Such as lupin [[strikethrough]] chrysanthemum [[/strikethrough]], scarlet [[insertion underlined]] Castilleia [[/insertion underlined] &c &c. The elevation was ft., & [[strikethrough]] the pinus [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Picea grandis [[/underlined]], the most common tree, still maintained a fair height. One clump of [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]], 50 or 60 feet high & 10 or 20 inches in diam. was noticed on this side of the mtn. [[margin]] Aug 10. [[/margin]] [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] & [[strikethrough]] [[underlined]] A. [[/strikethrough]] Douglasii [[/underlined]] reappeared perhaps half way between the forks of trail & the first Creek - alt feet. The Cyprus disappeared before reaching them. The [[underlined]] Thujas [[/underlined]] in the [[strikethrough]] river [[/strikethrough]] bottom were very fine, and descending to the Skagit river (alt. feet) they formed a [[strikethrough]] heavy [[/strikethrough]] dense forest, as on the coast side. [[margin strikethrough]] Another species of Gaultheria [[J.P.?]] [[/margin strikethrough]] In the Skagit valley, the soil of which on the terraces is very poor yellow fir & [[insertion]] A [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] in thickets prevail. There I [[strikethrough]] first [[/strikethrough]] noticed [[strikethrough]] (in the [[/strikethrough]] for the first time in the whole territory, the [[underlined]] chickenberry, [[/underlined]] so common in New England. In other parts [[insertion]] * [[/insertion]] of the valley, where the soil was better, [[underlined]] Pinus monticola [[/underlined]] became common. Cottin wood & willows ^[[insertion]] ? grow [[/insertion]] also along the stream. Paper birch & black & white alder also occur. East of the Skagit river, the mountains, elevated from 5000 to 6500 feet, are much more open. [[strikethrough]] Timbre ve [[/strikethrough]] The summits grassy & timber being chiefly in the bottoms, or on their northern slopes. At 6000 feet it is much stunted & ^[[insertion]] consists [[/insertion]] almost entirely [[underlined]] Picia grandis [[/underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] & [[underlined]] Pinus Contorta [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] with some [[underlined]] Abies Menzisii. [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] grows to the height of 50 feet, seldom with a diameter of 12 inches. The bark of this tree is very thin & covered with small scales, the leaves about 2 inches long, 2 in a sheath - rather a yellowish green, cones adherent for [[insertion]] a [[/insertion]] year.
[[insertion]] [Where does this come in?] [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] [[insertion]] Abies [[/insertion]] Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]]. grows only on dry ground; that is, ground that is never overflowed, and in that respect differs from [[underlined]] A. Menziesii [[/underlined]]. In fact it is a test of some importance in ascertaining the height to which the streams rise. [[underlined]] A Menzesii [[/underlined]] on the other hand prefers a damp soil. It attains its greatest size on the coast. I have seen it in situations even where the tides occasionally reached it. The bark of this tree is reddish, ^ [[insertion]] thin & [[/insertion]] not striated like th[[overwritten]] e [[/overwritten]at of [[underlined]] A. Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]], but exfoliating in Scales. I had supposed there to be two varieties of [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] A. Menzesii [[/underlined]], one inhabiting the coast, the other the mountain & interior region & fancied I detected a difference in the foliage but Dr Newbury says it is the same tree, with only the difference produced by situation. It reaches an altitude of 6000 feet on the parallel, nearly if not quite as great as the Balsam firs. The Bark of [[underlined]] A. Dougals[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]] becomes very thick in old trees, so much as to be used for firewood. It is deeply but irregularly striated longitudinally. A fir which on the coast we call White fir, Dr. Newberry says is [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Picea Amabilis [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] & not [[underlined]] A [[insertion]] bies [[/insertion]] Alba [[/underline]]. The bark of this is white & comparatively smooth. The twigs have the peculiarity of growing verticillate & as they fall off give to the bark the appearance of being divided into sections. This is the poorest lumber we have being what is called "brash". It also decays rapidly. The wood of [[underlined]] A. Douglassii [[/underlined]] is that which is used so
extensively on the west coast, both for timber and boards. It is strong & durable, but unfortunately shrinks and swells. For span it is unsurpassed & great numbers are exported to Europe. It has alternate hard & soft layers. The spruce ([[underlined]] A. menzesii [[/underlined]]) is inferior to the above, but is also much used & is valuable for many purposes. The [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] is but little affected by elevation, at least up to ^ [[insertion]] 4000 or perhaps even [[/insertion]] 5000 feet provided it can find moisture - very large trees were noticed far up in the Cascade Range, where [[strikethrough]] sp [[/strikethrough]] swamps exist or along the borders of streams. Its wood is extensively used for fencing, weatherboards, inside work generally & shingles. It splits readily & very true.
5 Aug. 27. [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] [[strikethrough]] [[Mar PKs?]] Pasayten [[/strikethrough]] It was not until reaching the mouth of the Chuchuwanten, that [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Abies Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]]ii [[/underlined]] became common. The cottonwood & aspen there too set in, with the black alder, here [[strikethrough]] aller [[/strikethrough]] upright & attaining [[strikethrough]] some [[/strikethrough]] several inches in diameter. Alt. feet Columbia Pine ([[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]]). This I first noticed going eastward, about the mouth of the Pasayten south fork. Its universal habitat is the gravelly or sandy terraces along the river. [[underlined]] Abies Menzesii [[/underlined]] here attains a large size [[underlined]] P[[insertion]] inus [[/insertion]] contorta [[/underlined]] still the prevalent one - [[underlined]] A[[insertion]] bies [[/insertion]] Douglas[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]ii [[/underlined]] frequent. Black Alder is very common in the bottoms. Service berry ^ [[insertion]] [[image - arrow]] Amelanchier Canadensis ([[strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Pyrus Americana [[/strikethrough]] [[/underlined]]), Red - twig - Dogwood with white berries which the Indians eat, & Mountain ash here [[strikethrough]] quite [[/strikethrough]] only a shrub occur. Very little underbrush however in the [[underlined]] pine [[/underlined]] woods. The red raspberry of New England was on the west fork of Pasayten - rare in Washington Territory. Among other shrubs not mentioned, the aromatic black currant, [[strikethrough]] apparantly [[caccetieae?]] with [[/strikethough]] ^ [[insertion]] [[strikethrough]] Ch [[strikethrough]] resembling [[/insertion]] that of our gardens, - another black currant without bloom, with a small leaf, the fruit hanging not in racemes but in irregular bunches & more like a gooseberry than a currant, & [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethough]] a red currant. The red flowering currant was not seen west of the divide. The Bear berry continues here and a species of [[strikethrough]] (?) [[?]] [[/strikethough]] [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]], the branches lying on the ground. The red currant has a small glaucous leaf, fruit dry & sweetish. In crossing the range between the Pasayten & Naisnuloh, about the same elevation as the last 6500 feet, the mountain was much more timbered, though the forest was an open one. [[underlined]] Picea grandis [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] as usual, from which depended long locks of the black moss [[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Evernia [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]] from which the Indians make [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] a paste which they eat in winter. This was so abundant as to give a funereal look to the woods.
6 Another characteristic was that a species of willow grew far up in the mountain side, [[strikethrough]] away [[/strikethrough]] where there was not the most remote appearance of moisture. on reaching the Naisnuloh (alt. of Cache feet) Yellow fir ([[underlined]] A. Dougl. [[/underlined]]) again appears of good size through out in forest - but scattered like [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]]. [[strikethrough]] The [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] P. Contorta [[/underline]] in dense thickets, Menzies' Spruce & [[underlined]] Picea grandi [[/underlined]] also common. Black alder, some cottonwoods, and the aspen very common along the streams. The hemlock seems to have run out as I saw but one on the mountain. A few stunted Junipers on the creek. The common fireweed of New England ^ [[insertion]] ([[underlined]]Erechtites hieracifolius [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]] common on both sides the Mts. Also the lupin which on the Naisnuloh Mts [[strikethrough]] reaches [[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] occurs at [[/insertion]] the highest of 6000 feet, or more. [[margin]] Sept 21 [[/margin]] Descending the valley [[underlined]] P[[insertion]] inus [[/insertion]] contorta [[/underlined]] became less common. [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] was found on the river terraces, always in open woods & never in thick forest. That also is a [[strikethrough]] good the [[/strikethrough]] character of [[underlined]] A. Dougl. [[/underlined]] here, but it is surely a local one with that tree whereas it is [[in??]] with the large Pine. On the hill lives [[underlined]] A. Dougl. [[/underlined]] now begins to form much of the forest. Measured a [[underlined]] P. ponderosa [[/underlined]] raw wood 30 in. (heart 23) outside of bark 46. 90 rings in heart, 120 in sap wood. The sap rings smaller towards the outside - heart reddish, sap deep yellow bark extremely light brick red - and about 30 layers - wood in alternate hard & soft layers. The bark opens in broad plates by irregular longitudinal fissures. The [[strikethrough]] formation [[/strikethrough]] structure is very remarkable, the scales of which it is composed being [[strikethrough]] plated one [[/strikethrough]] of various forms, plated one on another with rolled edges & fitting like a Chinese puzzle. The upper and under ones are also fractured by projections & indentations to match. Reaching the Similkameen the Artemisia becomes somewhat plenty on the bare hill sides. Also [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata [[/underlined]].
X There were no specimens of Cacti in the Collections from Oregon to Wash. Ter. that I examined. [[underlined]] JT. [[/underlined]]
7 Mr Custer who came down the Similkameen reports that where he crossed from the Skagit to the head of that rim the SW sides were bare of timber, the N.E. clothed. The timber ^ [[insertion]] was [[/insertion]] balsam fir ([[underlined]] Picea Grandis [[/underlined]]) to the first fork, no [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined] or [[underlined]] A. Douglassii [[/underlined]] after passing the [[divide?]]. [[strikethrough]] The [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] commenced at Campe des Femmes. Among the shrubs in the valley of the Similkameen not before noticed was the Sumac ^ [[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Rhus glabra [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]], a species of plum, the poison Oak ^[[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Rhus [[strikethrough]] Toxicodendron [[/strikethrough]][[/underlined]].) [[/insertion]] [[line]] [[insertion]] R. [[underlined]] diverselobra [[/underlined]]?" [[/insertion]] and a willow with very long narrow leaves. This last however ^ [[insertion] sometimes [[/insertion]] assumes the size of a tree. Cottonwood also occurs along the river but trees of any kind are scarce from here to the Okinakane. The sumac, with its crimson foliage (Oct 1 [[superscript]] st [[/superscript]]) brought to mind the autumnal traits of the Atlantic, [[strikethrough]] for [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] ? woods [[/insertion]] which, excepting yellow, as seen in the Cottonwood, Maple [[strikethrough]] &[[/strikethrough]] Larch &c are rare or rather wanting in the forests & shrubs of the Pacific. ? side * Cactuses were here so abundant as to be a nuisance to both men & animals. A single quite large juniper grew alone near the mouth of the river. The larch, which further South, [[strikethrough]] on the Cascade Range [[/strikethrough]] shows itself at once as a prevalent tree on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range, does not at this latitude appear until reaching the Okinakane River. It now accompanies the [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] on the terraces & the Yellow fir on the hill sides. The spruce still occur through out in quantity. Aspen are abundant in the bottoms. [[margin]] [[vertical and horizontal line]] [[/margin]] On the Nehoialpitkwa Pine & Larch prevalent. Yellow fir less so Cottonwood Aspen & Yellow birch, the latter only occasional. Descending the river, [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] again found in thick woods & up the gulches of some small streams, thuja.
8 (Oct 22 [[superscript]] d [[/superscript]]) Ascending the Columbia River from Fort Colville to the 49 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] Parallel, the timbre on the ^ [[insertion]] lower [[/insertion]] terraces was say 3/4 [[strikethrough]] sid [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] & 1/4 Larch, with some [[underlined]] Abies Douglasii [[/underlined]] on the upper terraces, the larch & fir exclude the Pine. The [[strikethrough]] former [[/strikethrough]] Larch, now in its yellow leaf, as well as the cottonwood, afford an agreeable diversity to the sombre monotony of the ordinary vegetation. The [[strikethrough]] lines of lines of the [[/strikethrough]] highest terraces are often thus clearly marked out by the [[strikethrough]] yellow [[/strikethrough]] lines of yellow larch trees. The [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[underlined]], Red Pine or Columbia Pine, takes a good finish, & is used in preference to the larch for lumber for barns as well as for boats. Mr. Custer who crossed from Camp Statapoostin to the Columbia along the parallel, found the timbre & underbrush both dense at the general level of 6000 feet. [[strikethrough]] The "black birch" of the Columbia River is said to be a strong and valuable timber for wagons & such purposes. The "poplar" (aspen) excellent for bodies.[[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] The Larch is good timber and would be valuable for strips. It is full of 'pin knots' which injures it for [[strikethrough]] timber [[/strikethrough]] sawed lumber. [[strikethrough]] Fiel [[/strikethrough]] The yellow fir is not as good here as on the coast. [[/strikethrough]] Quality of timber around Fort Colville, Upper Columbia [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] - a better wood for lumber than any of the firs, but not as good as the [[underlined]] P. monticola [[/underlined]]. It finishes well is a strong timber & would be good for spars. runs from 2 to 5 feet diameter & 150 to 200 feet high don't cleave well, as the grain is apt to run round the tree. [[strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Abies Douglasii [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Picea grandis [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] : ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Abies Douglasii [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] Red Fir or Yellow fir, does not grow as large or [[underlined]] clear [[/underlined]] as on the coast. Size 2 to 3 feet. height 100 to 150 feet
9 ^ [[insertion]] [[underline]] Larix occidentalis [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] - Larch or Tamarack. Is softer than [[strikethrough]] that at [[/strikethrough]] ^[[insertion]] the Larch of [[/insertion]] the east, has no strength, but cleaves well, is straight-grained but brittle. In falling it breaks up. The wood is yellowish. It does very well for shingles & weatherboarding as it seems to last where strength is not required & is not affected by weather - does not warp or shrink & would do for deck plank. Size 2 to 3 feet diameter - height 200 feet - after passing 3 feet the top generally dies, though larger trees are sometimes seen. It requires a deeper soil than the fir. The [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] around here is not as abundant or large as on the coast, or again in the river bottoms toward the Rocky Mountains. ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Abies [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] douglasii [[underlined]] [[?]] [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]][[/insertion]] White Spruce, Red Spruce called by both names in reference to bark or wood. Not very plenty, grows large 3 feet diameter 200 ft high, straight grained & strong, wood white, bark dark colored & [[underlined]] scaly [[/underlined]] - found on good soil & moist localities - making good shingle & spars & flooring, is free from knots, is tougher than the fir & more coarse in texture. ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Populus monilifera [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] - Cottonwood, not very abundant - valueless ^ [[underlined]] Populus tremuloides [[/underlined]] Poplar (Aspen) Common in the bottoms - of no great value except for such purposes as sleigh & wagon bodies & generally as barn wood is used for in the States [[strikethrough]] 12 [[/strikethrough]] 1 to 2 feet diam 50 to 100 high [[underline]] Betula occidentalis [[/underline]] - [[Grey?]] Birch, Black birch, (not a paper bark) woody bark, good wagon timber, habitual low rich bottoms - easily 10' in diam. 50 feet high. Rather scarce. ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Alnus Oregona & vividis [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] - Alder Black and White or "Spotted" both kinds. don't differ much in wood - 12 to 20 inches diam and 20 to 40 feet high. good for charcoal. (On the coast the White alder grows much higher) ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Acer macrophyllum [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]]. - White Maple - scarce - & does not attain a large size, say 6 or 8 in diam. The strongest wood here.
10 ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Heracleum lanatum [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] - A plant of the [[strikethrough]] Angelica [[/strikethrough] Umbelliferae [[strikethrough]] family [[/strikethrough]] (Aiyote) is cooked by the Colville Indians & the slices applied to parts affected by rheumatism. It is first sliced & then baked. For ulcers they scrape & apply it raw. Also use it as a horse lin[[strikethrough]] e [[/strikethrough]]ament. From Ft Colville en route to Spokane River - on the open hill sides & [[strikethrough]] up [[/strikethrough]] dry terraces, P. ponderosa & larch - on the hills larch, & fir - ^ [[insertion]] Douglasii [[/insertion]] P. contorta in the thick woods. Mch 30. A liliaceous plant with yellow flower, root in [[plains?]] first in bloom to day Kaii-heh (Purd. oreille) Sinet-Koo-lee-na, Colville - grows as large as an onion. Edible. April 1. Spokane R. Bitter root just coming up. A small blue flower in the pine woods. Varieties of Artemisia on the Spokane. Between Spokane & Clarke's Fork woods [[strikethrough]] a great deal of [[/strikethrough]] the [[strikethrough]] c[[overwritten]] y [[/overwritten]eanoth[[overwritten]] ea [[/overwritten]]us [[/strikethrough]] Ceanothus forms the chief underbrush. Clarke's Fork. [[strikethrough]] P. [[/strikethrough]][[insertion]] [[underlined]] Pinus [[/insertion]] ponderosa [[/underlined]; Larch; Yellow fir; Cottonwood some of large size. April 18. Yellow skunk cabbage in bloom here - the season a fortnight or three weeks later than on the Spokane. A yellow lil[[strikethrough]] l [[/strikethrough]]y ^ [[insertion]] (probably a small flowered variety of [[underlined]] Lilium pennsylvanicum [[/underlined]]) [[/insertion]] in bloom. Also a trillium. April 26. Strawberry in bloom. Cottonwood do. [[Ditto for: in bloom]] Hawthorne budding. Larch busting out. Willows in bloom. April 30 [[underlined]] Arbutus Uva-ursi [[/underlined]] [[insertion]] or Bearberry [[/insertion] in bloom. May 10 A small maple (?) ^ [[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Acer [[/insertion]] circinatum [[/underlined]]) in bloom & beginning to leaf[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] out. [[strikethrough]] Low [[/strikethrough]] Ground barberry ^ [[insertion]] ([[underlined]] Berberis Aquifolium [[/underlined]]) in bloom. Alder coming into leaf. May 12 Swamp maple [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] in bloom. Also larch & birch. A vine with blue flowers.
11 Clarkes Fork between Sinyakwatum & the Lake. Above freshet level consists of [[underlined]] P. ponderosa [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] P. Contorta [[/underlined]], Larch, Douglasi fir with, more rarely, [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] & white fir - [[underline]] Thuja [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Abies Menzesii [[/underlined]] occasionally in the bottoms - Balsam Poplar (?) in the low grounds. Swamp maple - white birch on the terraces - Fir, larch, & [[underlined]] P. Contorta [[/underlined]] on the mountains. A few Hemlocks in the thick woods back from the river. Some White Pine ([[underlined]] P. Monticola [[/underlined]] ) Aspen abundant on the creeks. May 22 [[superscript]] d [[/superscript]] Kamass in bloom. The timber is very thick over the whole country except a few meadows (overflowed during freshets) on the river. But it is, [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] owing to the paucity of the soil of small comparative diameter. The undergrowth aspen, alder, willows, hawthorn hazle. The [[underlined]] Aralia [[/underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] horrida [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] spinosa [[/strikethrough]] [[/insertion]] in wet places in the wood. The white pine is now the finest tree in the woods reaching a great height, perfectly symmetrical & with a thin dark colored bark, cones with small very regular scales, [[strikethrough]] which adds to or perhaps produces the idea of [[/strikethrough]] Hemlock also becomes common. [[image - arrow pointing to above paragraph]] On Pack river between [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] Clarkes Fork & the Kootenay there is a superb wood of these trees ([[underlined]] P Monticola [[/underlined]]) Kootenay River, Chelemta Crossing. The same pines, firs & larch on the hills, [[underlined]] Thuja [[/underlined]] in the bottom. The quality of this last as timber is very inferior here to that on the coast. It is rarely sound. The [[underlined]] Pinus Ponderosa [[/underlined]] is by far the best. The birch here reaches a diameter of 24 to 30 inches (paper birch). The Indians use the bark of this & also of the spruce, for canoes. Alders common also. The Columbia pine as usual on the terraces only - always open & free from underbrush
12 Service berry, [[strikethrough]] & [[/strikethrough]], spiraea, hazel [[strikethrough]] &c he [[/strikethrough]] &c common as underbrush. Hawthorn in the bottoms. [[strikethrough]] Along [[/strikethrough]] Within the great bend of the Kootenay & upon the Mooyie river [[strikethrough]] Hemlock [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Pinus Contorta [[/underlined]], still the same tall slender tree, Yellow fir, larch, hemlock & balsam fir continue. [[underlined]] Pinus Ponderosa [[/underlined]] does not occur. Undergrowth, Spiraea, seringa, [[insertion]] Philadelphus [[/insertion]] service berry & [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]], with small willows in the bottoms. [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] covers considerable tracts to the exclusion of everything else. birch, alder & vine maple with thick underbrush on the Mooyie - also black alder & red dogwood - Some thuja - Striking the Kootenay again about 49.30 found [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata [[/underlined]], aspen, black alder, black birch &c - Some fruit trees - All along the river, about high water mark, as I noticed on the Columbia between [[strikethrough]] Colv [[/strikethrough]] Ft. Sheperd, & Colville, grow a line of Junipers, the buds of which have doubtless been brought down by the freshets. It seemed to differ somewhat from the common kind. Saw no [[strikethrough]] artemisia [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Sage brush (Artemisia) [[/insertion]] north of the Spokane River. The Aspen & two kinds of willow, one the narrow leaved one noticed on the Similkameen, form thickets on the Kootenay - the other the common river willow. Clematis very common, apparently same as in the ^ [[insertion]] Eastern [[/insertion]] States. Choke Cherry - a shrub [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] Pyrus) along the river with glaucous leaves. Some of the smaller Artemisias near Kootenay East (Camp) but no large bush or greasewood. Purshia quite common.
13 Coming from the Kootenay, to the Flathead near the 49 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] Parallel, the same [[insertion]] ? habit [[/insertion]] conduct is noticeable in the trees. The [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] extend up the pass as far as the open terraces or to an altitude of feet, estimate (Camp Sept. 8) & then runs out. Larch, & yellow fir ([[underlined]] Abies Douglasii [[/underlined]]) continue on [[underlined]] A. Menzesii [[/underlined]] however predominates over either. [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] abundant & a few [[underlined]] P. monticola [[/underlined]]. Balsam poplar (?) Black & White birch, the latter not large but very tall, black alder, mountain willow, [[underlined]] Acer circinatum [[/underlined]] & dogwood. Service berry, hawthorn, two species of [[strikethrough]] Cyanotheum [[/strikethrough]] ^ [insertion]] Ceanothus [[/insertion]], Mtn Ash & bear berry. Ascending the pass [[underlined]] P. contorta [[/underline]] becomes predominant - with a diam[[insertion]]eter [[/insertion]] of 18 or 20 inches & 80 to 100 ^ [[insertion]] ft [[/insertion]] high. Counted the rings on one of 18 inches, they amounted to 60, the outermost being smaller & within half an inch of the exterior obscure. Its early growth was rapid the interior rings being 1/4 & some even 1/3 inch in thickness. Sept 13. Beyond this camp (alt. ft) balsam fir the prevalent tree - A. grandis. Still accompanied by larches, P Contorta & P Monticola. On the summit, height about 6000 feet, timber was mainly balsam fir, & ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] A. Menzesii [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] p. contorta [[/strikethrough]], [[underlined]] P. Contorta [[/underlined]] & some young 5 leaved pines, ^ [[insertion]] of a [[/insertion]] species not distinguished - probably ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] P. [[/insertion]] monticola [[/underlined]]. It was stunted there, but grew at greater altitudes. [[strikethrough]] but I suspect the others reach higher altitudes on the surrounding mountains, the pass being very bare and stony, such as A. Dougl. spruce & larch. [[/strikethrough]] In the valley of the creek descending (Camp Sept 14 - alt. feet) [[underlined]] Picea Grandis [[/underlined]] & [[underlined]] Pinus contorta [[/underlined]] prevail [[underlined]] A. Menzisii [[/underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] A. Douglassii [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] [[?]] , [[/strikethrough]] & [[strikethrough]] ^ [[/strikethrough]] less abundant. [[underlined]] P Monticola [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] & A. Douglasii [[/strikethrough]]. The [[underlined]] P. Grandis [[/underlined]] at the foot of the summit reaches 150 feet in height with a diameter of 18 or 20 in. P. Contorta of 12 in, 80 - 100 feet - Smaller ones of 8 in. 50 - 60 feet. This last the common size in thickets.
14 The mountains as elsewhere were densely timbered on their northern slopes. Descending the valley of this creek, still [[underlined]] P. Contorta A. Douglasii & Picea Grandis [[/underlined]], spruce & larch - Saw no [[underlined]] Thuja, P. Ponderosa or P. monticola [[/underlined]] Crossing the Flathead R & ascending the Kishenehn to the summit of the main chain of Rocky Mts, timber ^ [[insertion]] is [[/insertion]] chiefly [[underlined]] P. Ponderosa [[/underlined]], mostly deadwood by fire. The [[strikethrough]] hills [[/strikethrough]] mountain sides here were covered with bunches of a plant with leaves like a coarse grass, dark green, roots like the Calamus - flower preserved. [[insertion]] It is Xerophyllum tenax [[/insertion]]. On the water shed [[underlined]] Pinus Contorta - Picea Grandis[[/underlined]], & [[strikethrough]] P. [[/strikethrough]] Larch - greatly stunted, as the situation is exposed. [[strikethrough]] On the [[/strikethrough]] The elevation 6000 feet. On the Mtn side they rise up 500 feet higher & the stunting becomes more due to exposure than to actual elevation. Same timber extended down the east side, suddenly ceasing as we emerged from the pass on to the great plains - Along Bow rise & lake & the lower parts of the creek wh. we descended quantities of dead [[strikethrough]] Cottonw [[/strikethrough]] poplar & aspen, very gnarly. At the upper lake found the Pine considered new by Capt Blakiston, it turns out to be [[undelined]] P. flexilis [[/underlined]]. (Elevation of lakes not obtained) - Willows, Aspen, poplar, Service berry & some stunted [[underlined]] A. Douglassii [[/underlined]] which then crosses the Rocky Mts. [[underlined]] P. Flexilis [[/underlined]] 5 leaves in a sheath - 3 or 4 cones together, about 4 inches long - nuts without wings - ripen every two years - bark more succulent than [[insertion]] in [[/insertion]] [[underlined]] P. contorta [[/underlined]] & resembling that of a young [[underlined]] Picea Amabilis [[/underlined]]. All these stunted - one much resembled an oak - foliage very open & sparse, but with thick heads.
15 On return descended the Kootenay to Chelemta, instead of going by the Mooyie. Towards the crossing the timber becomes larger, some fine Thujas, a Douglasii larch & Pinus Ponderosa. Noticed also the single band balsam fir. [[underlined]] P. Contorta [[/underlined]], Vine Maple - the deciduous trees were now (Oct. 13) in their yellow leaf.