Journal, Northwest Boundary Survey, 1857-1862

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This field book contains notes on specimen observed and collected between approximately 6 August 1859 and 5 February 1861 in Washington State near the 49th parallel and possibly in Canada. Specimen number range is approximately 1-135 (some numbers are not in order). A wide variety of specimen were collected including mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles, although the bulk of specimen are mammals and birds. Frequently listed animals include snakes, mice, rats, squirrels, grouse, goats, and trout. Descriptions range from brief two line entries, to paragraph descriptions including measurements of various body parts, preservation method, sex, and additional location information. Locations include Skagit River, Colville Valley, and Whatcom Trail. Other locations may also be included.

Date Range


Start Date

Aug 06, 1859

End Date

Feb 05, 1861

Access Information

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  • Animals
  • Herpetology
  • Zoology
  • Birds
  • Ichthyology
  • Mammalogy
  • Ornithology


  • United States
  • Washington Territory
  • Skagit
  • Colville Valley
  • Washington


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes

Accession #

SIA RU007209

Collection name

George Gibbs papers, circa 1850-1853, 1857-1862

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

Smithsonian Institution Archives


Box 1 Folder 2

[[Front cover]] N.W.B.S ZOOLOGY
manuscript case. Manuscripts. N.W. Boundary Survey (Eight note books on nat. hist) [[preprinted plate glued onto page]] [[image - two books, one open and on top of the other, with text on book images:]] H.H. Bancroft & Co. Booksellers and Stationers San Francisco [[/preprinted plate]] [[stamped]] Smithsonian Institution, National Museum [[/stamped]] c. 236572 [[end page]] [[start page]] George Gibbs North Western Boundary Survey
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[blank page]] [[several loose index cards stacked on top of one another inserted between pages of book here]] [[first index card]] Gibbs, George 1863 A dictionary of the Chinook jargon, as trade languages of Oregon. Smithsonian Miscl. Collections, vol. 7, Smithsonian [[strikethrough]] publ [[/strikethrough]] Inst. publ. no. 161, pp. XIV & 43. March. [[/card]]
[[card]] Gibbs, George 1863 A dictionary of the Chinook jargon, as trade languages of Oregon. Smithsonian miscl. Collections, vol. 7, Smithsonian [[strikethrough]] publ [[/strikethrough]] Inst. publ. no. 161, pp. XIV & 43. March. [[/card]]
[[card]] Gibbs, George. 1863 Instructions for research relative to the enthnology and philology of Americas. Smithsonian Miscl. Collections, vol. 7, Smithsonian Inst. publ. no. 160, [[strikethrough]] infor [[/strikethrough]] 57 pp. March. ("Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution") [[/card]]
George Gibbs PM 848 .G5 A dictionary of the Chinook jargon. 1863 S.I. Pub. 161 S. mis. coll. vol. 7, 1867 [[/card]]
[[card]] [[strikethrough]] Malathon (for Euonymus scale) [[/strikethrough]] [[/card]]
[[card]] Bushnell, David I., Jr. 1938 Drawings by George Gibbs in Far Northwest 1849 - 1951. Smithsonian Miscel. Coll. 97(8): 1 - 28, illus. Sent for 1-4-5/2 [[/card]]
[[card]] Bushnell, David I., Jr. 1938. Drawings by George Gibbs in Far Northwest, 1849 - 1851. Smithsonian Miscl. Collections 97 (8): 1 - 28, illus. [[/card]]
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[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1859. [[strikethrough]] August Small rat, Alcohol. Chuch che-hurie. Wurdemanii. Bag. No. 11. " [[Ditto for: August]] Small (?) mole. do. [[Ditto for: Alcohol.]] Bag. No.11. " [[Ditto for: August]] Lizard do. [[Ditto for: Alcohol.]] Bag. No.11. " [[Ditto for: August]] Striped Snake, Skagit Crossing. No. 2. " [[Ditto for: August]] Weasel - Camp Skagit. No. 9 " [[Ditto for: August]] Ground Squirrel do. [[Ditto for: Camp Skagit]] Bag. no. 6 " [[Ditto for: August]] Jumping mouse " [[Ditto for: Camp Skagit]] Bag no. 11 " [[Ditto for: August]] 2 small trout. Skagit River. nos. 4 & 5 The above all in alcohol. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] August 6th On the "second summit" of the Whatcom trail at an elevation of [[blank space]] feet found the blue or pine grouse breeding. The young were about the size of quails but could fly very well. Among other birds [[/strikethrough]]
[[start page]] a grouse which was probably female of the spruce partridge, not identified; the Canada jay & flocks of snowbirds. ^[[also a small hawk.]] The heads of the gulches running toward the Skagit were inhabited by colonies of the hoary marmot whose whistle was heard constantly among the rocks. We saw numbers of them sitting erect at the mouths of their burrows or running from one to another. Their whistle is shrill and one of the calls so nearly resembles that of a man that when I first heard it, I answered, supposing it to be the signal of one of our men who was hunting. Notwithstanding the abundant pasturage on the prairie summits of the mountains on the Skagit, I saw no sight of deer. Bear appear to be scarce though they exist, both black and grizzly. The mountain goats, except in the running season would seem to confine them [[end page]] [[start page]] selves to particular localities. Aug. 8th creeper 5.S.2 3/4 (lost) " Mouse. Extreme length 4 1/4; body 3 5/8; tail 5/8; hair 1/8; length head 1 1/8; to eye 3/8; to ear 7/8 2o summit. skin. Aug. 12th [[strikethrough]] Canada grouse a Spruce partridge: [[male symbol]] 16 1/4; 23 1/2; 7 1/4 Aug 15. Mountain goat. Brought into Camp Skagit by Mr Custer, skinned except the head. Length of head over all. 13 1/2 in; nose to ear 10 1/2, height of ear 5 1/2 to inner caultius of eye 7 in; nostril to do. 5 1/2. - Injured- Aug. 13. Trout, Skagit river. Length 12 3/4; head 2 3/8; to ventral 5 5/8; dorsal 5 3/4; to anal 8. Back and sides nearly down to medial line with small spots of irregular shape, black on the back; on the sides blue with a black edge [[end page]]
[[strikethrough]] behind; from the anal fin to caudal also spotted below the line. Sides as far back as the anal fin with a broad streak of lake red. Dorsal & caudal fin with black spots; adipose olive with a few distinct rounded black spots, also interruptedly black on the edge; dorsal & caudal dark grayish brown anal without spots or very few near the belly; ventral & pectoral light reddish; back dark brown approaching to black, with blue reflections; operculum reddish, belly yellowish red; head short & blunt, partly spotted on the top, snout & pre-operculum; tail slightly lunated. Another specimen of which a drawing only was sent had small specks along the belly, which was also more reddish; anal fin dull purplish; dorsal & caudal with a shade of bluish grey; back and head with olive inflections. (no. 2. The meat of all that I saw was white. Much larger fish were also taken. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 1859 [[strikethrough]] Aug. 24. Trout. On head waters west fork of the Pasayten, a branch of the Similkameen. Apparently the same species as in the Skagit. In these the medial line was red, but there was no broad streak as in the others. The meat also was red. These differences may perhaps be owing to water & age, these being small. The roe was immature, about the size of mustard seed. [[/strikethrough]] Aug. 26th Mountain goat from Mt Hozumeen east of the Skagit. 2 yr old male. Head over all 13 in; lip to eye, 6 in; nostril to do. [[ditto for: eye]] 4 1/2; lip to ear 8 3/4; nostril to do. [[ditto for: ear]] 7 1/2; height of ear 5. Skinned when brot. in. With the exception of the above mountain the goat is not found east of the Skagit in this district. It however occurs again in the Methow mountains.
1859. Aug. 27 Squirrel; Mts east of Skagit R. Length 12 1/8; vertebrae of tail 4 3/4; [[hairs?]] l. head to occiput 2 1/4; nose to eye 3/4; to ear 1 5/8; height ear 5/8 forefoot 1 1/8; hind, 1 3/4. [[strikethrough]] Aug. 27th Canada Grouse ♂. 16 5/8. 23. 7 1/2 specimen " [Ditto for Aug. 27th] do. do. [[Dittos for: Canada Grouse]] 17. 23. 7 1/2. [[underlined]] head only. [[/underlined]] Also head of female. The young are now about half grown. It is here the common species. The young males nearly resemble the female in plumage, but I think assume their proper color in the fall. They frequent low bottoms & the wooded banks of streams, are excessively tame or stupid, so much so that the men killed great numbers with sticks & the Indians caught them with a noose fastened to the end of a pole. I have seen the hen with a brood of nearly full grown chickens huddled in the trail. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Aug 28th. White bellied squirrel, female Length, total, 15 in; body 8 1/2; vertebrae of tail 4 3/4. Head 2 1/4; to eye 3/4; to ear 1 3/4 height ear 5/8. forefoot 1 1/4; hind, 2. " " [Dittos for: Aug 28th] do [[Ditto for: White bellied squirrel]] male Length same, head 2 3/8; to eye 7/8; to ear 1 1/8; height ear, 3/4; feet, 1 3/8. 2. This species from here on to the Similkameen river is the common species. It is a very lively, noisy animal, its habit like those of the common pine squirrel of the sound, from which is different only in color. Its food is chiefly the seeds of the Abies Douglassi. [[strikethrough]] Aug. 31. Mouse. 9 1/2; 3 3/4. head 1 1/8; to eye 1/2; to ear 3/4; height ear 5/8; feet 3/8, 1 1/4. skull lost. [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] 1859. Sept. 2d. Canada Grouse, female. 14 1/4. 22. 7. The craw in one individual was filled with fir leaves. [[underlined]] specimen [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Sept.]] 4th. Jackass rabbit. One was seen today but not shot. [[/strikethrough]] " " [[dittos for: Sept. 4th.]] Neotoma. total length 14 1/2; body 8 in. head 2 1/4; to eye 1; to ear 2; height of ear 1. feet 7/8. 1 3/4 " [[ditto for: Sept.]] 5th. Pine Marten. Pehp-kus (Sinislk.) Total length 28, body 17 1/4; tail 8 3/8; hair 2 3/8 head 4, to ear 3, to eye 1 1/4, height ear 1 1/2. feet 2 5/8 - 4. [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Sept.]] 8th. Small owl. 8. 17. 5 7/8. Male [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Sept. 9. Ptarmigan, No. 1. Male 12 3/4 - 22 - 6 3/4. " " [[Dittos for: Sept. 9th.]] do. [[Ditto for: Ptarmigan]] No. 2. Male 13 1/2 - 23 - 7 1/2. These two differ considerably in plumage. The craw was filled with willow leaves. They seem to be pretty abundant in the mountains - winter plumage white. The flesh is dark and not very good. They are exclusively a mountain bird, the willow growing there as well as in the vallies. " [[ditto for: Sept.]] 11th. Canada grouse, male. 15 1/8. 23 1/2. 7 1/2 Craw filled with huckleberries. " " [[dittos for: Sept. 11th.]] Ptarmigan No. 3. 14 1/2. 23 1/2. 7 1/2 " [[ditto for: Ptarmigan]] No. 4. 14 1/2 23 1/2 7 5/8 " [[ditto for: Ptarmigan]] No. 5. 14 1/4. 23 1/2. 7 1/2 I believe both sexes are alike in plumage. I am not sure that I can distinguish [[/strikethrough]]
1859 [[strikethrough]] them at all at this season of the year. One specimen had the craw filled with seeds of the spiraea. Sept. 11th. Ruffed Grouse. (not preserved) 17 3/4. 23. 7 1/2. back & tail grey. [[/strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Sept.]] 14th. Pine Marten. Young male. Length 24 in; body 15 1/4 - vertebrae of tail 6 3/4; head 3 3/8; to eye 1 1/8; to ear 2 1/2; height of ear 1 1/4; feet, 2 1/4. 3. " [[Ditto for: Sept.]] 16th. Gopher. Length 7 7/8, tail 2. head 1 7/8; to eye 3/4; to ear 1 3/8; height of ear 1/4; feet 7/8. 1. male The small ground squirrel (Chipmunk and the white bellied Pine squirrel both excessively abundant in the valley of the Naisnuloh. The latter are barking and squeaking around the camp [[end page]] [[start page]] continually. Sept. Little Chief Hare. This animal is very abundant on the Naisnuloh, inhabiting the tala of rocks which slide down from the mountains. The Saamena Indians call them "skill" from a fancied resemblance to their cry, [[underlined]] kill, kill [[/underlined]]. Sept. 21st. Flying Squirrel, female. Total length 13 5/8, body 7. hairs of tail 1. to eye 3/4; ear 1 5/8; height ear 3/4; feet, 3/4 - 1 5/8. Vertebrae of tail, skinned 5 3/8. [[strikethrough]] " " [[Dittos for: Sept. 21st.]] Gopher Squirrel. male Measurements not taken. The above all sent back to Lake Depot. " [[Ditto for: Sept.]] 22d. [[strikethrough]] Clarke's Crow [[/strikethrough]], ♂ 12 1/4 - 22 - 8. Nucifraga Columbiana. Specimen no. 29. [[/strikethrough]]
1859 Sept 25th. Little Chief Hare, female. Length 7 in. head 2. to eye 3/4. to ear 1 3/4, height ear 7/8, feet 7/8 - 1 1/4. Specimen No. 19. " " [[Dittos for: Sept 25th.]] Rusty Squirrel, male. Length total 15. body 8. hairs of tail 1 1/2. head 2 1/8, to eye 7/8, to ear 1 3/8, height to ear 3/4, feet 1 1/4 - 1 7/8. [[strikethrough]] Alcohol [[/strikethrough]] Specimen No. 20. Another of the same color was observed but not shot. I am uncertain whether it can be considered a different species. Obtained near mouth of Naisnuloh. [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Sept 25th.]] White bellied Squirrel. Pasayten River, Wurdemann Alcohol. Specimen Nos. 8 & 17. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Sept]] 26th. Small Hawk [[male symbol]] 11. 22 1/2. 7 1/2 Specimen No. 30. Water ousels & chickadees at Cp. Naisnuloh. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Sept. Ptarmigan, mouth of Similkameen, not measured. Specimen No. 23 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Sept]] 29. Sharp tailed grouse. Same locality, but on the prairie - not measured. Sex not distinguished. Specimen No. 25. This grouse now first begins to appear on the open country, both hills & low lands. It is here called the prairie chicken. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Sage Fowl. This bird the Indians tell me, is not found so far north, although the Artemisia is common in the valley of the Similkameen and Okinakane & on the neighboring hills. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Sept 30th. Two specimens Ta-ah-nia [[Satrura?]], male & female, Okinakane. [[/strikethrough]]
1859 [[strikethrough]] River. This fish is now drawing to [[strikethrough]] the close of [[/strikethrough]] its spawning season. It frequents this river & the lakes in immense numbers, its color actually reddening the bed. Measurements. Male. Length 21 1/2 in. head 5 1/2 - to dorsal fin 10 - vertical 10 1/2 - anal 14 - Adipose 16 - upper line of head very concave, iris yellow. Operculum & pre-operc. dirty greenish, body brick red, tail end scarlet - caudal fin brown, speckled with black. Female - length 22 in, head 4 1/2, to dorsal 10 in, vertical 11, anal 14 3/4, adipose 16 3/4 - color of head light greenish, back brick red inclining to purple, belly dirty yellowish grey. Caudal fin speckled; but slightly lunated. Upper line of head convex whereas head of the male is the reverse. Eggs red and of the size of swan shot. This appears to be the average size of the fish. The meat is red. Outlines [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] & a specimen of the roe accompany the skins. Specimen Nos 22 and 21. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Oct. 1. Checkered Snake - Alcohol Cp. Similkameen. No 10 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " " [[Dittos for: Oct. 1.]] Bat. Alcohol Cp. Similkameen. Bag No. 11. [[/strikethrough]] Rattlesnakes first appear on the Similkameen - as the weather is now cold they have mostly gone into their holes. [[strikethrough]] Oct. 3d. Woodpecker, 10. 15 3/4. 5 1/4 ♂ Specimen No 20 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Oct. 4th. Muskrat, ♂ Length 24 in. body 13; head 3 1/4; to eye 1 3/8; to ear 3. feet 1 3/8 - 3 1/8. Skull in alcohol - Specimen No. 14. [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] 1859 Oct. 4th. Salmon, Kashoo, female. Length 27 in, head 5 3/4, medial line 18. To vertical 13 1/2, dorsal 10 5/8, Adipose 18 3/4, anal 17 1/4. dry skin. Meat red - eggs orange, size of Grouse shot. Except in color of the meat this fish seems to resemble the met-hlehts of the Sound. It has just arrived in the Okinakane and would not spawn until after the Ta-ah-nia. Eggs & outline - Specimen No. 7. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] √ " " [dittos for: Oct. 4th.]] Diver ♂ 25 1/2. 37. 9. The oil glands 1 1/4 inch long. Specimen No. 27. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] √ " [[ditto for: Oct.]] 6th. Coot. 16 3/4. 28 1/4. 8. Specimen No 26. [[/strikethrough]] [[insertion]] Copy [[image - sketch of hand pointing to the right]] [[/insertion]] [[end page]] [[start page]] Oct. 6th. Bighorn Sheep, female. 3 yrs old - skinned except the head, when brought in. Lip to back of head 16 in. To base of horn 10 1/2; to eye 7 1/2; height ear 5 1/2; curve of horn 9 1/2. " [ditto for: Oct. 6th]] do. [[Ditto for: Bighorn Sheep]] Male - brought in after I left & not measured. [[insertion]] Copy this [[image - pencil sketch of hand pointing to parargraph below]] [[/insertion]] The Indians say that the deer on the Similkameen commence running after the middle of October. A month later the bighorn commences. [[strikethrough line struck through]] The ewes of the latter drop their young high in the rocks and conceal them until they are strong enough to climb, so that they are seldom caught. They are very wild and unlike the mountain goat which is "lazy." The bighorn is found in the mountains, ^[[insertion]] south [[/insertion]] of the forks of the Similkameen and Naisnuloh. The goats in the Methow Mts, which are very high, but none north of there & east of the
1859 Skagit except on Hozumeen. The goats have no running season. They remain in one spot, & cohabit mostly in the fall. All drop their young in the spring, the goats among the rocky peaks, like the bighorn. The deer runs more than the sheep. The Indians call the does to them, kill them & then hunt for the fawns which they take home to be killed when wanted. They use dogs, which put on the track of deer, follow them up & drive them into the vallies, where they are killed. When the snow falls deep, deer and sheep both descend to the vallies, where numbers are killed. Both paw the snow up in seeking food. The track of goats & sheep is easily distinguishable from that of deer by being wider & more blunt & open. [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Oct. 6th. White fish. Alcohol The Indians bring in large quantities of them which seem to be the same as the Be-dohbl. Specimen No. 13 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " " [[ditto for: Oct. 6th.]] Small Snake. Alcohol. From Dr. Berrien. Bag No. 6. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Oct. Squirrel - Albino. Alcohol. Fr. Lieut Harker. The eyes were pink and it is I suppose an albino of the white bellied squirrel. [[/strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Oct.]] Shells of fresh water mussel, also several species small shells from the lake, obtained by Dr. Berrien. (Specimens in small box)
1859 Oct. 14. Obtained near mouth of the Nehoi-al-pitkwu. Shells of a fresh water mussel, different from those at the Osoyoos Lake. Piles of the shells lie here where the Indians have feasted on their contents. (In small box.) [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Oct.]] 15th. Arriving at the crossing of the Columbia found the Indians taking very large salmon "Skul-lo-wees" by which I understand they intend all salmon that have been [[living?]] in fresh water. Could not preserve a specimen Found the same fish a little later at the mouth of Clarke's fork almost entirely exhausted. They had ceased running in the Okinahane when I arrived at Cp. Similkameen. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Nov. 2d. Canada Grouse. female. 15 1/4 - 23. 7 5/8. (not preserved) [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " " [[dittos for: Nov. 2d.]] Canada Grouse, female 15 1/4 - 22 1/2 - 7 5/8. Specimen No. 24 [[/strikethrough] [[strikethrough]] " " [[dittos for: Nov. 2d.]] Ruffed Grouse, male. 17. 22. 7 3/8. (not preserved) [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Nov.]] 4. Salmon - A small specimen with a sharp beak - In alcohol. Specimen No. 3 _ The above on the Ne-hoi-al-pitkwu R. ? if the same as that at Chilowk. Lake. Novr 11} Two species of trout taken in the Slawn-teh-us or Mill Creek, east of the Columbia in winter, through the ice. Humehna or Salmon travel with red meat & spots & Peestl with black specks and white meat. Nov 20. Peestl - 2 small specimens in Alcohol - fr Colville Depot. Nos. 4 & 5 [[/strikethrough]]
1859 [[symbol - two hash marks crossed by horizontal line]] Dec. 7. [[underlined]] Colville Depot. [[/underlined]] Ermine in alcohol. Total length 13 in. Body 8 1/4 - length head 2; to eye 1/2 - to ear 1 3/8; height ear 1/4; length of feet 1 1/4 1 3/4. bag No. 6. " [[ditto for: Dec. 7.]] Hunter's Skin of ? Lynx. I should think it a young cougar except that it has a short tail. Colville Depot. [[strikethrough]] √ " [[ditto for: Dec.]] 23d. [[strikethrough]] Mealy [[/strikethrough]] Red Poll Finch ♂ 5. 8. 2 5/8. No. 31 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Dec.]] 24th. "Mutton" Not measured as he had been sick. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Dec.]] 26th. Hare - Hunter's skin - No. 18 " [[ditto for: Dec.]] 30th. Sucker. Female - Mill Creek In alcohol (No. 32 Very few birds round Colville Depot this month except Ravens, Magpies [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] & Chickadees. A few ruffed and Canada grouse. [[/strikethrough]] The Indians note that the Cariboo sheds its horns some six weeks before the deer, & that some can be obtained at this time with them. [[strikethrough]] 1860 Jany. 6th. Coyote. Packer's Camp. Colville Valley. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: 1860]] " [[ditto for: Jan.]] 7th. Field Mice (2) Colville Depot Box No. 33. [[/strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Jan.]] 8th. White hare. head 3 3/4. ears 3. to eye 1 1/2. to ear 3 1/4. feet 2 3/4. 6. Skull in alcohol. Skull in bag 33. Specimen No. 34
1860 [[strikethrough]] Jany. 15th. √ Chickadee ♂ 5. 8 1/4. 2 3/4 Colville Depot. Specimen No. 35 [[/strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Jan.]] 19th. White Hare ♂ Length 15 1/4. tail 1 in. Hairs 1 1/2. length head 4 in. to ear 3 8/8. height ear 3 1/2. to eye 1 3/4. feet 3. 5 3/4. Vertebrae of tail skinned 2 in. Specimen No 36 " " [[dittos for: Jan. 19th]] do. [[Ditto for: White Hare]] ♂ Length 15 3/4, Tail 1 1/4 3, head 4, to ear 3 5/8. Height ear 3 5/8, to eye 1 5/8, feet 3. 5 1/2 Vertebrae of tail skinned 2 in. Specimen No 37 [[strikethrough]] skulls in alcohol [[/strikethrough]] Feby. 9th. Hare. Length 15 1/2. vertebrae of tail 2. Head 3 3/4. Nose to eye 1 3/4, to ear 3. Height ears 3 1/2, feet 2 1/2 5 3/4. Specimen No 38 Skull in alcohol [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Feby 20th. Finch ♂ 5 1/2. 8 3/4. 3 1/8 Specimen No 39 " " [[dittos for: Feby 20th]] do [[ditto for: Finch]] ♀ 5 1/2 8 1/2. 3 Specimen No 40 [[/strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: Feby]] 21. White Hare. Length 16 1/2. head 4. Nose to eye 1 3/4; do. [[ditto for: Nose]] to ear 3 3/4, ear 3 5/8, feet 2 3/4 5 3/4 Specimen No. 41 Skull in alcohol [[strikethrough]] March 3d. Harris' Woodpecker 9 5/8 (c. 17) 5 1/4. ♂. Specimen No 42 [[/strikethrough]] √ " " [[dittos for: March 3d.]] Red Poll ♀ 5 3/8, 8 3/8, 3 Specimen No. 43 [[strikethrough]] This bird seems to winter here and to be very abundant. They are excessively fat notwithstanding the snow. The craw filled with small seeds. March 3d. Horned owl. 24 1/4. 54. 16 ♂ Specimen No. 44. [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] 1860 March 4th. Titmouse 5. 7 3/4(?). 2 3/4. ? sex. Specimen No 45. √ " " [dittos for: March 4th]] Red Poll ♂ 5 1/2, 8 3/4, 3. Specimen No 46 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] About March 1st, Salmon were reported to be running in the Spokane River. [[vertical text right margin by sentence above]] Error. [[/vertical text]] [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] The only birds yet seen are those that remain all winter. In this immediate neighborhood they are not very numerous, though I believe there are some in the valley. I have seen chiefly ravens, magpies, some woodpeckers, Steller's jay, Red-winged blackbird, snow bunting, red poll finch, chickadees, water ousels &c. [[/strikethrough]] March 4. Saw a pine squirrel, apparently same species as on the Sound - color red. The Cariboo is first found, traveling east, on the Columbia River about the lakes. It does come south of 49° in that neigh- [[end page]] [[start page]] borhood. The wolverine is found I believe there also. At least I saw a hunters skin at Fort Colville, which I was told came from there. [[strikethrough]] √ March 6th. Logcock 18 1/2. 28 1/2. 9 5/8 ♂ Specimen No 47 √ Craw filled with ants. " " [[dittos for: March 6th]] Snow Lark Bunting. 7 1/4. 13. 4 3/8. (?)♂ Specimen No 48 Nuttall speaks of the hind nail as "rather short." In all the specimens I have seen it is the longest. [[/strikethrough]] March 9th. Pine Squirrel. Length 12 3/4. + hairs 2; body 8; head 2 1/2; to eye 3/4; ear 1 3/4; height ear 5/8; feet 1 1/4, 2. ♂ Alcohol. Specimen No 49 This squirrel appears to me to differ from the pine squirrel of the Sound. The belly is white with the under fur bluish or rather plumbeous; the hairs of the tail becoming black at the ends. Can it be the white bellied squirrel above mentioned in winter dress.
[[strikethrough]] March 9th 1860 Lark bunting 7 1/4, 13, 4 1/2 ? sex. Specimen no 50 " " " [[dittos for: March 9th 1860]] do. do. [[dittos for: Lark bunting]] 7 1/8. 13. 4 5/8 Specimen no. 51. [[/strikethrough]] √ [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: March]] 11th " [[ditto for: 1860]] Cross bill ♂ 6 1/8. 10 7/8. 3 5/8. Tail unequal. Specimen no. 52. [[strikethrough]] I supposed the above to be a male until on opening the body, I found two well developed eggs. [[/strikethrough]] and testes [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Cross bill, ♀ unmeasured shorter than the last. Seem to be abundant now & feeding on the Columbia pine. No. 53 Sitta [[strikethrough]] nuthatch [[/strikethrough]] 4 1/8. 7 3/8 2 5/8 Sex not distinguishable. Specimen no 54 (see also 61) √ " [[ditto for: March]] 12th " [[ditto for: 1860]] woodpecker 6. 12 1/8. 3 7/8 no 55 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " " " [[dittos for: March 12th 1860]] Chickadee 4 3/4. 7 5/8. 2 1/2 (not skinned) (same species as those above) no 45 [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] March. 12. 1860. Flying Squirrel ♀ Total length 14. - hairs 1 in. body 7 1/4 head 2. to eye 3/4 to ear 1 5/8. height ear 7/8, feet 7/8, 1 5/8. [[strikethrough]] vertebrae of tail, skinned 5 in [[/strikethrough]] in alcohol 56 " " " [[dittos for: March. 12. 1860.]] do. do. [[Dittos for: Flying Squirrel]] ♂ Length body 7 5/8. (tail broken.) head 2. to eye 5/8 to ear 1 3/8; height ear 3/4, feet 7/8, feet 7/8, 1 5/8. no. 57. [[strikethrough]] Specimen no 57 The name in Shwoyelpi, S'hoop-hoop. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: March]] 13th. In the valley. Red winged blackbirds, Rubris, snow birds, (?) Kildeer plover, mallards. The Oregon snow bird is not very correctly described by Nuttall - one shot today has a long dark splash on the inner web of the outer tail feather, on the 2d feather one half as long as the feathers itself, while on the third feather is a white mark one third its length, on the same vane. The outer edge of the 2d feather was also slightly margined with dusky & had not black but rusty on the crown. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: March]] 14. Kildeer plover 10. 20. 6 5/8. ? male (not preserved) [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: March]] March 15th. 1860 Peptahchin Creek two small trout The spots on them differently distributed. In one case not extending behind the dorsal fin. nos. 58. 59. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] √ " [[Ditto for: March]] 20th " [[Ditto for: 1860]] Chickadee ♀ 5 1/8. 8. 2 3/4 Spec. no 60 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: March]] 20th " [[Ditto for: 1860]] Sitta 4 3/8. 8. 2 3/4 Spec. no. 61. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] 22 Chipmunk In alcohol Spec. no 62 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] 23 Field mouse In alcohol Spec no 63 [[/strikethrough]] 23 Flying Squirrel ♂ total length 12 3/4; head 2 1/8 to eye 5/8 ear 1 1/2 [[strikethrough]] height ear 3/4; body 8 in. feet 3/4 1 1/2 Spec no 64 Note the peculiar glands of the Flying Squirrel. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] White billed Nuthatch ♂ 5 5/8. 10 1/4. 3 3/8 March 25th Specimen No. 65. Saw quite a number yesterday on the hill [[diver?]]. Also a blue bird. [[/strikethrough]] [[symbol - two hash marks crossed by horizonal line]] [[strikethrough]] [[underlined]] On Route. [[/underlined]] March 30. Blue grouse ♂ 20 1/2 26.9 (?) April 1. " " [[dittos for: Blue grouse]] ♂ 21.30.9 ♀ 19.28.9 (not preserved) April 6th Sinyakwateen Depot. Brook trout, "Peestl" Pend. & Shwo. The Indians distinguish this from the humāāna by its having the dash of carmine on each side under the chin. They say it is the male which has a reddish tinge on the belly. Skin in alcohol & drawing. [[underlined]] No. 66. [[/underlined]] There are fewer specks on the [[strikethrough]] hinder [[/strikethrough]] fore part of the body of all these fish here than I believe is common elsewhere, the under part being nearly [[destitute?]]. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] April 6th Trout. "ai'chst." Species new to the collection. Back lighter than olive green, with silver reflections; beneath white. Sides with light flesh col- [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] and spots, nearly round, which on the back are merely of very pale green. Neither fins nor tail spotted. Length 21 in; head 5; to end medial line 18 1/2; to dorsal 9 1/4; to ventral 10 1/4; to anal 14 1/2 to adipose 15. Tail moderately lunated. Spread 6 inches. The body elongated & slender head very long, mouth larger with thick lips. All the fins dark colors. Young male. This fish is said to be found in the upper Columbia lakes, the Kootenay R & Clarke's Fork. In the Kootenay it grows as large as a salmon. Spec. No. 67. Meat buff colored. The Indians say that the salmon proper do not ascend the Kootenay, but ascend the Columbia to the head of the branch which has its source with it. They say that the [[underlined]] Sturgeon [[/underlined]] is found in the Kootenay as far up as the Prairie Tabac. Salmon cannot ascend Clarke's Fork on account of a fall below the mission "as high as a tree", but they go up one of its lower tributaries, the "Salmon R." [[underlined]] Note. [[/underlined]] There are falls above Chelemta depot which probably stop the salmon, also higher ones above Tobacco Plain. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] April 7th Pine squirrel ♂ same as 49 Length 12 3/4 + hairs of tail 1 1/4; body 8 1/4; head 2 3/8; to eye 7/8; to ear 1 3/4; height ear exclusion of hairs 5/8; feet 1 1/4. 2. Spec. no 68. (in lino bag) [[strikethrough]] April 8. Ruffed Grouse ♂ 17. 22. 7. not skinned. [[/strikethrough]] The Golden Eagle appears to be not uncommon throughout this whole parallel of latitude. I heard of two specimens killed on Vancouver I. & there called the Black Eagle. Its feathers, especially those of the young or Ring tailed Eagle are much prized among the Indians both of the Seaboard and the Interior & [[rude??]] paintings of them adorn their graves. The images of the Thunder bird seem also to be modelled after the adult. I saw one or two the last summer on the Similkameen R. where it is called Melkanopes. A skin in the possession of Kwil.Kwilt-luis (adult) he prized at $6.00 On coming from the Coeur d'Alene Prairie to this place, our guide started one and got from him a blue grouse. The eagle lit but a short distance off on a low branch of a tree, and ap-
proved to be black. His qualities as a hunter as well as the difficulty of killing him seem to be the reasons of his value with the Indians. [[strikethrough]] Humāāna trout on crossing the little Spokane. April 2d found the Indians taking these fish though in small numbers. A female had the roe entirely developed. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Father Pandosy states that in the Okinakane Lake, there is a species of Cottus 4 feet long. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Mch 30th. Mill Creek. En route. Noticed Ground Robin and meadow lark - The latter probably winter here. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] April 10th. The season greatly behind that of Mill Creek Valley as the Crossing of the Clarke's Fork. A few ducks, geese & and cranes, robins, chickadees, jays, red winged and other woodpecker. The ruffed grouse was drumming. Kingfishers [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] April 11. Long tailed mouse & small fish. Lino bag No. 68 In alcohol [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] April 12. White bellied swallow. 6 1/8 13. 5 ♂ Not skinned. These birds first observed today. They were pretty numerous, twittering round the cottonwoods and occasionally lighting. The back of this one was a decided steel blue, without any greenish tinge. Nuttall dont mention the triangular black space between the eye and bill. [[strikethrough]] Wh [[/strikethrough]] 13th. White bellied Swallow. 5 3/4. 12 1/2. 4 7/8 ♂ 5 1/2. 11 3/4. 4 1/2 ♀ [[/strikethrough]] Specimen numbers 69 & 70 (One of the above contained a tapeworm outside the intestines. [[strikethrough]] April 14. Harris Woodpecker ♂ not measured These are the commonest kind round here. Their habits do not seem to differ from those of other forest species. They seem to be pairing about this time and I found the testes of this specimen developed. No 71. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] About the 12th April. The weather moderated and geese began to go north in considerable numbers. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Red Shafted Flicker, April 18th first seen - [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] April 17. Small fish. Back blackish with steel blue reflections. Sides steel grey with golden lights. An irregular reddish streak separated from the medial line by a band of grey - belly silver white. Lips carmine as also an irregular line extending back to the pectoral fin & running into the reddish line above [[mentioned?]] In alcohol. No 72 April 18. Meadow Lark. 10 1/4 - 16 3/4. 5 1/8. Not skinned. " [[ditto for: April]] 19. Totanus vociferus 13 3/4. 25. 8. " " [[dittos for: Totanus vociferus]] 13 3/4. 24 1/4. 7 1/4. Not skinned. " [[ditto for: April]] 21. Sitta Canadensis. 4 1/2 - 7 7/8 - 2 5/8. ♀ No 73 " [[ditto for: April]] 21. " " [dittos for: Sitta Canadensis]] 4 3/8 - 7 3/4 - 2 3/4 ♂ No 74 25 Scolopax Wilsonii 11 1/4. bill 2 5/8 - 16 1/2 5 1/2. Not skinned. " [[ditto for: April 25]] Merganser ♀ 16 3/4. 24 1/2 7 1/2 (Egg preserved) No 75 [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] April 28 Loon ♂ 30. 50. 14 Specimen No 76 " " [[dittos for: April 28]] Small Chipmunk Lino bag 68. (In alcohol) " [[ditto for: April]] 29 Garter Snake No 78 (In alcohol) " " [[dittos for: April 29]] Sucker No 79 (In alcohol) " [[ditto for: April]] 30 Fringilla (?) Pinus [[symbol erased]] 5. 8 1/4 2 5/8 ♀ Specimen No 80 " " [[dittos for: April 30]] " "[dittos for: Fringilla Pinus]] [[symbol erased]] 5. 8 1/4 2 5/8 ♂ [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Somewhat singularly of the two specimens who were shot together, the female has the brightest colors & is a little the largest. Specimen No. 81. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] May 2d. Canada Grouse. 15 3/4 - 24 - 7 3/4. ♂ " " [[dittos for: Canada Grouse]] 14 - 23 1/4 - 7 1/4. ♂ Not skinned as being damaged. The [[underlined]] white [[/underlined]] terminal band of the tail very conspicuous in the female. [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] in the male confined mostly to the two middle feathers. It is curious that Nuttall does not notice the bare red space over the eye, common to both sexes, but most marked in the male. He also speaks of the terminal tail band as rufous, whereas at best in these two it is white. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Ruffed Grouse. During the latter half of the month of April, the males drummed [[underlined]] all [[/underlined]] night at the Sinyakwateen depot, intermitting a few hours in the morning and then drumming on during the day. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] May 3d. Fringilla Savannah. 5 3/4. 8 1/2. 2 7/8. Specimen No 82 May 5th. Snipe T. Solitaria 8 7/8 - 16 1/4 - 5 7/8 Specimen No. 83. " [[Ditto for May]] 7th. Fish in alcohol Specimen No. [[strikethrough]] 84. [[/strikethrough]] 77 Robins laying, also sand hill cranes. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] April and May Lot of small fish No 85. Lino bag in alcohol On Clarke's Fk up to Lake May 4th. Fringilla Auro Capilla (Nuttall) 7 1/2 - 10. 8 3/8. ♂. No. 86 " " [[Dittos for: May 4th]] Loxia Curvirostra ♂ 6 1/4. 10 1/4. 3 1/2. (not preserved) One of a small flock observed. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " " [[Dittos for: May 4th]] Fringilla (?) Pinus 5. 8 1/4. 2 3/4. ♂ The colors of this one were bright as in No. 80 They are very common on Clarke's Fork. " " [[Dittos for: May 4th]] Falco Sparverius. 10 1/2. 21. 7 1/4 ♂ Not preserved. Space round the eye yellow, & not greenish as described by Nuttall. In another specimen also male the are orange, eyelids greenish. The F. Auro Capilla was noticed on the ground in a small pile of brush. Gizzard filled with a grain substance, apparently comminuted birds. F. Pinus in its habits as far as observed is correctly described by Nuttall. I have so far seen them always in pairs, and when one was shot, the other [[/strikethrough]]
was unwilling to fly off. [[strikethrough]] May 13th. Swamp Sparrow. 5 1/4. 8 2/4. 3. ♂ No 87. √ " [[ditto for: May]] 14th Canada Jay ♂ 11. 16 3/4. 5 3/4. (Dr. Hammond) No 88 " [[ditto for: May]] 14th Picus varius 8. 15. 5 1/4 ? ♂ No. 89 (Dr Hammond) " " [dittos for: May 14th]] Canada Jay 11. 16 1/2. 5 7/8. Do. [[ditto for: Canada Jay]] Not skinned. El-Kwúl-Koo-Kéh (Pend Oreille) May 15th. Saw first humming bird. " " [[dittos for: May 15th]] Sylvicola aestiva, male - not skinned 4 7 /8 - 7 5/8 - 2 1/2 " " [[dittos for: May 15th]] Tyrannus verticalis. 9 1/2. 16. 5 1/8. Dr. Hammond No. 90. [[strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] May 15. Nucifraga americana. Tail lost. Not skinned - 20. 7 3/8 approaches the Canada Jay but is larger. Wings black, secondaries tipped with white. The Indians say it inhabits the mountains, that the tail is black, the three outer feathers white. They call it Snáh.Ukae. My guide expressed great surprise at them being seen in the valley. He did not know what he was doing here. I think that I got a specimen last year on the Similkameen. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] May 16. Pewee 5 1/4. 8 1/2. 2 3/4. ♀ Specimen No 91 May 17th. Saw two harlequin ducks, male and female in the river. The Indians say there are not many. May 19. Totanus Macularius. 7 1/2. 13 1/4. 4 (Not Skinned) Four or five of these Peetweets flying around the shore near camp. [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] May 20, 1860 Pandion 22 1/2 60. 19 1/2 not preserved ♂ (skull in alch 21 Warbler (?) 5 1/8. 7 5/8 2 2/3 Specimen No 92 " " [[dittos for: May 21]] Pine finch 5. 8 1/2 3 Specimen No 93 " " [[dittos for: May 21]] Chipping Sparrow 5 1/2 7 3/4 2 7/8 ♀ Specimen No 94. " [[ditto for: May]] 22d Picus Varius 8 1/2 15. 1/2 (skull in alch (not skinned) " " [[dittos for: May 22d]] Pewee 5 7/8. 9. 3. (not skinned) Young of Spirit duck in tin cask. one in alcoh. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: May]] 25th White bellied swallow feeding its young in holes in the Balsam poplars along the river. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] √ May 25th Northern 3 toed woodpecker Picus Arcticus - 10 1/4 16 3/4 5 3/8 ♂ Specimen No 95 " [[ditto for: May]] 29th Louisiana Tanager Seen on a tree. " [[ditto for: May]] 30th Red Eyed Vireo 6. 10. 3 5/8 not skinned " " [dittos for: May 30th]] Chesnut backed Titmouse - (Parus rufescens) not skinned [[overwritten]] May [[/overwritten]] June 1st King bird 8 1/2. 15. 5 1/4 ♂ head in Alcohol " " [[dittos for: June 1st]] do. [[ditto for: King bird]] 8 1/4 14 5 1/8 ♀ not skinned " " [[dittos for: June 1st]] varied Robin 9. 14 1/4 5 not skinned " " [[dittos for: June 1st]] Picus pubescens 6 1/2 11 3/4 4 1/8 ♀ head in alcohol " " [[dittos for: June 1st]] Vireo ? Bartram's 5 1/4 8 1/2. 2 3/4. Specimen No 96 " " [[dittos for: June 1st]] Audubon's Warbler 5 3/4 8 3/8. 3. ♂ Specimen no 97. [[underlined]] Kalispelm Lake [[/underlined]] " [[ditto for: June]] 3d Small Pewee 5 1/2 8 1/4 2 3/4 [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] June 3d 1860 "Small Pewee" 5 1/2 8 1/2 2 3/4 (? T. acadica) Specimen no. 98 " [[ditto for: June]] 4th Louisiana Tanager 7 1/2. 11 3/4. 3 7/8 Specimen No. 99 ♂ " " [[dittos for: June 4th]] do. do. [[dittos for: Louisiana Tanager ♀ 7. 10 1/2. 3 3/4 Specimen No. 100 " [[ditto for: June]] 4th Canada Jay 11. 16 1/2 5 3/4 ♀ Skull in alcohol " " [[dittos for: June 4th]] do. do. [[dittos for: Canada Jay]] 11. 16 1/2 5 3/4 ♂ Specimen No 101 √ " [[Ditto for: June]] 5th Pewee 6. 10. 3 1/2 ♂ (?) Tyrannus virens. Spec. No. 102 " [[ditto for: June]] 5th Picus Pileatus ♀ 17 1/2. 28. 9. head in alcohol. not skinned. √ " [[ditto for: June]] 6th Picus hirsutus 8 3/4. 14. 4 7/8 ♂ Banded 3 toed woodpecker Specimen No. 103 [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Note. This species & Picus Arcticus ( Specimen No. 94 ) are very nearly allied. Nuttall's description of the markings on the tail feathers of the latter is incorrect. The same description applies equally to both. " [[ditto for: June]] 6th Chipping Sparrows. 2 heads in Alch. √ June 6th Wood (?) Pewee 6 1/8. 10 1/2. 3 1/2 ♂ Tyrannus virens. Does not fully agree with Nuttall's description. No. 107 " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] Pine finch 4 3/4 8 1/2. 3. not skinned √ " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] Picus arcticus 9 1/2 15. 5 ♀ Specimen no. 104 √ " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] Picus hirsutus 8 1/2 14 1/2 4 7/8 ♂ Specimen No 105. " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] P. Harrisii 9 1/2. 16 1/4. 5 1/2 (Harris' woodpecker) [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] June 6th Small Pewee 5 1/2. 8 1/4. 2 7/8 (?) sex. Specimen No 106. " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] Louisiana Tanager. 7 1/4. 11 1/4. 3 3/4 ♂ head in alcohol There is considerable obscurity among the smaller species of Tyrannus, and Nuttall's descriptions are somewhat vague as it would seem. At least they do not accurately define the present specimens. " [[ditto for: June]] 6th Oregon Snow bird ♂ 6 1/2. 9 1/2. 3 1/2 " " " " " [[dittos for: June 6th Oregon Snow bird]] ♀ 6 1/4 9 1/4 3 " " " " " [[dittos for: June 6th Oregon Snow bird]] ♀ 6 1/4 9 1/4 3 Nuttall's description is not perfectly accurate. The markings on the [[outer?]] tail feathers vary somewhat. In the male specimen now examined the outermost is white except a dusky spot on the outer vane near the base. The next has a larger splash on the outer vane & a slight one on the inner & [[overwritten]] the [[/overwritten]] is edged with dusky on the outer toward the end. In the third [[more?]] than half the feath- [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] er is dusky, viz toward the base of the outer vane & again on its upper portion, & on the inner vane through its entire length having it white near to the quill on the upper part, & also the edge. The females are much duller in plumage than the male. The head neck & upper part of the breast dark cinereous, wings 2 tail brownish grey 3d lateral tail feather with only a splash of white on the inner vane. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: June]] 6th Parus rufescens ♂ 4 1/2. - - Specimen No. 108 " " [[dittos for: June 6th]] Picus Harrisii ♀ 9. 15 1/2. 5 Specimen no 109 " [[ditto for: June]] 7th do. do. [[dittos for: Picus Harrisii]] ♀ 8 7/8. 16. 5 1/4 head in alcohol. √ " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] Picus Hirsutus ♀ 8. 13 7/8. 4 3/4. Specimen No 112 √ " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] do. do. [[dittos for: Picus Hirsutus]] ♀ 8 1/2. 13 3/4 4 3/4 Specimen No 113 [[/strikethrough]]
√ [[strikethrough]] June 7th Bartram's Vireo 5 1/4. 8 1/2. 2 3/4 ♂ under mandible bluish white. Specimen no. 110 √ Audubon's Warbler ♂ 5 5/8. 8 1/2, 3 1/8 " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] Specimen No. 111 [[/strikethrough]] " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] Pine Martin, female Length body 14 1/4 do [[ditto for: length]] to end tail vertebrae 21 head 3 1/4 to eye 1 1/4 ear 2 3/4 - height ear 1/2 feet 2 1/4 - 3 3/8 No. 114 (a) has [[underlined]] white [[/underlined]] tips to the ears. [[strikethrough]] " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] Picus Harrisii 9 3/4 16 1/2 5 1/4 ♂ Specimen No. 114 " " [[dittos for: June 7th]] Tyrannus Virens & Acadien. skulls in alcohol. √ " [[ditto for: June]] 10th Tyrannus Cooperi, ♀ 7 5/8. 12 1/2. 4 1/4 Specimen No. 115. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] June 10th Louisiana Tanager. ♂ 7 1/2. 12. 3 7/8 Specimen No. 116. June 8th Mr Chas Gardner found the nest of the Oregon Snow bird under the stump of a tree, on the ground - 4 eggs - white sprinkled, especially at the larger end with reddish brown, the spots at their end being upon a patch of a lighter color (end itself reddish brown, spotted) 116[[underlined]] a [[/underlined]]. June 14th Red eyed Vireo ♂ 6.10-3 1/4 Specimen No. 117 " [[ditto for: June]] 16th/17 nest & eggs, white speckled with reddish at the larger end. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] June 15th (?) Western Thrush 7. 11 1/4/ 3 3/4 ♀ √ Solitary thrush Specimen No 118 √ " " [[dittos for: June 15th]] do. do. [[dittos for: Solitary thrush]] 7. 11 1/2. 4. ♂ Also nest and eggs, four in number. Specimen No. 119. √ " [[ditto for: June]] 16th Picus Varius ♂ Specimen No. 120 [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] June 16th 1860 Cedar bird 6 3/4 11 1/2 3 3/4 Specimen No 121 Saw male & female of Maryland Yellow throat at Pack Rim June 13th [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] June 17. Passenger Pigeon ♂ 17 1/2. 25. 8 1/4 a small flock in the woods on Pack R. No 122 " [[ditto for: June]] 22d Jay (?) ♂ 11 1/2. 16 1/4. 6 This Jay differs very considerably from the Canada Jay & is perhaps the Corvus infaustus of Siberia which the Canada Jay is said to resemble. Iris dark hazel - bill [[underlined]] blue [[/underlined]] both mandibles tipped & partly edged with black. Legs blackish. No. 123 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Unsure whether the female of the ruffed grouse ever [[underlined]] drums [[/underlined]]. During the latter part of April when at Sinyakwateen, I heard a grouse drumming & shot it off the log. Its plumage denoted a female & I saw no other in the vicinity. I did not however examine it [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] internally. Yesterday, June 22d, I shot a grouse from a log where I had heard drumming for two days. Its plumage was also that of a female & I could see no other near. At this time the young ones are mostly hatched out, as I have seen broods of them, but this bird had not been sitting - it was fat & the breast not divested of feathers. On opening it, there were no signs of eggs, but a pair of bean shaped glands like testicles, and occupying their place, not at all enlarged, & of a greenish white color. It struck me that this might be a barren female with undeveloped ovaries. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Kootanie River June 27 Swallow 5 1/2. 12 1/2 4 3/4 (?) H. Serripennis. But it dont answer Nuttalls description perfectly. The tarsus, for instance is feathered. not skinned. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " [[ditto for: June]] 28 Nootka Humming Bird ♀ - 2 5/8 1 7/8 Unfortunately injured in catching from the nest & put in alcohol. Nuttall queries as to the [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] female having small ruby spots on the throat, but this has. Eggs two in number, long & nearly of same size at both ends. Color pinky white. The nest hung on the limb of a small cedar about 5 feet from the ground. It was made almost entirely of the down of the willow, with a few bits of lichen on the outside. No. 124 June 30th Found a nest of a small duck believed to be the Spirit Duck under a bush on a rocky point about 20 feet above the Kootenay River. The nest was quite deep, & consisted almost entirely of down. contained 7 eggs of dirty white color. Eggs & specimen of down retained. The eggs contained embryos just forming. Whether this was the second brood or not it is difficult to say. I saw young ones hatched out a fortnight since. The Canadians called the duck le Plongeur. no. 125 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] July 2d. Mr Chas Gardner found a nest of a grouse which I suppose to be the [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Canada grouse from the description. The nest originally contained six eggs & the men said that they were almost compelled to push her off the nest. The day after the bird was missed - two eggs gone & one broken. The remaining three he took. They were nearly fresh about the size of bantam's eggs of a very light sienna brown tint with dark liver brown specks & blotches. No 126 [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] July 3d found on the Kootenay a small nest, apparently recently abandoned, containing only one egg. [[/strikethrough]] [[image - pen sketch of hand pointing down]] copy, this croped by mistake. [[strikethrough]] Suckers & (?) chick [[image - pen sketch of hand pointing down]] abundant in Kootenay R. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] July 6th. Spermophile Length 14 + 1 1/4 hairs. body to head 2 1/2, to eye 1, to ear 2. height ear 1/2 feet 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 - female. pregnant [[underlined]] no. 127 [[/underlined]] Very common in the pine woods on Kootenay R. - seen sitting erect on logs near their burrows and when disturbed utter a cry & disappear. " [[ditto for: July]] 10th do. [[ditto for: Spermophile]] ♂ [[strikethrough]] head 2 3/4 [[/strikethrough]] Length 2 3/4 10 1/2. 14 1/4 16 to eye 1. ear 1 3/4 height ear 1/2 feet 1 1/2. 2. [[underlined]] no. 128 [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] The above all turned over to Dr. Kennerly at Chelemta Depot. July 15, 1860. [[line]] July 27th Aklew Cache Pouched Rat ♀ Specimen [[strikethrough]] 129 [[/strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: July]] 28th Small Pre on trail to Cp Mooyie Louisiana Tanager Cedar birds, apparently gathering in small flocks, perhaps only families, feeding on service bs. Maryland yellow throat. This bird I think nests in wet bushy places. Night Hawk July 30th Reaching the Mooyie river found "the common brook trout "Peestl" abundant. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 3d at Camp Mooyie - Found four small hares in a farm - preserved these as specimens. They are distinguished as having a white mark on the forehead. Specimen Nos. 129. 30. 31 Brook trout "Peestl" very abundant in Mooyie R. Peabody also took in the branch [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] another species weighing over 4 lb with red specks - small head [[/strikethrough]] Aug. 13th Little Chief Hares heard among the rocks on the Mooyie River. [[strikethrough]] Aug. 16th Divide of Mooyie & Kootenay Canada grouse & Canada jay. Young of Canada grouse not one size of quails [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 17 Blue grouse feeding on the flats of the dried up ponds - probably on grass seeds. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] A large brown hawk. Brown barred with darker, under part of head feathers white, are yellow, bill brown color 1st quill short 4th longest, 5th longer than 3d, quills & tail feathers with numerous bars. Inner vanes of both partly white breast yellowish white, centre line of each feather pencilled with brown. Belly & sides mixed with brown, vent & under tail cornets white, thighs finely marked with wood brown [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] legs wax yellow - upper part of [[?]] feathered. Kept a quill & tail feather. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Aug. 22d (?) Fly catcher, 8 5/8. 13 3/4. 4 7/8. supposed to be a male. [[underlined]] Dr Hammond [[/underlined]] Specimen No. 132. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] About the 1st September flocks of small birds as the pine finch, artic blue bird &c preparing to go south. [[double line]] [[/strikethrough]] Kootenay to Flathead River. The Kootenay Indians say that the Caribou is found in the Mts west of that river, or between it & the Mooyie, but not in [[there?]] east of it (?). Deer elk & moose to the eastward. [[strikethrough]] No sturgeon up here, but the large Salmon trout. The peestl trout is the commonest kind know as far as we know. (Peabody saw Caribou on the Yakh.) Sept. 4th [[Rudy?]] Grakle (?) in flocks on the pines or gathering grass hoppers on the prairie at Kootenay Cache. Cedar birds [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Artic Blue birds & Fringilla (?) in small flocks. American Sparrow Hawk & several other species common. Gulls frequently pass up & down the river. Meadow Larks on prairie. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Sept 7th Sharp tailed grouse or western prairie fowl quite abundant on the main river and up the Akonóho, generally in families. They have not yet acquired full plumage after moulting. This species is more of a [[underlined]] game bird [[/underlined]] than any other of the western grouse, lying well to a dog. Meat dark. The craw of this specimen filled with berries of the Arbutus uva ursi, grass hoppers & berries. [[/strikethrough]] Sept 9th Entering the Kootenay pass found the Nucifraga Americana very common. Several are usually found [[underlined]] together [[/underlined]] Its manners & voice are like those of the Jay family. Seemed to be feeding especially on the ^[[insertion]] seeds of the [[/insertion]] cones of the Pinus ponderosa. The [[strikethrough]] 13 3/8. 8. 23 1/2. Specimen no. 133 [/strikethrough]] gizzard of one was filled with them. They are very watchful shy birds. Their flight is much like that of the Flicker.
[[strikethrough]] Sept. 16 - on Katlahwoke, near camp of Sept 14/17 Fly catcher - (?) 8 1/4. 12 1/2. 4 1/2. Specimen no 134 do. [[Ditto for: Fly catcher]] 8 1/2 4 3/4 These birds were quite common on the Mts. The [[strikethrough]] craw [[/strikethrough]] gizzard of one examined was filled with service berries. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] The Nucifraga also abundant here, generally several were together. Their food seemed to be the seeds of the pines & firs as the gizzard of one was filled with them. Their flight resembles that of the flicker. They are very watchful & shy birds. Stellar's Jay also observed, and Canada Jay. [[/strikethrough]] [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Kootenay Cache Oct 7th Sandhill crane. young. not preserved Widgeons. meadow lark. Grass or Upland plover (?) a small flock. no. 135. 10 1/4. 22 1/3. 7. ♂ [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[hw?]]. [[line]] [[strikethrough]] Purchased at Victoria hunters skins of lynx & wolverine [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Nov. 11 Portland Oregon. Specimens of Oregon Quail - 2 in abnormal plumage. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough] John Green of Portland has several deer black tail white tail & one from the Gulf of California. The latter not larger than a one year old - tail white but resembling the other generally except that it was redder in coat & the legs very slender. [[/strikethrough]]
Swallows [[strikethrough]] Dr George Hammond, U. S. Army says that he watched the swallows (he thinks bank swallows) which built in the porches of the quarters at Fort Yuma & is satisfied that they swallow the mud of which they build their nests & pass it by the rectum, depositing it on the nests. He says they have certain times for feeding & working & do not feed during working hours. They were so numerous as to be a pest. They built in the corner of the rafters first, then other birds attached their nests to the corner afforded by the first & so on. Their houses were entirely closed except a small hole for the entrance. [[/strikethrough]] Coyotes Dr. H. examined a coyote killed at Fort Kearney, in the winter and found a mass of grasshoppers bugs in it birds several feet of rawhide rope swallowed hole and a piece [[end page]] [[start page]] of boot tie with his name on it which be had thrown out of the window a few days before. & which was folded up for swallowing. He had noticed the coyotes poking about among the grass which appeared among [[strikethrough]] the sm [[/strikethrough]] the snow and they seem to have been picking off dead grass hoppers. The animal in question was very fat. The Indians reported to the officer that one of the mules captured by Kamiakan had dropped a foal - [[strikethrough]] Humboldt, "Aspects of Nature" p 40 in error about the musk ox. The buffalo does not necessarily go south in winter - retires to the forests at the foot of the mountains. He calls it "common to the northern parts of both continents"! Speaks of huge ox horns in ancient Mexi- [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] can buildings ! [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Dr Hammond states that there is a difference between the sweat glands of the black tailed & mule deer, that of the former being the longest. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] He says the sharp tailed grouse does not breed in Colville Valley nor on the Yakama, they probably resort to the Spokane plain. Nor found them breeding at Walla Walla [[/strikethrough]] [[circled]] ? [[/circled]] Mr Peabody saw a lynx, larger than a coyote in the valley - not fasciata - short tail - Feby 5th 61 Colville Valley - Probably the L. Canadensis Wolverines shot on Upper Columbia above Ft Shepherd - [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] Father Pandosy speaks of Bull heads (Cottus) in Okinakane Lake nearly 4 feet long. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Between [[/strikethrough]] Clarke's Fork - Beginning of June 1860 - numbers of small frogs - They make a noise something between a chirrup & a twitter & it was sometime before we were satisfied that it did not proceed from birds. [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] Gibbs says in letter Peestl red splashes under low jaw - Humāāna [[underlined]] without [[/underlined]] these - Gibbs thinks the humaana & skagit [[underlined]] [[most?]] [[/underlined]] identical. Spots of [[astshst?]] pale pink; head green & [[underlined]] large [[/underlined]]. Again he says ^[[insertion]] in another letter [[/insertion]] humāāna has no red splashes. [[line across page]] Kletshin or Klutchin (Keh ugh Lummi & Skagit [[line across page]] Mr. Gibbs says that there were no slashes of red under the chin of a [[/strikethrough]]
[[strikethrough]] blk spotted trout obtained by him in the Lummi R. Nov. 14/57 A chewah had 4 trout in maw each 4 in. Stobe olemum Ikluhai Klwhai - [[strikethrough]] Kwall [[/strikethrough]] Kw'al ik at Chiloweyuk, K Nooksuak Spéh-pats, Brook - trout [[strikethrough]] Koo - shehlsh [[/strikethrough]] Kuo-shehtsh ? chewah Good [[image - sketch of hand pointing to right]] Shānhw, [[Fry?]] of Kowhats Sak Kéh ≠ - accord. to Gibbs in full run Aug 1st 1857 at W. side of Lummi Isld. [[/strikethrough]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] S. Kennerlyi according to Skaakle, Sus-kah-zul Chilowey K, tse-mia Skaakle, yrmg Cowhatz & [[underlined]] swail [[/underlined]] [[/strikethrough]]
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[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[strikethrough]] L'whin, Okanagan for the chewah [[strikethrough]] Keasoo [[/strikethrough]] " [[Ditto for: Okanagan]] Kalshoo " [[Ditto for: Okanagan]] Hookbilled [[/strikethrough]]
[[blank page]] [[end page]] [[start page]] [[scrap paper]] 212 ZOOLOGY. [[/scrap paper]]
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[[scrap paper]] ZOOLOGY. 211 [[/scrap paper]]
[[scrap paper]] 212 ZOOLOGY. [[/scrap paper]]
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