Field notes, Death Valley Expedition, 1891

ID: SIA Acc. 11-253

Creator: Death Valley Journal, 1891

Form/Genre: Fieldbook record

Date: 1891

Citation: Frederick Coville, field books, 1890-1924

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This item contains narrative notes and lists of botanical specimens collected or observed in the course of Coville's research in Death Valley. The journal contains entries dated May 10, 1891-July 30, 1891. Data include scientific names, elevation, diagrams, and descriptions of localities. Localities are primarily in the vicinity of Keeler, Inyo county, California. The notebook also contains entries from various localities in Kern county and Tulare county.

Date Range


Start Date

May 10, 1891

End Date

Jul 30, 1891

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At least 24 hours advance notice is recommended to consult this collection. Contact the Department of Botany at 202-633-0920 to make an appointment.


  • Botany
  • Plants
  • Botanists


  • Tulare
  • United States
  • Kern
  • Death Valley
  • Inyo
  • California
  • Coso Range


  • Fieldbook record
  • Field notes
  • Diary

Accession #

SIA Acc. 11-253

Collection name

Frederick Coville, field books, 1890-1924

Physical Description

1 field book

Physical Location

National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Main Library

Journal no VI Frederick V. Coville
1 (Sunday) May 10, 1891 we reached Red Rock about 2 A.M. where we changed horses and got a cup of coffee. We reached the summit north of Red Rock at about sunrise, and at nine o'clock in the morning came to Indian Wells. We took breakfast here and changed both horses and driver. At about six o'clock in the afternoon we reached Haywood Meadows where we took supper and changed horses.
2. [[end page]] [[start page]] 3. May 11, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. We reached here this morning at 1:30 A.M. My saddle horse was left at Indian Wells to be brought in by the next stage. The distance travelled yesterday and the day before by stage are as follows: Mojave to Red Rock ; Red Rock to Indian Wells Indian Wells to Haywood Meadows ; Haywood Meadows to Keeler Mr. H.E. Wilkinson the U.S. Signal Officer here has very kindly given me the use of his office while in town.
4. [[end page]] [[start page]] 5. May 12, 1891 Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day answering correspondence.
6. [[end page]] [[start page]] 7. May 13, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day arranging notes.
8 [[end page]] [[start page]] 9 May 14,1891 Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. I made a collecting trip to-day in the mesa between Keeler and Cerro Gordo Mt. The soil is made up of stone broken up so as to be quite small, but little water-worn; and filled and drifted over with sand. The soil is quite alkaline, as indicated by slight deposits in favorable places, and is especially marked as differing from similar mesas in the other valleys by the absence of [[underlined]] Larrea [[/underlined]] except for a short distance below the mouths of the canons and in the beds of the canon washes. The bushes of Larrea in these places appear very healthy, and flower and fruit profusely. The following plants were
10 [[end page]] [[start page]] 11 seen in addition to a few others collected. Alt. 3650 to 3700 ft. 1115 to 1125 m. . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex confertifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Suaeda suffrutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Cleome sparsifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Cleomella obtusifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Gilia leptomeria [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera [[/underlined]] scapoidea [[underlined]] purpurascens [[/underlined]] . Oenothera gauraeflora . [[underlined]] Atriplex parryi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Sarcobatus vermiculatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Biscutella californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Krynitzkia circumscissa [[/underlined]] Eriogonum reniforme . [[underlined]] Malacothrix sonchoides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera brevipes [[/underlined]] Lepidium fremontii . [[underlined]] Oryzopsis cuspidata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia eriocephala [[/underlined]]
12 [[end page]] [[start page]] 13 May 15, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I went collecting to-day along the lake shore about a mile northwestward from town and then struck into the mesa northward through the sandhills about a mile and then returned direct to the town. The lake is bordered near Keeler and as far as the mouth of Owen's River by a strip, from a hundred yards or even less to a mile in width, of clayey sand with a deposit of soda and salt upon it, the sand particles firmly enough held together to prevent drifting by the wind. This ground is firm, dry on the surface but well supplied with more or less alkaline water be-
14 [[page blank]] [[end page]] [[start page]] 15 neath. On the margin of this strip farthest from the water there is an abundant growth of [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]], scantily mixed in some places with other small herbs. In the densest soda deposits the salt-grass cannot grow however and a large part of the lake-shore is therefore utterly devoid of vegetation. In many places, however, springs of fresh, or nearly fresh, water come up along the beach; and these are surrounded by growths of tules ([[underlined]] [[Seirfus founguns?]], S. olneyi [[/underlined]], and rarely, at this part of the lake, [[underlined]] S. lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]]) and rushes ([[underlined]] Juncus mexicamus [[/underlined]]). In the salt-grass, which extends backward into looser less alkaline sand are commonly found [[end page]]
16 [[end page]] [[start page]] 17 . [[underlined]] Nitrophila occidentalis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] Cordylanthus . Atriplex [[strikethrough]] [[underlined crossed out]] [[/strikethough]] . [[underlined]] Cleomella [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] parviflora [[/strikethrough]] brevipes . [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Scirpus nevadensis. [[/underlined]] Still farther back from the shore the sand is looser and but slightly alkaline on the surface so that it drifts readily and is piled into sandhills. The most conspicuous and abundant shrub of these sandhills is . [[underlined]] Sarcobatus vermiculatus [[/underlined]] accompanied by . [[underlined]] Atriplex parryi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[ditto referring to Atriplex, above]] confertifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Suaeda suffrutescens. [[/underlined]] Back of the sandhills the mesa begins with . [[underlined]] Atriplex confertifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex hymenelytra [[/underlined]]
18 [[end page]] [[start page]] 19 The following plants additional to those seen yesterday and to a few others collected to-day were seen [[underlined]] . Chenopodium murale [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Atriplex phyllostegia [[/underlined]] " [[underlined]] . Heliotroprium curassavicum [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Polygonum aviculare [[/underlined]] Composite, divaricate, small-leafed Cordylanthus [[underlined]] . Nitrophila occidentalis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Scirpus olneyi [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . " nevadensis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . " pungens [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . " lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] . Atriplex hymenelytra [[/underlined]]
20 [[end page]] [[start page]] 21 May 16, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Drove to-day with Beth and the two small [[Wrumble?]] boys to Swansea and the marble-quarry. On the trip out we stopped at the old Swansea ranch then followed along the road at the base of the foot-hills to the marble-quarry. The earth-quake crack between the ranch and the point of hill westward is still clearly discernible. When near the marble-quarry we took a cross-road to the salt flat along the lake and returned by that road. Several new plants were collected at the spring of the old Swansea ranch and on the rocks near by some others were collected, besides the following seen Tricuspis = [[underlined]] Triodia pulchella [[/underlined]]
22 [[end page]] [[start page]] 23 .[[underlined]] Lygodesmia expigua [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Sisymbrium cansescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Scirpus pungens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Chorizanthe rigida [[/underlined]] Eriogonum, shrubby .[[underlined]] Bigelovia graveolens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Anemopsis californica [[/underlined]] . Lycium cooperi .[[underlined]] " [[ditto refers to Lycium, above]] andersonii [[/underlined]] Nicotiana Chenopodium .[[underlined]] Malvastrum rotundifolium [[/underlined]]
24 [[end page]] [[start page]] 25 (Sunday) May 17, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day. Mr. Funston came in from Cottonwood Cañon for supplies, one party, Mr. Nelson and himself with Ti Sing, being encamped there.
26 [[end page]] [[start page]] 27 May 18, 1891 Willow Cr. Camp, Panamint Mts, Cal. I left Keeler this morning with Mr. Funston by the Cottonwood Cañon trail, crossing the southern end of the Inyo Mts just south of Cerro Gorde Mt and descending nearly two thousand feet into an elevated valley filled with . [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]], to be known in these notes as Yucca Valley. The trail then gradually ascends about a thousand feet westward passing through a small narrow cañon containing a poor waterhole; and descends five hundred feet or more to the divide between Paramint and Saline Valleys. The camp is about two miles northeastward from this divide, about a half-mile west of Jackass Spring, about 50 yards from Willow Creek.
28 [[end page]] [[start page]] 29 The names following are defined to show what is hereafter meant by them. Mill Cañon Divide is the divide between the north end of Panamint Valley and Saline Valley. Mill Cañon is the cañon running from this divide down into Panamint Valley. Willow Creek Cañon is the cañon down which the stream from Jackass Spring flows, into Saline Valley. A dry arm of Willow Creek Cañon meets Mill Canon at Mill Cañon Divide. This is known as the south fork of Willow Cr. Canon. Darwin Mesa is the elevated plateau bounded on the south by the Argus and Coso Mts, on the east by Panamint Valley, on the north by Saline Valley, and on the west by Cerro Gordo Mt
30 [[end page]] [[start page]] 31 and Owen's Valley. Distance travelled Keeler to Willow Creek Camp about 30 miles.
32 [[end page]] [[start page]] 33 May 19, 1891. Willow Cr. Camp, Panamint Mts, Cal. Altitude reading at camp ^[[=6400 ft.=1950 m.]] 8550 Mr. Funston and I went collecting this morning on the hillside facing southward and lying just north of camp. This hillside is rocky (granite) and is covered with a comparatively dense growth of shrubs. Its southerly slope prevents the growth of the piñon ^[[underlined]] [[. pinus monophylla.]] [[/underlined]] which is very abundant on the opposite side of the narrow valley occupied here by Willow Creek. The lower part of the piñon zone ^[[here as well as]] throughout the whole Darwin Mesa is remarkable as being almost entirely devoid of [[. underlined]] Juniperus Californica ^[[utahensis]] [[/underlined]] On the slope ascended there was none of it nor does there appear ever to have been any, for no stumps are to be seen.
34 [[end page]] [[start page]] 35 This hillside which, it should be noted is rocky and in granitic soil, is characterized by the following predominant shrubs . [[underlined]] Ephedra [[/underline]], dark green [[underlined]] viridis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] Ceanothus Eriogonum, shrubby The following plants were also seen on this hillside . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] Bigelovia, stems white, [[lves?]] [[puber?]]. . [[underlined]] Elymus [[/underlined]], same as 827, [[underlined]] condensatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ribes leptanthum [[/underlined]] ? Gilia pungens Along the creek [[bracket encasing next four plant names]] Castilleia, smooth, tall Rosa Salix longifolia " [[ditto, referring to Salix, above]] lasiolepis . [[underlined]] Phlox longifolia stansburyi [[/underlined]] Lupinus no 764 Helianthus no 806 . [[underlined]] Phacelia fremontii [[/underlined]]
36 [[end page]] [[start page]] 37 Opuntia ritila Collinsia same as 750 Amsinckia Viola aurea Solidago . [[underlined]] Montzelia [[/underlined]], same as 748, [[underlined]] albicaulis [[/underlined]] Bigelovia graveolens . [[underlined]] Krynitzkia circumscissa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Arabis [[/underlined]], no 778, pulchra Phacelia ramosissima . [[underlined]] Oryzaopsis cuspidata [[/underlined]] Astragalus . [[underlined]] Erysimum asferum [[/underlined]] Cnicus Eriophyllum . [[underlined]] Anisocoma acaulis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescens [[/underlined]] Castilleia Poa no 781 Stipa Galium, glabrous Eriogonum, shrubby, with white rounded lves
38 [[end page]] [[start page]] 39 . [[underlined]] Caulanthus crassicaulis [[/underlined]] Thysanocarpus . [[underlined]] Phacelia [[/underlined]], no 779 [[underlined]] curoipes [[/underlined]] Cheilanthes myriophylla . [[underlined]] Delphinium [[/underlined]] Altitude reading at summit of hill 9750 = 7600 ft. = 2315 m This afternoon Mr. Funston and I ascended the hill south of camp. It is covered with piñons ^[[underlined]] pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] on its north slope, down to the camp, but its uppermost part is probably of sub pinon nature again as it bears no piñons and appears to run over from a slope of sub-pinon character on the south side. The plants here abundant in the piñons and apparently characteristic of them are . [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ribes leptanthum [[/underlined]] ? . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] Lupinus, same as 764
40 [[end page]] [[start page]] 41 Poa same as 781 [[underlined]] Poa [[/underlined]], no 782, [[underlined]] californica [[/underlined]]. The dense shade of the pinons may have prevented some characteristic plants from growing in this particular place. Wherever the piñons are wanting . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] is especially abundant. The following plants additional to those already recorded to-day were seen. Krynitzkia pterocarya Arceuthobium on Pinus monophylla Gilia inconspicua, no 780 . [[underlined]] Hymenatherum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Symphoricarpos [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Silene [[/underlined]], with oblanc. acute lves 2 to 4 in long. On the top of the hill in sub-piñon ground were found the following not recorded this morning Solanum xanti . [[underlined]] Teradymia [[/underlined]] canescens . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]]
42 [[end page]] [[start page]] 43 = 7600 ft. 22315m. altitude reading at summit of hill 9750 ft.
44 [[end page]] [[start page]] 45 May 20, 1891 Willow Creek Camp, Panamint Mts, Cal. Altitude reading at camp 9225 ft " " " " at night 9400 ft. = 6400 ft. = 1950 m. I went to-day to Mill Cañon Divide and southward on the Darwin road two or three miles farther, the road bending around to the eastward, and then proceeded down a canon to its junction with Mill Cañon at the old mill. The cañon down which I came Is have called the south fork of Mill Cañon. After proceeding about a mile down the cañon below its fork I returned up the main or north fork to Mill Cañon Divide, and returned to camp by the trail. Altitude reading at Mill Cañon Divide, on the way down, 8450 ft. ^5650 ft. = 1720 m. On a southwest slope at the divide and a hundred feet higher is the upper limit.
46 [[end page]] [[start page]] 47 of the following plants . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lupinus ^ornatus [[/underlined]][[strikethrough]] chamissonis [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Coleogyne ramosissima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] The plant most abundant just above these is [[underlined]] Ephedra ^virdis [[/underlined]] dark green. In the lower edge of the pinons on the north slope south of the divide is . [[underlined]] Audibertia incana [[/underlined] . [[underlined]] Pinus mex [[/underlined]] The lower edge of the [[f?]] on a very gradual north slope is at a reading of 8600 ft. ^= 5800 ft. =1770 m. The north slopes and south slopes on small hills here present strikingly different appearances. The north slopes just below the piñons are covered largely with . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] ; the south slopes, principally with dark green, . [[underlined]] Ephedra ^viridis [[/underlined]] and . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata ^glandulosa [[/underlined]] and the resultant colors
48 [[end page]] [[start page]] 49 are respectively gray and green. Another conspicuous feature of the landscape due to slope exposure is brought out in this region by looking southward and northward at hills situated at about lower piñon line. In looking northward one sees scarcely a piñon, merely bare hills; while southward the slopes may be half covered with them. On the plateau at a reading of 8700 [[superscript]] = 5900 ft. = 1800m. [[/superscript]] were . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica utahensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra ^[[viridis]] [[/underlined]] dark green, and an occasional . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] On a gentle southwest slope at a reading of 8600 = 5800 ft = 1770 m. . [[underlined]] Coleogyne ramosissima [[/underlined]] was abundant . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica ^[[utahensis]] [[/underlined]] abundant . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] and . [[underlined]] Ephedra ^[[viridis]] [[/underlined]] dark green, about equal. At a reading of 8550, [[superscript]] = 5750 ft. = 1755 m [[/superscript]] on a
50 [[end page]] [[start page]] 51 level plateau, where there were no rocks (the soil seen before has been rocky), the main vegetation is [[underlined]]Elphedra ^[[black ink superscript - nevadensis]] glaucous, [[underlined]]Artemisia tridentata[[/underlined]] Helianthus same as 806 [[underlined]]Yucca (brevifolia) ^[[blank ink superscript - arborescens]][[/underlined]] begins here. The old mill is 2100 ft below camp. =4300ft. =1310m. The south fork of Mill Cañon has no water, but the north fork is well supplied with small strings. Altitude reading at camp at night 9400. ^[[black ink superscript - =6400ft. =1950m.]] Following is a list of plants seen to-day in addition to those collected [[underlined]] Amsinckia tessellata[[/underlined]] Abundant up to piñons. [[Arenana?]] [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Artemisia spinescens[[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " tridentata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]]
52 [[end page]] [[start page]] 53 [[underlined]] Audibertia incana [[/underlined]] Below piñons Baccharis (of streams) [[underlined]] Bigelovia teretifolia [[/underlined]] Castilleia Ceanothus Chanactis [[space]] With Coleogyne [[underlined]] Claytonia perfoliata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Clematis [[/underlined]] ligusticifolia [[Cricus?]] [[underlined]] Coleogyne ramosissima [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Dalia [[/underlined]] fremontii [[underlined]] Delphinium [[/underlined]] Elymus [[space]] Abundant just below piñons Encelia frutescens [[underlined]] Ephedra viridis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " nevadensis [[/underlined]] Equisetum no 808 Epipactis gigantra, no 809. Eriogonum no 804 " Eriophyllum no 793 = [[underlined]] [[Syritrichopoppus?]] ^[[superscript - fremontii]] [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Eschscholtzia [[/underlined]] minutiflora Euphorbia albomarginata
54 [[end page]] [[start page]] 55 [[underlined]] Eurotia lanata [[/underlined]] At about upper Larrea, scarce. Galium [[underlined]] Gilia filiformis [[/underlined]] In upper Larrea [[underlined]] " [[mattherosii?]] [[/underlined]] In sub-pinon " inconspicua [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] Helianthus, same as 806 Hordeum nodosum= [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " xiphioides [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Junipurus californica [[black ink - utahensis]] [[/underlined]] [[underlined]]Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] About 1800 ft below camp [[underlined]] Lupinus ^[[black ink insert - ornatus]] [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] chamissonis]] [[/strikethrough]] " same as 764 Lycium cooperi [[underlined]] Lygodesmia exigena [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Mentzelia [[/underlined]], same as 748 [[underlined]] albicaulis [[/underlined]] Mimulus no 807 [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] Extending above Larrea. [[underlined]] Oenothera [[/underlined]] scapoidea [[/underlined]] [[purpurascane?]] [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " caespitosa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Pectocarya setosa, [[/underlined]] no 800 Pentstemon
56 [[end page]] [[start page]] 57 [[underlined]] Peucedanum [[/underlined]], same as 745, parishii Cymopterus no 789 =. [[underlined]] Peucedanum vasegi [[/underlined]] [[underlined]]Phacelia fremontii [[/underlined]] " ramosissima [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Prunus fasciculata [[/underlined]], no 801 [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] Rumex, same as 823 Salix no 805 " lasiolepis [[underlined]]Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Scrophularia californica [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Sisymbrium canescens [[/underlined]] Solidago, same as at Willow Cr. [[underlined]]Sphaeralcea [[/underlined]], scarlet, [[underlined]] munroana [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Stanleya pinnata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Tetradymia comosa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Thamnosma montanum [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Vitis [[/underlined]] [[space]] In upper Larrea [[underlined]] Yucca [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens [[/underlined]]
[[start page]] 58 [[end page]] [[start page]] 59 May 21, 1891 Camp, Saline Valley, Cal. Alt. 3200ft.= 975m. This morning I took a short ride to Jackass Spring from Willow Cr. Camp, where I found additional Smilacina sessilifolia Mr. Nelson, Ti Sing, and I went to Mill Cañon Divide, down the south fork of Willow Cr. Cañon to its junction with the main cañon and down this to Saline Valley, camping just where the cañon opens into the mesa. The main cañon contains water throughout its entire length; while the south fork is dry. In the afternoon I collected from camp up the cañon about a mile. The lower two or three miles of the canon led in [[underlined]] Larrea [[/underlined]], the upper portion in sub-pinon, and a few of the upper north slopes in piñon [[underling Pinus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] monophylla [[/underlined]] [[end page]]
60 [[end page]] [[start page]] 61 May 22, 1891 Willow Cr. Camp, Panamint Mts, Cal. I returned alone from Saline Valley to this camp this morning, by the same route taken in going down. The plants seen yesterday and to-day are as follows. Alt. 3200 to 6400 ft. = 915ms. to 1950 m. . [[underlined]] Amsinckia tessellata [[/underlined]] Amsonia brevifolia, no 825 . [[underlined]] Arenaria [[/underlined]], no 830 , [[underlined]] macradenia [[/underlined]] Arabis as in Johnson Canon " narrow leafed, with pubes. pods " " " " glabrous . [[underlined]] Argemone bispida [[/underlined]] Aristida (?) resembling Bromus = ^ . [[underlined]] Trisetum barbatum [[/underlined]]]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia ludoviciana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined]] Astragalus same as 783 . [[underlined]] " casei [[/underlined]] " 747 . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " polycarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]]
62 [[end page]] [[start page]] 63 Baccharis of wet soil . [[underlined]] Bebbia juncea [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Bigelovia graveolins [[/underlined]] Brickellia with ovate leaves = ^ . [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] ? . [[underlined]] " atractyloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " longifolia [[/underlined]] Castilleia of sub-pinous " of moist soils . [[underlined]] Centraurea melitea [[/underlined]] Ceanothus reticulata . [[underlined]] Cereus engelmaumi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Chenopodium [[/underlined]] , no 813, [[strikethrough]] murale [[/strikethrough]] album . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] , " 815, fremonti Chaenactis Cheilanthes myriophylla " viscida Chorizanthe brevicornu . [[underlined]] " rigida [[/underlined]] " thurberi . [[underlined]] Claytonia perfoliata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Clematis [[/underlined]] ligusticifolia Cuicus . [[underlined]] Coleoggue ramosissima [[/underlined]] Cucurbita, with palmate leaves
64 [[end page]] [[start page]] 65 . [[underlined]] Dalea [[/underlined]] fremontii . [[underlined]] Delphinium [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Draba [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] curcifolia [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] sonorǣ [[/underlined]] " no 816 = [[underlined]] Capsella divaricata [[/underlined]] Eleocharis, without fruit. . [[underlined]] Ellisia chrysanthemifolia [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] , same as 622, [[underlined]] micrantha [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Elymus [[/underlined]], no 827, [[underlined]] condensatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " viridis [[/underlined]] Epipactis gigantea Equisetum, same as 808 . [[underlined]] Eremiastrum bellioides [[/underlined]] Erigeron, with stiff ascending stems. . [[underlined]] Eriogonum inflatum [[/underlined]] " annual, bird's-nest-like " fasciculatum " similar to fasciculatum, yellow-fl. . [[underlined]] Eriophyllum [[/underlined]], no 834, [[underlined]] ambiguum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " pringlei [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]]
66 [[end page]] [[start page]] 67 Euphorbia albomarginata . [[underlined]] Eurotia lanata [[/underlined]] Festuca microstachys . [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] Galium no 831 . [[underlined]] Gilia filiformis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " latifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " matthewsii [[/underlined]] " same as 772 " similar to inconspicua, but broad-fl. . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Gutierrezia [[/underlined]] Gymnogramme triangularis Helianthus, same as 806 Hordeum nodosum, no 833 = ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Elymus sitanion.[[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] Hosackia no 819 = . [[underlined]] Lotus americanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Iva axillaris [[/underlined]] no 832 . [[underlined]] Juncus bufonius [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " mexicanus [[/underlined] , no 810 [[underlined]] " xiphioides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica utahensis [[/underlined]] Krynitzkia barbigera . [[underlined]] " circumscissa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " micrantha [[/underlined]]
68 [[end page]] [[start page]] 69 . [[underlined]] Krynitzkia racemosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " lasiocarpum [[/underlined]] Lupinus with small pink flowers " same as 764 . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] chamissonis [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] ornatus [[/underlined]] Lycium andersonii " cooperi, no 826 " smooth-stemmed. In Saline Valley. . [[underlined]] Mentzelia [[/underlined]] , same as 748, [[underlined]] albicaulis [[/underlined]] Mimulus luteus (glaucous) " same as 807 . [[underlined]] Mirabilis californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nemacladus [[/underlined]], no 811 [[underlined]] ramosissimus [[/underlined]] Nicotiana trigonophylla Nothelaena parryi . [[underlined]] Oenothera biennis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " caespitosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] scapoidea [[underlined]] purpurascens [[/underlined]] " no 820 . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]], same as 759, [[underlined]] dentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " contorta pubens [[/underlined]]
70 [[end page]] [[start page]] 71 . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . " rutila Oxytheca perfoliata . [[underlined]] Pectocarya setosa [[/underlined]] Pentstemon, glaucous, linear-leafed with broad [corolla " " " with narrow corolla . [[underlined]] Phacelia fremontii [[/underlined]] " hispida " ramosissima " purple with pinnatifid leaves " rotundifolia, no 814 . [[underlined]] Phoradendron bolleanum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Phragmites communis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Preissia [[/underlined]] Poa . [[underlined]] Potentilla [[/underlined]], no 821, [[underlined]] rivalis millegrana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Prosopis juliflora [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Prunus fasciculata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " andersonii [[/underlined]] " no 829 = . [[underlined]] Forestiera parviflora [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pterostegia drymarioides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] Rosa no 828
72 [[end page]] [[start page]] 73 Rumex crispus " no 823 Sabbatia no 818 = [[underlined]] Erythraea exaltata [[/underlined]] Salix lasiandra " lasiolepis " longifolia . [[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Scrophularia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Sisymbrium canescens [[/underlined]] Solanum xanti Solidago . [[underlined]] Sonchus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Sphacralcea,[[/underlined]] scarlet,[[underlined]] munroana [[/underlined]] " no 822 . [[underlined]] Sporobolus airoides [[/underlined]] " like Epicampes . [[underlined]] Stanleya pinnata [[/underlined]] Stachys . [[underlined]] Stephanomeria [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Stipa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Symphoricarpos [[/underlined]], no 836, [[underlined]] longiflorus [[/underlined]]
74 [[end page]] [[start page]] 75 . [[underlined]] Tetradymia spinosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Thamnosma montanum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Tricardia watsoni, [[/underlined]] no 837 . [[underlined]] Typha [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Vitis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Yucca [/[underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Phlox longifolia stansburyi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Aniscoma acaulis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescens [/underlined]] Brodiaea Bouteloua, same as 775 = . [[underlined]] Festuca microstachys [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Caulanthus crassicaulis [[/underlined]] Composite same as 794 = . [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] " " " 802 = . [[underlined]] Aplopappus monaetis [[/underlined]] " no" 839 = . [[underlined]] Crepis intermedia [[/underlined]] Grass no 824 = . [[underlined]] Deschampsia calycina [[/underlined]] Altitude of Saline Valley camp 3200 ft. = 975 m. " " lower limit of pinons 400 above Darwin = 4400 ft. = 1340 m. " " upper limit of Larrea. 1200 ft. below Darwin = 3600 ft. On the mesa in Saline Valley, annual vegetation is dead. The following are shedding their yellowed leaves, [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii, Hymenoclea salsola, Dalea [[/underlined]] fremontii.
76 [[end page]] [[start page]] 77 May 23, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I returned from Willow Cr. Camp to-day by the same trail on which I went there. Altitude reading Willow Cr. Camp 8475 = 6400 ft. = 1950 m. " " Will Cañon Divide 7725 = 5650 ft. = 1720 m " " summit east of Yucca Valley 8400 = 6300 ft. = 1920 m. " " spring 8 miles from camp 7750 = 5600ft. = 1705m. " " Yucca Valley 7525 = 5400ft. = 1645m. " " lower piñon, north slope Cerro Gordo 8100 = 5950ft. = 1815m. " " crossing of Darwin-Cerro Gordo trail 9250 = 7100ft. = 2165m. " " summit overlooking Keeler 8900 = 6700ft. = 2040m. " " Keeler 5450 = 3650ft = 1115m. Where the trail ascends the east slope of Cerro Gordo Mt. there is a small lateral valley, between Yucca Valley and Cerro Gordo Mt., in which an interesting case of slope exposure may be seen. It is especially interesting as it appears ^[[insertion]] not only [[/insertion]] to show the lower limit of pinons ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] as a line of varying altitude, but the yuccas ^[[insertion]] . [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] actually appear above [[end page]]
78 [[end page]] [[start page]] 79 the pinons. The following diagram shows the situation, the section being a vertical one from north to south. The distances were estimated. [[image - hand drawn sketch of a valley profile between two hills.]]
80 [[end page]] [[start page]] 81 (Sunday) May 24, 1891. Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day.
82 [[end page]] [[start page]] 83 May 25, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day preparing a catalogue of species so far seen. I bought a horse for Beth to-day.
84 [[end page]] [[start page]] 85 May 26, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I remained in town to-day writing on my report.
86 [[end page]] [[start page]] 87 May 27, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I went to-day with Beth to the cañon north from Swansea. It contains no water and is narrow and shallow. The following plants were seen in the cañon: .[[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Atriplex confertifolia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " hymenelytra [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Brickellia atractyloides [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " longifolia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Cereus engelmanni [[/underlined]] Chaenactis Chorizanthe brevicornu . [[underlined]] " rigida [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Echinocactus polycephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Eriogonum inflatum [[/underlined]] " same as 869 " bird's-nest-like .[[underlined]] Eschscholtzia minutiflora [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Eucnide urens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]]
88 [[end page]] [[start page]] 89 . [[underlined]] Gilia latifolia [[/underlined]] " tenuiflora . [[underlined]] " floccosa [[/underlined]] " like inconspicua but broad-leafed Krynitzkia barbigera [[underlined]] " circumscissa [[/underlined]] " . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " lasiocarpum [[/underlined]] Lycium cooperri . [[underlined]] Malvastrum rotundifolium [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Medicago sativa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Melilotus [[/underlined]] (parviflora) [[underlined]] indica [[/underlined]] Mentzelia (of Owen's Valley) . [[underlined]] Mirabilis californica [[/underlined . [[underlined]] Mohavea viscida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nicotiana trigonophylla [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera brevipes [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] Oxytheca perfoliata . [[underlined]] Petalonyx [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pencephyllum schottii [[/underlined]] Phacelia, fl. purple, lves pinnatifid
90 [[end page]] [[start page]] 91 .[[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[underlined]] .[[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[underlined]] .[[underlined]] Sphaeralcea,[[/underlined]] scarlet, [[underlined]] munroana [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Stephanomeria [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Stipa [[/underlined]] Thelypodium, similar to Stanleya = ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Stanleya elata [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] .[[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola. [[/underlined]]
92 [[end page]] [[start page]] 93 May 25, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I was prevented from starting for Coso to-day by the continued soreness of my horse's back. I therefore began determining species that were collected since the last sending to the Department.
94 [[end page]] [[start page]] 95 May 29, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I remained at Keeler to-day determining plants.
96 [[end page]] [[start page]] 97 May 30, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I determined plants to-day. Late in the afternoon Mr. Palmer's party came in from Coso. It consisted only of Dr. Fisher, Mr. Palmer and Mr. Koch. They went into camp in the sand - grass between Keeler and the lake.
98 [[end page]] [[start page]] 99 (Sunday) May 31, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Remained in Keeler to-day
100 [[end page]] [[start page]] 101 June 1, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I wrote up notes and catalogues to-day.
102 [[end page]] [[start page]] 103 June 2, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Worked on notes and plants to-day
104 [[end page]] [[start page]] 105 June 3, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Worked on notes and plants to-day.
[[start page]] 106 [[end page]] [[start page]] 107 June 4, 1891 Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Mr Palmer and his party went to Lone Pine to-day. Beth and I accompanied them as far as they went before lunch, about a mile north from the north end of Owen's Lake. They took what is known as the "lower road" passing the old adobe house between Swansea and the marble quarry. At the Adobe House Spring the following plants were seen . [[underlined]] Anemopsis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lemna [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nasturtium [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] officinale [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ranunculus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] cymbalaria [[/underlined]] Rosa . [[underlined]] Scirpus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] pungens [[/underline]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] monspeliensis [[/underline]] . [[underline]] Zannichellia [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] palustris [[/underline]] The following new or interesting plants were seen at the
108 [[end page]] [[start page]] 109 north end of the lake and along the river. Abronia same as 845 .[[underlined]] Atripilex canescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " confertifolia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " torreyi [[/underlined]] Atropis(?) Blitum .[[underlined]] Dalea polyadenia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] Gnaphalium .[[underlined]] Krynitzkia circumscissa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " micrantha [[/underlined]] Nasturtium curvisiliquum lyratum Poa .[[underlined]] Psathyrotis annua [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Oryzopsis [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) [[underlined]] membranacea [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Ranunculus cymbalaria [[/underlined]] Tissa .[[underlined]] Sarcobatus vermiculatus [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Scirpus lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]]
110 [[end page]] [[start page]] 111 June 5, 1891. Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. Worked on plants and notes to-day.
112 [[end page]] [[start page]] 113 June 6, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Worked on plants and notes to-day.
114 [[end page]] [[start page]] 115 (Sunday) June 7, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. Beth, Mrs Wilkinson, and I went to Lone Pine to-day, and took dinner at the camp, at Harvey's ranch, about a half - mile north of the town. In the afternoon Dr. Fisher, Mr. Palmer, Mrs Wilkinson and I went to the cemetery then to the nearest point of the earthquake crack and then back by way of the swamp on Mr. Harvey's farm. I collected several species not before seen. We reached Keeler on our return at about half past eight o'clock.
116 [[end page]] [[start page]] 117 June 8, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, Cal. I met this morning Mr. Frank Kennedy a prospector who has lived several years among the Indians, recently at Wild Rose Panamint Mts. He gave me much new information. In the afternoon I went with him about two miles on the road to Cerro Gordo. The only plant seen not recorded from this place before was [[underlined]] . Atriplex polycarpa [[/underlined]]
118 [[end page]] [[start page]] 119 June 9, 1891. Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. I spent to-day writing up my journal.
120 [[end page]] [[start page]] 121 June 10, 1891. Keeler, Inyo Co., Cal. I spent to-day writing up my journal.
122 [[end page]] [[start page]] 123 June 11, 1891. Crystal Spring, Coso Mts , Inyo County, Cal. Went to the Coso Mts with Beth to-day. We took Zoe and the cat, and Bucephalus. We followed the Darwin road to the upper Stone Corrall and then took the right-hand road towards Coso. Altitude of the lower Stone Corral 4680 ft [[insertion]] = [8:15 A.M. [3680 ft.= 1125 m. [[/insertion]] Summit of first canon 5830 " [[insertion]] = 4800 ft. = 1465 m. [[/insertion]] Darwin Mesa, first Yucca 5350 " [[insertion]] = 4350 ft. = 1325 m. [[/insertion]] " " , lower Yucca line 5650 " 1:15 P.M. [[insertion]] = 4650 ft. = 1415 m [[/insertion]] This is just a few feet higher than the upper Stone Corrall. First [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata [[/underlined]], in a wash, 6500 ft. = 5500 ft. = 1675 m [[undelined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] abundant 6825. [[insertion]] = 5800 ft. = 1765 m. [[/insertion]] The following plants were seen to-day after entering the wash a mile or two above the lower Stone Corral. Abronia (collected at Keeler) . [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Amsinckia tessellata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anisocoma acaulis [[/underlined]] Arabis (pods refexed, pubescent or smooth)
[[start page]] 124 [[end page]] [[start page]] 125 .[[underlined]] Argemoni hispida [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Artemisia spinescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " tridentata [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Asclepias erasa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined] Astragalus " .[[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " confertifolia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " hymenclytra [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " phyllostegia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " polycarpa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Bigelovia [[/underlined]] (large like teretifolia) [[underlined]] paniculata [/underlined]] " Castilleia (of sub-pinons) Chaenactis Chorizanthe brevicorun .[[underlined]] " rigida [[/underlined]] " thurberi .[[underlined]] Dalea polyadenia .[[underlined]] Dicoria canescens [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] (?) [[/strikethrough]] .[[underlined]] Echinocactus polycephalus [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Ephedra viridis [[/underlined]] [[end page]]
[[start page]] 126 [[end page]] [[start page]] 127 .[[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Eremiastrum [[/underlined]] bellioides Erigeron (yellow) " same as 931 .[[underlined]] Eriogonum inflatum [[/underlined]] " plumatella " trichopodum " reniforme " same as 869 " same as 909 .[[underlined]] Eriophyllum pringlei [[/underlined]] Euphorbia albomarginata .[[underlined]] Eurotia lanata [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Gilia floccosa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " latifolia [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " matthewsii [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " setosissima punctata [[/underlined]] " tenniflora " inconspicua (?) [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Gutierrezia [[/underlined]] Helianthus (like Gymnolomia) Hordeum nodosum = .[[underlined]] Elymus sitanion [[/underline]]
128 [[end page]] [[start page]] 129 . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Kochia [[/underlined]] , (?) no 905, [[underlined]] americana [[/underlined]] Krynitzkia barbigera . [[underlined]] " circumscissa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] Layia . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " lasiocarpum [[/underlined]] Lupinus same as 877 " . [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lygodesmia exigua [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Menodora spinescens [[/underlined]] Mentzelia . [[underlined]] Mirabilis californica [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " multiflora pubescens [[/underlined]] Nicotiana trigonophylla . [[underlined]] Oenothera brevipes [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " caespitosa [[/underlined]] " gauraeflora " scapoidea . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] scapoidea [[underlined]] purpurascens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]]
130 [[end page]] [[start page]] 131 .[[underlined]] Opuntia echinocarpa [[/underlined]] " rutila .[[underlined]] Oryzopisis ^ [[insertion]] membranacea [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) (into the yuccas) Oxytheca perfoliata .[[underlined]] Palafoxia linearis [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Pectocarya setosa [[/underlined]] Pentstemon (same as 922) .[[underlined]] Petalonyx [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Peucedanum [[/underlined]] , same as 745, [[underlined]] parishii [[/underlined]]. .[[underlined]] Phacelia fremontii [[/underlined]] . " ramosissima .[[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Sisymbrium canescens [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Sphaeralcea [/underlined]], scarlet, [[underlined]] munroana [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Stanleya [[/underlined]] pinnata .[[underlined]] " elata [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Stephanomeria [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Stipa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Tetradymia comosa [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] " spinosa [[/underlined]] Thelypodium (?) same as 925 = . [[underlined]] Caulanthus pilosus [[/underlined]] Tricuspis = . [[underlined]] Triodia pulchella, Yucca [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens [[/underlined]]
132 [[end page]] [[start page]] 133 June 12, 1891. Crystal Spring, Coso Mts, Inyo Co., Cal. Altitude reading, camp 8 A.M. 7160 = 6000 ft. = 1830 m. I collected up to an altitude of 7450 = 6200 ft. = 1890 m. (10 A.M.) directly above the spring in the forenoon. Altitude reading at camp, 11:30 A.M., 7300 = 6000 ft. = 1830 m. In the afternoon I went to the first ravine southward from the spring, about 1/2 mile, and ascended this to an altitude of 7670 ft = 6400 ft. =1950 m. This was somewhat above the line of lower piñon on north slopes, but all the trees have been cut off for firewood. Altitude reading at camp 7400 = 6000 ft. = 1830 m. (4:30 A.M.) Following are the plants [[strikethrough]] collected [[/strikethrough]] seen to-day in addition to some of those collected yesterday and others collected to-day.
134 [[end page]] [[start page]] 135 June 13, 1891. Keeler, Inyo County, California. We left Crystal Spring this morning and took the road to Darwin, and from there proceeded by the stage road to Keeler. Altitude reading ^ [[insertion]] at Crystal Spring [[/insertion]] at 6 A.M. 7300 = 6000 ft = 1830 m. " " crossing of wash from Crystal Spr. and first road 6975 = 5700 ft. = 1735 m. Upper [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] 6230 = 5000 ft. = 1525 m. 8:20 A.M. Lower [[underlined]] Yucca ^ [[insertion]] arborescens [/insertion]] [[/underlined]] about 5350 = 4200 ft. = 1280 m. 8:45 A.M. Darwin 5900 = 4840 ft. = 1475 m. 9:15 A.M. Upper [[underlined]] Larrea ^ [[insertion]] mexicana [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] south slope northwest of Darwin 6300 = 5100 ft. = 1555 m. 10:30 A.M. Summit, Darwin - Keeler 6500 = 5300 ft. = 1615 m. 11 o'clock. Stone Corral 5750 = 4550 ft. = 1385 m. Summit of Cañon 5640 = 4450 ft. = 1355 m. 3.20 Keeler 4850 = 3622 ft. = 1105 m.
136 [[end page]] [[start page]] 137 June 14, 1891
138 [[end page]] [[start page]] 139 June 15, 1891
140 [[end page]] [[start page]] 141 June 16, 1891
142 [[end page]] [[start page]] 143 June 17, 1891
144 [[end page]] [[start page]] 145 June 18, 1891
146 [[end page]] [[start page]] 147 June 19, 1891. Walker's Ranch near Olancha, Inyo Co., Cal. We left Lone Pine this morning at about seven o'clock, Dr. Merriam, Mr. Palmer, Beth and I with McGraff for teamster. Beth and I rode in the cart after Zoë. We went down the west side of Owens Lake keeping the regular road. This is at some points about a hundred feet above the level of the lake. The region lies in upper [[underline]] Larrea [[/underline]], but this plant is wanting except in the mouths of some of the cañons. The first seen was near Cottonwood, and from that place southward it grew about the cañon mouths in greater abundance. It is now in fruit and the white capsules give the plant a gray appearance that renders it not very easily distinguishable at a distance from the Atriflex brush. The most abundant shrubs are
[[start page]] 148 [[end page]] [[start page]] 149 [[underline]] Atriplex [[/underline]] [[underline]] confertifolia [[/underline]] ^ [[insertion]] and [[underline]] Franseria [[/underline]] [[underline]] dumosa [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] with, in some parts of the way, [[underline]] Artemisia [[/underline]] [[underline]] tridentata [[/underline]], while the following occur frequently . [[underline]] Lycium [[/underline]] [[underline]] cooperi [[/underline]] [[underline]] Dalea [[/underline]] fremontii . [[underline]] Tetradymia [[/underline]] [[underline]] comosa [[/underline]] . [[underline]] " [[/underline]] [[underline]] spinosa [[/underline]] . [[underline]] Acamptopappus [[/underline]] [[underline]] sphaerocephalus [[/underline]] Composite, same as 802 = [[underline]] Aplopappus monactis [[/underline]] . [[underline]] Lycium [[/underline]] [[underline]] andersonii [[/underline]] We crossed several water-courses in which were growing cottonwoods ^[[insertion]] [[underline]] Populus [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] and ashes ^[[insertion]] [[underline]] Fraxinus [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] with willows ^[[insertion]] [[underline]] Salix [[/underline]] [[/insertion]] and other moist soil species. On the mesas in the richer soil especially about the ranches at the lower end of the lake [[underline]] Bigelovia [[/underline]] [[underline]] graveolens [[/underline]] and [[underline]] B. [[/underline]] [[underline]] douglasii [[/underline]] were abundant. The country has been much traversed by sheep so that nearly all the annual vegetation is gone. The following plants were also seen. [[end page]]
[[start page]] 150 [[end page]] [[start page]] 151 [[underline]] Anemopsis [[/underline]] [[underline]] californica [[/underline]] [[underline]] Argemone [[/underline]] [[underline]] hispida [[/underline]] [[underline]] Artemisia [[/underline]] [[underline]] ludoviciana [[/underline]] [[underline]] Artimisia [[/underline]] [[underline]] spinescens [[/underline]] [[underline]] Aster [[/underline]] (tortifolins) [[underline]] mohavensis [[/underline]] [[underline]] Atriplex [[/underline]] [[underline]] canescens [[/underline]] [[underline]] Atriplex [[/underline]] [[underline]] parryi [[/underline]] [[underline]] " [[/underline]] [[underline]] polycarpa [[/underline]] [[underline]] " [[/underline]] [[underline]] torreyi [[/underline]] (near Walker's Ranch) [[underline]] Azolla [[/underline]] [[underline]] Brickellia [[/underline]] [[underline]] longifolia [[/underline]] [[underline]] Chaenactis [[/underline]] [[underline]] carphoclinia [[/underline]] [[underline]] Cleomella [[/underline]] [[underline]] obtusifolia [[/underline]] [[underline]] Cuscuta [[/underline]] [[underline]] Delea [[/underline]] [[underline]] polyademia [[/underline]] Dalea [[underline]] Datura [[/underline]] [[underline]] meteloides [[/underline]] [[underline]] Distichlis [[/underline]] [[underline]] maritima [[/underline]] [[underline]] Encelia [[/underline]] [[underline]] frutescens [[/underline]] [[underline]] Eriogonum [[/underline]] [[underline]] inflatum [[/underline]] " fascicalatum " annual, leafy above [[underline]] Erodium [[/underline]] [[underline]] cicutarium [[/underline]] [[underline]] Eurotia [[/underline]] [[underline]] lanata [[/underline]] [[strikethrough]] Erysinum [[/strikethrough]] [[underline]] Franseria [[/underline]] [[underline]] dumosa [[/underline]] & [[underline]] F. hookeriana [[/underline]] [[end page]]
152 [[end page]] [[start page]] [[underlined]] Fraximis coriacea [[/underlined]] " . [[underlined]] Gilia floccosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " matthewsii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Glycywhiza [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassaricum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lemna [[/underlined]] Legume same as 900 = [[underlined]] Lotus oblongifolius [[/underlined]] Mimulus luteus (small) Nasturtium officinale (?) Oenothera gauraeflora . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " echinocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Petalonyx [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ramunculus cymbalaria [[/underlined]] Rosa Salix lasiandra " longifolia . [[underlined]] Sarcobatus vermiculatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Scirpus nevadensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " pungens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] (Cottonwood)
[[start page]] 154 [[end page]] [[start page]] 155 Sesuvium portulacastrum [[underline]] Sisymbrium [[/underline]] [[underline]] canescens [[/underline]] Sium = [[underline]] Berula [[/underline]] [[underline]] augustifolia [[/underline]] [[underline]] Spirogyra [[/underline]] [[underline]] Sporobolus [[/underline]] [[underline]] airoides [[/underline]] [[underline]] Stanleya [[/underline]] [[underline]] pinnatafida [[/underline]] (1 inch trunk) [[underline]] Suaeda [[/underline]] [[underline]] suffrutescens [[/underline]] " same as 894 Trifolium
156 [[end page]] [[start page]] 157 June 20, 1891 About six miles south of Little Lake, Inyo County, Cal. We left Walkers Ranch this morning at half past six and followed the road southward passing Olancha, Haywe Meadows, [[strikethrough]] Goat Ranch [[/strikethrough]] Rose Spring, and Little ^[[insertion]] Owens [[/insertion]] Lake; and made a dry camp at this point. About a mile south of Little Lake the axle of my wagon broke, and I mended it with bars of iron and baling wire so that it could be ridden. The country traversed was similar to that passed over yesterday, as far as [[strikethrough]] Goat Sheep Ranch [[/strikethrough]] Rose Spring. Here the [[underlined]] Larreas [[/underlined]] began to cover the ground except the lowest portions of the valleys. The growth of them is very healthy and large, and there is little else than [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] among them. Altitude reading at camp this morning (6:30) 4630 = 3700ft. = 1120m [[underlined]] Yucca [[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] arborescens [[/underlined]] begins (7:15) 4700 = = 3800 = 1160 m Hawee Meadows (10:00) 4725 = 3800 = 1160 m. Rose Spring (11:20) 4550 = 3545 = 1080 m. Valley north of Little Owen Lake (1:00) 4440 = 3450 = 1050 m. Spring by road just below " " " (4:00) 4325 = 3300 = 1005 m
158 [[end page]] [[start page]] 159
160 [[end page]] [[start page]] 161
162 [[end page]] [[start page]] 163
164 [[end page]] [[start page]] 165 Sunday. June 21, 1891 Canebrake Creek, Kern County, Cal. We left camp at six o'clock this morning, proceeding southward along the stage-route till opposite Walker's Pass. We then took the road to the pass and reached this place at about seven o'clock. The lowest reading on the stage road was 3200 ft and at this altitude and for a few hundred feet above the main vegetation was [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana, Franseria dumosa, [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] Dalea [[/underlined]] fremontii. The following altitudes were taken. This mornings camp (6:00) (3575) = 2350 ft. = 715 m. Indian Wells (11:00) (3800) = 2606 ft. = 795 m. Fork, stage road & Walker's pass road (4250) = 3050 ft. = 930 m. . [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] in wash (4500) = 3400 ft = 1035 m. . [[underlined]] Yucca ^[[insertion]] arborescens [[insertion]][[/underlined]] line (lower) on hillsides (4850) = 3750 = 1145 m. . [[underlined]] Larrea [[/underlined]] ceases (4900) = 3800 = 1160 m. Spring by roadside (5000) = 4000 ft. = 1270 m . [[underlined]] Tetradymia spinosa [[/underlined]] abundant (5200) = 4200 ft. = 1280 m. . [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] begins(north slope (5800) = 4900 ft. = 1495 m
166 [[end page]] [[start page]] 167 Summit of pass and uppermost yuccas on south slope (6050) = 5222 ft. = 1590 m. On the west slope of the pass, going down, the following altitudes were taken . [[underlined]] Yucca ^[[insertion]] arborescens [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] (upper limit but afterward goes lower) (5600) = 4900 = 1495 m. Canebrake Ranch (4900) = 3904 = 1190 m. Following is a list of plants seen in addition to some others collected. . [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anemopsis californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]] Astragalus . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " confertifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " polycarpa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " torreyi [[/underlined]] (on the east slope of the divide at about [(4600) 3500 ft. = [[strikethrough]] ft [[/strikethrough]] 1070 m. . [[underlined]] Audibertia incana pilosa [[/underlined]] Baccharis (of moist places) (at Indian Wells) . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " graveolens [[/underlined]] " (tortifolia) (at summit and on west slope . [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]] ^[[insertion]] cuneatus [[/insertion]] (reticulata) same as 1026
168 [[end page]] [[start page]] 169 Chorizanthe thurberi Cucurbita perennis " no 1011 . [[underlined]] Dalea [[/underlined]] fremontii . [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " viridis [[/underlined]] (in the piñons east of the [divide) Eriogonum fasciculatum . [[underlined]] " inflatum [[/underlined]] " reniforme " (scandescens) . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] Euphorbia albomarginata " pediculifera no 1008 . [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " hookeriana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Gilia matthewsii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] Hosackia no 1017 = [[underlined]] Lotus procumbens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Iva axillaris [[/underlined]] (Canebrake Ranch)
170 [[end page]] [[start page]] 171 . [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " xiphioides [[/underlined]] (spring on east slope of divide) . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] (first seen near [Grapevine Creek) . [[underlined]] Lupinus [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] chamissonis [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] ornatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]] Mimulus luteus . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " californica [[/underlined]] no 1018 . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nitrophila occidentalis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera [[/underlined]] scopoidea [[underlined]] purpurascens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " echinocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oryzopsis [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) [[underlined]] membranacea [[/underlined]] Pentstemon (shrubby, of piñons) . [[underlined]] Petalonyx [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pholisma ^arenarium [[/underlined]] (first seen near Indian Wells. . [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " jeffreyi [[/underlined]] Polygonum aviculare
172 [[end page]] [[start page]] 173 . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] Populus (seen only west of the divide) . [[underlined]] Prunus fasciculata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ranunculus cymbalaria [[/underlined]] Rosa Rumex crispus Salix lasiandra " lasiolepis . [[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Salvia columbariae [[/underlined]] Sambucus . [[underlined]] Scirpus pungens [[/underlined]] (spring on east slope of divide) . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] . Sium = [[underlined]] Berula angustifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Stipa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Tetradymia spinosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " comosa. [[/underlined]] Trifolium . [[underlined]] Yucca [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens The desert flora does not end abruptly at the divide as in Cajon Pass but extends over with comparatively little
174 [[end page]] [[start page]] 175 change. The altitude is too great for the . [[underlined]] larrea [[/underlined]] belt so that several shrubs characteristic of it do not appear on the west side of the divide. The most conspicuous difference in general appearance of the vegetation as one passes the divide is the addition of [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] in the piñons, while higher up and not appearing on the east slope of the mountains is [[underlined]] Pinus jeffreyi [[/underlined]]. In the ascent to Walker's Pass we encountered a strong west wind, which continued until we went into camp. That this is the prevailing wind is evidenced by the trees and shrubs bending to the eastward on both slopes of the pass.
[[start page]] 176 [[end page]] [[start page]] 177 June 22, 1891 Ranch 1/2 mile south of Kernville, Kern Co., Cal. We left Canebrake Ranch this morning, following the main road downward until we reached the bottom of the valley on the south Fork of Kern River. We proceeded down the branch of this river until we reached the fork and then turned northward up the North Fork to this place. The wind continues to blow from the west. Along the South Fork the vegetation is bent permanently eastward, along the north fork northward. . [[underlined]] Yucca[[strikethough]]s[[/strikethrough]] ^ [[insertion]] arborescens [[/insertion]] [[/underline]] continues to grow in abundance down to the valley bottom near its junction with the South Fork, and nearly all its characteristic vegetation in the desert accompanies it. This valley of the South Fork of the Kern River is a transition region between desert and interior floras, the line of greatest change lying at the western limit of the yuccas. The following plant characteristic of the desert ^ [[insertion]] and found on the east slope of the pass [[/insertion]] were not seen west. [[end page]]
178 [[end page]] [[start page]] 179 of the summit . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex confertifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " polycarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " torreyi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Dalea [[/underlined]] fremontii The following may have gone over a short distance but I am not certain . [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Purshia tridentata glandulosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Salazaria mexicana [[/underlined]] The following species did go over and held their accustomed place [[strikethrough]] among [[/strikethrough]] in the desert vegetation . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex carescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Audibertia incana pilosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [/underlined]] . [[underlined] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]]
180 [[end page]] [[start page]] 181 . [[underlined]] Opuntia echinocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Prunus andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " fasciculata [[/underlined]] Senecio-like shrub = [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Tetradymia spinosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " comosa [[/underlined]] besides the following which may not be especially characteristic of the desert . [[underlined]] Bigelovia donglasii [[/underlined]] Eriognum fasciculatum . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lupinus ^[[insertion]] ornatus [[/insertion]] chamissonis. [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] Salix lasiandra . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] The new plants found before leaving the yuccas are . [[underlined]] Ceanothus cuneatus [[/underlined]] Sambucus (?) . [[underlined]] " diviricatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Phoradendron flavescens macrophyllum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] and after leaving the yuccas, the following . [[underlined]] Cercis occidentalis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined] Erod[[strikethrough]] y [[/strikethrough]]ictyon glutinosum [[/underlined]]
182 [[end page]] [[start page]] 183 Mimulus glutinosus . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens Rhamnus californica . [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Alnus rhombifolia [[/underlined]] The five plants that are known not to go over all belong to a belt not represented on the west slope, so that the entire desert flora practically goes over to the South Fork of the Kern River at its junction with Canebrake Creek. From this point down the river there is little shrubbery, the land being all cultivated and the hillslopes covered ^[[insertion]] mainly [[/insertion]] with [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens and the two Ceanothi . [[underlined]] Ceanothus cuneatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ceanothus divaricatus [[/underlined]] On the hill-slopes south of Kernville, [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] is abundant. Following are the plants seen to-day in addition to those collected. Abronia as at Keeler (along Kern River) . [[underlined]] Alnus rhombifolia [[/underlined]] (along Kern River) . [[underlined]] Amarantus albus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anemopsis californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] (to the fork, sparingly) . [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]]
184 [[end page]] [[start page]] 185 . [[underlined]] Atriplex [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] canescens [[/underlined]] (in the yuccas, sparingly) . [[underlined]] Audibertia [[/underlined]] incana . [[underlined]] Azolla [[/underlined]] caroliniana (bottom of North Forks) . [[underlined]] Bigelovia [/[underlined]] [[underlined]] douglasii [[/underlined]] Calochortus (bottom of South Fork) Capsella Castilleia . [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]], no 1026, [[underlined]] cuneatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] no 1032, [[underlined]] divaricatus [[/underlined]] Atriplex (like A. arenaria) Chorizanthe no 1033 Cicuta (bottom of south fork) Cnicus same as 1105 . [[underlined]] Coldenia [[/underlined]] Cucurbita perennis . " [[strikethrough]] palmat [[/strikethrough]] . [[underlined]] Cuscuta [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] Equisetum littorale same as 1042 Eriogonum angulosum (down to the fork)
186 [[end page]] [[start page]] 187 Eriogonum rudum no 1031 " (similar to angulosum, same at Caso) " fasciculatum (down to the fork) . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] Euphorbia albomarginata " pediculifera Fraxinus . [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Glycyrrhiza lepidota [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] Hordeum jubatum . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] (in lower yuccas) . [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] (down to the fork on favorable slopes) . [[underlined]] Lemna [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]]. . [[underlined]] Lupinus [[strikethrough]] [[chamissonis?]] [[/strikethrough]] ornatus [[/underlined]] (North Fork Kern River) . [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Marrubium vulgare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Melilotus ^ [[insertion]] indica [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] (parviflora) (South Fork Kern River) Mimulus luteus " glutinosus . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] [[end page]]
188 [[end page]] [[start page]] 189 Oenothera dentata [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " echinocarpa [[/underlined]] Pentstemon (shrubby, of piñons) . [[underlined]] Phoradendron flavescens [[/underlined]] (on cottonwood) [[underlined]] macrophyllum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] Populus Potamogeton pectinatus . [[underlined]] Prunus fasciculata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ranunculus aquatilis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ranunculus cymbalaria [[/underlined]] Rumex crispus " hymenosepalus Salix lasiandra Sambucus . [[underlined]] Scirpus lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Scrophularia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] Sium Solidago Sonchus Sphaeralcea (lilac-colored)
190 [[end page]] [[start page]] 191 . [[underlined]] Sporobolus airoides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Stanleya pinnatafida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Tetradymia comosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " spinosa [[/underlined]] Trifolium . [[underlined]] Typha latifolia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Urtica holosericea [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Yucca [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] (hillside on south fork) . [[underlined]] Zannichellia palustris [[/underlined]] Senecio-like shrub = [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] The roadsides in South Fork bottom are covered with a fine closely-grazed coat of Distichlis maritima Altitude readings as follows Canebrake Ranch 7:40 A.M. (5000) = 3904 ft. = 1190m. [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] at bottom of Canebrake Cr. Valley (4000) = 2900 ft. = 885 m. Quercus wislizeni (3700) = 2600 ft. = 795m.
192 [[end page]] [[start page]] 193 June 23, 1891 Havilah, Kern County, Cal. We left Kernville soon after noon to-day, after having our horses shod and my cart-axle mended. We took the road to Caliente, retracing our yesterday's course to the fork of the river, and going thence southward over a spur of the Sierras into [[strikethough]] Walkers Basin; and over another divide into [[/strikethough]] the valley in which Havilah lies. The river turns westward a mile or two below the fork and was seen no more for the remainder of the journey. The change to interior flora is complete as we begin to ascend the first Sierran spur south of the fork. The characteristic vegetation of the hill slopes after leaving the valley bottom is . [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] californica [[/underline]] . [[underlined]] Quercus [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] wislizeni [[/underlined]] fructescens . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] (caerulea) [[underlined]] douglasii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]] same as 1026 [[underlined]] cuneatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] same as 1032 [[underlined]] divaricatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Yucca [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] whipplei [[/underlined]]
194 [[end page]] [[start page]] 195 and higher up on the spur . [[underlined]] Cercocarpus parvifolius [[/underlined]] Following is a list of the species seen . [[underlined]] Alnus rhombifolius [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anemopsis californica [[/underlined]] Arceuthobium on Pinus coulteri . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Asclepias [[/underlined]] , no 1072, [[underlined]] eriocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Azolla caroliniana [[/underlined]] (South Fork Kern River . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] Castilleia . [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]] same as 1026 [[underlined]] cuneatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " , " " 1032, [[underlined]] divaricatus [[/underlined]] .[[underlined]] Cercocarpus parvifolius [[/underlined]] no 1063 . [[underlined]] Chenopodium murale [[/underlined]] (Havilah) " (not album) Chorizanthe same as 1033 " no 1045 Cnicus same as 1105 . [[underlined]] Coldenia [[/underlined]] (sandy bed of Kern River) Cucurbita perennis . [[underlined]] Cuscuta [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Cyperus aristatus [[/underlined]] : (North Fork Kern River)
196 [[end page]] [[start page]] 197 . [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Dicentra chrysantha [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Emmenanthe penduliflora [[/underlined]] no 1056 . [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephreda ^ [[insertion]] viridis [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] (dark green)(on the divide) Eremocarpus setigerus . [[underlined]] Eriodictyon glutinosum [[/underlined]] Eriogonum nudum " no 1068 " fasciculatum . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Erysimum asperum (orange-fl.) [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Eschscholtzia [[/underlined]] same as 1115. Euphorbia albomarginata . [[underlined]] Franseria hookeriana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] (on the divide) Gilia no 1049 " " 1051 Gymnogramme triangularis . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Hordeum jubatum [[/underlined]] Hosackia . [[underlined]] Iva axillaris [[/underlined]] (Havilah)
198 [[end page]] [[start page]] 199 . [[underlined]] Juncus bufonius [[/underlined]] (North Fork Kern River) . [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] Kryuitzkia no 1054 . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]], " 1058, [[underlined]] intermedia [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] Lupinus no 1047 = . [[underlined]] Psoralea californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Marrubium vulgare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anthemis cotula [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Melilotus [[/underlined]] (parviflora)[[underlined]] indica [[/underlined]] Mimulus glutinosus " no 1038 " " 1039 Nama same as 1022 = . [[underlined]] Lemmonia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nasturtium officinale [[/underlined]] (Kern River) . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] Oenothera gauraeflora . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pectocarya [[/underlined]], no 1055, [[underlined]] setosa [[/underlined]] Pentstemon . [[underlined]] Phoradendron flavescens villosum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polygonum aviculare [[/underlined]] Populus
200 Altitude readings to-day as follows Kernville about noon (3650) = 2550 ft. = 775 m. Summit of spur of Sierras (4850) 5 P.M. = 3750 ft. = 1145 m. Valley of Havilah 6 P.M. (4100) = 3100 ft. = 945 m. Havilah (4150) = 3150 ft. = 960 m. [[end page]] [[start page]] 201 . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Prunus fasciculata [[/underlined]] (on the divide) . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni [[/underlined]] frut. . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] (caerulea) [[underlined]] douglasii [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Rhamnus [[/underlined]] californica . [[underlined]] Rhus diversiloba [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ribes [[/underlined]], no 1062, leptanthum Rosa (Kern River) Rumex Sabbatia (Kern River) = [[underlined]] Erythraea [[/underlined]] Salix lasiandra Salvia columbariae Sambucus . [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Solanum xanti [[/underlined]] no 1064 . [[underlined]] Tetradymia [[/underlined]] comosa (on the divide) Trifolium . [[underlined]] Urtica holosericea [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Xanthium spinosum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] Senecio-like shrub = [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] is characteristic of the South Fork valley west of the . [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]]
202 [[end page]] [[start page]] 203 June 24, 1891 Ranch 4 miles east of Caliente, Kern County, Cal., on the Caliente Tehachapi road. We left Havilah this morning crossing a divide into Walker's Basin, then another divide into Caliente Valley, and from Caliente ^ [[insertion]] we went [[/insertion]] eastward on the Tehachapi road to the present camp. The whole country belongs to the interior flora. Following is a list of the plants seen . [[underlined]] Aesculus californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Alnus rhombifolius [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Amarantus albus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anemopsis californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Anthemis cotula [[/underlined]] Arceuthobium on Pinus coulteri . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia ludoviciana [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) . [[underlined]] " tridentata [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) . [[underlined]] " mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " eriocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Azolla caroliniana [[/underlined]] Baccharis (an inside aquatic species)
204 [[end page]] [[start page]] 205 . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] Blitum same as 1059 = . [[underlined]] Chenopodium californicum [[/underlined]] Calochortus no 1097 Capsella . [[underlined]] Ceanothus [[/underlined]], same as 1026 [[underlined]] cuneatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]], same as 1032, [[underlined]] divaricatus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Cercocarpus parvifolius [[/underlined]] (divide south of Walkers Basin) Chorizanthe no 1090 " " 1100 . [[underlined]] Cnicus [[/underlined]], no 1102, [[underlined]] californicus [[/underlined]] " " 1105 Cotyledon no 1106 Cucurbita perennis . [[underlined]] Cuscuta [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Emmenanthe penduliflora [[/underlined]] Eremocarpus setigerus . [[underlined]] Eriodictyon [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] lomenlosum [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] glutinosum [[/underlined]] Eriogonom angulosum " fasciculatum " nudum " same as 1068 . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]]
206 [[end page]] [[start page]] 207 . [[underlined]] Erysimum asperum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Eschscholtzia [[/underlined]] same as 1115 Euphorbia ocellata no 1081 " albomarginata . [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] (divide north of Walkers Basin) Gilia no 1088 " " 1108 Godetia no 1099 . [[underlined]] Hordeum jubatum [[/underlined]] Hosackia glabra = . [[underlined]] Lotus glaber [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juncus bufonius [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californicus [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] Krynitzkia no [[/strikethrough]] [[strikethrough]] " no [[/strikethrough]] . [[underlined]] Lemma [[/underlined]] (Walker's Basin) . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] Lupinus " . [[underlined]] Marrubium vulgare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Melilotus [[/underlined]] (parviflora) [[underlined]] indica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Mentzelia [[/underlined]] no 1086 [[underlined]] dispersa [[/underlined]] Mimulus glutinosus " no 1084 . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora [[/underlined]] (type?) (South of Caliente)
208 [[end page]] [[start page]] 209 Nama same as 1022 = . [[underlined]] Lemmonia californica [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nasturtium officinale [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera [[/underlined]] no 1078 [[underlined]] micrantha [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] no 1082 [[underlined]] contorta [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) . [[underlined]] Pectocarya penicillata [[/underlined]] no 1089 Pentstemon no 1095 " " 1096 Phacelia (very large, on rocks) . [[underlined]] Phoradendron flavescens villosum [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Pinus jeffreyi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Poa annua [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polygonum aviculare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] Populus . [[underlined]] Prunus ilicifolia [[/underlined]] ? . [[underlined]] Pterostegia drymarioides [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] (coerulea) [[underlined]] douglasii [[/underlined]] " no 1103 . [[underlined]] Ranunculus aquatilis [[/underlined]] (Walkers Basin) . [[underlined]] Rhamnus [[/underlined]] californica
210 [[start page]] Altitude readings today were as follows Havilah 6 A.M. (4100)= 3150 ft. = 960 m. Cercocarpus ^[[parvifolius]] begins (4600) = 3600 ft. = 1100 m. Divide north of Walker's Basin 9:45 (5200) = 4100 ft. = 1250 m. Walker's Basin 11:20 (4200) = 3100 ft. = 945 m. Summit south of W.B. - = 3850 ft. = 1175 m. Bend in road 2:30 (3600) = 2500 ft. = 760 m. Caliente 5:00 (2375) = 1290 ft. = 395 m. [[end page]] 211 [[start page]] [[underlined]] Rhamnus crocea [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley, both slopes) [[underlined]] Rhus [[/underlined]] (aromatica) [[underlined]] trilobata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " diversiloba [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Ribes menziesii [[/underlined]] no 1077 [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]], same as 1062, [[underlined]] leptanthum [[/underlined]] Rosa Salix lasiandra " lasiolepis Sambucus [[underlined]] Scrophularia californica [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Selaginella rupestris [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) [[underlined]] Senecio douglasii [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Solanum xanti [[/underlined]] Solidago [[underlined]] Typha [[/underlined]] (Walker's Basin) [[underlined]] Urtica holosericea [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Xanthium spinosum [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] (abundant to Caliente Val) ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] Senecio-like shrub (abundant to divide north of Walkers Basin) [[underlined]] Platanus racemosa [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) [[underlined]] Achillea millefolium [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Celtis [[strikethough]] s [[/strikethrough]] [[/underlined]] (Caliente Valley) Wyethia same as 1067 = [[underlined]] Balsamorhiza deltoidea [[/underlined]]
[[start page]] 212 [[end page]] [[start page]] 213 June 25, 1891 Cameron, Tehachapi Pass, Kern County, Cal. We left camp this morning and followed the Caliente-Tehachapi road to this point passing Keen, Tehachapi summit, through Tehachapi Valle and the town of Tehalchapi, to this point. A prevailing west wind blows across Tehachapi Valley, and through the pass. Following is a list of plants seen to-day. [[underline]] Achillea [[/underline]] [[underline]] meullefolium [[/underline]] [[underline]] Aesculus [[/underline]] [[underline]] californica [[/underline]] (to Tehachapi summit) [[underline]] Amarantus [[/underline]] [[underline]] albus [[/underline]] [[underline]] Anemopsis [[/underline]] [[underline]] californica [[/underline]] [[underline]] Anthemis [[/underline]] [[underline]] catula [[/underline]] [[underline]] Asclepias [[/underline]] [[underline]] erose [[/underline]] [[underline]] " [[/underline]] [[underline]] eriocarpa [[/underline]] [[underline]] " [[/underline]] [[underline]] mexicana [[/underline]] [[underline]] Astragalus [[/underline]], no 1112, [[underline]] oöcarpus [[/underline]] [[underline]] Atriples [[/underline]] [[underline]] canescens [[/underline]] [[underline]] Azolla [[/underline]] [[underline]] Bigelovia [[/underline]] [[underline]] douglasii [[/underline]] Blitum same as 1059 = [[underline]] Chenopodium [[/underline]] [[underline]] califonicum [[/underline]] [[underline]] Brassica [[/underline]] probably sinapistrum Calochortus (Tehachapi Valley) [[end page]]
214 [[end page]] [[start page]] 215 Capsella Carex . [[underlined]] Chara [[/underlined]] (In water-trough at cameron) Chorizanthe . [[underlined]] Clematis [[/underlined]] Cnicus same as 1105 Cnicus no 1118 . [[underlined]] Cressa cretica [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Lake) . [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Lake + east to Cameron) . [[underlined]] Eleocharis [[/underlined]], no 1123, [[underlined]] palustris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] (forming natural meadows in east end of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] Eremocarpus setigerus . [[underlined]] Eriodictyon glutinosum [[/underlined]] (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Eschscholtzia [[/underlined]] no 1115 Euphorbia albomarginata . [[underlined]] Franseria hookeriana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]] (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Glycyrrhiza [[/underlined]] (near Cameron) Goditia (Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Helianthus annuus [[/underlined]] (abundant in Tehachapi Val)
216 [[end page]] [[start page]] 217 . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] (near Tehachapi Lake) Hordeum no 112 ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Elymus sitanion [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] (abundant in Tehachapi Valley) Hosackia glabra (west of Tehachapi Valley) = [[underlined]] Lotus glaber [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] (near Cameron Lathyrus no 1120 . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Lycium cooperi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Marrubium vulgare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Melilotus [[/underlined]] (parviflora) [[underlined]] indica [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Valley) Mimulus glutinosus (west of Tehachapi Valley) " lutens (east end of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Mirabilis californica [[/underlined]] (red) (1 mile west of Cameron) . [[underlined]] Nasturtium [[strikethrough]] californicum [[/strikethrough]] officinale [[/underlined]] (west end of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opunta basilaris [[/underlined]] Pentstemon same as 1096 (Tehachapi Valley) Phacelia (large, on rocks)(west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Phoradendron flavescens villosum [[/underlined]] (into Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Phragmites communis [[/underlined]] (east end of Tehachapi Lake) . [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] sabiniana (mountains all around Tehachapi Valley . [[underlined]] " jeffreyi [[/underlined]] ? (Tehachapi Mountain) . [[underlined]] Platanus racemosa [[/underlined]] (to Tehachapi Valley)
218 [[end page]] [[start page]] 219 . [[underlined]] Polygonum aviculare [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliense [[/underlined]] Populus (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Quercus wislizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens . [[underlined]] " lobata [[/underlined]] (from west of, into Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] (caerulea) [[underlined]] douglasii [[/underlined]] Ranunculus . [[underlined]] Ribes ^ [[insertion]] leptanthum [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] same as 1062 (west of Tehachapi Valley) Rosa Rumex crispus " no 1117 . [[underlined]] Ruppia maritima [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Lake) Salix lasiandra Sambucus (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Scirpus lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Lake) . [[underlined]] " maritimus [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Lake) . [[underlined]] Sisymbrium canescens [[/underlined]] (Tehachapi Valley) Sium (west of Tehachapi Valley) . [[underlined]] Solanum xanti [[/underlined]] (1 mile west of Cameron) . [[underlined]] Sonchus [[/underlined]] east end of Tehachapi Valley . [[underlined]] Urtica holosericea [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Viola [[/underlined]], same as 1087, prǣmorsa . [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] (west of Tehachapi Valley) Senecio-like shrub = . [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [[/underlined]]
220 [[end page]] [[start page]] 221 A tree of [[underlined]] Quercus lobata [[/underlined]] in the western part of Tehachapi Valley measured 19 ft in circumference at seven feet above the ground The flora of Tehachapi Valley is an interior one, the foothills about the valley (seen only at a distance) being covered with [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] and live oaks, [[underlined]] Pinus jeffreyi [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] asa [[/strikethrough]] ? occupying the higher points. The valley bottom (about 6 x 10 miles) is all under cultivation, but appears to have been a shrubless area characteristic of the flat dry lands of the interior. No desert forms appear until one enters the canon that connects the valley with the Mojave Desert at the extreme eastern end of the valley. The first desert plants that appear are about a mile west of Cameron, as follows . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lycium cooperi [/underlined]] Senecio-like shrub = [[underlined]] Aplopappus interior [/underlined]] In the eastern end of the valley
222 [[end page]] [[start page]] 223 is a shallow salt lake about 1/2 mile in length, which dries in summer leaving large deposits of salt [[strikethrough]] which [[/strikethrough]] that are used commercially. About this lake are a number of interesting saline plants as may be seen by the list and the catalogue for to-day. . [[underlined]] Nitrophila occidentalis [[/underlined]] was not seen there.
224 [[end page]] [[start page]] 225 June 26, 1891 Willow Spring, Antelope Valley, Kern County We left Cameron this morning and proceeded through Tehachapi Pass and across the Mojave Desert to Mojave, where we remained till after two o'clock, sending telegrams, answering mail and getting provisions. Desert plants begin to appear one by one after leaving Cameron until about two miles east of the station, the change to desert flora is complete. The altitude is too great for [[underlined]] Larrea [[/underlined]], however, and it does not appear until the mouth of the canon is reached. The following plants were seen between Cameron and Mojave. . [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Amarantus albus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Argemone hispida [[/underlined]] (in Tehachapi Pass) . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] (1 specimen in the pass) . [[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] (in the pass) . [[underlined]] " [[/underlined]] (like A. arenaria)(along stream in the pass) . [[underlined]] Audibertia incarna [[/underlined]] (a few seen in the pass) . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] (in the pass) [[end page]]
226 [[end page]] [[start page]] 227 [[underlined]] Bigelovia teretifolia [[/underlined]] ( in the pass) Chorizanthe thurberi " watsoni no 1135 " perfoliata no 1136 [[underlined]] Cressa cretica [[/underlined]] (by the stream in the pass) [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] (by the stream in the pass) [[underlined]] Encelia frutescens [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] Eriogonum nudum no 1131 " plumatella " trichopodum " angulosium no 1133 " like angulosium no 1134 [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] Euphorbia albomarginata [[underlined]] Eurotia lanata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Franseria hookeriana [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " dumosa [[/underlined]] (began at mouth of pass) [[underlined]] Gilia matthewsii [[/underlined]] (began in the pass) [[underlined]] " floccosa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloidis [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Hymenoclia salsola [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]]
228 [[end page]] [[start page]] 229 [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [/underlined]] [[underlined]] Lepidospartum squamatum [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] (began low down in the pass) [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Mirabilis californica [[/underlined]] (red) (into the yuccas at least) [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " Echinocarpa [[/underlined]] (began in the pass [[underlined]] Oryzopsis [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) [[underlined]] membranacea [[/underlined]] Oxytheca perfoliata [[underlined]] Phoradendron bolleanum [[/underlined]] (on Juniperus californica in the pass] [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Forestiera parvifolia [[/underlined]] Rhamnus-like shrub (in the pass near Cameron station) [[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] (abundant low down in the pass) [[underlined]] Stanleya pinnatafida [[/underlined]] (near mouth of the pass) [[underlined]] Tetradymia [[/underlined]] stenolepis? [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " whipplei [[/underlined]] (goes nearly through the the pass sparingly) [[underlined]] ^ [[insertion]] Aplopappus interior [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] Senecio-like shrub (to mouth of pass) Funston's five-leafed composite (begins in the pass) The sides of the canon in the pass are covered with low desert shrubs and occasionally a juniper. These (the junipers) occur in side-canons on both north and south slopes, and [[strikethrough]] often [[/strikethrough]] occasionally
230 [[end page]] [[start page]] 231 come down to the bottom of the main cañon. On the north slopes are occasional small patches of piñons ^ [[insertion]] [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] which in one case come down to about 200 ft above Cameron Station. [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] occurs westward as far as Cameron station, and . [[underlined]] Yucca whipplei [[/underlined]] goes eastward in small patches or singly nearly to the mouth of the pass. After leaving Mojave we proceeded southward, or southwestward into Antelope Valley and went into camp about 8:30 at Willow Spring. The entire area over which we passed is in upper [[underlined]] Larrea [[/underlined]] and sparsely supplied with [[underlined]] Yucca ^[[insertion]] arborescens [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] In some portions there are slight depressions with dry clay deposits and these are provided with [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] and [[underlined]] A. polycarpa [[/underlined]]. Following is a list of plants seen this afternoon. [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] (1 plant only)
232 [[end page]] [[start page]] 233 [[underlined]] Aster [[/underlined]] (tortifolius) [[underlined]] mohavensis [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " polycarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Bigelovia douglasii [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Caulanthus [[/underlined]] (probably inflatus) Chorizanthe thurberi " perfoliata " watsoni [[underlined]] Datura meteloides [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis Eriogonum trichopodum " no 1137 " no 1138 [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] Euphorbia albomarginata [[underlined]] Eurotia lanata [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Franseria dumosa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Gilia floccosa [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] " matthewsii [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lepidium fremontii [[/underlined]] [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]]
234 [[end page]] [[start page]] 235 [[underlined]] Lycium cooperi [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " echinocarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oryzopsis [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) [[underlined]] membranacea [[/underlined]] Oxytheca perfoliata . [[underlined]] Psathyrotes [[/underlined]] (1 specimen) Rumex crispus . [[underlined]] Salizaria mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Salvia carduacea [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Stipa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Tetradymia [[/underlined]] stenolepis . [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] Funston's fine-leafed composite. Many herds of sheep have been driven across this part of the Mojave Desert so that almost no herbaceous vegetation occurs, except that which is able to spring up and flower between the times of sheep-crossing. While we were at Willow Spring (on the morning of the 27th) two large herds passed.
236 [[end page]] [[start page]] 237 June 27, 1891. Crane Lake, Antelope Valley, Majave Desert, Cal. We left Willow Spring this morning and took a road westward along the north side of Antelope Valley to a point about eight miles east of Liebre Ranch. We there crossed to the south side of the valley and proceeded westward to Crane Lake, about four miles west of Liebre Ranch. [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] ceases about five miles west of Willow Spring, the main body of it at two or three miles less than that. [[underlined]] Yucca arborescens [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) and [[underlined]] Bigelovia graveolens [[/underlined]] continue in the bottom of the valley to a point about three miles east of Liebre Ranch, the Bigelovia extending farther than the yuccas. Westward still farther and [[strikethrough]] and [[/strikethrough]] along the lower side slopes of the valley for a few miles eastward on either side the natural vegetation is composed almost entirely of grasses and other herbs, a vegetation similar to that west of the yuccas in the valley of the
238 July 3, 1891. Mr. Palmer informs me that [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] and the live oaks extend to about twelve miles' distance east of Liebra Ranch. [[end page]] [[start page]] 239 South Fork of Kern River, Tehachapi Valley and in general the interior ^ [[insertion]] plains [[/insertion]] region of California. . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] and live oaks of some sort occur on the Liebre Mts, on the south side of Antelope Valley several miles eastward from Liebre Ranch. On some of the ranches in Antelope Valley, the fence posts are made from [[underlined]] Yucca ^[[insertion]] arborescens [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] stems and are said to serve the purpose well. Some that were set three years ago had short green sprouts at their tops. They serve well too for corrals. The plants seen to-day are as follows. . [[underlined]] Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Amarantus albas [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] (sparing toward the west end of the yuccas . [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Atriplex polycarpa [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " torreyi [[/underlined]] (at Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] Bigelovia graveolens [[/underlined]] Chorizanthe watsoni Cucurbita perennis
240 [[end page]] [[start page]] 241 . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] (at Willow Spr. & [[strikethrough]] Tejon [[/strikethrough]] Crane Lake) . [[underlined]] Eleocharis [[/underlined]] (Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]] (Antelope Valley, abundant) . [[underlined]] Ephedra nevadensis [[/underlined]] (in the yuccas and eastward) Eremocarpus setigerus (very abundant west of the yuccas) Eriogonum fasciculatum " (scandescens) . [[underlined]] Erodium cicutarium [[/underlined]] (abundant throughout) Euphorbia albomarginata . [[underlined]] Gilia floccosa [[/underlined]] (yuccas and eastward) . [[underlined]] Grayia polygaloides [[/underlined]] (east of yuccas) . [[underlined]] Helianthus annuus [[/underlined]] (abundant west of the yuccas) . [[underlined]] Heliotropium curassavicum [[/underlined]] (Willow Spr. & Crane Lake) . [[underlined]] Hordeum jubatum [[/underlined]] (very abundant west of yuccas) . [[underlined]] Hymenoclea salsola [[/underlined]] (?) . [[underlined]] Juncus bufonius [[/underlined]] (Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] " mexicanus [[/underlined]] (Willow Spring & [[strikethrough]] Tejon [[/strikethrough]] Crane Lake) . [[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]] (down to altitude of Liebre Ranch) . [[underlined]] Krynitzkia circumscissa [[/underlined]] (east of the yuccas) . [[underlined]] " micrantha [[/underlined]] (east of the yuccas) . [[underlined]] Larrea mexicana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Lemna [[/underlined]] (Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] Lycium andersonii [[/underlined]] (?) . [[underlined]] " cooperi [[/underlined]] (?)
242 [[end page]] [[start page]] 243 . [[underlined]] Marrubium vulgare [[/underlined]] (west of the yuccas) Mimulus luteus (Willow Spr. & Crane Lake) . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescens [[/underlined]] (abundant in fields just west of the yuccas) . [[underlined]] Nasturtium officinale [[/underlined]] (Willow Spr. & Tejon Lake) . [[underlined]] Nicotiana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Oenothera californica [[/underlined]] (more frequent west of the yuccas) . [[underlined]] Oryzopsis ^[[insertion]] membranacea [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] (cuspidata) (as far west as Bigelovia [graveolens) Pentstemon (linear-leafed, shrubby, of piñons not in fl, in yuccas) . [[underlined]] Pinus sabiniana [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] Polypogon monspeliensis [[/underlined]] (very abundant west of yuccas in low soil) Potamogeton pectinatus (Crane Lake) Quercus no Quercus no ^[[insertion]] . [[underlined]] Forestiera parvifolia [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] Rhamnus-like shrub (Willow Spring) Ribes (arcuata) (near Liebre Ranch in live oaks) Rumex crispus " same as 1117 . [[underlined]] Salvia carduacea [[/underlined]] (east of the yuccas) Sambucus (Willow Spr.) . [[underlined]] Scirpus pungens [[/underlined]] (Willow Spr.) Solidago Sonchus (Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] Stanleya pinnata [[/underlined]] (yuccas and eastward) . [[underlined]] Tetradymia [[/underlined]] stenolepis ? (yuccas & eastward)
244 [[end page]] [[start page]] 245 Trifolium (Willow Spring) . [[underlined]] Yucca [[/underlined]] (brevifolia) [[underlined]] arborescens [[/underlined]] . [[underlined]] " whipplei [[/underlined]] (near Liebre Ranch, in live oaks) . [[underlined]] Zannichellia palustris [[/underlined]] (Willow Spr. & Crane Lake)
246 [[end page]] [[start page]] 247 June 28, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, California. We left Crane Lake this morning and reached Fort Tejon at about noon, passing Gormans Station and Castac Lake. We camped on the old parade ground underneath the mammoth oak. June 29, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, California. I remained in camp to-day writing up notes and catalogueing plants. June 30, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I remained in camp to-day writing up notes. July 1, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I went to Castac lake to-day, and walked completely around it. Little was found to collect. The lake proved rather uninteresting botanically. It is about a mile long and one-
248 [[end page]] [[start page]] 249 -third as wide, extending north and south and lying in an elbow of the Cañada de las Uvas. The banks are grassy slopes with a few [[strikethrough]] live [[/strikethrough]] white oaks ([[underlined]] Quercus lobata [[/underlined]]) and cottonwoods (Populus tremuloides?). At the north end is a small tule ( [[underlined]] Scirpus lacustris occidentalis [[/underlined]]) marsh, and at the southern end a low natural meadow mainly of wild rye ( [[underlined]] Elymus condensatus triticoides [[/underlined]]) The shallow margins of the lake are filled with [[underlined]] Ruppia maritima [[/underlined]] and in some mud-covered sandy soil on the southwest side of the lake a small [[underlined]] Chara [[/underlined]] (no 1146) was found. In the meadow at the south of the lake was collected, [[underlined]] Juncus rugulosus [[/underlined]]. The other plants seen were common. July 2, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, California I collected to-day on the hillsides southwest of of the fort, about the mouth of Johnson's Cr. The slopes here are covered mainly by oaks ([[underlined]] Quercus ^ [[insertion]] douglasii [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] [caerulea], [[underlined]] Quercus weslizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens), horse-chestnuts ([[underlined]] Aesculus californica [[/underlined]]), poison ivy ( [[underlined]] Rhus diversiloba [[/underlined]]); and bear some juniper ([[underlined]] Juniperus californica [[/underlined]]), live oak ([[underlined]] Quercus chrysolepis [[/underlined]]), . [[underlined]] cercocarpus parvifolius [[/underlined]], and
250 [[end page]] [[start page]] 251 [[underlined]] Pseudotsuga macrocarpa [[/underlined]]. This is about the lower limit of the forelatter species in this locality. The spruces are very scarce. July 3, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, California. I remained in camp to-day cataloguing and writing notes (Independence Day) July 4, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. Drove to a Mexican's ranch above the lake for provisions. (Sunday) July 5, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I remained in camp to-day. July 6, 1891. Fort Tejon, Kern County, California. I went collecting to-day up Johnsons Creek in the mountains just back (south) of Fort Tejon. At about 500 ft above the fort, piñons ([[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]]) become abundant, and the
252 [[end page]] [[start page]] 253 buckeye ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Aesculus californica [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] disappears, while the most abundant oak is . [[underlined]] Quercus chrysolepis [[/underlined]]. July 7, 1891. Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I went to-day up Cañon, which enters Cañada de las Uvas from the south about a mile east of Fort Tejon; and followed it to its head. I there ascended the mountain slopes to the westward where, in a north-sloping draw, I found . [[underlined]] Abies concolor [[/underlined]]. I then kept on up the steep slope southward through the scrub-oaks and piñons to the summit of the peak. From this point Mt Piñon is visible two or three miles southwestward, Fraser Mountain southeastward, Castac Lake and Antelope Valley eastward, Mt Whitney northeastward, and the Tulare Plains northwestward. The summit has along its northern edge and slopes a chemise growth of [[underlined]] Cercocarpus parvifolius, Quercus chrysolepis, Ceanothus ^[[insertion]] vestitus [[/insertion]] [[/underlined]] no 1194 and [[underlined]] Fremontia californica [[/underlined]]. Looking northward the Sierran foothills and mountains are grassed, and
254 [[end page]] [[start page]] 255 have a very scanty growth of oaks; southward the mountains are densely covered with shrubs and trees. July 8, 1891. Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I remained in camp to-day catalogueing and writing notes. July 9, 1891. Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. Mr. Palmer and I went to-day to Frazier Mountain. We went by the road up the Cañada de las Uvas turning off at Cuddys Cañon and following it up to Cuddy's Ranch. It was said to be about ten miles to the summit of Mt Piños, and about six to that of Frazier Mt. We chose the latter trip and at about noon left Cuddy's taking an old road from that ranch directly up the mountain. The [[strikethrough]] valley and [[/strikethrough]] lower slopes of the mountain at this point are covered with piñons ([[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]]) and by patches of chapparral about half way up the mountain the yellow
[[start page]] 256 A portion of the mountain ([[strikethrough]] Piños [[/strikethough]]) ^[[instertion]] Frazier [[/insertion]] is in Ventura County, a portion in Los Angeles County. [[end page]] [[start page]] 257 pines. ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Pinus jeffreyi [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] begin, and among them are scattered a few trees of [[underlined]] Abies concolor [[/underlined]]. Among the pines the shrubs do not form thick chap[[strikethrough]] p [[/strikethrough]]arral but are nevertheless quite evenly [[strikethrough]] scattered [[/strikethrough]] spread over the ground. The principal shrubs were [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]], Lonicera and . [[underlined]] Ceanothus cordulatus [[/underlined]]. The latter latter grew in dense flat-topped mats, about three feet high and entirely impenetrable. The pine trees are very scattered, compared with the trees of an ordinary forest. They all belong to [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] ponderosa [[underlined]] jeffreyi [[/underlined]]. From the summit could be seen the whole mountain system of the Tejon Pass region, the western end of the Sierra Madre[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]], Soledad Pass, San Francisquito Pass, Castac Cañon, the upper end of the Santa Clara valley, Santa Inez Mts, Mt Piñons, Tulare Plains, Kern Lake, Cañada de las Uvas, Sierra Nevada, [[strikethrough]] Castac Lake [[/strikethrough]], Antelope Valley, Crane Lake. We proceeded northward over the top of the mountain, and descended a steep northwestern slope of the mountain to a ranch in Cuddy's Cañon, reaching camp about nine oclock.
258 [[end page]] [[start page]] 259 July 10, 1891 Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cal. I remained in camp this morning catalogueing plants and writing notes. In the afternoon Beth and I went to Gorman[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]] Station after the mail. July 11, 1891 Tejon Ranch, Kern County, Cal. We left Tejon Fort this morning at about half past ten, and went down Cañada de las Uvas to the Tulare Plains, following the direct road to Rose's Station. From that point we turned to the right and proceeded to Tejon Ranch. Near the bottom of Cañada de las Uvas the oaks become scattered and finally disappear entirely. The ground is covered, in most places sparingly, with dried grass; while the only shrub seen was . [[underlined]] Isomeris arborea [[/underlined]]. In the cañon, along the stream, occur besides the oaks, ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Acer negundo [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] (Negundo californica), [[underlined]] Vitis [[/underlined]]
260 [[end page]] [[start page]] 261 californica, . [[underlined]] Populus [[/underlined]] monilifera, [[underlined]] Platanus racemosa [[/underlined]]. The plain itself is an even gentle slope, at this part of it, sparingly covered with grass and singularly devoid of shrubbery. The few shrubs that do occur with the identifiable ^[[insertion]] herbaceous [[/insertion]] plants that are characteristic are . [[underlined]] Helianthus annuus, . Croton californicum [[/underlined]], Grindelia , Eremocarpus setigerus, . [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescenus [[/underlined]] ? In the vicinity of Tejon Ranch there are large groves of white oaks (. [[underlined]] Quercus lobata [[/underlined]]), and along the creek that flows past it are cottonwoods (. [[underlined]] Populus [[/underlined]] monilifera) and dense masses of wild grapes ( . [[underlined]] Vitis [[/underlined]] californica), both climbing the trees and trailing over its banks and forming hummocks three or feet high. (Sunday) July 12, 1891. Tejon Ranch, Kern County, Cal. Mr. Palmer and I rode to-day to Tejon Pass following up the cañon that furnishes water for Tejon ranch, and ascending one of the
262 A few piñons ( [[underlined]] Pinus monophylla [[/underlined]]) occur with [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] coulteri [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] sabiniana [[/underlined]] below the yellow pines. [[end page]] [[start page]] 263 higher divides. An old wagon-road extends to within about a half-mile of the summit, and beyond this point the ascent is altogether too steep for a road. At the lower end of the canon the commoner trees are . [[underlined]] Quercus lobata, Q. wislizeni [[/underlined]] frutescens, some of them attaining a diameter of more than a foot, [[underlined]] Platanus racemosa, Populus [[/underlined]] monilifera, [[underlined]] P. trichocarpa [[/underlined]]. With these are found a few trees of cedar [[underlined]] Libocedrus decurrus [[/underlined]]. At 3000 ft (computed) [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] [[strikethrough]] coulteri [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] sabiniana [[/underlined]], called here Digger-pine or bull pine, ^[[insertion]] begins and soon becomes [[/insertion]] [[strikethrough]] is [[/strikethrough]] abundant. At an altitude of about ft [[underlined]] Artemisia tridentata [[/underlined]] begins and continues to be the most characteristic shrub up to [[strikethrough]] about [[/strikethrough]] the summit of the divide. The next zone is that of [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]]. It contains also as a characteristic tree [[underlined]] Abies concolor [[/underlined]], and higher up [[underlined]] Pinus lambertiana [[/underlined]]. Two easily distinguishable forms of [[underlined]] Pinus ponderosa [[/underlined]] occur, one at a lower altitude, a tall large tree, lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate in outline, with an acute top, and small cones with thin narrow scales. One of the larger trees
264 [[end page]] [[start page]] 265 was 16 ft. 7 in in [[strikethrough]] di [[/strikethrough]] circumference. The other form grows at a higher altitude (from the summit to about three hundred feet below), and is a smaller tree with usually oblong outline and a rounded top (apparently due to the continued tendency of the uppermost shoots to be broken by the wind) and a much larger heavier cone. This latter form is the same seen on Frazier Mountain and appears to be the true [[underlined]] Pinus [[/underlined]] ponderosa [[underlined]] jeffreyi [[/underlined]]. The computed altitude of the summit that we reached is 5800 ft. From this point we could look down up the western part of the Mojave Desert in the direction of Willow Spring. Neither Mojave Butte nor the mountains south of Antelope Valley could be seen. We descended by the same route. The altitude of Tejon ranch was called 1450 July 13, 1891. Bakersfield, Kern County, Cal. We left Tejon ranch this morning and took the direct road from there to Bakers-
266 [[end page]] [[start page]] 267 field, going into camp about a quarter-mile north of the town. The road across the plains is very level and hard, in some places somewhat dusty and with but a mile or two of sand. There are no trees until one approaches Bakersfield, where they occur along the ditches and streams. The higher portions of the plain, near Tejon ranch, are characterized by the same plants mentioned in the journal for the 11th inst. with the addition of [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]]. The lower portions are moister and somewhat alkaline and are characterized in various parts by [[underlined]] Atriplex polycarpa [[/underlined]], . [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]], [[strikethrough]] of [[/strikethrough]] [[underlined]] Salicornia ambigua [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Spirostachys occidentalis [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Sporobolus airoides [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Suaeda suffrutescens [[/underlined]], Suaeda , and [[underlined]] Frankenia grandifolia [[/underlined]]. A portion of the higher plain towards Tejon ranch was characterized by the presence of . [[underlined]] Opuntia basilaris [[/underlined]]. At Bakersfield we met Dr. & Mrs. Merriam & the baby. Dr. Merriam has been ordered to the Pribilov Islands and leaves for Visalia late to-night.
268 [[end page]] [[start page]] 269 July 14, 1891. Bakersfield, Kern County, Cal. I remained in camp to-day making notes and catalogueing plants. Mr. Palmer has gone to San Francisco with Dr. Merriam. July 16, 1891. Paso, Kern County, Cal. Beth and I, with McGrath, left for this point to-day. The teamster was misdirected as to the road and shortly before noon we reached Paso Station, on the Glenville stage line. We therefore turned down the bed of the creek for two or three miles at which point we came upon the old road along Paso Creek. This we followed for three or four miles more after which it turned north^westward from the creek to the station Paso on the Southern Pacific R.R. The entire distance from Paso Station to Paso is about 14 miles. We went into camp at Paso. The road from Bakersfield to Paso Station after crossing the Kern River bridge lies over
270 [[end page]] [[start page]] 271 dry clay foothills almost entirely bare except for the now dead and closely grazed annual vegetation. Some of the washes contain a leafless and seemingly dead shrub, and the only other scant vegetation is [[underlined]] Asclepias erosa [[/underlined]], Eremocarpus setigerus [[underlined]] Grindelia [[/underlined]] , [[underlined]] Opuntia [[/underlined]] , and an occasional Cucurbita perennis and digitata. In the vicinity of Paso Station were seen also [[underlined]] Isomeris arborea [[/underlined]], [[underlined]] Atriplex canescens [[/underlined]] ? [[underlined]] Mirabilis multiflora pubescens [[/underlined]] Paso Creek itself is at this season quite dry, and its bed is filled with a fine very yielding sand. The fall of the stream is very gentle, and no gravel is carried along in it. The trees along its banks are cottonwoods (Populus monilifera) and willow (Salix nigra) and sycamores ([[underlined]] Platanus racemosa [[/underlined]]) The plains beside Paso Creek are the same in vegetation as those described. Many ranches through this region are deserted. ^[[insertion]] The divide between Bakersfield and [[/insertion]] Paso Station is about eight hundred feet higher than Bakersfield.
272 [[end page]] [[start page]] 273 July 16, 1891 Near Tipton, County, Cal. We left Paso this morning and proceeded along the railroad to this point, camping by a ranch on the bank of Tule River, about 1 1/2 miles north of Tipton. The country traversed is a dry, hot, clay plain, and like that seen yesterday is devoted to the raising of barley and to grazing. There is such a scarcity of water that fruit and alfalfa can scarcely be grown. Tule River is dry and bears along its banks a few white [[strikethrough]] July 17 [[/strikethrough]] oaks (Quercus lobata) and sycamores. July 17, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. We continued this morning along the railroad to Tulare and then followed the motor road to Visalia, reaching here about eleven A.M. As we approached Tulare, white oaks, ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Quercus lobata [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] became frequent in the fields and there was
274 [[end page]] [[start page]] 275 every evidence of a moister soil. Fruit is quite generally cultivated, and alfalfa fields as well as barley became numerous. Between Tulare and Visalia all the land is fenced, and devoted to agricultural purposes as noted above. The natural pastures are of salt-grass ^[[insertion]] [[underlined]] Distichlis maritima [[/underlined]] [[/insertion]] with a little [[underlined]] Juncus mexicanus [[/underlined]] intermixed. We went into camp about a mile and a half north and slightly [[strikethrough]] west [[/strikethrough]] east from the town on a ranch worked by Mr. July 18, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. I went to town this morning and this afternoon wrote up notes and catalogue. (Sunday) July 19, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. Beth and I went to church this morning, and in the afternoon remained in camp.
276 [[end page]] [[start page]] 277 July 20, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. I went collecting this morning along the road as far as the river, northward from camp about a half-mile. In the afternoon I catalogued specimens and later went to town. July 21, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. I collected a few plants to-day near the camp, and spent the rest of the day cataloguing and writing notes July 21 to 24, 1891. Visalia, Tulare County, Cal. These days were occupied in outfitting for the Mt Whitney expedition. Mr. Bailey, with Dr. Fisher, arrived from Bakersfield and Mr. Palmer from San Francisco. July 25, 1891. Three Rivers, Tulare Co., Cal. We left Visalia this morning, Bailey, Beth, and myself, with two packers, and proceeded
278 [[end page]] [[start page]] 279 by the regular Mineral King road to this point. Until we reached the foot-hills the vegetation was similar to that about Visalia. In the first foot-hills [[underlined]] Quercus douglasii [[/underlined]] began. Three Rivers lies at about ft, according to Mr. Bailey, above Visalia. I was thrown from my horse, and my aneroid damaged, just before lunch. (Sunday) July 26, 1891 [[strikethrough]] Cane [[/strikethrough]] Kane's Flat[[strikethrough]] s [[/strikethrough]], Tulare Co, Cal. We left Three Rivers this afternoon at about 1 o'clock, after a portion of the forenoon had been spent collecting about Kaweah River opposite, or a short distance below, Three Rivers. This place is, according to Mr. Bailey, about ft higher than Visalia. July 27, 1891. First Sequoia camp, Mineral King Road ^[[insertion]] Tulare Co,. Cal. [[/insertion]] We reached this place this afternoon and went into camp by the stream that flows down the cañon into Kaweah River. Here I saw for the first time [[underlined]] Sequoia gigantea [[/underlined]].
280 [[end page]] [[start page]] 281 July 28, 1891 First Sequoia camp. To-day Mr. Bailey and I went down the road about 3/4 mile to a log-back with an old house on [[strikethrough]] e [[/strikethrough]] it, and turned down the steep slope through the chapparal to the river, descending about 1000 ft below camp to the mouth of the stream that flows by it. We retraced our steps by nearly the same route. In the afternoon I remained at camp cataloguing specimens. July 29, 1891. Mill camp, Mineral King Road, ^[[insertion]] Tulare Co, Cal. [[/insertion]] We left camp soon after lunch to-day. I spent the forenoon collecting in the cañon near camp to an altitude of 200 ft above it. After lunch we proceeded to this point about 1/2 mile above the saw-mill July 30, 1891. Mineral King, Tulare Co., Cal. This morning I catalogued specimens and collected a few things about camp. At about three o'clock we left camp and
282 [[end page]] [[start page]] 283 and proceeded to Mineral King, camping about 1/2 mile above the old hotel, on the south bank of the stream under some evergreens.
284 [[end page]] [[start page]] 285
286 [[end page]] [[start page]] 287
287 [[end page]] [[start page]] & Furston [[strikethrough]] more complete than [[/strikethrough]]
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